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LalBahadurShastri
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

LalBahadurShastri(Hindustani:[lalbad
r
ast
ri], listen,2October190411January1966)
wasthePrimeMinisteroftheRepublicofIndiaanda
leaderoftheIndianNationalCongressparty.

LalBahadurShastri

ShastrijoinedtheIndianindependencemovementin
the1920s.Deeplyimpressedandinfluencedby
MahatmaGandhi,hebecamealoyalfollower,firstof
Gandhi,andthenofJawaharlalNehru.Following
independencein1947,hejoinedthelatter's
governmentandbecameoneofPrimeMinister
Nehru'sprincipallieutenants,firstasRailways
Minister(195156),andtheninavarietyofother
functions,includingHomeMinister.Shastriwas
chosenasNehru'ssuccessorowingtohisadherenceto
NehruviansocialismafterNehru'sdaughterIndira
GandhiturneddownCongressPresidentK.Kamaraj's
offerofpremiership.
ShastriasPrimeMinistercontinuedNehru'spolicies
ofnonalignmentandsocialism.Heledthecountry
duringtheIndoPakistanWarof1965.Hissloganof
"JaiJawanJaiKisan"("Hailthesoldier,Hailthe
farmer")becameverypopularduringthewarandis
rememberedeventoday.Thewarformallyendedwith
theTashkentAgreementof10January1966hedied
ofaheartattackthefollowingday,stillinTashkent.

Contents

LalBahadurShastri
2ndPrimeMinisterofIndia
Inoffice
9June196411January1966
President

SarvepalliRadhakrishnan

Precededby

GulzarilalNanda

Succeededby

GulzarilalNanda

MinisterofExternalAffairs
Inoffice
9June196418July1964
Precededby

GulzarilalNanda

Succeededby

SardarSwaranSingh

MinisterofHomeAffairs
Inoffice
4April196129August1963

1 Earlyyears(19041917)
2 Theyoungsatyagrahi(19211945)
2.1 Independenceactivism

PrimeMinister JawaharlalNehru
Precededby

GovindBallabhPant

Succeededby

GulzarilalNanda

3 Politicalcareer(194764)
3.1 Stateminister

Personaldetails
Born

LalBahadurVarma
2October1904
Varanasi,UnitedProvinces,
BritishRaj
(nowinUttarPradesh,India)

Died

11January1966(aged61)

3.2 Cabinetminister
4 PrimeministerofIndia(196466)
4.1 Domesticpolicies
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Tashkent,UzbekSSR,Soviet
Union

4.2 Economicpolicies
4.3 JaiJawanJaiKisan

(nowinUzbekistan)
Politicalparty IndianNationalCongress

4.4 Foreignpolicies

Spouse(s)

LalitaDevi

4.5 WarwithPakistan

Residence

10Janpath,NewDelhi[1]

Almamater

MahatmaGandhiKashi
Vidyapeeth

Profession

Academic
Activist

Religion

Hinduism

Awards

BharatRatna1966(Posthumous)

4.6 Death
5 MysterybehindLalBahadurShastri'sdeath
6 Familyanddescendants
7 Legacy
7.1 Memorials
8 Citations
9 References
10 Furtherreading
11 Externallinks

Earlyyears(19041917)
ShastriwasbornatthehouseofhismaternalgrandparentsinMughalsarai,VaranasiasLalBahadur
Shrivastava,[2][3]intoaHinduKayasthafamilythathadtraditionallybeenemployedasHighly
administratorsandcivilservants.Shastri'spaternalancestorshadbeenintheserviceofthezamindarof
RamnagarnearVaranasiandShastrilivedthereforthefirstoneyearofhislife.Shastri'sfather,Sharada
PrasadShrivastava,wasaschoolteacherwholaterbecameaclerkintherevenueofficeatAllahabad,
whilehismother,RamdulariDevi,wasthedaughterofMunshiHazariLal,theheadmasterandEnglish
teacheratarailwayschoolinMughalsarai.Shastriwasthesecondchildandeldestsonofhisparentshe
hadaneldersister,KailashiDevi(b.1900).[4]
InApril1906,WhenShastriwashardlyoneyearold,hisfather,hadonlyrecentlybeenpromotedtothe
postofdeputytahsildar,diedinanepidemicofbubonicplague.RamdulariDevi,thenonly23and
pregnantwithherthirdchild,tookhertwochildrenandmovedfromRamnnagartoherfather'shousein
Mughalsaraiandsettledthereforgood.Shegavebirthtoadaughter,SundariDevi,inJuly1906.[2][5]
Thus,Shastriandhissistersgrewupinthehouseholdofhismaternalgrandfather,HazariLal.However,
HazariLalhimselfdiedfromastrokeinmid1908,afterwhichthefamilywerelookedafterbyhis
brother(Shastri'sgreatuncle)DarbariLal,whowastheheadclerkintheopiumregulationdepartmentat
Ghazipur,andlaterbyhisson(RamdulariDevi'scousin)BindeshwariPrasad,aschoolteacherin
Mughalsarai.Thus,thegreatnessofthetraditionalIndianjointfamilysystem,andthetraditionsof
familyresponsibilityandkinship,aredeeplyevidentinShastri'scase,wheretheorphanchildofa
pennilesswidowwasraisedbyhisdistantrelativesinamannerwhichenabledhimtobecomePrime
MinisterofIndia.
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InShastri'sfamily,aswithmanyKayasthafamilies,itwasthecustominthateraforchildrentoreceive
aneducationintheUrdulanguageandculture.ThisisbecauseUrdu/Persianhadbeenthelanguageof
governmentforcenturies,beforebeingreplacedbyEnglish,andoldtraditionspersistedintothe20th
century.Therefore,Shastribeganhiseducationattheageoffourunderthetutelageofamaulvi(a
Muslimcleric),BudhanMian,attheEastCentralRailwayIntercollegeinMughalsarai.Hestudiedthere
untilthesixthstandard.In1917,BindeshwariPrasad(whowasnowheadofthehousehold)was
transferredtoVaranasi,andtheentirefamilymovedthere,includingRamdulariDeviandherthree
children.InVaranasi,ShastrijoiningtheseventhstandardatHarishChandraHighSchool.[2]Atthis
time,hedecidedtodrophiscastederivedsurnameof"Varma"(whichisatraditionaloptionalsurname
forallKayasthafamilies).

Theyoungsatyagrahi(19211945)
WhileShastri'sfamilyhadnolinkstotheindependencemovementthentakingshape,amonghis
teachersatHarishChandraHighSchoolwasanintenselypatrioticandhighlyrespectedteachernamed
NishkameshwarMisra,whogaveShastrimuchneededfinancialsupportbyallowinghimtotutorhis
children.InspiredbyMisra'spatriotism,Shastritookadeepinterestinthefreedomstruggle,andbegan
tostudyitshistoryandtheworksofseveralofitsnotedpersonalities,includingthoseofSwami
Vivekananda,BalGangadharTilak,GandhiandAnnieBesant.InJanuary1921,whenShastriwasinthe
10standardandthreemonthsfromsittingthefinalexaminations,heattendedapublicmeetingin
BenareshostedbyGandhiandPanditMadanMohanMalaviya.InspiredbytheMahatma'scallfor
studentstowithdrawfromgovernmentschoolsandjointhenoncooperationmovement,Shastri
withdrewfromHarishChadrathenextdayandjoinedthelocalbranchoftheCongressPartyasa
volunteer,activelyparticipatinginpicketingandantigovernmentdemonstrations.Hewassoonarrested
andjailed,butwasthenletoffashewasstillaminor.[6][7]Shastri'simmediatesupervisorwasaformer
BenaresHinduUniversitylecturernamedJ.B.Kripalani,whowouldbecomeoneofthemostprominent
leadersoftheIndianindependencemovementandamongGandhi'sclosestfollowers.Recognisingthe
needfortheyoungervolunteerstocontinuetheireducations,Kripalaniandafriend,V.N.Sharma,had
foundedaninformalschoolcenteredaround"nationalisteducation"toeducatetheyoungactivistsin
theirnation'sheritage.WiththesupportofawealthyphilanthropistandardentCongressnationalist,Shiv
PrasadGupta,theKashiVidyapithwasinauguratedbyGandhiinBenaresasanationalinstitutionof
highereducationon10February1921.Amongthefirststudentsofthenewinstitution,Shastrigraduated
withafirstclassdegreeinphilosophyandethicsfromtheVidyapithin1925.Hewasgiventhetitle
Shastri("scholar").Thetitlewasabachelor'sdegreeawardedbytheVidyapith,butitstuckaspartofhis
name.[5][8][9]
ShastrienrolledhimselfasalifememberoftheServantsofthePeopleSociety(LokSevakMandal),
foundedbyLalaLajpatRai,andbegantoworkforthebettermentoftheHarijansunderGandhi's
directionatMuzaffarpur.[10]LaterhebecamethePresidentoftheSociety.[11][12]

Independenceactivism
ShastriparticipatedintheSaltSatyagrahain1930.Hewasimprisonedfortwoandahalfyears.[13]
Later,heworkedastheOrganizingSecretaryoftheParliamentaryBoardofU.P.in1937.[14]In1940,he
wassenttoprisonforoneyear,forofferingindividualSatyagrahasupporttotheindependence
movement.[15]

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On8August1942,MahatmaGandhiissuedtheQuitIndiaspeechatGowaliaTankinMumbai,
demandingthattheBritishleaveIndia.Shastri,whohadjustthencomeoutafterayearinprison,
travelledtoAllahabad.Foraweek,hesentinstructionstotheindependenceactivistsfromJawaharlal
Nehru'shome,AnandBhavan.Afewdayslater,hewasarrestedandimprisoneduntil1946.[15]Shastri
spentalmostnineyearsinjailintotal.[16]Duringhisstayinprison,hespenttimereadingbooksand
becamefamiliarwiththeworksofwesternphilosophers,revolutionariesandsocialreformers.

Politicalcareer(194764)
Stateminister
FollowingIndia'sindependence,ShastriwasappointedParliamentarySecretaryinhishomestate,Uttar
Pradesh.HebecametheMinisterofPoliceandTransportunderGovindBallabhPant'sChief
Ministershipon15August1947followingRafiAhmedKidwai'sdeparturetobecomeministeratcentre.
AstheTransportMinister,hewasthefirsttoappointwomenconductors.Astheministerinchargeof
thePoliceDepartment,heorderedthatpoliceusejetsofwaterinsteadoflathistodisperseunruly
crowds.[17]Histenureaspoliceminister(AsHomeMinisterwascalledpriorto1950)sawsuccessful
curbingofcommunalriotsin1947,massmigrationandresettlementofrefugees.

Cabinetminister
In1951,ShastriwasmadetheGeneralSecretaryoftheAllIndiaCongressCommitteewithJawaharlal
NehruasthePrimeMinister.Hewasdirectlyresponsiblefortheselectionofcandidatesandthe
directionofpublicityandelectioneeringactivities.Heplayedanimportantroleinthelandslide
successesoftheCongressPartyintheIndianGeneralElectionsof1952,1957and1962.In1952,he
successfullycontestedUPVidhansabhafromSoraonNorthcumPhulpurWestseatandwongettingover
69%ofvote.HewasbelievedtoberetainedashomeministerofUP,butinasurprisemovewascalled
toCentreasministerbyNehru.
HewaselectedtoRajyaSabhafromUttarPradeshw.e.f.3April1952.HeservedastheMinisterof
RailwaysandTransportintheCentralCabinetfrom13May1952to7December1956.InSeptember
1956,heofferedhisresignationafterarailwayaccidentatMahbubnagarthatledto112deaths.
However,Nehrudidnotaccepthisresignation.[18]Threemonthslater,heresignedacceptingmoraland
constitutionalresponsibilityforarailwayaccidentatAriyalurinTamilNaduthatresultedin144deaths.
WhilespeakinginParliamentontheincident,Nehrustatedthathewasacceptingtheresignationbecause
itwouldsetanexampleinconstitutionalproprietyandnotbecauseShastriwasinanywayresponsible
fortheaccident.[5]
AstheRailwayMinisterShastriinstalledthe1stMachineatIntegralCoachFactoryICFChennaion
20.02.1955.
In1957,ShastrireturnedtotheCabinetfollowingtheGeneralElections,firstastheMinisterfor
TransportandCommunications,andthenastheMinisterofCommerceandIndustry.[10]In1961,he
becameHomeMinister.[5]AsUnionHomeMinister,hewasinstrumentalinappointingtheCommittee
onPreventionofCorruptionundertheChairmanshipofK.Santhanam.[19]DuringhistenureasHome
Ministerhecreatedthefamous"ShastriFormula"tocontainthelanguageagitationsinthestatesof
AssamandPunjabacceptabletoallsectionofpeople.HehandledwelltheHazrathbalMosquesacred
missingrelicincidentinJammuandKashmirandthecrisesbetweentheChiefMinisterandhisdeputy
inthestategovernmentofKeralain1962.
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PrimeministerofIndia(196466)
JawaharlalNehrudiedinofficeon27May1964andleftavoid.ThenCongressPartyPresidentK.
KamarajwasinstrumentalinmakingShastriPrimeMinisteron9June.Shastri,thoughmildmannered
andsoftspoken,wasaNehruviansocialistandthusheldappealtothosewishingtopreventtheascentof
conservativerightwingerMorarjiDesai.
InhisfirstbroadcastasPrimeMinister,on11June1964,Shastristated:[20]
"Therecomesatimeinthelifeofeverynationwhenitstandsatthecrossroadsofhistory
andmustchoosewhichwaytogo.Butforusthereneedbenodifficultyorhesitation,no
lookingtorightorleft.Ourwayisstraightandclearthebuildingupofasocialist
democracyathomewithfreedomandprosperityforall,andthemaintenanceofworldpeace
andfriendshipwithallnations."

Domesticpolicies
ShastriretainedmanymembersofNehru'sCouncilofMinisters.T.T.Krishnamachariwasretainedas
theFinanceMinisterofIndia,aswasDefenceMinisterYashwantraoChavan.HeappointedSwaran
SinghtosucceedhimasExternalAffairsMinister.HealsoappointedIndiraGandhi,daughterof
JawaharlalNehruandformerCongressPresident,astheMinisterofInformationandBroadcasting.
GulzarilalNandacontinuedastheMinisterofHomeAffairs.
Shastri'stenurewitnessedtheMadrasantiHindiagitationof1965.ThegovernmentofIndiahadfora
longtimemadeanefforttoestablishHindiasthesolenationallanguageofIndia.Thiswasresistedby
thenonHindispeakingstatesparticularlyMadrasState.Tocalmthesituation,Shastrigaveassurances
thatEnglishwouldcontinuetobeusedastheofficiallanguageaslongthenonHindispeakingstates
wanted.TheriotssubsidedafterShastri'sassurance,asdidthestudentagitation.

Economicpolicies
ShastricontinuedNehru'ssocialisteconomicpolicieswithcentralplanning.HepromotedtheWhite
Revolutionanationalcampaigntoincreasetheproductionandsupplyofmilkbysupportingthe
AmulmilkcooperativeofAnand,GujaratandcreatingtheNationalDairyDevelopmentBoard.[19]
HevisitedAnandon31October1964forinaugurationoftheCattleFeedFactoryofAmulatKanjari.
Ashewaskeenlyinterestedinknowingthesuccessofthiscooperative,hestayedovernightwith
farmersinavillage,andevenhaddinnerwithafarmer'sfamily.HediscussedhiswishwithMr
VergheseKurien,thentheGeneralManagerofKairaDistrictCooperativeMilkProducersUnionLtd
(Amul)toreplicatethismodeltootherpartsofthecountryforimprovingthesocioeconomicconditions
offarmers.Asaresultofthisvisit,theNationalDairyDevelopmentBoard(NDDB)wasestablishedat
Anandin1965
Whilespeakingonthechronicfoodshortagesacrossthecountry,Shastriurgedpeopletovoluntarily
giveuponemealsothatthefoodsavedcouldbedistributedtotheaffectedpopulace.Howeverhe
ensuredthathefirstimplementedthesysteminhisownfamilybeforeappealingtothecountry.Hewent
onairtoappealtohiscountrymentoskipamealaweek.Theresponsetohisappealwasoverwhelming.

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EvenrestaurantsandeateriesdownedtheshuttersonMondayevenings.Manypartsofthecountry
observedthe"ShastriVrat".Hemotivatedthecountrytomaximizethecultivationoffoodgrainsby
ploughingthelawnhimself,athisofficialresidenceinNewDelhi.
Duringthe22daywarwithPakistanin1965,On19October1965,ShastrigavetheseminalJaiJawan
JaiKishan("Hailthesoldier,Hailthefarmer")sloganatUrwainAllahabadthatbecameanational
slogan.
UnderliningtheneedtoboostIndia'sfoodproduction.ShastrialsopromotedtheGreenRevolution.
Thoughhewasasocialist,ShastristatedthatIndiacannothavearegimentedtypeofeconomy.[19]
TheFoodCorporationofIndiawassetupundertheFoodCorporation'sAct1964.AlsoTheNational
AgriculturalProductsBoardAct.

JaiJawanJaiKisan
FortheoutstandingslogangivenbyhimduringIndoPakwarof1965MinistryofInformationand
Broadcasting(India)commemoratedShastrijievenafter47yearsofhisdeathonhis48thmartyr'sday:
FormerPrimeMinisterLalBahadurShastriwasoneofthosegreatIndianswhohasleftan
indelibleimpressiononourcollectivelife.ShriLalBahadurShastri'scontributiontoour
publiclifewereuniqueinthattheyweremadeintheclosestproximitytothelifeofthe
commonmaninIndia.ShriLalBahadurShastriwaslookeduponbyIndiansasoneoftheir
own,onewhosharedtheirideals,hopesandaspirations.Hisachievementswerelooked
uponnotastheisolatedachievementsofanindividualbutofoursocietycollectively.
UnderhisleadershipIndiafacedandrepulsedthePakistaniinvasionof1965.Itisnotonlya
matterofpridefortheIndianArmybutalsoforeverycitizenofthecountry.ShriLal
BahadurShastri'ssloganJaiJawan!JaiKisan!!reverberateseventodaythroughthelength
andbreadthofthecountry.Underlyingthisistheinnermostsentiments'JaiHind'.Thewar
of1965wasfoughtandwonforourselfrespectandournationalprestige.Forusingour
DefenceForceswithsuchadmirableskill,thenationremainsbeholdentoShriLalBahadur
Shastri.Hewillberememberedforalltimestocomeforhislargeheartednessandpublic
service.[21]

Foreignpolicies
ShastricontinuedNehrupolicyofnonalignmentbutalsobuiltcloserrelationswiththeSovietUnion.In
theaftermathoftheSinoIndianWarof1962andtheformationofmilitarytiesbetweentheChinese
People'sRepublicandPakistan,Shastri'sgovernmentdecidedtoexpandthedefencebudgetofIndia's
armedforces.
In1964,ShastrisignedanaccordwiththeSriLankanPrimeministerSirimavoBandaranaikeregarding
thestatusofIndianTamilsinthethenCeylon.[22]ThisagreementisalsoknownastheSirimaShastri
PactortheBandaranaikeShastripact.[23]
Underthetermsofthisagreement,600,000IndianTamilsweretoberepatriated,while375,000wereto
begrantedSriLankancitizenship.Thissettlementwastobedoneby31October1981.However,after
Shastri'sdeath,by1981,Indiahadtakenonly300,000Tamilsasrepatriates,whileSriLankahadgranted
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citizenshiptoonly185,000citizens(plusanother62,000bornafter1964).Later,Indiadeclinedto
consideranyfurtherapplicationsforcitizenship,statingthatthe1964agreementhadlapsed.[22]
IndiasrelationshipwithBurmahadbeenstrainedafterthe1962Militarycoupfollowedbythe
repatriationofmanyIndianfamiliesin1964byBurma.WhilethecentralgovernmentinNewDelhi
monitoredtheoverallprocessofrepatriationandarrangedforidentificationandtransportationofthe
IndianreturneesfromBurma,itfellundertheresponsibilitiesoflocalgovernmentstoprovideadequate
facilitiestosheltertherepatriatesupondisembarkationonIndiansoil.ParticularlyintheMadrasState
theChiefMinisterduringthattimeMr.MinjurK.Bhaktavatsalamshowedgreatcareinrehabilitationof
thereturnees.InDecember1965LalBahadurShastrimadeanofficialvisitwithhisFamilytoRangoon,
BurmaandreestablishedcordialrelationswiththecountrysmilitarygovernmentofGeneralNeWin.

WarwithPakistan
Shastri'sgreatestmomentcamewhenheledIndiainthe1965IndoPakWar.
LayingclaimtohalftheKutchpeninsula,thePakistaniarmyskirmishedwithIndianforcesinAugust,
1965.InhisreporttotheLokSabhaontheconfrontationinKutch,Shastristated:[20]
Intheutilizationofourlimitedresources,wehavealwaysgivenprimacytoplansand
projectsforeconomicdevelopment.Itwould,therefore,beobviousforanyonewhois
preparedtolookatthingsobjectivelythatIndiacanhavenopossibleinterestinprovoking
borderincidentsorinbuildingupanatmosphereofstrife...Inthesecircumstances,theduty
ofGovernmentisquiteclearandthisdutywillbedischargedfullyandeffectively...We
wouldprefertoliveinpovertyforaslongasnecessarybutweshallnotallowourfreedom
tobesubverted.
InSeptember1965,majorincursionsofmilitantsandPakistanisoldiersbegan,hopingnotonlytobreak
downthegovernmentbutinciteasympatheticrevolt.Therevoltdidnothappen,andIndiasentitsforces
acrosstheCeasefireLine(nowLineofControl)andthreatenedPakistanbycrossingtheInternational
BordernearLahoreaswarbrokeoutonageneralscale.MassivetankbattlesoccurredinthePunjab,and
whilethePakistaniforcesmadegainsinthenorthernpartofsubcontinent,Indianforcescapturedthe
keypostatHajiPir,inKashmir,andbroughtthePakistanicityofLahoreunderartilleryandmortarfire.
On17September1965,whiletheIndoPakwarwason,IndiareceivedaletterfromChinaallegingthat
theIndianarmyhadsetuparmyequipmentinChineseterritory,andIndiawouldfaceChina'swrath,
unlesstheequipmentwaspulleddown.InspiteofthethreatofaggressionfromChina,Shastrideclared
"China'sallegationisuntrue".TheChinesedidnotrespond,buttheIndoPakwarresultedinsome3
4,000casualtiesoneachsideandsignificantlossofmaterial.
TheIndoPakwarendedon23September1965withaUnitedNationsmandatedceasefire.Ina
broadcasttothenationonthedaytheofceasefire,Shastristated:[20]
"Whiletheconflictbetweenthearmedforcesofthetwocountrieshascometoanend,the
moreimportantthingfortheUnitedNationsandallthosewhostandforpeaceistobringto
anendthedeeperconflict....Howcanthisbebroughtabout?Inourview,theonlyanswer
liesinpeacefulcoexistence.Indiahasstoodfortheprincipleofcoexistenceandchampioned

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itallovertheworld.Peacefulcoexistenceispossibleamongnationsnomatterhowdeepthe
differencesbetweenthem,howfaraparttheyareintheirpoliticalandeconomicsystems,no
matterhowintensetheissuesthatdividethem."
DuringhistenureasPrimeMinister,ShastrivisitedmanycountriesincludingRussia,Yugoslavia,
England,Canada,Nepal,EgyptandBurma.[10]IncidentallywhilereturningfromtheNonAlliance
ConferenceinCairoontheinvitationofthenPresidentofthePakistanAyubKhantohavelunchwith
him,ShastrimadeastopoveratKarachiAirportforfewhoursandbreakingfromtheprotocolMr.Ayub
KhanpersonallyreceivedhimattheAirportandhadaninformalmeetingduringOctober1964.After
thedeclarationofceasefirewithPakistanin1965,ShastriandPakistaniPresidentMuhammadAyub
KhanattendedasummitinTashkent(formerUSSR,nowinmodernUzbekistan),organizedbyAlexei
Kosygin.On10January1966,ShastriandKhansignedtheTashkentDeclaration.

Death
PrimeMinisterShastridiedinTashkent,at2AMonthedayafter
signingtheTashkentDeclaration,reportedlyduetoaheartattack,
butpeopleallegeconspiracybehindthedeath.[24]Hewasthefirst
PrimeMinisterofIndiatodieoverseas.Hewaseulogisedasa
nationalheroandtheVijayGhatmemorialestablishedinhis
memory.Uponhisdeath,GulzarilalNandaonceagainassumedthe
roleofActingPrimeMinisteruntiltheCongressParliamentary
PartyelectedIndiraGandhioverMorarjiDesaitoofficiallysucceed
Shastri.[25]

MysterybehindLalBahadurShastri's
death
Shastri'ssuddendeathimmediatelyaftersigningtheTashkentPact
withPakistanraisedmanyquestionsinthemindsofIndiancitizens.
ThePrimeMinisterofIndiagoingtoTashkentforapactandnever
comingbackhasnotbeenacceptedeasilybyIndiancitizens.His
healthwasfitasperhispersonalphysician,Dr.R.N.Chugh,andhe
hadnosignofhearttroublebefore.

Shastri'sstatueinMumbai

Shastri'ssuddendeathhasledtopersistentconspiracytheoriesthathewaspoisoned.[26]Thefirstinquiry
intohisdeath,conductedbytheRajNarainInquiry,asitcametobeknown,howeverdidnotcomeup
withanyconclusions,andtodaynorecordofthisinquiryexistswiththeIndianParliament'slibrary.[27]
ItwasallegedthatnopostmortemwasdoneonShastri,buttheIndiangovernmentin2009,claimedit
didhaveareportofamedicalinvestigationconductedbyShastri'spersonalphysician,Dr.R.N.Chugh,
andsomeRussiandoctors.Furthermore,thePrimeMinister'sOffice(PMO)revealedthattherewasno
recordofanydestructionorlossofdocumentsinthePMOhavingabearingonShastri'sdeath.[26]The
RussianbutlerattendingonShastriatthetimeofhisdeathwasarrestedforsuspectedpoisoningbut
releasedlaterasperthenewssource.ItwasmaintainedthatShastrihaddiedofcardiacarrestbuthis
familyinsistedhewaspoisoned.[28]

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AfterShastri'sdeath(aged62)inTashkent,USSR,on11January1966,soonaftersigningtheTashkent
PactwithPakistan,hiswifeLalitaShastrihadallegedhewaspoisoned.AnepicpoetrybookinHindi
titledLalitaKeAansoo[29]writtenbyKrantM.L.Vermawaspublishedin1978.[30]Inthisbook,the
tragicstoryaboutthedeathofShastrihasbeennarratedbyhiswifeLalitaShastri.[31]Therearestill
seriousdoubtssurroundingthenatureofhisdeath.Hisson,SunilShastri,askedthegovernmentto
unravelthemysterybehindLalBahadurShastri'sdeath.[32]Raisingdoubtsaboutthedarkbluespotsand
cutmarksontheabdomenofhisfather'sbodyafterhisdeathin1966,Sunilaskedhowthecutmarks
appearedifapostmortemhadnotbeenconducted.
WhenShastriwenttotheUSSRfortheTashkenttalks,hewantedapromisefromAyubKhanthat
Pakistanwouldneveruseforceinthefuture.ButthetalksdidnotproceedandfollowedShastrisdeath
onthenextday.[33]TheIndianGovernmentreleasednoinformationabouthisdeath,andthemediathen
waskeptsilent.ThepossibleexistenceofaconspiracywascoveredinIndiabytheOutlook
magazine.[27][27]AquerywaslaterposedbyAnujDhar,authorofCIA'sEyeonSouthAsia,underthe
RighttoInformationActtodeclassifyadocumentsupposedlyrelatedtoShastri'sdeath,butthePrime
Minister'sOfficerefusedtooblige,reportedlycitingthatthiscouldleadtoharmingofforeignrelations,
causedisruptioninthecountryandcausebreachofparliamentaryprivileges.[26]AnotherRTIpleaby
KuldipNayarwasalsodeclined,asPMOcitedexemptionfromdisclosureontheplea.Thehome
ministryisyettorespondtoquerieswhetherIndiaconductedapostmortemonShastri,andifthe
governmenthadinvestigatedallegationsoffoulplay.TheDelhiPoliceintheirreplytoanRTI
applicationsaidtheydonothaveanyrecordpertainingtoShastri'sdeath.TheMinistryofExternal
AffairshasalreadysaidnopostmortemwasconductedintheUSSR.TheCentralPublicInformation
OfficerofDelhiPoliceinhisreplydated29Julysaid,"Nosuchrecordrelatedtothedeathoftheformer
PrimeMinisterofIndiaLalBahadurShastriisavailableinthisdistrict...Hencetherequisiteinformation
pertainingtoNewDelhidistrictmaypleasebetreatedasnil."[34]Thishascreatedmoredoubts.[35]
ThePMOansweredonlytwoquestionsoftheRTIapplication,sayingithasonlyoneclassified
documentpertainingtothedeathofShastri,whichisexemptedfromdisclosureundertheRTIAct.It
senttherestofthequestionstotheMinistryofExternalAffairsandHomeMinistrytoanswer.The
MEAsaidtheonlydocumentfromtheerstwhileSovietGovernmentis"thereportoftheJointMedical
InvestigationconductedbyateamcomprisingDr.R.N.Chugh,DoctorinAttendancetothePMand
someRussiandoctors"andaddednopostmortemwasconductedintheUSSR.TheHomeMinistry
referredthemattertoDelhiPoliceandNationalArchivesfortheresponsepertainingtoanypostmortem
conductedonthebodyofShastriinIndia.SunilShastri,sonoftheformerPrimeMinister,calledthe
transferringofapplicationas"absurd"and"sillyjoke"."He(LalBahadurShastri)diedassittingPrime
Minister.ItsoundsverysillythatMHAisreferringthematterofdeathofsecondPrimeMinisterof
Indiatoadistrictlevelpolice."Healsodemandedthat"Itshouldbelookedintobyhighestauthorities
likePresident,PrimeMinisterandhomeminister."[36]
Later,GregoryDouglas,ajournalistwhointerviewedformerCIAoperative,RobertCrowley,overa
periodof4years,recordedtheirtelephonicconversationsandpublisheditstranscribeinabooktitled,
"ConversationswiththeCrow".Inthebook,CrowleyclaimedthatCIAwasresponsibleforeliminating
Dr.HomiBhabha,IndiannuclearscientistwhoseplanecrashedintoAlps,whenhewasgoingtoattenda
conferenceinViennaandLalBahadurShastri,whodiedatTashkentsummitin1966.Crowleysaidthat
USAwaswaryofIndia'srigidstandonnuclearpolicyandthenPMLalBahadurShastri,whowantedto
goaheadwithnucleartests.Healsosaidthatagencywasmoreworriedaboutcollectivedominationof
IndoRussianovertheregion,forwhichastrongdeterrentwasrequired.[37]

Familyanddescendants
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Bahadur_Shastri

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On16May1928,ShastrimarriedLalitaDevialadyfromMirzapur.Themarriage,whichwasarranged
bytheirparentsinthetraditionalIndianway,washarmoniousandconventional.Thecouplewere
blessedwithfoursonsandtwodaughters,namely
1.KusumShastri,theeldestdaughter
2.HariKrishnaShastri,eldestson,whowasmarriedtoVibhaShastri
3.SumanShastri,seconddaughter,marriedtoVijayNathSingh.Herson,SiddharthNathSingh,isa
spokesmanoftheBharatiyaJanataParty
4.AnilShastri.HeismarriedtoManjuShastri.Aloneinhisfamily,heremainsamemberofhis
father'sCongressParty.HissonAdarshShastrigaveuphiscorporatecareerwithAppleIncto
contesttheGeneralelectionsof2014fromAllahabadonanAamAadmiPartyticket.Helostthat
election.[38]
5.SunilShastri.HeismarriedtoMeeraShastri.HeisamemberoftheBharatiyaJanataParty.
6.AshokShastri,theyoungestson.Heworkedinthecorporateworldbeforehisuntimelydeathat
theageof37.[39]HiswifeNeeraShastriandhissonSameepShastriaremembersoftheBharatiya
JanataParty.

Legacy
RamachandraGuhaarguedthatShastrisharedlittleincommon
withhispredecessorJawaharlalNehru.[40]WhileShastri
preferredpeacewithPakistan,writingtoafriendaftertheIndo
PakistaniWarin1965thattheproblemsbetweenbothcountries
shouldbesettledamicably,hehadpreviouslydisplayedaknack
fortakingquickanddecisiveactionsduringthewar.[40]He
swiftlytooktheadviceofhiscommanders,andorderedastrike
acrossthePunjabborder.[40]ThiswasinstarkcontrasttoNehru
whoinasimilarsituationin1962,hadrefusedtocallintheair
forcetorelievethepressureonthegroundtroops.[40]Attheend
oftheconflict,Shastriflamboyantlyposedforaphotographon
topofacapturedUSsuppliedPakistaniM48Pattontank.[40]

HungarianStampofLalBahadur
Shastriin1976

However,incommonwithNehru,Shastriwasasecularistwhorefusedtomixreligionwithpolitics.Ina
publicmeetingheldattheRamLilagroundsinDelhi,afewdaysaftertheceasefire,hecomplained
againstaBBCreportwhichclaimedthatShastri'sidentityasaHindumeantthathewasreadyforawar
withPakistan.Hestated:[40]
"WhileIamaHindu,MirMushtaqwhoispresidingoverthismeetingisaMuslim.Mr.
FrankAnthonywhohasaddressedyouisaChristian.TherearealsoSikhsandParsishere.
TheuniquethingaboutourcountryisthatwehaveHindus,Muslims,Christians,Sikhs,
Parsisandpeopleofallotherreligions.Wehavetemplesandmosques,gurdwarasand
churches.Butwedonotbringallthisintopolitics.ThisisthedifferencebetweenIndiaand
Pakistan.WhereasPakistanproclaimsherselftobeanIslamicStateandusesreligionasa
politicalfactor,weIndianshavethefreedomtofollowwhateverreligionwemaychoose,
andworshipinanywayweplease.Sofaraspoliticsisconcerned,eachofusisasmuchan
Indianastheother."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Bahadur_Shastri

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KuldipNayar,Shastri'smediaadvisorfrom1960to1964,recallsthat,duringtheQuitIndiaMovement,
hisdaughterwasillandhewasreleasedonparolefromjail.However,hecouldnotsaveherlifebecause
doctorshadprescribedcostlydrugs.Lateronin1963,onthedaywhenhewasdroppedfromthecabinet,
hewassittinginhishomeinthedark,withoutalight.Whenaskedaboutthereason,hesaidasheno
longerisaminister,allexpenseswillhavetobepaidbyhimselfandthatasaMPandministerhedidn't
earnenoughtosavefortimeofneed.[41]
AlthoughShastrihadbeenacabinetministerformanyyearsinthe1950s,hewaspoorwhenhedied.
Allheownedattheendwasanoldcar,whichhehadboughtininstalmentsfromthegovernmentandfor
whichhestillowedmoney.HewasamemberofServantsofIndiasociety(whichincludedGandhi,Lala
LajpatRai,GopalKrishnaGokhle)whichaskedallitsmemberstoshunaccumulationofprivate
propertyandremaininpubliclifeasservantsofpeople.Hewasthefirstrailwayministerwhoresigned
fromofficefollowingamajortrainaccidentashefeltmoralresponsibility.
ThefoundationstoneofBalVidyaMandir,adistinguishedschoolofLucknow,waslaidbyhimduring
histenureasthePrimeMinister,on19November1964.
HeinauguratedtheCentralInstituteofTechnologyCampusatTharamani,Chennai,inNovember1964.
HeinauguratedthePlutoniumReprocessingPlantatTrombayin1965.AssuggestedbyDr.Homi
JehangirBhabha,Shastriauthorizedthedevelopmentofnuclearexplosives.Bhabhainitiatedtheeffort
bysettingupthenuclearexplosivedesigngroupStudyofNuclearExplosionsforPeacefulPurposes
(SNEPP).
HeinauguratedtheAndhraPradeshAgriculturalUniversityatHyderabadon20March1965which
renamedasAcharyaN.G.RangaAgriculturalUniversityin1996andrenamedagaininJuly2014as
Professor.JayashankerAgriculturalUniversityandNationalInstituteofTechnology,Allahabad.
LalBahadurShastriinauguratedtheJawaharDockoftheChennaiPortTrust&startstheconstruction
workofTuticorinPort(NowVOCPortTrust)inNovember1964.
HeinauguratedSainikSchoolBalachadi,inStateofGujarat.HelaidthefoundationstoneofAlmatti
damduringtheyear.Nowthecommissioneddambearshisname.

Memorials
Shastriwasknownforhishonestyandhumilitythroughouthislife.
HewasthefirstpersontobeposthumouslyawardedtheBharat
Ratna,andamemorial"VijayGhat"wasbuiltforhiminDelhi.
Severaleducationalinstitutes,LalBahadurShastriNational
AcademyofAdministration(Mussorie,Uttarakhand)isafterhis
name.
LalBahadurShastriInstituteofManagementwasestablishedin
Delhibythe'LalBahadurShastriEducationalTrust'in1995asis
oneofthetopbusinessschoolsinIndia.
TheShastriIndoCanadianInstitutewasnamedafterShastridueto
hisroleinpromotingscholarlyactivitybetweenIndiaand
Canada.[42]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Bahadur_Shastri

LalBahadurShastriNational
AcademyofAdministration,
Mussoorie

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LalBahadurShastriWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

LalBhadurShastriMemorialrunbyLalBahadurShastriNationalMemorialTrust,issituatednextto10
JanpathhisresidenceasPrimeMinister,[43]at1,MotilalNehruPlace,NewDelhi.
In2011,onShastris45thdeathanniversary,UttarPradeshGovernmentannouncedtorenovateShastris
ancestralhouseatRamnagarinVaranasianddeclaredplanstoconvertitintoabiographical
museum.[1][44]
VaranasiInternationalAirportisnamedafterhim.[45]
LalBahadurShastriCentreForIndianCulturewithaMonumentandastreetisnamedafterhiminthe
cityofTashkent,Uzbekistan.
FewstadiumsarenamedafterhiminthecitiesofHyderabad,AndhraPradeshAhmadabadinGujarat
andanotheroneatKollam,Kerala.ShastriRoadinKottayam,Kerala[46]
TheAlmattiDamisrenamedasLalBahadurShastriSagarinNorthernKarnatakabuiltacrosstheRiver
Krishna.Thefoundationstonewaslaidbyhim.
MVLalBahadurShastriaCargoShipisnamedafterhim.
RBIreleasedcoinsinthedenominationofRs.5duringhisbirthcenturycelebrations.
AllIndiaLalBahadurShastriHockeytournamentisheldeveryyearsince1991anmajortournamentin
thefieldofHockey.
TheLeftBankCanalformtheNagarjunaSagarDaminAPisnamedLalBahadurShastriCanalwhichis
295kminLength.
LifesizestatuesofShastriareerectedatMumbai,Bangalore(VidhanaSoudha),NewDelhi(CGO
Complex),AlmattiDamSite,RamnagarUP,Hisar,Vizagapattinam,NagarjunaDamsite.
LifesizebustofShastriareerectedatThiruvandram,Pune,Varanasi(Airport),Ahmedabad(lake
side),Khrushetra,Shimla,Kasargod,Indore,Jalandar,Mhow,Uran.
SomeMajorRoadsintheCitiesofNewDelhi,Mumbai,Pune,Puduchery,LucknowandAllahabad
bearingthenameoftheLegend.
In2005,theGovernmentofIndiacreatedachairinhishonourinthefieldofdemocracyandgovernance
atDelhiUniversity.[47]

Citations
1."LestweFORGET...".TheHindu.2October2004.
2.Srivastava,C.P.(1995).LalBahadurShastri,presidentofindiaalifeoftruthinpolitics(Book)(1sted.).
Delhi:OxfordUniversityPress.pp.1217.ISBN0195634993.
3.Burger,AngelaSutherland(1969).OppositioninaDominantPartySystem:AstudyoftheJanSangh,the
PrajaSocialistPartyandtheSocialistPartyinUttarPradesh,India.UniversityofCaliforniaPress.p.28.
4."LalBahadurShastri:TheFatherlessChild".Retrieved13March2007.
5."ShriLalBahadurShastriJeAProfile".GovernmentOfIndia.Retrieved13March2007.
6."LalBahadurShastri:TheYoungSatyagrahi".Retrieved13March2007.
7.Srivastava,C.P.(1995).LalBahadurShastri,PrimeMinisterofIndiaalifeoftruthinpolitics(Book)(1st
ed.).Delhi:OxfordUniversityPress.pp.2022.ISBN0195634993.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Bahadur_Shastri

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8.Srivastava,C.P.(1995).LalBahadurShastri,PrimeMinisterofIndiaalifeoftruthinpolitics(Book)(1st
ed.).Delhi:OxfordUniversityPress.pp.2328.ISBN0195634993.
9."LalBahadurShastri:TilakandGandhi".Retrieved13March2007.
10."LalBahadurShastri(19041966)".ResearchReferenceandTrainingDivision,MinistryOfInformationAnd
Broadcasting,GovernmentOfIndia.Retrieved13March2007.
11."LalBahadurShastri:TheServantsofthePeopleSociety".Retrieved13March2007.
12.Grover,Verinder(1993).PoliticalThinkersofModernIndia:LalaLajpatRai.Deep&DeepPublications.
pp.547.ISBN9788171004263.
13."LalBahadurShastri:Freedom'sSoldier".Retrieved13March2007.
14."PrimeMinister'saddressattheinaugurationofcentenaryyearcelebrationsoflateShriLalBahadurShastri".
PrimeMinister'sOffice,GovernmentOfIndia.2October2005.Retrieved13March2007.
15."LalBahadurShastri:InPrisonAgain".Retrieved13March2007.
16.SwamiRajeshChopra."LalBahadurShastri".Liveindia.com.Retrieved5December2012.
17."LalBahadurShastri:TheResponsibilityofFreedom".Retrieved13March2007.
18."LalBahadurShastri:IAmResponsible".Retrieved13March2007.
19."PrimeMinisterInauguratesLalBahadurShastriMemorial:TextOfDrManmohanSingh'sSpeech".Press
InformationBureau,GovernmentOfIndia.7May2005.Retrieved13March2007.
20."LalBahadurShastri:TheMightofPeace".PressInformationBureau,GovernmentOfIndia.29September
2006.Retrieved13March2007.
21.HindustanTimes,NewDelhiFriday,11January2013pageno5
22.EncyclopediaoftheThirdWorld,asquotedin"SrimavoShastriPactbetweenIndiaandSriLanka".
ImmigrationandRefugeeBoardofCanada.1September1997.Retrieved26April2012.
23.TheFarEastandAustralasia,1996
24."WasMrShastrimurdered".bbc.co.uk.Retrieved31May2013.
25.U.N.Gupta(2003).IndianParliamentaryDemocracy.AtlanticPublishers&Distributors.p.121.
ISBN8126901934.
26.Dhawan,H."45yearson,Shastri'sdeathamysteryPMOrefusestoEntertainRTIPleaSeeking
DeclassificationofDocument".TheTimesofIndia,NewDelhiEdition,Saturday,11July2009,page11,
columns15(topleft)
27."TashkentWhodunit:AnEnduringTale|SabaNaqvi".Outlookindia.com.Retrieved5December2012.
28."SunilShastriasksgovttounravelmysterybehindLalBahadurShastri'sdeath".Indiatvnews.com.Retrieved
5December2012.
29.*Book:LalitaKeAnsooonworldcat(http://www.worldcat.org/title/lalitakeamsusrilalabahadurasastrike
jivanaparaadharitaekakarunakavyakrti/oclc/60419441&referer=brief_results)
30.Hindustan(Hindidaily)NewDelhi12January1978(

)
31.Panchjanya(newspaper)Aliteraryreview24February1980
32.SabaNaqvi(16July2012)."ClearaironLalBahadurShastri'sdeath:Son".HindustanTimes.Archivedfrom
theoriginalon13May2013.Retrieved11June2013.
33.krzna(2October2011)."TheCuriouscaseofLalBahadurShastrisMurder|MyFirstBlush".
Krzna.wordpress.com.Archivedfromtheoriginalon31August2012.Retrieved5December2012.
34."PostmortemonShastricouldhavebeendone".NDTV.9August2009.Retrieved5December2012.
35.HimanshiDhawan(11July2009)."45yrson,Shastri'sdeathamystery".TheTimesofIndia.Retrieved
5December2012.
36."43yearson,mysteryshroudspostmortemofLalBahadurShastriIndiaDNA".Dnaindia.com.Retrieved
5December2012.
37."ConversationwithCrowley".
38."GrandsonbanksonLalBahadurShastri'slegacytoconquerAllahabad".TheHindu.6May2014.Retrieved
13May2014.
39."TheShastrisaga".Hinduonnet.com.2October2004.
40.Guha2008,pp.400401
41."Thepoliticianwhomadenomoney".Rediff.com.6October2004.Archivedfromtheoriginalon4October
2010.Retrieved2October2012.
42."MissionoftheShastriInstitute".
43.RajeshwarPrasad(1991).DayswithLalBahadurShastri:GlimpsesfromTheLastSevenYears.Allied
Publishers.p.16.ISBN8170233313.
44."ShastrimemoriallosingouttoSoniasecurity".TheIndianExpress.17January2011.
45.http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=12805
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Bahadur_Shastri

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46.kottayamtown
47."PM'sspeechatconclusionofLalBahadurShastriCentenaryCelebrations".PrimeMinister'sOffice(India),
GovernmentofIndia.4October2005.Retrieved13March2007.

References
Guha,Ramachandra(2008).IndiaAfterGandhi:TheHistoryoftheWorld'sLargestDemocracy.Pan
Macmillan.ISBN9780330396110.

Furtherreading
PavanChoudaryandAnilShastri.LalBahadurShastri:LessonsinLeadership.WisdomVillage
Publications,2014ISBN9789380710365
JohnNoyce.LalBahadurShastri:anEnglishlanguagebibliography.Lulu.com,2002.
LalBahadurShastri,'ReflectionsonIndianpolitics',IndianJournalofPoliticalScience,vol.23,
1962,pp17
L.P.Singh,PortraitofLalBahadurShastri(Delhi:RaviDayalPublishers,1996)ISBN817530
006X
(Sir)C.P.Srivastava,LalBahadurShastri:alifeoftruthinpolitics(NewDelhi:Oxford
UniversityPress,1995)ISBN0195634993
(Sir)C.P.Srivastava,Corruption:India'senemywithin(NewDelhi:MacmillanIndia,2001)
chapter3ISBN0333935314
IndiaUnboundFromIndependencetoGlobalInformationAgebyShriGurucharanDaschapter
11
ThespiritualmasterofSriLalBahadurShastriwasSriSriThakurAnukulChandraChakravarty.

Externallinks
Whyhashistoryforgottenthisgiant?
WikimediaCommonshas
(http://www.rediff.com/news/2004/oct/06spec1.htm)
mediarelatedtoLal
LalitaKeAansooonen.wikisource
BahadurShastri.
GovernmentofIndiaPMIndia
(http://pmindia.gov.in/en/former_pm/shrilalbahadur
Wikiquotehasquotations
shastri/)
relatedto:LalBahadur
BookReviewLalBahadurShastri:Alifeoftruthin
Shastri
politicsbyC.PSrivastava(https://www.tella
tale.com/bookreviewlalbahadurshastrialifeoftruthinpolitics/)
Politicaloffices
Precededby
GovindBallabhPant

MinisterofHomeAffairs
19611963

Succeededby
GulzarilalNanda

MinisterofExternalAffairs
1964

Succeededby
SardarSwaranSingh

Precededby
GulzarilalNanda

PrimeMinisterofIndia
19641966

Acting

ChairpersonofthePlanning
Commission
1966

Succeededby
GulzarilalNanda
Acting

Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lal_Bahadur_Shastri&oldid=703228267"
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Categories: 1stLokSabhamembers 1904births 1966deaths IndianHindus


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