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SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY

Authors Name:- Rahul Dey


Department of EEE
Channabasaveshwara Institute of
Technology
Tumkur, India
E-mail Id:-rdey027@gmail.com
ABSTRACT:In todays world, the concepts of
smart grid have achieved a
remarkable height in every aspect
of globalization. A smart grid is a
modernized electrical grid that
uses
analog
or
digital
communication to gather and act
on information received in an
automated fashion to improve the
reliability of various system that
can be incorporated in it. In this
context we are going to study in
detail about smart grid and its
utilization in various field of the
electrical system.
Keywords:Smart grid, monitoring
grid, Advanced metering, initial cost

INTRODUCTION:As stated earlier, the term smart grid


is the application of digital processing
and communications to power grid,
making data flow and information
management central to the smart grid.
Since the early 21st century, the
opportunities to take advantage for
the
improvements
in
electronic
communication technology to resolve
the limitations and cost of electrical
systems had become apparent. Due to
technical faults, there was absence of
equal distribution of power to every
consumer. A dominant force like solar
or wind energy has become variable
and in order to control them a proper
sophisticated design is required. The
energy from solar has not been as
adamant as that of electrical. Finally,
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the terrorists attack in various


countries has led to call for more
robust energy grid that is less
dependent on the centralized power
sources that were perceived to be
potential attack targets. In such a
developing phases, the concepts of
smart grid have emerged as one of the
reliable system.
Authors Name:- Gautam N
Department of EEE
Channabasaveshwara Institute of
Technology
Tumkur, India
E-mail
Id:Gautamlion3@gmail.com
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:-

The first alternating power grid system was


installed in 1886. At that time, the grid was a
centralized unidirectional system of electric
power transmission, electricity distribution,
and demand-driven control.
In the 20th century local grids grew over
time, and were eventually interconnected for
economic and reliability reasons. By the
1960s, the electric grids of developed
countries had become very large, mature and
highly interconnected, with thousands of
'central' generation power stations delivering
power to major load centers via high
capacity power lines which were then
branched and divided to provide power to
smaller industrial and domestic users over
the entire supply area.
Power stations were
located strategically to be close to fossil fuel
reserves. Construction of hydro-electric
dams in mountain areas also strongly
influenced the structure of the emerging
grid. Nuclear power plants were sited for

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY


availability of cooling water. Finally, fossil
fuel-fired power stations were initially very
polluting and were sited as far as
economically possible from population
centres once electricity distribution networks
permitted it. By the late 1960s, the
electricity grid reached the overwhelming
majority of the population of developed
countries, with only outlying regional areas
remaining 'off-grid'.
Towards the end of the
20 century, electricity demand patterns
were established: domestic heating and airconditioning led to daily peaks in demand
that were met by an array of 'peaking power
generators' that would only be turned on for
short periods each day. The relatively low
utilization of these peaking generators
together with the necessary redundancy in
the electricity grid, resulted in high costs to
the electricity companies, which were
passed on in the form of increased tariffs. In
the 21st century, some developing countries
like China, India and Brazil were seen as
pioneers of smart grid deployment.
th

BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

The various components required in


smart grid technology are as shown and the
individual components are explained
below:I. Generation:
It is the process of production
of electricity from other primary sources.
Electricity is most often generated at a
power
station
by
electromechanical
generators, primarily driven by heat engines
fueled by chemical combustion or nuclear
fission but also by other means such as the
kinetic energy of flowing water and wind.
There are many methods for conversion of
other sources to electrical energy but as
many as seven methodologies are mostly
adapted. They are as follow: Static electricity, from the physical
separation and transport of charge.
Electromagnetic induction, where
an electrical generator, dynamo or
alternator transforms kinetic energy
(energy of motion) into electricity.
This is the most used form for
generating electricity and is based on
Faraday's law.
Electrochemistry,
the
direct
transformation of chemical energy
into electricity, as in a battery, fuel
cell or nerve impulse.
Photovoltaic effect the transformation of light into electrical energy,
as in solar cells.

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY


Thermoelectric effect, the direct
conversion
of
temperature
differences to electricity, as in
thermocouples, thermopiles, and
thermionic converters.
Piezoelectric effect, conversion of
electrical
energy
from
the
mechanical strain of electrically
anisotropic molecules or crystals.
Nuclear
transformation,
the
creation and acceleration of charged
particles.
II. Advanced transmission (HVDC):
This is the major part of
the power system that deals with the
transmission of power source from one
location to another over long distances.
In the major part, the high voltage AC
transmission is accepted as a mode of
transmission but regardless of the
utilities of HVAC, a HVDC transmission
is accepted as the prime methods due to
its various advantages over HVAC
which are as mentioned below:

Significant loss reduction.

Increased power capacity per


line/cable vs AC.

Less visual impact and lower


electromagnetic fields.

Easier acceptance of DC projects


if new lines can be tapped.

HVDC is the only solution for


subsea connections greater than
60km.

This transmission method


adopted in major parts of the European
countries and some part of China. They
are essential technologies for future grid
expansion and reliable integration of
large-scale renewable energy sources
III. Grid Monitoring:
Without ubiquitous, accurate,
and reliable real-time sensors, the
electric grid will not have the resiliency,
reliability, and capacity to manage the
unprecedented number of variable
renewable energy sources and millions
of intelligent devices and systems. Rapid
deployment of new sensors in the smart
grid is not possible at present because of
the need for better sensor measurements;
inability of the infrastructure to
accommodate large real-time data flows;
and lack of interoperability among
sensors and systems.
Energy monitoring is
primarily a management technique that
gathers energy information that will be
used as a basis to eliminate losses,
reduce and control current levels of
energy use and improve the existing
operating procedures. In todays large
scale systems there are plenty
phenomena that need to be detected and
monitored to keep them working at their
best. Monitoring represents the first line
of protection for any power system. Its
area of concentration includes:-

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY

Monitoring any faulty conditions


in plants.

Power assurance.

Visibility into power conditions.

enabled appliances such as water heaters


and devices such as thermostats.
Depending on the utility program, the
customers may be contacted or devices
may be shut down or have their setting
modified automatically during times of
peak demand.

Energy efficiency.

VI. Home Area Network (HAN):

Energy cost allocations.

Proactive planning.

IV. Energy Storage:


Generally, all the power
developed in the generation house is not
fully utilized by the consumers even the
during the peak demand. In order, to
prevent the power from being wasted it
is conserved in a particular fashion so
that the proper utilization of energy can
be made possible.
V. Advanced Metering Infrastructure:
A smart grid often replaces
analog mechanical meters with digital
meters that record usage in real time.
Often this technology is referred to as
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
since meters alone are not useful in and of
themselves and need to be installed in
conjunction
with
some
type
of
communications infrastructure to get the
data back to the utility. Advanced Metering
Infrastructure
may
provide
a
communication path extending from power
generation plants on one end all the way
to end-use electrical consumption in
homes and businesses. These end use
consumption devices may include outlets,
(smart socket) and other smart grid-

Home area network extends smart grid


capabilities into the home or domestic
appliances using different networking
protocols. It is the back of the
communication between smart meter and
home appliances. In Home area network,
multiple components interact to provide a
wide range of capability. The basic
components of Home Area Network are:
1. The network portal or gateway that
connects one or more outside
information services to the home
area network.
2. The access point or network
nodes that form the wired or
wireless network itself.
3. The network operating system and
network management software.
4. The
end
points
such
as
thermostats, meters in home
display devices and appliances.
The most common
technologies used in HAN technologies
are- Zigbee, Wi-fi Ethernet, Z-wave,
Homeplug etc.

Smart Grid Benefits:

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY


The U.S. Department of Energy's
(DOE's) National Energy Technology
Laboratory (NETL) states that the
"Modern Grid" will have seven key
benefits for consumers, business, utilities
and the Nation:
Self-Healing: A smart grid
automatically
detects
and
responds to routine problems and
quickly recovers if they occur,
minimizing
downtime
and
financial loss.
Motivates and Includes the
Consumer: A smart grid gives
all the consumers, industrial,
commercial, and residential visibility into real-time pricing,
and affords them the opportunity
to choose the volume of
consumption and price that best
suits their needs.
Resists Attack: A smart grid has
security built-in from the ground
up.
Accommodates All Generation
and Storage Options: A smart
grid enables "plug-and-play"
interconnection to multiple and
distributed sources of power and
storage.
Enables Markets: By providing
consistently dependable coast-tocoast operation, a smart grid
supports energy markets that
encourage both investment and
innovation.
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Optimizes Assets and Operates


Efficiently: A smart grid enables
us
to
build
less
new
infrastructure, transmit more
power through existing systems,
and thereby spend less to operate
and maintain the grid.
Smart grid challenges:
The various challenges faced by
smart technologies are as mentioned
below: Complexity of the Smart Grid:
The Smart Grid is a vastly
complex machine, with some
parts racing at the speed of light.
Some aspects of the Smart Grid
will be sensitive to human
response and interaction, while
others
need
instantaneous,
intelligent
and
automated
responses. The smart grid will be
driven by forces ranging from
financial
pressures
to
environmental requirements.
Transition to Smart Grid: The
transition to the Smart Grid will
be lengthy. It is impossible (and
unwise) to advocate that all the
existing equipment and systems
to be ripped out and replaced at
once. The smart grid supports
gradual transition and long
coexistence
of
diverse
technologies, not only as we
transition from the legacy
systems and equipment of today,
but as we move to those of

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY


tomorrow. So, it is essentially
important to design a grid in such
a way to avoid unnecessary
expenses.
Ensuring Cyber Security of
Systems: Every aspect of the
Smart Grid must be secure.
Cyber security technologies and
compliance with standards alone
are not enough to achieve secure
operations without policies, ongoing risk assessment, and
training. Due to the advancement
of tech in todays world, it may
be possible to hack the system
from any corner of the world. So,
a full-Proof safety must be
adopted to prevent such cyberattacks.

Transmission
line
including
dynamic
circuit rating.

Research and development:


The smart grid is an evolving
goal; we cannot know all that the
Smart Grid is or can do. The
smart
grid
will
demand
continuing R&D to assess the
evolving benefits and costs, and
to anticipate the evolving
requirements.

Core substation infrastructure for


IT.

Initial cost: Due to the


incorporation of IT with the
electrical grids the set up cost of
the plant is very hugh as
compared
to
the
normal
developed plants.
Cost Components for the Smart
Grid: Transmission Systems and
Substations.
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The core components of cost


for the transmission and substation
portion of the Smart Grid are as
follows:

sensors
thermal

Storage for bulk transmission


wholesale services.

FACTS devices
terminals.

and

HVDC

Short circuit current limiters.

Communications infrastructure
to support transmission lines and
substations.

Cyber-security.
Intelligent
(IEDs).

electronic

devices

Phasor measurement technology


for wide area monitoring.
Enterprise back-office system,
including
GIS,
outage
management and distribution
management.

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY

Smart grids in various countries:

reliability and safety of the existing


power grid. To this end, remote and
timely information gathering about
equipment failures, capacity limitations, and natural accidents is
extremely critical for ensuring
proactive and real-time and reliable
diagnosis of possible failures in the
smart grid. This makes cost-effective
remote sensing technologies vital for
safe, seamless and efcient power
delivery in the smart grid.
References:
1. www.wikepedia.org/smart
grids.
2. A book on introduction to
smart grids by Dr. Hamed
Mohsennian-Rad

Conclusion:
The smart grid has been conceived as
an evolution of electric power
systems due to the increasing
diffusion of distributed generation by
renewable sources, but with the
additional aim to enhance efciency,

3. Estimating the costs and


benefit of Smart grids by
Electric
power
research
institute(EPRI).
4. Home
Area
Network
assessment
for
demand
response in Smart grid
environment by Md. Zaharul
Haq and Prof. Syed Islam