Fakultt Umweltwissenschaften Fachrichtung Geowissenschaften
Geodtisches Institut
Geodesy
for Hydro Science and Engineering
(MHSE 03)
Lambert Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden, Winter Term 2015/16
Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Geodesy, Surveying, Geomatics
1.2 Coordinates, Observations,
and Geodetic Instruments
1.3 Basic Principles of Geodetic Work
5.6 Traversing
5.7 Intersection and Resection
5.8 TwoDimensional Conformal
Coordinate Transformation and
Free Stationing
2 Fundamentals
2.1 Units
2.2 Types of Errors
2.3 Precision, Accuracy and Reliability
2.4 Normal Distribution, Standard
Deviation, Outlier Detection
2.5 Significant Figures
2.6 Error Propagation
6 Theodolite and Angle Observations
6.1 Horizontal Directions and Zenith
Angles
6.2 Theodolite Axes and Axis Errors
6.3 Optical and Automatic Circle Reading
3 Setting up Instrument
3.1 Vials (or Bubbles)
3.2 Tripod, Tribrach, Plumbs
3.3 Levelling and Centring of Instrument
4 Differential Levelling
4.1 Principle of Differential Levelling
4.2 Instruments and Rods
4.3 Testing and Adjusting Levels
4.4 Sources of Error and Achievable
Accuracy
5 Computations on the Plane
5.1 Geoid, Ellipsoid, Sphere, Plane
5.2 LOP Concept for Horizontal Positions
5.3 Rectangular/Polar Conversion
5.4 Polar/Rectangular Conversion
5.5 Azimuth Determination
7 Electronic Distance Measurements
(EDM)
7.1 Electromagnetic Waves and their
Propagation
7.2 Measurement Techniques
7.3 Errors and Corrections
8 Satellitebased Positioning
8.1 Absolute Positioning
8.2 Positioning Systems
8.3 Computations on the Ellipsoid
8.4 Signals and Observations
8.5 Observation Errors
8.6 Differential Positioning (DGPS or
DGNSS)
8.7 Carrier Phase Positioning and RTK
8.8 Applications
References
Appendix: Sample questions for preparation of written exam
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
1 Introduction
1.1 Geodesy, Surveying, Geomatics
Geodesy, Surveying, Geomatics, Geoinformatics, Spatial Information Science
acquisition of spatial information
+ presentation
+ interpretation
+ temporal
of objects
+ of relations between objects
position + shape, size + properties
earths surface etc.
+ staking out of coordinates
l
objects
on the earths surface etc.
a
t
i
d ig
gravity field
sensors,
measurement data analysis,
modelling
systems
Positioning,
Navigation
visualization,
communication
quality control
data
management
Engineering
Surveying
Photogrammetry
Remote Sensing
Cartography,
Geographic
Information Systems
Cadastre,
Land Management
Physical
Geodesy
applied mathematics, physics, computer science, earth science, economics, law
1.2 Coordinates, Observations, and Geodetic Instruments
Objective: determine the position of an object
position:
given by a set of coordinates:
1D  height (e.g. horizontal floor of a building)
2D  horizontal position (e.g. property boundary)
3D  position in space
4D  position in space and time (e.g. moving object)
calculated from observations and coordinates of known points
coordinates:
require definition of a coordinate system (origin, orientation of axis, scale),
require frame: markers with known coordinates in this system (control points)
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Basic Observables: Angles and distances
Grounded1 Geodetic Instruments:
Types of instruments (selection):
Instrument
Observables
level
height differences
theodolite
horizontal angle, vertical angle
total station
slope distance, horizontal angle, vertical angle
(observation of selected points)
laser scanner
slope distance, horizontal angle, vertical angle
(scanning the surrounding of the instrument)
Level, theodolite, total station, laser scanner
Horizontal angle , vertical angle v, angular distance (measured e.g. by a sextant)
1
Grounded is not a technical term. It means: all parts of the surveying systems are on the earths surface, but
not in the air or in space.
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Vertical angle v: above/below horizontal plane
Zenith angle z: measured in vertical plane
from zenith
v 90 z
slope distance SD
horizontal distance HD:
HD SD sin z SD cos v
height difference (vertical distance) h:
h SD cos z SD sin v
horizontal angle : difference of two direction readings
(backsight, foresight)
azimuth : horizontal angle measured clockwise from any
reference meridian
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Satellitebased positioning: e.g. GPS (Global Positioning System)
Observable: biased distances = pseudoranges, all observed distance are affected by
common bias (receiver clock error)
4 observations needed to determine 3Dposition + receiver clock error
satellites are the markers with known coordinates
Photogrammetry:
3Dobjects are recorded in 2D photographs
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
1.3 Basic Principles of Geodetic Work
(1) Reliability: Every survey has to be checked in order to achieve a high level of reliability. Methods:  taking of redundant and repeated observations
 design of observation procedures, so that mistakes that occur are
discovered immediately
(2) Accuracy/reliability and cost effectiveness: A survey is not performed as accurate
and reliable as possible, but it is performed as accurate and reliable as required.
Accuracy can be improved by using a higheraccurate instrument. Reliability and accuracy can by raised by adding additional observations. Both measures increase the costs
and thus lower the cost effectiveness of the survey.
(3) Point discretisation of natural surfaces and objects.
The earths surface and engineering structures are represented by discrete points whose
coordinates are determined by geodetic observations. Even a trajectory of a vehicle or a
surface is measured at discrete points only, and the coordinates of these points are subsequently used to calculate the trajectory or the surface.
(4) Documentation: Observations and computation results are documented in field notes
(list of the observations performed, sketches) and data processing notes.
Nowadays the documentation is often completely digital (automatic data collection systems, digital data files, automatic data flow field office).
<Field Book, Controller>
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
2 Fundamentals
2.1 Units
International System of Units (SI)
Metre (SIbase unit): The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a
time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. The practical realization consists of precise length
measurements at laboratory scale using lasers with known wavelengths.
Length: m,
nanometre (nm, 109 m), micrometer, (m, 106 m), millimetre (mm, 103 m),
centimetre (cm, 102 m), decimetre (dm, 101 m), metre (m), kilometre (km, 103 m)
Area: m2,
nonSI units but accepted: are (a, 100 m2), hectare (ha, 10,000 m2)
km2 (1,000,000 m2)
Volume: m3
Radian (SIderived unit): A radian is the angle subtended by an arc of a circle having a length
equal to the radius of the circle.
Angle: radian (rad, 1/(2 of a circle): [rad ]
arc m
, dimensionless
radius m
other units:
gon (or grad) (gon, 1/400 of a circle), decigon (dgon,
101 gon), centigon (cgon, 102 gon), milligon (mgon,
103 gon)
degree (deg, 1/360 of a circle),
1 deg = 60 min, 1 min = 60 sec
conversions:
1 rad = [gon] = 200 gon/gon
1 rad = [deg] = 180 deg/deg
example:
calculate the length of arc l for a given radius r (distance) and angle
l
r
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
2.2 Types of Errors
Mistakes:2
Mistakes are blunders made by survey personnel in fieldwork or computations:
e.g.
measuring to or from the wrong point,
transposing of figures (recording a value of 86 as 68)
They must be discovered and eliminated immediately, e.g. by repeated or redundant measurements / computations.
Errors:
No measurement can be performed perfectly, every measurement contains some error. Objective: minimization of errors by use of skilled techniques and appropriate precise equipment.
Sources of errors:
Natural errors: environmental variations (temperature, wind, humidity, atmospheric pressure,
atmospheric refraction)
Instrumental errors: imperfection in the construction or adjustment of instruments (reduction
or elimination by adopting proper surveying procedures)
Personal errors: limitations of the human senses of sight and touch
Types of errors:
Systematic errors (biases): they conform to physical laws which can be modelled mathematically. If the conditions are known to exist and if they can be observed, a correction can be
computed (calibration) and applied.
Random errors (accidental errors): obey the law of probability and thus tend to cancel out, but
they do not entirely disappear. They can be reduced by taking more (repeated or redundant)
measurements.
Example: Steel tape
Temperature effects: produced for a standard temperature,
but linear expansion due to temperature difference, coefficient of linear expansion known (calibration), temperature
to be measured and corrections to be applied; calibration
errors produce systematic errors.
Faulty marking: systematic error if zero mark is faulty (calibration, correction).
Interpolation: random error due to limited resolution
Incorrect reading: mistake if incorrect by full or several meter, or transposing of figures
sometimes called gross errors, but should not be classified as errors at all.
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
2.3 Precision, Accuracy and Reliability
Precision represents the repeatability of a measurement and is concerned only with random
errors. (closely grouped observations)
Accuracy is considered to be an overall estimate of the errors present in measurements including systematic effects.
Reliability is the degree to which a survey is designed to detect and eliminate mistakes in field
work and computation.
2.4 Normal Distribution, Standard Deviation, Outlier Detection
Random variates (i.e. observations affected by random errors only) are assumed to have a
continuous frequency distribution called normal distribution and obey the law of probability.
A random variate x, which is normally distributed with an expectation value and a standard
deviation , is written in symbol in the form N ~ (2).
Size of error
1
2
3
1.65
1.96
2.57
Probability [%]
68.3
95.5
99.7
90
95
99
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
The most probable value (MPV) is obtained by least squares estimation. In the case of a single unknown and direct measurements of equal weight it is computed as arithmetic mean:
1 n
x xi
n i 1
The residuals are defined as the difference between MPV and the observed values:
vi xi x
The precision of a set of observations can than be computed as empirical standard deviation s
or empirical variance s2 (standard deviation / variance of single observation):
s s2
1 n 2
vi
n 1 i 1
The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is given by:
s
sm
.
n
It is not unusual, when taking repeated measurements of the same quantity, to find at least one
which appears very different from the rest. Such a measurement is called an outlier, which
may be rejected from the sample. A statistical method to detect outliers makes use of the
MPV, the residuals vi, and the standard deviation of the observation s:
outlier, if vi / s 3
(statistical probability to detect false outliers: 100  99.7 = 0.3% in case of a large sample
size).
If more than one outlier is detected, the one with the largest ratio vi / s is rejected. Then, the
computation including outlier detection is repeated until no further outliers are found.
2.5 Significant Figures
The number of digits used has to indicate correctly the accuracy with which the observations
and the computed final results were obtained. (Pocket calculators tend to present as many as 8
10 places of decimals and eliminate trailing zeros.)
Rules:
2 significant figures for standard deviations,
same number of decimal places for the value itself,
but use extra figures throughout the data processing
Example:
L = 1 234.554 m sL=0.012 m
More examples of 2 significant figures: 40, 3.2, 0.55, 0.065, 0.000 044
10
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
avoid ambiguous numbers: e.g. 83 600 m (3, 4, or 5 significant figures?),
use different units: 83.60 km (4 significant figures),
express the value in power of ten: 8.360 x 104 implies 4 significant figures
2.6 Error Propagation
Many surveying results are obtained indirectly from combinations of observed data. As each
measurements contains random errors, it is necessary to determine of how these errors propagate to the derived quantities.
Step 1: describe how the quantity y is derived from observations xi:
y f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n )
Step 2: differentiate this equation with respect to each of the observed quantities in turn
and sum them to obtain their total effect:
f
f
f
dy
dx1
dx 2 ...
dx n
x1
x 2
x n
in which f / xi are the partial derivatives of f with respect to xi.
Step 3: The variance sy2 is obtained by squaring both sides and substituting the small errors
dy and dxi by their standard deviations. Since the measured quantities may be considered
independent and uncorrelated all crossproducts tend to be zero and may be ignored.
2
f 2
f 2 f 2
s xn
s x1
s x 2 ...
s
x1
x2
xn
2
y
Example 1: Area of a rectangle
The two sides a and b of a rectangle have been measured with standard deviations sa and sb.
What is the standard deviation of the derived area of the rectangle?
Step 1: A a b f (a, b)
f
f
Step 2: dA
da db b da a db
a
b
2
2
2
Step 3: s A b s a a 2 sb2
Example 2: Sum of several measurements of equal precision
e.g. levelling
Step 1: y x1 x 2 ... x n
Step 2: dy dx1 dx 2 ... dx n
Step 3: s y2 s12 s22 ... sn2 n s 2 ,
Standard deviation: s y n s
11
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Example 3: Arithmetic mean of several observations of equal precision
e.g. repeated observation of the same quantity
1
( x1 x 2 ... x n )
n
dx
dx dx
Step 2: dy 1 2 ... n
n
n
n
2
2
2
s
s
s
s2 s2
Step 3: s y2 12 22 ... n2 n 2 ,
n
n
n
n
n
Step 1: y
Standard deviation s y
s
n
Example 4: Indirect determination of a distance
The sight between stations A and B is obstructed, so that the
distance AB c has to be determined indirectly by observing horizontal distances a, b and the horizontal angle at the
additional station C.
Step 1: c a 2 b 2 2ab cos
Step 2: dc
 cosinerule
a b cos
b a cos
ab sin
da
db
d
c
c
c
x n
n x n 1 , 
x
a b cos
b a cos
ab sin
2
2
2
Step 3: s c2
sa
sb
s
c
c
c
2
 units!!!
Attention: the standard deviation of angle has to be in radians.
numerical example:
a = 34.517 m, sa = 0.010 m
b = 42.981 m, sb = 0.010 m
= 147.322 gon, s= 3.0 mgon = 4.7 105 rad
c = 71.041 m
dc = 0.895 da + 0.934 db + 15.4 d
sc2 = 8.01 105 + 8.72 105 + 5.24 107 = 16.8 105 m2; sc = 0.013 m
12
2 1
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
3 Setting up Instrument
Objectives and Measures:
(1) Levelling: In order to be able to separate horizontal from vertical the vertical axis of the
instrument must be aligned with the local plumb line. This is achieved by levelling the instrument.
(2) Centering: In case that the instrument is to be set up above a marker, the instrument has
to be centred as well.
3.1 Bubbles (or Vials)
Slightly curved glass devices which are incompletely filled with a liquid (e.g. synthetic alcohol), leaving a bubble under the glass.
Two forms:
circular bubble (bulls eye level vial): a circular flatbottomed device with liquid under a
slightly convex glass face which indicates the centre, less precise.
tube bubble (tube vial, level tube): slightly curved glass tube with uniformly spaced graduations etched on the tubes exterior surface, works in the direction of the tube only, to be used
in two perpendicular directions, more precise.
Sensitivity of a bubble: related to the radius of curvature of the upper
glass surface
Typical sensitivity of a tube level: 30 for a 2 mm division,
l
l 0.002 57.3
Radius:
13.8 m
r
30 / 3600
r
Centring the bubble is not sufficient for levelling the instrument, since
the bubbles horizontal plane may be out of the horizontal plane of the
instrument.
Levelling procedure:
centre the bubble using foot screws 1 and 2
rotate the instrument by 180
13
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
if the bubble does not remain centred, bring the bubble half way back by tilting the instrument using its foot screws 1 and 2
rotate the instrument by 180 again and check that the bubble remains in its offcentre
position
rotate the instrument by 90 and repeat the procedure described above using foot screw 3
final check: the bubble remains in its offcentre position when rotating the instrument, i.e.
the instrument is levelled
The bubbles must be shaded if set up in bright sunlight. Otherwise, the bubble will expand
and run towards the warmer end as the liquid is heated.
3.2 Tripod, Tribrach, Plumbs
Tripod: a threelegged stand with adjustable legs made of wood, metal or fiberglass.
Tribrach: it consists of three screws for levelling, often a circular bubble, a clamping device to
secure the base of an instrument or accessories (e.g. prism) and threads to attach it to the head
of a tripod. Some tribrachs have integral optical plummets.
Plumb bob: mechanical plummet having a fine point and attached to a cord which must be
free of knots, less precise than an optical plummet.
Optical plummet: independent device or integrated into the alidade3 of an instrument or integrated into the tribach. If the instrument is levelled it provides a line of sight that is directed
downward, collinear with the vertical axis of the instrument.
The alidade is the part of a theodolite that rotates around the vertical axis, and that bears the horizontal axis
around which the telescope turns up or down.
14
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
3.3 Levelling and Centring of Instrument
Step 1: rough centring
attach the tribrach to the head of the tripod, let the eyepiece of the optical plummet point to
the user, fix clamp of the optical plummet, focus the optical plummet as sharp as possible, put
one leg of the tripod behind the ground marker into the ground, take the other two legs in your
hands, set these legs to the ground sighting the marker through the optical plummet and keeping the head of the tripod roughly horizontally, firmly press all three tripod legs into the
ground.
Step 2: rough levelling
use the circular bubble and change the length of the tripod legs until the bubble is brought to
its centre
Step 3: precise centring
untighten the central clamping screw with which the tribrach is fixed to the head of the tripod,
move the tribrach without rotation until it is centred observe cross hair4 of optical plummet
Step 4: precise levelling
use the tube bubble and footscrews of the tribrach, see levelling procedure described in chapter 3.1
Repeat steps 3 and 4 for checking and improvements.
cross hair fine lines etched on a thin round glass plate
15
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
4 Differential Levelling
4.1 Principle of Differential Levelling
horizontal line of sight, vertical rod
height difference = backsight foresight
one setup: height information is transferred from one change point (bench mark) to the next
change point (bench mark)
H h BS FS
additional heights by taking readings at intermediate sights
Increase of reliability:
 closed loop (end at starting BM)
 start and end at different BM
 double run: perform levelling from A
to B and back again to A
16
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
4.2 Instruments and Rods
Rods (staffs): made of wood, fibreglass, or metal;
different graduations
additional devices: rod level to guarantee vertical rod (fixed to rod or
separate device), foot plate to increase stability of change point
(1) Tilting level: with tube bubble
approximate levelling of instrument with circular bubble (levelling screws of base)
precise levelling of telescope with tube bubble in preparation for each reading (tilting
screw)
17
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
(2) Automatic level: with compensator
threescrew base and circular bubble to approximately level the instrument
precise levelling of the line of sight by automatic compensator
compensator consists of e.g.:
(a) prism suspended from wires to create a pendulum
(b) fixed prisms
(c) damping device to shorten time for the pendulum to come to rest
Increase of reading precision with parallelplate micrometer
parallel displacement of line of sight until crosshair is aligned with nearest graduation on
the invar rod,
coarse reading on the rod, precise reading on the scale of the micrometer
Elimination of mistakes and increase of precision by working with two scales:
difference of scale origins is called rod constant c
check of double reading: BS I BS II FS I FS II c
check of setup: ( BS I FS I ) ( BS II FS II ) 0
18
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
(3) Digital level: automatic level with automatic reading and digital recording
(may be used as optical level as well)
coarse levelling with circular bubble
turn telescope toward rod, focus telescope
start measurement (press button):
1. check whether compensator moves freely
2. determination of signal intensity ( exposure time)
3. image capturing, and A/D conversion
4. image processing: rod reading, image scale distance
measurement takes 2 4 s, results are displayed and stored
19
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
4.3 Testing and Adjusting Levels
Collimation Error ():
axis of tube bubble is not parallel to line of sight
compensator does not define horizontal line of sight
causes incorrect reading of d S tan
no errors in height difference if BS distance and FS distance are balanced
TwoPeg Testing and Calibration:
1st setup: equal distances height difference free of collimation errors: h BS I FS I
2nd setup: double distance of one of the rods:
1
h 2d BS II FS II d ( BS II FS II h)
2
d
d
arctan
S
S
II
FS II 2d
Adjustment of instrument: true reading: FS TRUE
automatic level: adjust reticle (move horizontal cross hair up or down)
digital level: collimation error is stored and applied as correction to the measurements
20
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
4.4 Sources of Error and Achievable Accuracy
(1) Instrumental Errors:
collimation error: BS/FS with equal distances
cross hair not exactly horizontal: adjust cross hair
incorrect scale or origin of rod, inaccurate divisions on a rod: calibration
apply correction
(2) Natural Errors:
curvature of the earth: BS/FS with equal distances
refraction, bending of light rays: BS/FS with equal distances,
avoid extreme refraction: bright sun light, hot weather,
light ray to close (<0,5 m) to the ground
settlement of the instrument or rod: firm ground, observation techniques
(3) Personal Errors:
interpolation of reading micrometer, digital level
rod not vertical rod level
other random errors double run
Propagation of systematic errors:
H n h
Even very small systematic effects at each setup may have a large effect on the height difference of the levelling line.
Propagation of random errors:
n
H hi h1 h2 h3 ... hn
(Step 1: height difference of level line)
dH dh1 dh2 ... dhn
(Step 2: differentiation)
2
H
2
h1
2
h 2
... s
2
hn
ns
2
h
(Step 3: variances)
The accuracy of the height difference of a level line is a function of its length (number of setups):
s H s h n s h
L
S
s Lev / km L [km ]
with
s H  standard deviation of height difference of level line of length L
s h  standard deviation of height difference of single setup
sLev / km  standard deviation of 1 km level line observed in double run
n number of setups
length
of level line
L
average distance of rods
S 21
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
The achievable accuracy depends on:
equipment: quality of instrument, rod
observation procedure: one or two rods, one or two scale rod, parallelplate micrometer,
single or double run, etc.
Instrument
Type
Standard
Level
Engineering
Level
Precise Level
Amplification
Factor
of Telescope
[]
18 25
Precision of
Compensator
[]
15
Achievable
Accuracy
s Lev / km (double run)
[mm/km]
5.0 10
20 30
0.5 1
1.0 3.0
25 50
0.4
0.2 1.0
Adjustment of level line (between known BM) or in level circuit:
determine misclosure
check whether misclosure meets (distance dependent) tolerance
(e.g. t h [mm] 15 L [km] )
adjust according to lengths of level legs or number of setups.
22
Price
Euro
few 100
some 100 1000,
digital: few 1000
10002000,
digital: some 1000
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Geodesy for Hydro Science
and
surveying form
Engineering: Practical 2
Levelling
date: 26.10.09
no.: 171965
instr.: Ni 025
readings
backsight
BS
intermediate
sight IS
foresight
FS
height
difference
h
348
510
461
750
837
120
609
12
969
604
+1
+1
+1
+1
page:
observer: Reuner
point
height
H
5
comment
no.
location
6
100
000
060
288
100
288
C1
822
689
100
977
C2
213
0
752
100
225
C3
856
0
105
100
120
809
028
100
148
C4
732
389
101
537
C5
988
621
102
158
C6
984
986
103
144
464
144
144
140
004
L = 0.3km
H 100.000m
H 103.144m
Given
H H H 3.144m
BS 12.604m
FS 9.464m
h BS FS 3.140m
Observed
given
A
given
B
given
B
Misclosure
Tolerance th[mm] 15 L[km]
given
A
m H h 0.004m 4mm
t h 8mm
m
Check
m H
h 3.144
Check
H Bcalculated 102.158 0.986 103
.144 H Bgiven
23
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
5 Computations on the Plane
5.1 Geoid, Ellipsoid, Sphere, Plane
Def. of geoid:
The geoid is the equipotential surface of the earths gravity field which coincides with the
mean sea level of the oceans.
equipotential surface: no potential differences = no water flow
mean sea level: averaging tide gauge observations over at least one year
but the mean sea level does not exactly coincides with a level surface (e.g. the geoid),
max. deviation about +/ 1 m due to constant oceanographic and meteorological effects
the geoid serves as a reference surface for heighting
Def. of ellipsoid:
The rotational ellipsoid is a mathematical surface which can be described in a simple manner.
Its dimension and orientation have been selected to fit the geoid.
size and shape defined by two parameters: semimajor and semiminor axes a and b
a b
,
flattening f: f
a
a=6,378,137 m, b=6,356,752 m, ab=21,384 m,
f=1/298.257
rotational ellipsoid approximates the geoid within
about +/ 100 m (geoid height)
reference surface for horizontal coordinates and
ellipsoidal heights
Differences rotational ellipsoid geoid (geoid
height):
24
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Sphere: approximation of the geoid/ellipsoid for mediumscale regions (diameter < 100 km)
Plane: approximation of geoid/ellipsoid/sphere for small areas (diameter <10 km)
Coordinate Errors due to performing calculations on the plane:
distance [km]
horizontal error [m]
vertical error [m]
1
0.000
0.078
2
0.000
0.31
5
0.002
1.96
10
0.012
7.84
20
0.098
31.4
50
1.54
196.0
100
12.29
783.9
5.2 LOP Concept for Horizontal Positions
LOP Line of Position
usually not used in geodesy but in navigation
theodolite: horizontal directions and angles, vertical angles
total station: horizontal directions and angles, vertical angles + slant distances horizontal
distances + height differences
other means to measure horizontal distances: steel tape, laser distance meter
LOPs
(a) straight lines: angle, azimuth (observed at known station, one direction to unknown
station)
(b) concentric circle: horizontal distances (remember: HD SD sin z SD cos v )
(c) eccentric circle: angle (observed at unknown station)
A horizontal position is determined using at least two LOPs.
25
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
5.3 Rectangular/Polar Conversion
d AB
n B n A 2 ( e B e A )2
horizontal
distance
e eA
AB arctan B
nB n A
azimuth
Pay attention to quadrants using arc tangent function:
quadrant e B e A
n B n A AB [gon] + [gon]
1
>0
>0
0 100
0
2
>0
<0
100 200
+200
3
<0
<0
200 300
+200
4
<0
>0
300 400
+400
quadrants
5.4 Polar/Rectangular Conversion
(horizontal distance: d AB HD SD sin z )
n B n A d AB cos AB
e B e A d AB sin AB
5.5 Azimuth Determination
Azimuths can not be measured directly (with sufficient accuracy) but an initial azimuth must
be calculated from coordinates.
2 points with given coordinates: instrument setup at
A, reference direction to AA
calculated azimuth AA , observed angle A
A AA A 200 gon
26
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
5.6 Traversing
traverse: series of consecutive lines whose lengths and directions have been determined from
measurements.
starting point A
closing point B
traverse points e.g. 1, 2
starting reference direction: to AA
closing reference direction: to BB
coordinates have to be known for A, AA, B, BB
open traversing: no known closing station, no closing reference direction
(to be avoided, low reliability)
closed traversing:
polygon: lines return to the starting points, at least one reference direction
link: start and end at different known stations, two reference directions
Computation of a linked traverse:
(1) first and last azimuth from coordinates:
C
e C e CAA
e BB
e BC
C
,
arctan
CAA arctan CA
B
C
nC nC
B
n A n AA
BB
(2) observed azimuths from first azimuth and observed angles:
AC AA A 200 gon
1 A 1 200 gon
27
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
2 1 2 200 gon
B 2 B 200 gon
(3) azimuth misclosure:
m BC B
must be smaller than a given tolerance value which depends on traverse length
and number of traverse points
(4) correction of measured angles by equal amount: c m / n
(n number of measured angles)
c
(5) calculation of coordinates:
n1 n CA d A1 cos A
n 2 n1 d 12 cos 1
n B n 2 d 2 B cos 2
e1 e CA d A1 sin A
e2 e1 d 12 sin 1
e B e2 d 2 B sin 2
(6) coordinate misclosures for station B:
mn n BC n B
me e BC e B
must be smaller than given tolerance values which depend on traverse length
and number of traverse points
(7) correction of coordinates: either according to number of distances or according to
lengths of distances
If desired, traverse station elevations can also be determined calculating height differences
from slant distances and zenith angles. Instrument heights and reflector heights need to be
measured.
5.7 Intersection and Resection
Def. Intersection: locating a point without actually occupying it.
Angular intersection:
observations: angles A and B
geometry: 2 straight line LOPs
best geometry: angle at N of 100 gon
weak geometry: all 3 stations on the same
straight line
Distance intersection:
observations: distances dAN and dBN
geometry: 2 centric circle LOPs
best geometry: angle at N of 100 gon
weak geometry: all 3 stations on the same straight line
28
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Additional measurements to increase reliability of coordinates of station N:
combination of angular intersection and distance intersection
trisection using an extra control point
independent repeated intersection using two additional control points
Def. Resection: locating a point by taking observations from it to known stations.
Distance resection:
observations: distance dAN and dBN
identical with distance intersection
Angular resection:
observations: 3 horizontal directions to 3
known stations, i.e. two angles between 3
known stations: 1 and 2
geometry: 2 eccentric circle LOPs
best geometry: N close to centre of A,B,C,
weak geometry: all 4 stations lie on the same
circle use more than 4 stations to increase reliability
5.8 TwoDimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation and
Free Stationing
conversion of coordinates from one survey coordinate system
to another:
e.g. from local coordinate system
n L ,e L
n S ,e S
to state plane coordinate system
(1) decide on number and kind of transformation parameters:
e.g. 2D conformal5 transformation:
scale
s
rotation angle
Tn , Te
translations in n and e
(2) determination of transformation parameters from identical points in both systems:
e.g. 4 unknowns at least 2 identical points
(3) compute transformation parameters (here just 2 identical points, in practice at least 3
should be used to increase reliability)
scale:
( n 2S n1S ) 2 ( e2S e1S ) 2
( n 2L n1L ) 2 ( e2L e1L ) 2
conformal: true shape is retained
29
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
rotation angle:
translations:
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
e2S e1S
e2L e1L
arctan L
arctan S
L
S
n 2 n1
n 2 n1
Tn n1S s (n1L cos e1L sin )
Te e1S s (n1L sin e1L cos )
(4) transform coordinates of other points from system 1 to system 2
n S Tn s (n L cos e L sin )
e S Te s (n L sin e L cos )
Free Stationing
setup of instrument on unknown point with sights to known stations (bench marks BM)
and to points to be determined; use at least 2 bench marks (better 3 or more to gain increased reliability)
determine horizontal angles and horizontal distances to bench marks
compute bench mark coordinates in local coordinate system
calculate transformation parameters between local coordinate system and state plane coordinate system
determine horizontal angles and horizontal distances to other points, calculate coordinates
in local system, transform them to state plane coordinate system
30
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
6 Theodolite and Angle Observations
The theodolite is used to measure both horizontal and zenith angles.
A total station is an electronic theodolite supplemented with a distance meter.
An electronic theodolite is a total station without distance meter.
Accuracy Class
Low
Medium
High
Standard deviation
of single observation
> 3 mgon
1 3 mgon
< 1 mgon
Optical theodolite / Electronic theodolite:
6.1 Horizontal Directions and Zenith Angles
zero direction of horizontal circle points to arbitrary
direction
horizontal angle: difference of two readings (horizontal directions)
vertical readings refer to the local plumb line: observation of zenith or vertical angles
31
Effect at a distance of
50 m
200 m
> 2 mm
> 10 mm
1 2 mm
3 10 mm
< 1 mm
< 3 mm
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
6.2 Theodolite Axes and Axis Errors
3 principal axes:
1. Vertical axis is exactly vertical
2. Collimation axis is normal to horizontal axis
3. Horizontal axis is normal to vertical axis
Vertical Axis Error:
vertical axis not perfectly
plumb
error of set up of instrument
careful levelling of instrument
no effect on horizontal sights
no elimination by observations in two telescope positions
electronic theodolites: dualaxis electronic levels to
measure remaining tilt of the
vertical axis; numerical correction
Instrumental Errors
(1) Collimation Error:
collimation axis not perfectly normal to horizontal axis
c
directional error depends on zenith angle: c
sin z
(2) Horizontal Axis Error:
horizontal axis deviates from horizontal plane
no effect on horizontal sights
directional error depends on zenith angle i i cot z
Elimination or Correction:
elimination by observations in both telescope positions6 and averaging the results:
1
r (r I r II 200 gon)
2
electronic theodolites: determination from observations in both telescope positions and
numerical correction
plunge the telescope = rotate telescope around horizontal axis by 180 degrees, rotate the instrument around its
vertical axis by 180 degrees and then take a second reading; direct and reverse telescope positions.
32
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
6.3 Optical and Automatic Circle Reading

circles made of glass,
graduation by a photochemical process,
optical theodolites:
line thickness of several m
increase of reading accuracy by
line microscope and optical
micrometer
electronic theodolites:
automatic reading
coded circles or increments
(light/dark fields)
incremental method: fixed
circle or rotating circle
several different techniques
Coded Circle:
direct direction reading from parallel binary code
Incremental method with fixed circle:
zero direction at switch on of instrument
counting of dark/light changes to determine rotation angle
problem: detection of rotation direction: two photoelectric barriers at distance of 1+1/4
increment lengths
interpolation within increment length to increase resolution
33
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Dynamic method with rotating circle:
rotating circle, e.g. 180 rotations/minute
fixed photodiode precisely determines rotation velocity
movable photodiode determines horizontal angle with respect to zero direction
horizontal direction measurement from time difference observation:
t counter 2
t counter 1
t counter 2
t full rotation
angle between zero direction and target direction
400 gon
34
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
7 Electronic Distance Measurements (EDM)
7.1 Electromagnetic Waves and their Propagation
Electromagnetic Wave
An electromagnetic wave propagates in space and time. It can be described as a sinusoidal
oscillation.
Its phase is a function of distance and time:
x
y A sin t 0
c
with
y magnitude of oscillation
A amplitude, maximum magnitude of oscillation
= 2f angular frequency [rad/s] with f frequency [1/s]
t time [s]
x position (distance) [m]
c velocity [m/s]
here vacuum velocity: c 2.99792458 10 8 m / s 3 10 8 m / s
zero phase (phase angle at t0, x0) [rad]
simplification if time or position is fixed:
e.g. fixed position
y A sin( t 0 )
other important relations:
c f
T 1/ f
with
wavelength [m]
period [s].
35
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Troposphere: neutral atmosphere: <12 km, water vapour <5 km
Ionosphere: ionized atmosphere: 100 km 1000+ km
Modulation
Modulation is the process of varying a carrier signal in order to transfer information.
e.g.:
EDM: Amplitude Modulation, Pulsed Signal
GPS: Phase Modulation
Refractive Index
The refractive index of a medium is the ratio of vacuum velocity to the actual phase velocity
of electromagnetic radiation:
c
v
36
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
The following factors influence the refractive index:
Troposphere
Ionosphere
Visible light
temperature, pressure,
water vapour content
(humidity), frequency
negligible (n = 1)
Microwaves
temperature, pressure,
water vapour content (humidity)
(nondispersive, independent of
frequency)
Density of ionised atoms,
frequency
Group velocity refractive index:
Group velocity (velocity of modulation) differs from phase velocity if the medium is dispersive (i.e. refractive index frequencydependent).
c
Group velocity refractive index: n g
vg
Examples:
Medium
Vacuum
Visible light (589.3 nm)
n
ng
1.000 000
Microwaves (19 cm)
n
ng
1.000 000
air of 0C, 1013.25 mbar,
0 % rel. humidity.
1.000 292
1.000 302
1.000 288
air of 15C, 1013.25 mbar,
50 % rel. humidity
1.000 273
1.000 286
1.000 311
ionospheric layer with
7 1011 electrons/m3 (local noon,
height above ground 250 km )
1.000 000
0.999 988
1.000 012
Effect on distance errors if refractive index is completely ignored:
0.3 m
n=0.00002 0.02 m
n=1.0003, d=1 km
n=1.00001, d=500 km 5.0 m
DualFrequency systems
Dualfrequency systems enable the calculation of phase or group velocity deviations when
used in dispersive media:
e.g.
visible light and troposphere: 441.6 nm (green) and 632.8 nm (red) (EDM)
microwaves and ionosphere: 19.0 cm and 24.4 cm (GPS)
37
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
7.2 Measurement Techniques
twoway ranging, passive reflector, close to the ground, visible light or IR, pulsed or amplitude modulated
Pulse method
1
1 c
v t t
2
2 n
Phase Difference Method
1
N M 1 N M M 1 N M 0 M 0
2
2
2 2
ng
2 n g
N integer ambiguity,  observed phase difference, M 0  nominal modulation wavelength, M  actual modulation wavelength with refractive index ng
Ambiguity resolution by using several modulation frequencies, basic principle:
Readings
Frequency
Scale Phase Difference Phase Reading
fM [MHz]
U [m]
U= [m]
(1) rough
0.1498
1 000
0.550
550
(2) rough
1.4989
100
0.496
49.6
(3) fine
14.9896
10
0.973
9.73
Measured distance d: 549.73 m
Ambiguity resolution by using several modulation frequencies, more realistic example:
38
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
Readings
(1) fine
(2) fine
(3) fine
Diff. (1)(2)
Diff. (1)(3)
Frequency
fM [MHz]
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Scale
U =[m]
Phase
Difference
Phase Reading =
U [m]
14.9896 10.00
14.8397 10.10
13.4906 11.11
0.973
0.429
0.481
9.73
4.33
5.34
0.1498 1 000
1.4989 100
0.544
0.492
544
49.2
d=549.2
Ambiguity
N= nint
[(dU
54
54
49
Measured
distance
d=N*U+
549.73
549.73
549.73
d= 549.73 m
Reflectors
single corner reflector, prism, reflective sheet
Reflector constant: the effective centre of a prism does not coincide with the plummet, can be
as large as 70 mm, varies with kind of reflector
39
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Without Reflector
Without reflector: esp. for any situations which are difficult or impossible to access directly,
e.g. facade of a building
May experience erroneous observations in certain situations experienced observer
7.3 Errors and Corrections
Zero Error (independent of distance):
 difference of electronic and geometric centre of instrument
 difference of optical and geometric centre of reflector
calibration, applying correction
calibration on known baseline, without known baseline
Scale Error (proportional to distance):
frequency error: deviation from nominal frequency lab calibration by measuring
the actual modulation frequency, applying correction
refractive error: deviations from design refractive index of e.g. 1.000 273
observing actual pressure and temperature and applying correction
Accuracy of EDM:
s d2 e 2 (d p) 2 [mm2]
e constant error [mm]: with reflector 1 5 mm, without reflector 5 10 mm
p proportional error [mm/km = ppm]: 1 5 ppm
d distance [km]
40
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
8 SatelliteBased Positioning
GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System, namely
GPS (NAVSTAR GPS (NAVigation System Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System)),
GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System),
Galileo, BeiDou
Satellite System
GPS
GLONASS
USA
Soviet Union /
Russia
1973
~30
1979
~24
Country
Start of Project
Number of healthy
satellites
(Aug. 2015)
Galileo
mainly
European
countries
1999
3
Beidou
China
late 1990
~13
a minimum of ~24 satellites is required
Objectives:
provide highaccuracy realtime position (~10 m), velocity (<0.1 m/s), and time
to an unlimited number of users
worldwide, all weather operation, 24 h a day
affordable, reliable user equipment (no highaccuracy clocks, no directional antennas on
user side)
8.1 Absolute Positioning
Concept of absolute positioning
Achievable accuracy: ~10 m (standard deviation, 3D)
Range measurements to satellites:
oneway travel time satellite antenna receiving antenna range (distance),
but receiver clock error pseudorange
4 unknowns (3D position and receiver clock error) at least 4 simultaneous measurements needed, i.e. at least 4 satellite signals have to be received simultaneously
information on satellite positions and clocks needed
observation equation (code observation):
41
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
C ai Rai c t a t i
with
Rai X i X a ( X i X a ) 2 (Y i Ya ) 2 ( Z i Z a ) 2
C ai  code observation [m],
Rai  geometric distance satellite i receiver a [m],
c  vacuum signal velocity [m/s],
t a  receiver clock error [s],
t i  satellite clock error [s],
X  3D position vector in global Cartesian coordinates [m].
observed:
C ai ; given: X i , t i ; unknown: X a , t a
Example for a set of observations:
Observation epoch: Y: 05 M: 08 D: 31 H: 10 M: 05 S: 30.00
SV
C[m]
03
23,279,758.86
09
25,613,898.87
11
21,266,649.95
17
22,709,865.93
21
21,139,856.02
24
23,690,282.29
27
20,460,660.62
GPStime
Higher accurate positions can be obtained by
(1) differential positioning,
(2) using carrier phase observations instead of code observations (modulation),
(3) using more accurate orbit and satellite clock corrections.
8.2 Positioning Systems
Satellite
Segment
Control
Segment
User
Segment
Absolute Positioning: 3 segments
(without Reference Station Segment)
Reference
Station
Segment
Differential Positioning: 4 segments
(incl. Reference Station Segment)
Primary Data Flow
Secondary Data Flow
42
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Satellite Segment:
24 or more satellites which continuously transmit micro wave signals.
These signals are modulated with a
code signal which is used for ranging
and which also contains information
on satellite orbits (3D coordinates) and
clocks (clock correction to obtain system time).
Inclination (to equatorial plane) of satellite orbits
of ~55 (GPS/Galileo/BeiDou) to 65 (GLONASS). Important effect to users: shadow areas as
a function of the users latitude.
Satellites move on the surface of a truncated
sphere:
GPS: a=26,560 km, inclination i=55
GLONASS: a=25,510 km, i=65
Galileo: a=29,600 km, i=56
BeiDou: a=27,840 km, i=55
Shadow areas as a function of users latitude
Control Segment:
Tasks:
continuously monitor and control
the satellite system,
determine system time,
predict the satellites ephemerides
and the behaviour of the satellite
clocks,
periodically update the navigation
message for each particular satellite,
command small maneuvers to maintain orbit, or relocate or substitute
an unhealthy satellite
GPS Control Segment
43
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
User Segment:
Receives signals of 4 or more satellites and determines its position + time (absolute positioning) or using simultaneous observations from at least 2 stations of 4 or more satellites to determine position differences and time differences (differential positioning).
Price
Observables
Observation Channels
Achievable Accuracy:
absolute, kinematic
differential, kinematic, code (DGNSS)
differential, phase
Data recording
Antenna
GNSS Navigation Receiver
(few) 100 Euro
Singefrequency code, often
GPS only
8 15
Geodetic GNSS Receiver
~ 15 000 Euro
Dualfrequency, code and
phase, GPS + GLONASS + ...
1232 for each frequency
10 m
few m
5m
1m
positions
small and simple, internal or
external
mm cm
all observations and positions
separate geodetic antenna
Reference Station Segment: = CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Stations)
Permanently fixed receivers which make available to the users
their observations or
products based on these observations
to be used for differential positioning.
44
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
GNSS Receivers
GNSS Antennas
45
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
8.3 Computations on the Ellipsoid
conventions of a global geodetic reference system:
earthfixed (fixed coordinates)
origin is the centre of mass of the Earth
scale: SI7 meter
Zaxis: coincides with rotational axis of the Earth, points
towards mean orientation of polar axis in the period 19001905 (Conventional International Origin  CIO)
Xaxis: in equatorial plane, XZplane contains Greenwich
(Greenwich Mean Observatory  GMO)
Yaxis: to complete a righthanded system
Conventional Terrestrial Reference System (CTRS)
Realization by a set of globally distributed bench marks with coordinates and linear velocities.
(Conventional Terrestrial Reference Frame CTRF), called frame.
e.g.: International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008 (ITRF 2008)
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) used by GPS
Parametri Zemli 1990 (PZ90.02) used by GLONASS,
Today, all these realizations agree on the few cmlevel to 10 cm level.
WGS84parameters (part of the system definition):
semimajor axis:
a = 6,378,137 m
flattening
f = (a b ) / a = 1 / 298,257223563
Global Cartesian
X
Y
Z
WGS 84
Ellipsoidal
Transformation
h
WGS 84
UTM  Universal Transverse Mercator
International System of Units
46
UTM
Projection
North
East WGS 84
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Global Cartesian and ellipsoidal coordinates
Transformation between Global Cartesian and Ellipsoidal Coordinates
From the parameters a and b (or a and f) we compute:
a2 b2
square of the first numerical eccentricity: e 2
2f f 2,
2
a
a
curvature radius in the parallels: N
[m].
1 e 2 sin 2
Global Cartesian coordinates ellipsoidal coordinates:
arctan
X 2 Y 2
Y
arctan
X
X 2 Y 2
h
N
cos
2
1 e
N h
iteration required: start with h = 0 m h , converges quickly
Ellipsoidal coordinates global Cartesian Coordinates:
X ( N h) cos cos
Y ( N h) cos sin
Z N 1 e 2 h sin
47
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Local Ellipsoidal Coordinates
n cos sin
e sin sin
u cos
 origin in point P,
 orientation by the ellipsoidal vertical (as given by ellipsoidal latitude and longitude ).
 zaxis is directed towards the ellipsoidal zenith,
 xaxis points to ellipsoidal north,
 lefthanded system: yaxis points towards east.
Local ellipsoidal coordinates can be transformed to differences of global Cartesian coordinates and vice versa. The transformation consists of
 a reflection (global: righthanded system, local: lefthanded system) and
 2 rotations (as a function of ).
It is performed using the following transformation matrix A:
sin cos
A sin sin
cos
sin cos cos
cos cos sin
0
sin
Application:
X
n
Y A e
Z
u
or
n
X
1
T
e A Y A
u
Z
48
Y .
Z
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
8.4 Signals and Observations
Carrier signal, no information content, microwaves in the Lband (12 GHz).
Modulation:
a) PRNCodes (Pseudo Random Noise Codes):
content: time of signal transmission, satellite identification (GPS/Galileo PRN  satellite number)
10.23 Mbps or 1.023 Mbps (GPS)
b) Message:
content: satellite orbits, satellite clock corrections, satellite health
50 bps (GPS)
Two carrier signals on different frequencies, e.g. GPS: 1575.42 MHz und 1227.60 MHz, to
determine ionospheric refraction error (ionosphere is a dispersive medium for microwave signals, see chapter 7.1).
The existing GPS und GLONASSsignals use a phase modulation technique called Binary
Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) to modulate the information onto the carrier signal.
(Binary Phase Shift Keying BPSK)
Measurement concept of a code correlation channel: correlation of incoming signals (Code)
with internally generated replica signal:
incoming signal: satellite clock reading at time of signal transmission
internally generated signal: receiver clock reading at reception time
49
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
code tracking loop: time shift of internal signal until maximum correlation with incoming
signal: size of time shift corresponds to signal travel time plus receiver clock error
pseudorange, reading of satellite clock.
then: extraction of data message and carrier tracking loop
8.5 Observation Errors
Random errors:
mm cm (Phase)
10 cm m (Code)
Propagation of random errors: DOP Factors
Dilution of Precision (DOP) values are used to estimate the achievable accuracy as a function
of the satellite geometry. It is a factor which describes the error propagation of the standard
deviation of the measured pseudoranges to the standard deviation of the position (or position
components). A good geometry is represented by a low DOP factor. In practice several different DOP factors are used: e.g. North DOP, East DOP, Vertical DOP, 3DPosition DOP
(=PDOP).
s Pos s Pseudorange DOP
Position Accuracy = Pseudorange Accuracy DOP Value
Average DOPvalues (Dresden, elevation mask 15) for GPS:
NDOP:
1.1
EDOP:
0.8
VDOP:
2.1
PDOP:
2.5,
These values are valid for sites without any obstructions above the elevation mask. If the satellite constellation is poor, e.g. caused by obstructions, DOP factors can reach 10 100 or
higher values. Then, precise positioning can not be performed.
Satellite Orbits
Predicted satellite positions (orbits) differ from actual satellite positions. This difference has no effect on the observations but on the position computation.
Size of error (GPS): m few m
mitigation bydifferential positioning
Satellite Clocks
The corrected satellite clock reading (actual reading plus
predicted correction) is not perfectly synchronized to the
system time.
Size of error (GPS): m few m
elimination bydifferential positioning
50
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Ionosphere
Due to ionized particles in the ionosphere the refractive index differs from 1. The ionosphere
is a dispersive medium for microwave signals and thus code and phase are affected in different ways: code delay, phase advance.
Size of error: 0.3 30 m
mitigation by dualfrequency observations
mitigation by differential positioning
Troposphere
The signal is delayed due to tropospheric refraction which is independent of frequency in the
microwave frequency spectrum. Hence, also the effects on code and phase are identical.
Size of error: 2.5 m (zenith) 25 m (low elevations)
mitigation by standard troposphere models (remaining errors: cm dm in zenith
direction)
mitigation by differential positioning
Multipath
The direct signal is superimposed by reflected
signals. This causes errors for both types of observables namely code and phase.
Size of error: cm (Phase) m (Code)
mitigation by antenna design (larger ground plane)
mitigation by selection of observation location
Summary: the positioning accuracy can be increased by
differential instead of absolute positioning,
dualfrequency instead of singlefrequency observations,
phase instead of just code observations,
longterm static instead of kinematic observations,
selecting an adequate antenna location (few obstructions, few reflectors).
51
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
8.6 Differential Positioning (DGPS or DGNSS)
Concept of Differential Positioning (code observations)
Achievable accuracy: ~1 m (standard deviation, 3D)
 differential positioning requires simultaneous observations at two or more stations to at least
4 satellites
 determination of baseline vectors (2 stations) or networks (more than two stations): 3Dcoordiante differences and differences of clock errors
 mitigation of the effect of several error sources increased accuracy
 observation equation for differential code observations:
C ai ,b C bi C ai Rai ,b c t a ,b
with
Rai ,b
X i Xb X i Xa
X i X b X i X b X a ,b
and
X ai ,b  baseline vector between receiving antennas a and b
52
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Pseudorange Corrections
In practice: reference station R,
X R known, broadcast ephemeris ( X i , t i ) known RRi can be calculated
(a) reduction of observed pseudorange by known quantities
C Ri C Ri RRi c t i [m]
(b) estimation of receiver clock error at the reference station as average value of all pseudorange residuals C Ri :
1 n
t R
C Ri [ s ]
n c i 1
(c) calculation of pseudorange corrections K Ri :
K Ri C Ri c t R [m]
The corrections contain the effects of satellite clock errors, ionospheric refraction,
tropospheric refraction and orbit errors at the reference station site.
Example for pseudorange corrections
(d) transmission of corrections from the reference site to the rover receiver
(e) application of pseudorange corrections at the rover site:
C ai K Ri Rai c t a t i
Remaining errors of the reference clock are absorbed in the rovers clock error term, i.e. they
do not affect the positioning results
Remaining errors for positioning:
 multipath effects at the rover and the reference sites, to be further reduced by smoothing
with carrier phase observations.
 effects of ionospheric refraction, tropospheric refraction, orbit errors if distance to reference
station is large (exceeds a few hundred km)
53
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Example 1:
EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service)
is the European SBAS (Satellite
Based Augmentation System).
Correction consists of model
parameters for satellite clock and
ionosphere. User calculates
pseudorange corrections from
these models and his approximate position.
Transmission of correction signals from geostationary satellites on GPSL1frequency for
area of Europe.
Other SBAS: WAAS, GAGAN,MSAS,
in future: QZSSSAIF, SDCM
Example 2:
DGPSService of the German Waterways and
Shipping Administration (Wasser und
Schifffahrtsverwaltung) according to IALAstandard (Int. Assoc. of Marine Aids to Navigation
and Lighthouse Authorities)
 several 100 stations according to this standard
worldwide
 pseudorange corrections: data rate 100 bit/s,
transmitted at ~ 300 kHz, range 200400 km
54
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
8.7 Carrier Phase Positioning and RTK
Comparison of code and carrier observations
Cai Rai c ta ti
ia Rai c ta ti N ai
C ai  code observation [m],
Rai  geometric distance satellite i receiver a [m],
c  vacuum signal velocity [m/s],
t a  receiver clock error [s],
t i  satellite clock error [s],
ia  phase observation [m],
 wavelength [m],
N ai  carrier phase ambiguity []
Observation
Random errors
Code
Phase
dm
mm
Multipath
Effects
m
cm
ambiguity
unambiguous pseudorange
ambiguous pseudorange
Single Difference:
ia ,b
ib ia
Rai ,b c ta ,b N ai ,b
Satellite clock error eliminated, tremendous mitigation of ionospheric, tropospheric and orbit
errors especially for short baselines (compare Differential GNSS).
Double Difference (DD):
ia,,jb
ib ia bj aj
Rai ,,bj N ai ,,bj
In addition to single differences: elimination of receiver clock error.
double difference ambiguities N can be fixed to integer values
55
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
FloatSolution:
Ambiguities are estimated as real numbers but they are not fixed to their integer values
ia,,jb Rai ,,bj N ai ,,bj
Unknowns:
in Rai ,,bj : 3 unknowns: X a ,b , Ya ,b , Z a ,b ,
number of independent ambiguities N ai ,,bj : number of satellites 1.
Achievable accuracy:
One epoch: more unknowns than observations, hence no solution
few minutes: dm to m
several minutes: few cm dm
one day: cm.
Ambiguity Fixing
Simplified procedure:
Independent testing of each estimated ambiguity value and its standard deviation: N ai ,,bj
must be closer to an integer than threshold 1 and sN must be smaller than threshold 2.
e.g. threshold 1 = threshold 2 = 0,1 cycles
One baseline, i.e. two stations, 5 satellites 4 N ai ,,bj :
SV  SV: Estimation
Std.deviation
26  02: 127462424.910
0.07 to be fixed to 127462425
26  12:
6565374.888
0.12 not to be fixed
26  23: 43455411.990
0.23 not to be fixed
26  31: 64324115.077
0.01 to be fixed to 64324115
If any unfixed ambiguities remain, the fixing procedure may be iterated.
More sophisticated procedures: search algorithms which handle all ambiguities at the same
time
FixedSolution
all ambiguities have been fixed to their true integer values: correct DDphase measurements
accordingly, so that doubledifference unknowns disappear from observation equation:
ia,,jb Rai ,,bj
3 unknowns: X a ,b , Ya ,b , Z a ,b ,
Achievable accuracy: few cm, higher accuracy for static observations of several minutes to
hours or days.
In practice static observations can often be finished directly after the reliable and complete
fixing of the carrier phase ambiguities.
56
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
RTK RealTime Kinematic
Carrier phase differential GNSS with ambiguity fixing in realtime and centimeterlevel positioning accuracy. Maximum distance between reference station
and rover receiver: 5 20 km.
Data transmission by radio communication
(UHF or VHF band).
RTKNetworks and Services
NetworkRTK: RTK positioning in networks of reference stations, typical distances between reference
stations: 50 km 100 km, regional service.
e.g. SAPOS, www.sapos.de (German);
Trimble VRS, http://www.trimble.com/vrs.shtml
Data transmission to users by mobile phone
8.8 Applications
Data Processing
Absolute Positioning:
Code (Single or DualFrequency)
Differential Positioning:
DGNSS or DGPS (Code) (SingleFrequency)
Phase (Single or DualFrequency)
without ambiguity fixing: floatsolution
with ambiguity fixing: fixedsolution
Accuracy Enhancement by Static Observations
57
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
RTK
Geodynamics: e.g. global plate tectonics
58
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Navigation
References
Wolf, P.R., Ghilani, C.D. (2014): Elementary Surveying. 14th edition, Pearson Prentice Hall,
Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA
Kavanagh, B.F. (2003): Geomatics. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA
Bannister, A., Raymond, S., Baker, R. (1998): Surveying. 7th edition, Pearson Education
Ltd, Harlow, Essex, UK.
Schofield, W. (2007): Engineering Surveying. 6th edition. Elsevier ButterwothHeinemann,
Oxford, UK.
SatelliteBased Positioning:
HofmannWellenhof, B., H. Lichtenegger, and E. Wasle (2008): GNSS  Global Navigation Satellite Systems. SpringerVerlag, Wien.
59
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Appendix:
Sample questions for preparation of the written exam
Please define, explain, give examples, draw a sketch etc.
Radian
Grad (gon)
Mistakes
Errors
Natural errors
Instrumental errors
Personal errors
Systematic errors
Random errors
Precision
Accuracy
Reliability
Normal distribution
Variance
Standard deviation
Outlier detection
Significant figures
Horizontal axis error of theodolite
Observations in 2 telescope positions
Circular bubble
Tube bubble
Tribrach
Optical plumb
Principle of differential levelling
Automatic level
Digital level
Collimation error (levelling)
Absolute positioning (GNSS)
Receiver clock error
Pseudorange
Satellite Segment
Control Segment
Shadow area
Code observation (GNSS)
CarrierPhase observation (GNSS)
Global Cartesian coordinates
Ellipsoidal coordinates
Local ellipsoidal coordinates
PRNCode
DOP factor
Tropospheric refraction
Ionospheric refraction
Multipath
Differential positioning
DGPS or DGNSS
Ambiguities (GNSS)
Float solution
Fixed solution
RealTime Kinematics (RTK)
Visible Window
Radio Window
Modulation
Refractive index
Phase velocity
Group velocity
Dispersive medium
Dualfrequency observations
Pulse method
Phase difference method
Ambiguities (EDM)
Reflector constant
Zero error (EDM)
Scale error (EDM)
Geoid
Rotational ellipsoid
Line of position (LOP)
Angular intersection
Distance intersection
Angular resection
Free stationing
Theodolite
Total station
Horizontal direction
Horizontal angle
Zenith angle
Vertical axis error of theodolite
Collimation error (theodolite)
60
Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16
L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden
Calculations
Convert an angle given in degree (or grad, or radian) to grad (or radian, or degree).
An angle has an error of s mgon. Estimate the position error which is caused by this angle observation error at a distance of d m.
A distance has been observed 10 times. Calculate the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation of a
single observation, the standard deviation of the mean value. Detect outliers according to the 3sigmarule and ignore them.
Given is a function of observed values (e.g. area of a rectangle being the function of two observed
distances). Calculate the standard deviation of the function based on the standard deviations of the
observed values using the formulas of error propagation.
Given:
two bench mark heights,
levelled height difference and approximate distance of a new station to the first bench
mark,
levelled height difference and approximate distance of the second bench mark to the new
station
tolerance for a height differences t h [ mm] 15 L[ km]
Determine the height of the new station.
Further questions
Describe the levelling and centring procedure of a geodetic instrument using circular bubble, tube
bubble, and optical plummet.
A levelling instrument is to be tested whether a collimation error exists. Please explain the testing
procedure.
The height of a new station has been determined by levelling from a known bench mark. How can
the reliability of the height of the new station be increased?
Why should differential levelling be performed with equal distances in backsight and foresight?
EDM measurements using phase difference method are ambiguous. How can this ambiguity be
resolved?
Why do horizontal angle measurements require a reference direction (i.e. two horizontal direction
readings)? Is there a similar reference direction for the observation of a zenith angle?
An electronic distance meter is to be tested whether a zero error exists. Explain the testing procedure.
Explain the basic principles of positioning with GNSS, with DGNSS, or with RTK.
What are the main differences between a GNSS navigation receiver and a geodetic receiver?
GNSS are designed to provide position accuracies of about 10 m. How can accuracies of about 1
cm be obtained?
61