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CN8122-30 SCN Refresher

Part I
GSM Fundamentals
GSM Architecture
Nokia Switching Platform (MSC/MSS/MGW/HLR/Router)
How to change cards in the system
Daily routine health check commands
Emergency handling

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M1: GSM Fundamentals


What is GSM?
Global System for Mobile Communications
European standard (CEPT/ETSI)
Services
Subsystem Interfaces
Protocol Architecture

First & most successful digital cellular system (2G)


Implemented mainly in Europe and Asia Pacific
Services:
Voice
Circuit Switched Data
SMS
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Components of a GSM Network


Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)
Network Database

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Base Station Controller (BSC)
Transcoder (TC)

Network Management Subsystem (NMS)


Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

Mobile Station (MS)


Mobile Equipment (ME)
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

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Functions of NSS

A Interface
MSC/VLR

EIR

MSC/VLR

MGW

AC/HLR

NSS
NSS

BSS

Elements: MSC, MSS&MGW, VLR, HLR, AC, EIR


Functions:

Call Control: Identifying the subscribers, call establishment, clearing


Charging: Collecting charging information for billing
Mobility Management: Maintaining information about the subscribers
Signalling: Towards BSS, other network, between NSS elements
Subscriber Data and Security Handling
Location Management: Locating a subscriber for mobile terminating calls

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Functions of BSS

Air Interface
BTS

BSC
BSC

TC
TC

BTS
BSS

MS

Elements: BSC, BTS, TC


Functions:

Radio path control, BTS and TC control, synchronisation with MSC


Air and A interface signalling, connection establishment MS-MSS
Mobility management, speech transcoding.
Collection of statistical data

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Network Management Subsystem

App. Servers

AC/HLR
MSC/VLR

Database and
Router
Communications Router
Servers

NetAct
TC

BSC

GSM Network

Tasks of NMS:
Fault management
Configuration management
Performance management
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Data
Data
Communications
Communications
Network
Network (DCN)
(DCN)

M2: GSM Architecture


Network Elements in Release 4
Control plane

HLR

IN & Other

User plane

Application Servers

CAP/INAP

MAP

MAP

GCS

Integrated

BSC

(Nc) BICC

MSS

BSC

CAP/INAP

(Mc)

(Mc)
TDM UP

SIGTRAN/ H.248
(Nb)

RNC
MGW

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IP/
IP/ ATM/
ATM/ TDM
TDM
Backbone
Backbone
CDS

(Nb)

MGW

PSTN
PSTN

Location Update Procedure


Location registration enables the GSM or UMTS network to
locate the mobile subscribers in its own area and to route
mobile-terminated calls efficiently.

Location Area (LAI)

Service
Area
(SAI)

Location Area (LAI)

Cell (CGI)
UMTS Service Area

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GSM Cells

Location Update Procedure


The GSM network is divided into an NSS and a BSS. The
BSS is further divided into location areas, which consist of
several cells.
Every cell has a unique CGI number, which the base
stations broadcast continuously.
In a UMTS network, there is a UTRAN, which is the
equivalent to a BSS in a GSM network. Instead of the CGI, a
UMTS core network uses the SAI, which identifies the
service area.
One or more cells form a service area, and one or more
service areas make a location area.

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Location Update Procedure


The LAI number, where the mobile station resides, is stored
in the memory of the MS. The MS keeps listening to the
signal from the base station and compares the LAI number
to the one in its memory.
If the LAI numbers do not match, the MS initiates a location
updating in which the MS informs the core network about its
old location area and the BSC/RNC provides the core
network with the new location area of the MS.
The location information of a mobile subscriber is stored in
the MSC/VLR and in the HLR.
The MS informs the MSC/VLR about its own location area,
and the MSC/VLR in turn informs the mobile subscribers
HLR that the mobile station is now in its area.
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Location Update Procedure


MS

BSS

MSC/VLR

AUC/HLR

Location update request


Request subscriber Id.
Send own Id.

Security Checking
HLR update
Insert subscriber data
Ack
HLR update ack.
Location update ack.

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Location Update Procedure


When an MS changes its location area but remains under
the control of the same MSC/VLR, only the location
information in the VLR needs to be updated.
When an MS changes its location area so that it moves to
the control area of another MSC/VLR, the information in the
HLR also needs to be updated. As soon as this is done, the
HLR cancels the subscribers data from the previous VLR.
When the MS is turned on/off within the same location area,
an IMSI attach/detach is performed. The mobile status
(attached/detached) is then updated in the VLR.

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Location Update Procedure


Intra-MSC/VLR Location Update
In an intra-MSC/VLR location update, the mobile subscriber
changes the location area, but remains in the same MSC/VLR.
The MS initiates the location update procedure by sending its TMSI or
IMSI and old location area identity to the network.

The BSC/RNC provides the CGI/SAI to the MSC/VLR.


The network may respond with an authentication request, to which the MS
answers by sending an (S)RES.
The network may also ask for the IMEI of the MS. This may be followed
by an IMEI checking towards the EIR.

Ciphering and integrity protection on the radio interface may be started,


and the network may allocate a new TMSI for the subscriber.

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Location Update Procedure


Inter-MSC/VLR Location Update
In an inter-MSC/VLR location update, the mobile subscriber
changes both location area and the MSC/VLR area, but
remains in the same PLMN. Location updating must also be
done in the HLR because the subscriber is not registered in the
new VLR.
The MS starts the location update by sending its TMSI and the old LAI to
the MSC/VLR. The BSC/RNC also sends the new CGI/SAI to the core
network.
The MSC recognises the old LAI as the LAI of another VLR area. Since
the mobile subscriber is unknown to the new VLR, the IMSI and the
authentication triplets/quintets must be fetched from the old VLR.
The subscribers IMSI is requested from the old VLR, and an IMSI
analysis is performed in order to find out the HLR address of the mobile
station.
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Location Update Procedure


Inter-MSC/VLR Location Update
The next step in the location update procedure involves sending the IMSI
and the address information to the HLR.
In response to this, the required subscriber information is received from
the HLR.
The new location of the MS is stored in the HLR, the location update is
acknowledged to the VLR, and a new TMSI is allocated to the mobile
station.
As soon as the location updating is completed in the HLR, the HLR
initiates a cancel location procedure towards the old VLR.
If new authentication sets are needed during location registration, they are
requested by a send authentication info option before the location update
message is sent to the HLR.

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Location Update Procedure


MS

BSS

MSC/VLR new

MSC/VLR old

AUC/HLR

Location update request


Request subscriber identity
Provide subscriber identity

Security Checking
HLR update
Insert subscriber data
Ack
HLR update ack.
Location update ack.
Cancel old location
Location cancelling accepted

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Location Update Procedure


Inter-PLMN Location Update
In an inter-PLMN location update, the mobile subscriber enters
another mobile network. Location updating must be done in the
HLR.
The mobile station sends a normal location updating request with TMSI or
IMSI and the old LAI to the MSC/VLR.

The MSC recognises the old LAI as the LAI of another PLMN.
The IMSI is analysed to obtain the HLR address, and a request for
authentication triplets/quintets may be sent to the AUC.
Then the network may also ask for the IMEI of the MS, after which an
IMEI checking may happen towards the EIR. As a result, ciphering and
integrity protection on the radio interface may be started, and the network
may allocate a new TMSI to the mobile subscriber.

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Location Update Procedure


Periodic Location Update
Periodic location updating is used to inform the network that the mobile
station is available. The network requires the mobile station to report in at
certain time intervals. If there are no messages from the mobile station, the
network assumes that the MS is out of the coverage area or that it has not
been turned on, and incoming calls to the MS are not paged. This saves
radio resources.
The time interval for periodic location updating is defined in the base
station parameters.
The time-out value is continuously broadcast, so when a mobile station
enters the VLR area, it automatically knows how often it has to report to
the network.
When the timer of the MS reaches the time-out value, the MS initiates a
periodic location update.
Every time location updating occurs, the MS and the VLR reset their
timers.
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Location Update Procedure


IMSI Attach
IMSI attach is an operation in which the MS becomes active (for
example, when the mobile station has powered up).
In this procedure, the VLR removes the IMSI detach flag and resumes
normal call handling for the MS.
The IMSI attach information is stored in the VLR, and the HLR does not
need to be updated. However, the update from the HLR is done in certain
error conditions, such as after a VLR restart, or a VLR cleaning.
The use of the IMSI attach operation is defined in the base station
parameters.

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IMSI Detach Flag


MSCi

DX220-LAB
2009-08-05
SUBSCRIBER INFORMATION:

15:02:02

INTERNATIONAL MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY ......


TEMPORARY MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY ..........
ACTIVATION STATUS .............................
MOBILE STATION CATEGORY .......................
EXACT MOBILE STATION CATEGORY .................
ROUTING CATEGORY ..............................
ADDITIONAL ROUTING CATEGORY ...................
MOBILE COUNTRY CODE ...........................
MOBILE NETWORK CODE ...........................
LOCATION AREA CODE OF IMSI ....................
RADIO ACCESS INFO .............................
MOBILE NOT REACHABLE FLAG .....................
HLR FAILURE FLAG ..............................
SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICE CHECK FLAG ..............
IMSI DETACH FLAG ..............................
DETACH CAUSE ..................................
LAST ACTIVATE DATE ............................
LAST USED CELL ID .............................
HLR-ADDRESS ...................................
ADD SUPPORTED IN HLR ..........................
SECURITY CONTEXT TYPE..........................
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404041001684191
N
A
OR
UNK
N
N
0404H
0004H
2580H/09600D
GSM
N
N
N
N
08-05 14:52
0004H/00004D
919825001000
NO
UNK

Voice Call Flow


MS-originating call
MS-terminating call

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MS-originating Call (BSS-MGW)


Network Model
The next figure illustrates the network model for the basic
MS-originating call. The BSC is connected to the MGW in
this example. The BSC can also be connected to the MSS.
The user plane connection towards the core network uses
TDM connection from the BSC to MGW. The C1 context
contains the TA bearer termination for a TDM connection
towards the BSC, and the TB bearer termination for the
network side bearer.

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MS-originating Call (BSS-MGW)


MSSA
BICC
BSSAP

H.248

TA

TB
C1

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ATM
Core network

MGWA

BSC

MS-Originating Forward Bearer Establishment


(BSS-MGW)
BSC

MSS

MGW

1. SETUP
2. CALL PROCEEDING
3. ContextID=$
AddReq{TerminationID=TA,}
4. ContextID=C1
AddReply{TerminationID=TA,}
5.ASSIGNMENT REQUEST

Reserved access side circuit


Reserve circuit,
Change Through-Connection

6.ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
7.IAM
8.APM
9.ContextID=C1
AddReq{TerminationID=$,}
10.ContextID=C1
AddReply{TerminationID=TB,}
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Reserved network side termination


+ Establish bearer
Establish Bearer,
Change Through-Connection
[Change Flow Direction]

MS-Originating Forward Bearer Establishment


(BSS-MGW)
BSC

MSS

MGW
Network side bearer setup
11.ACM

12-13 Make bothway through-connection


14.ALERTING
15.ANM
16.CONNECT

Conversation
Release

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MS-terminating Call (BSS-MGW)


Network Model
The next figure shows the network model for the basic MSterminating call. The BSC is connected to the MGW.
The user plane connections towards the core network uses
TDM connection from the BSC to the MGW. The C1 context
contains the TA bearer termination for the network side
bearer and TB bearer termination for the TDM connection
towards the BSC.

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MS-terminating Call (BSS-MGW)


MSSB
BICC

BSSAP

H.248

MGWB
ATM
Core network

BSC
TA

TB
C1

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MS-Terminating Forward Bearer Establishment


(BSS-MGW)
MGW

MSS

BSC

1.IAM

Paging
2.SETUP
3.CALL PROCEEDING
Reserved network side termination
Prepare Bearer,
Change Through-Connection

4.ContextID=$
AddReq{TerminationID=$,}
5.ContextID=C1
AddReply{TerminationID=TA,}
6.APM

Network side bearer setup

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MS-Terminating Forward Bearer Establishment


(BSS-MGW)
MGW

MSS

BSC

7.ContextID=C1
NotifyReq{TerminationID=TA,}

Bearer established
Bearer Established

8.ContextID=C1
NotifyReply{TerminationID=TA,}
9.COT

Reserve access side circuit


Reserve circuit,
Change Through-Connection,
[Change Flow Direction]

IAM Continuity Indicator =


COT to be expected

10.ContextID=C1
AddReq{TerminationID=TB,}
11.ContextID=C1
AddReply{TerminationID=TB,}
12.ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
13.ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

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MS-Terminating Forward Bearer Establishment


(BSS-MGW)
MGW

MSS

BSC

14.ACM
15.ALERTING

16-17 Connect tone


18.CPG
19.CONNECT

20-21 Disconnect tone


and make through connection
22.ANM

Conversation
Release

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SMS Call Flow


MO-SM (Mobile-Originating Short Message)
The MO-SM procedure is used to forward and SM from a
mobile subscriber to an SMSC.
An active MS is able to send an SMS-SUBMIT at any time, no matter if
there is a speech or data call in progress or not.

MT-SM (Mobile-Terminating Short Message)


The MT-SM procedure is used to transfer an SM sent from
the SMSC to a mobile station.
An active MS is able to receive an SMS-DELIVER at any time,
independently of whether or not there is a speech or data call in
progress.

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Successful MO-SM

HLR

VLR
2

MSC

3 MO-Forward SM

SMS-IWMSC

4
5
SMSC

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Successful MO-SM
1. The MS sends an SM to the VMSC through SDCCH (if the MS is idle.) or

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

SACCH (if the MS is busy) signalling channel on the radio interface. The SM
includes the address of the SME where the SMSC eventually attempts to
forward the SM.
The VMSC checks the data of subscriber A from the VLR.
The VMSC routes the SM to the SMS-IWMSC. The result of GT analysis should
be the own signalling point code in the IWMSC.
The SMS-IWMSC routes the SM to the SMSC. A special OSI or TCP/IP
application is used between SMS-IWMSC and SMSC, and the SM can be sent
through this application
The SMSC sends a delivery report to the SMS-IWMSC through the OSI or
TCP/IP application.
The SMS-IWMSC sends a delivery report to the VMSC
The VMSC sends a report to the MS of subscriber A through SDCCH or SACCH.
The report is a deliver or a failure report, depending on whether the sending was
successful or not. In other words, it either confirms that the SMSC ahs received
the SMS-SUBMIT, or informs the MS that it was impossible to deliver the SMSSUBMIT to the SMSC, including the reason why.

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Unsuccessful MO-SM Delivery


The sending of the MO-SM can fail in any of the below
situations:
Subscriber A does not have the TS22 (MO-SMS) subscription.
Operator-determined barring is activated by the network operator or barring

supplementary service is activated by the subscriber.


SMSC address prevention is defined.
A-number prevention is defined.
The MO-SM facility is not supported in the network.
The Short Message Service Centre is unknown.
The short message transfer is rejected because the SME address is invalid.
Subscriber A is not the subscriber of the relevant SMSC.
There is congestion in the SMSC.
In case of an IN subscriber, the SCP can bare the short message submission.
System failure.

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Successful MT-SM

HLR

VLR
2 SendRoutingInfoForSM

SMS-GMSC

1
8

3 MT-Forward SM
6

SMSC

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MSC
5

Successful MT-SM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

The SMSC sends the SM to the SMS-GMSC by using the SMRSE protocol.
The SMS-GMSC requests the VMSC or SGSN address from the HLR.
The SMS-GMSC routes the SM to the VMSC/SGSN.
The VMSC asks the VLR for the status and location area of the MS of subscriber
B.
If the MS is in idle mode, the VMSC starts paging and delivers the SM to it
through the SDCCH of the BTS where the MS is located. If the MS is in busy
mode, the VMSC sends the SM through the SACCH. The MS sends a delivery
report to the VMSC after receiving the SM.
The VMSC sends the delivery report to the SMS-GMSC. In the case of CCS
solution, every MSC must have a GT analysis for routing the SMSC-ISDN
address to the SMSC, and the SMSC must have the GT analysis for receiving
that message.
The SMS-GMSC sends the delivery report to the HLR if needed.
The SMS-GMSC sends the delivery report to the SMSC either confirming that
the MS has received the SM, or informing the SMSC that it was impossible to
deliver the SM to the MS, including the reason why.

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M3: Nokia Switching Platform (MSC)


The Nokia DX200 Compact MSCi is a modern digital switching product
for GSM/UMTS networks.

Together with the DX200 HLRs, the DX200 MSCs handle the switching
functions associated with the Network Subsystems (NSS) part of the
GSM/UMTS network.

In the Nokia solution, the NSS switching functions are distributed


between the two network elements, with the MSC performing functions
of the MSC, the Visitor Location Register (VLR) and Service Switching
Point (SSP), and the HLR functioning as an integrated Home Location
Register (HLR), Authentication Center (AUC) and Equipment Identity
Register (EIR).

The Compact MSCi is designee with a modular structure, which allows


for a compact design. This makes the network element easy to install
and helps to maintain efficient power consumption.

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MSCi Block Diagram

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M3: Nokia Switching Platform (MSS)


The DX200 MSC Server (MSS) is a digital switching

product, that supports traffic both from the 3G-radio network


(UTRAN) as well as from the GSM BSS.
The MSC Server enables the separation of the user and
control plane as specified in the 3GPP release 4.
MSC Server integrates the functions of the Mobile Switching
Centre (MSC), the Visitor Location Register (VLR), Service
Switching Point (SSP) and Multimedia Gateway (MGW)
control into a single entity.
The MSC Server offers call control and mobility
management, when the MGW takes care of all user plane
traffic and switching.
The MGW handles the switching functions associated with
the Network Subsystem (NSS) part of the network and it
connects the MSC Server to the 3G radio network.

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M3: Nokia Switching Platform (MSS)


There is no direct A interface or PSTN access in the MSS,
and signalling such as MAP, ISUP, BICC and BSSAP will be
used over SIGTRAN.

The MSS does not have a Group Switch (GSW) either


although a small group switch can be optionally included in
the configuration, mainly for CCS7 signalling purposes and
PBX connections.

The MSS has a dual IP protocol stack so it can be


connected to either an IPv4 or Ipv6 based network. MSS
can provide E1.T1 interfaces for PCM connectivity.

For CCS7 signalling MSS can provide either SIGTRAN or


PCM based connections.

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Position of MSC Server in the GSM/3G Networks

APSE
IN/SCE

HLR
MSS with pure
GCS functionality

MSS

BSC

PSTN
PSTN
IP/ATM/TDM
IP/ATM/TDM
Backbone
Backbone
RNC

MGW

MGW

User Plane

PBX
PBX

Control Plane
CDS

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MSC Server Block Diagram (M14)

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Functional Unit in MSS

Functional Unit

Description

BSU
Base Station Signalling Unit

Handles BSSAP and RANAP signalling between the MSS and the
BSC/RNC through the MGW. The minimum number of BSUs is 3 units.

BDCU
Basic Data Communication Unit

Contains communication links to the O&M network (analog/digital


X.25; LAN/Ethernet), to the SMSC and to the Billing Center.

CMU
Cellular Management Unit

The CMU controls the cellular radio network. It also provides system
support functions, such as PNP translations.

CMM
Central Memory and Marker

The central memory handles the routing functions. The marker controls
and supervises the GSW, hunts for free circuits and is responsible for
establishing and releasing all connection.

CHU
Charging Unit

Collects and stores charging data.

CCSU
Common Channel Signaling Unit

The optional CCSU handles CCS7 signaling functions for the external
PCM lines towards the other network elements in the NSS. The CCSU
requires the optional cabinet

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Functional Unit in MSS

Functional Unit

Description

CLSU
Clock System Unit

Generates the clock signals necessary for synchronizing the functions


of the MSS.

CLBU
Clock and Alarm Buffer Unit

Distributes the clock signals (generated by the CLSUs) to the other


units in the same cabinet. The CLBU also collects alarms.

ET
Exchange Terminal

Performs the electrical synchronization and adaptation of an external


PCM line. The ET requires the optional cabinet.

GSW256
Group Switch 256

The GSW is the switching fabric of the MSS and the GCS. The GSW
requires the optional cabinet.

EMB
Ethernet Message Bus

Connections between computer units through EMB-LAN switch. It is a


message bus that is used for messaging over the LAN.

SWU
Switching Unit
PIU: ESB26/ESB20-A

Collects signalling data from the BSUs, CCSUs, SCPUs and SIGUs,
and O&M signalling data from OMU, BDCUs, and STU/CHU units and
sends if further to the IP network through external LAN switches and
routers with a 100 Mbit/s uplink connection.

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Functional Unit in MSS


Functional Unit

Description

OMU
Operation and Maintenance Unit

Handles all the centralized supervision, alarm and recovery functions


and the connection towards user interface (MMI-System)

PDFU
Power Distribution Fuse Unit

Distributes the -48/-60V power from the rectifiers or batteries to the


cartridges through the distribution cables.

SIGU
Signaling Unit

Handles signalling functions towards the network element in NSS. The


SIGU handles SIGTRAN signalling over IP.

STU
Statistical Unit

Collects performance and measurement data from the network.

VLRU
Visitor Location Register Unit

Contains information about each subscriber who is currently being


served by the MSS.

SCPU
SIP Call Processing Unit

Parses SIP messaging coming from the users, initiates call control
and has an internal database called SPD (Service Profile Database).

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Block Level Overview: BSU


BSU handles BSSAP and RANAP signalling
between the MSS and the BSC/RNC via
MGW. The minimum number of BSUs is 3
units.
Redundancy: n+1
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C (Only M13, M12)
o PSC6-CB/PSC6-C/PSC6-B/PSC6-AB/PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB/ MB Interface
o BSSAP and RANAP
o LAN (CP816-AC/-A, CP710-A standard feature)
Basic configuration: At M14, BSU equipment
is installed in a MC2C-A or DC3C-B/-A
cartridge. The basic configuration includes
one CPU and one power supply.

MC2C-A Cartridge
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Block Level Overview: BDCU


BDCU contains communication links to the
operation and maintenance network (analog/digital
X.25; LAN/Ethernet), to the SMSC and to the
Billing Centre.
Redundancy: None
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C (Only M13, M12)
o AS7-C (optional)/ AS7-A (optional) (digital X.25)
o AC25-A (optional) (analog X.25)
o PSC6-B//PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB/ MB Interface
o GSW (optional)
o LAN/ Ethernet (CP816-AC/-A, CP710-A standard
feature)
o X.25 (analog and digital; optional)

MC2C-A Cartridge
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Block Level Overview: CMU


CMU controls the cellular radio network. It
also provides system support functions, such
as PNP (private numbering plan) translations.
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C (Only M13, M12)
o PSC6-B/PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB/ MB Interface

Basic configuration: At M14, MSS always


contains 2 CMUs. The CUM equipment is
installed in a MC2C-A cartridge and the basic
configuration includes: one CPU, one LAN
Switch Unit (ESB26), one Power Supply.
MC2C-A Cartridge
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Block Level Overview: CMM


CMM handles the functions of two separate

functional entities, the Central Memory and the


Marker. The
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C (Only M13, M12)
o SWCOP-A (optional) (Switch Control Processor)
o AS7-C/AS7-A (LAPD for clock control)
o PSC6-B/PSC6-A
Interface:
o Clock control channel
o EMB/ MB Interface
o Switch Control Bus to GSW256
o GSW
Basic configuration: At M14, MSS contains 2
CMMs, with both units installed a DC3C-B
Cartridge. Basic configuration includes one CPU,
one LAPD/ Clock Control Interface unit and one
Power Supply.
DC3C-B Cartridge
Soc Classification level
49
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: CHU


CHU collects and stores charging data. In the
MSS, one pair of CHUs is required even in the
minimum configuration.
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C(R) (Only M13, M12)
o PSC6-B/PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB/ MB Interface
o LAN Interface (CP816-A/CP710-A standard feature)
o SCSI (CP816-A/CP710-A standard feature)
Basic configuration: At M14, CHUs are always
installed in pairs, with the maximum number in one
MSS being four pairs and the minimum one pair.
The CHU equipment is installed in a MC2C-A
cartridge and the configuration includes: one CPU,
tow Power Supply, FDU (optional) and WDU.
MC2C-A Cartridge
Soc Classification level
50
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: CCSU


The optional CCSU handles CCS7 signalling

functions for the external PCM lines towards the


other network elements in the MSS. Signalling
traffic between MSS network element can also be
carried over the IP network with SIGTRAN. When
used, the minimum number of CCSUs is 3 units.
CCSU requires the optional IPCH cabinet.
Redundancy: n+1
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C(R) (Only M13, M12)
o AS7-C/AS7-A
o PSC6-B/PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB/ MB Interface
o GSW/LAPD/CCS7/LAN
Basic configuration: At M14, CCSU equipment is
installed in a DC3C-B or a DC4C-B cartridge and
the basic configuration includes: one CPU, one ET
control and CCS7 Interface and one Power
Supply.
DC3C-B Cartridge
Soc Classification level
51
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: EMB


The Ethernet Message Bus is used for
messaging over the Ethernet local area
network (LAN). EMB LANs are physically
separate from other LAN
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o ESB14-A/ESB26 in LASW-C cartridge
Interface:
o LAN/Ethernet to all computer unit
Ethernet Message Bus (EMB) is introduced at
system level M14.
The HW implementation of the EMB consists
of 8 ESB14-A/ESB26 Ethernet switches
(SWUs 50-51, 60-63, 82-83) housed in 8
LASW-C cartridges of the 14AC, 14BC and
14CC cabinets.
LASWC-A Cartridge
Soc Classification level
52
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: GSW256


GSW is the switching fabric of the MSS. It is

controlled by the CMM. The MSS is provided with


a GSW equipped for the capacity of 256x256
PCMs. GSW requires the optional IPCH cabinet.
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o SWCSM-S (Switch Control and Switching Memory)
o SWSPS-S (Switch Serial-Parallel-Serial Converter)
o PSC1-S (Power Supply for Cartridge)
o SWCOP-A (Switch Control Processor)
Interface:
o Switch control bus from CMM
o GSW PCMs to some computer units and all ETs in
the network element.

Basic configuration: Always 2 GSW256s are

installed. When the GSW is used, the CMM unit


must contain one SWCOP PIU. The GSW256
equipment is housed in one SW1C-B cartridge and
it includes: one Power Supply, One SWCSM-S
Memory Unit, four SWSPS-S.

SW1C-B Cartridge
Soc Classification level
53
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: LAN Switch Unit


The LAN switch units collects signalling data from
the BSUs, CCSUs, SCPUs and SIGUs, and O&M
signalling data from OMU, BDCUs and STU/CHU
units and sends it further to the IP network via
external LAN switches and routers with a 100
Mbit/s uplink connection
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o ESB26/ ESB20-A
o PSC6-AB/PSC6-B/PSC6-A
Interface:
o BSU, CCSU, SCPU, SIGU, OMU, STU/CHU, BDCUs
and IP network via LAN

Basic configuration: At M14, SWU contains 2


ESB26 switches in slots 2 and 6 in the 14AC
cabinet, 2 ESB26 switches in the slot 2 and 3 in
the 14BC 0, 14BC 1 and 14BC 2 cabinets and 2
ESB26 switches in the slot 2 of the 14CC cabinet.
LASWC-A Cartridge
Soc Classification level
54
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: OMU


OMU handles all centralized supervision, alarm and
recovery functions and the connections towards user
interface (MMI-System). It collects the wired alarms from
the network element as well as from the external
equipment connected to the system. OMU has dedicated
storage devices, which serve as a storage for, e.g., the
entire system software of the network element as well as
for the event buffer for intermediate storing of alarms.
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o
o
o
o
o

CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
MBIF-C
HWAT-A (Hardware Alarm Terminal)
SERO-B/ SERO-A (Serial Interface)
PSC6-B/ PSC6-A

Interface:
o
o
o
o
o

CC4C-A Cartridge

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Nokia Siemens Networks

EMB/ MB Interface
LAN/ SCSI
Wired Alarm Interface/ External Alarm Interface
Interface to Lamp Panel for Alarms
Serial Interface (VDU and LPT)

Block Level Overview: SIGU


SIGU handles signalling functions towards the
network elements in the MSS. SIGU handles
SIGTRAN signalling over IP, but can also be
used for other purposes. The minimum
number of SIGUs is 3 units.
Redundancy: n+1
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C (Only M13, M12)
o PSC6-CB/PSC6-C/PSC6-B/PSC6-AB/PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB/ MB Interface
o LAN/Ethernet
Basic configuration: At M14, SIGU equipment
is housed in a MC2C-A or DC3C-B cartridge
and the basic configuration includes: one
CPU and one Power Supply.

MC2C-A Cartridge
Soc Classification level
56
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: SCPU


SCPU parses SIP messaging coming from the
users, initiates call control and has an internal
database called SPD (Service Profile Database). It
handles the Instant Message delivery in the SMS
architecture of the MSS. The minimum amount is 2
units if SCPUs are needed in the configuration.
Redundancy: n+1
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A
o MBIF-C (Only M13, M12)
o PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB Interface
o LAN/Ethernet
Basic configuration: At M14, SCPU equipment is
housed in a MC2C-A cartridge and the basic
configuration includes: one CPU and one Power
Supply.
MC2C-A Cartridge
Soc Classification level
57
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: STU


STU collects performance and measurement
data from the network.
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C (Only M13, M12)
o PSC6-B/PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB Interface
o LAN/Ethernet

Basic configuration: At M14, MSS always


contains 2 STUs. The STU equipment is
installed in a MC2C-A cartridge and the basic
configuration includes: One CPU and one
Power Supply.
MC2C-A Cartridge
Soc Classification level
58
Nokia Siemens Networks

Block Level Overview: VLRU


VLRU contains information about each
subscriber who is currently being served by
the MSS
Redundancy: 2n
PIU:
o CP816-AC/CP816-A/CP710-AB/CP710-A
o MBIF-C (Only M13, M12)
o PSC6-B/PSC6-A
Interface:
o EMB Interface

Basic configuration: At M14, MSS always


contains 2 STUs. The STU equipment is
installed in a MC2C-A cartridge and the basic
configuration includes: One CPU and one
Power Supply.
MC2C-A Cartridge
Soc Classification level
59
Nokia Siemens Networks

MSS Redundancy Principles


2N (Duplication):
The spare unit is in the hot-standby mode and when a failure occurs in an
active unit, the switchover to the spare unit is very fast.
Units: CHU, CMM, CMU, EMB, OMU, STU, SWU, VLRU

N+1 (Replacement):

One or more spare units is designed to a group of functional units. One spare
unit can replace any unit in the group. In this case the switchover is a bit
slower to execute because the spare unit synchronization (warming) is
performed as part of the switchover procedure. The spare unit is in the cold
standby mode.
Units: BSU, CCSU, SCPU, SIGU

N+1/L (Load sharing):

A unit group has no allocated spare unit and the group acts as a resource
pool. The number of units in the pool is selected so that there is some
overcapacity. If some units of the pool are disabled because of faults, the
whole group can still perform its designated functions.

N (None):
The network element has several functional units and several connections but
no replacement or load sharing is provided.
Units: BDCU, ET

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

MSS Cabinet Types (M14)


At system level M14, the MSS has 3 cabinet types:
Release M14 A Cabinet (14AC)
Release M14 B Cabinet (14BC)
Release M14 C Cabinet (14CC)

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Cabinet 14AC, 14BC and 14CC

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Nokia Siemens Networks

M3: Nokia Switching Platform (HLR)


The new DX200 HLR is delivered with two alternative
hardware architecture:
IP connectivity based variant
TDM connectivity based variant

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Hardware Architecture of HLR


(IP Connectivity Based Variant)

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64
Nokia Siemens Networks

Hardware Architecture of HLR


(TDM Connectivity Based Variant)

Soc Classification level


65
Nokia Siemens Networks

Functional Units in HLR


Functional Unit

Description

ACU
Authentication Centre Unit

The ACU is responsible for the storage of the


authentication data

BDCU
Basic Data Communication Unit

The BDCU contains all communication links to the O&M


network (analogue and/or digital), to the Billing Center and
to the IMEI database interface

CMM
Central Memory and Marker Unit

The CMM handles the functions of two separate entities,


the central memory and the marker.

CLSU
Clock System Unit

The CLSUs generate the clock signals necessary for


synchronizing the functions of HLR and transmit them
further to the CLBU units in the other cabinets.

CLBU
Clock and Alarm Buffer Unit

The duplicated CLBUs distribute the clock signals


(generated by the CLSUs to the units in the same cabinet)

CCSU
Common Channel Signaling Unit

The CCSU handles CCS7 signalling and controls the PCM


connections of the exchange and the ETs allocate to the
BDCU.

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Functional Units in HLR


Functional Unit

Description

DBDU
Database Distributor Unit

The DBDU distributes HLR/AUC subscriber related data to


the correct unit (HLRU/ACU)

EIRU
Equipment Identity Register Unit

The EIRU performs the verification of equipment identities,


that is, IMEI checks.

EMU
Equipment Main Unit

The EMU contains the main database of the EIR.

ET
Exchange Terminal

The ET performs the electrical synchronization and


adaptation of an external PCM line.

GSW512
Group Switch 512

The GSW is the switching fabric of the HLR controlled by


the CMM.

HLRU
Home Location Register Unit

The HLRU contains a fragment of the HLR database and


application logic.

Soc Classification level


67
Nokia Siemens Networks

Functional Units in HLR


Functional Unit

Description

OMU
Operation and Maintenance Unit

The OMU handles all centralized supervision, alarm and


recovery functions, and the connections towards user
interface (MMI-System)

PDFU
Power Distribution Fuse Unit

The PDFU distributes the -48/-60V power from the rectifier


or batteries to the cartridge through the distribution cables.

STU
Statistical Unit

The STU collects performance and measurement data from


the network

SIGU
Signalling Unit

Handles the signalling functions towards the network


element in the NSS. The SIGU handles SIGTRAN
signalling over IP.

SWU
Switching Unit

Collects SIGTRAN signalling data from the CCSUs and


SIGUs, and O&M signalling data from OMU, BDCUs, and
STU/CHU units and sends if further to the IP network
through external LAN switches and routers with a 100
Mbit/s uplink connection.

Soc Classification level


68
Nokia Siemens Networks

HLR Redundancy Principles


2N (Duplication):
The spare unit is in the hot-standby mode and when a failure occurs in an
active unit, the switchover to the spare unit is very fast.
Units: ACU, CMM, CLS, DBDU, EMU, HLRU, SWU, OMU, PDFU, STU

N+1 (Replacement):

One or more spare units is designed to a group of functional units. One spare
unit can replace any unit in the group. In this case the switchover is a bit
slower to execute because the spare unit synchronization (warming) is
performed as part of the switchover procedure. The spare unit is in the cold
standby mode.
Units: CCSU, SIGU

N+1/L (Load sharing):

A unit group has no allocated spare unit and the group acts as a resource
pool. The number of units in the pool is selected so that there is some
overcapacity. If some units of the pool are disabled because of faults, the
whole group can still perform its designated functions.
Units: EIRU

N (None):

Units: BDCU, ET

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Nokia Siemens Networks

HLR Cabinets
The HLR has two alternative HW configurations:
IP connectivity based: Includes two base cabinets
14HC (CCC, Cable Conduit Cabinet included)
14BC
And extension cabinet 14IC
TDM connectivity based: includes two base cabinets
14HC (CCC, Cable Conduit Cabinet included)
14CC (CCC, Cable Conduit Cabinet included)
And extension cabinet 14EC(more TDM connectivity) and 14IC(more
subscriber data storage capacity)

Soc Classification level


70
Nokia Siemens Networks

HLR IP Cabinets

Soc Classification level


71
Nokia Siemens Networks

HLR TDM Cabinets

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Nokia Siemens Networks

M3: Nokia Switching Platform (MGW)


User plane transport and conversion between
TDM, IP and ATM based interfaces

Signaling transport between network interfaces


and MSC Server or GCS using SIGTRAN

Handling of media resources under the control


of GCS or MSC Server via H.248

All needed media processing functions Transcoding, Echo Canceling, Continuity


Check, DTMF Generation and detection, Tone
and announcement generation, conference
functionality
Multimedia Gateway provides:

A-interface towards GSM BSS


Iu-interface towards 3G RAN
Circuit-switched TDM interface towards PSTN
ATM, IP and TDM interfaces for backbone
connections between MGWs

IPv6 / IPv4 support

Soc Classification level


73
Nokia Siemens Networks

Hardware Architecture of MGW (U3C)

Soc Classification level


74
Nokia Siemens Networks

Hardware Architecture of MGW (U4.0/U4.1)

Soc Classification level


75
Nokia Siemens Networks

MGW Functional Units


Switching & Multiplexing Functions:
Switching Fabric Unit (SFU) serves as the main switch fabric unit of the MGW.
ATM Multiplexer (MXU) provides connection of lower speed interfaces towards SFU. MXU
performs the multiplexing and demultiplexing of ATM cells and performs ATM layer
management and processing functions.
AAL Type 2 Switching Unit (A2SU) performs mini packet switching of AAL type 2 packets
between external interfaces and signal processing units. AAL type 2 is used to guarantee an
efficient transport of information with limited transfer delay in ATM-based transmission
network. In U4.1 A2SU is not needed because NPS1/NPS1P handles the AAL2 terminations.
However, if NIP1 is used, A2SU is required for the AAL2 termination.

Signal Processing & Network Element Interface Functions:


Transcoding Unit (TCU) performs traffic channel-related tasks on the user plane, such as
RTP/RTCP, codecs, echo cancelling and continuity check. It also takes care of the MRF
functions like tones, announcements and DTMF handling.

Network Interface Units- NIWU, NIP1, IPNIU (IPFE/GE/GO) U3C/ NPGEP U4.0 New
delivery, NIS1 U3C/ NPS1P U4.0 New delivery, IWS1: there are several types of network
interface units taking care of the different physical interfaces of the gateway. Network
interface units provide external interfaces and the means to execute physical layer, IP layer,
and ATM layer functionalities such as policing, statistics, OAM, buffer management, and
scheduling. Network interfaces map ATM cells to transmission frame structure of SDH or
PDH.
Soc Classification level
76
Nokia Siemens Networks

MGW Functional Units


Control Functions:
Control and Administrative Computer Unit (CACU) contains centralized parts of ATM

switching platform functionality such as connection control, resource management, address


analysis, and routing
Central Memory unit (CM) is used as a central data storage and as a distribution point of
files. The centralized part of common channel signaling is also located in the CM
Interface Signaling Unit (ISU) performs the signaling-related tasks of the gateway. ISU
contains the Message Transfer Part (MTP) and the Signaling Connection Control Part
(SCCP) of SS7. It also contains the SIGTRAN functionalities (SCTP, M3UA). The
MEGACO/H.248 protocol is also taken care of by the ISU.
Voice Announcements Unit (VANU) stores tones and announcements and distributes them
to the required TCU to be played to the subscriber when requested
Switching Unit (SWU)/ESA24 is an Ethernet switch, which gathers the Ethernet interfaces
from ISU and OMU units, and then provides the Ethernet connectivity to other elements

O&M Functions:
Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU) contains basic system maintenance functionality
and serves (together with NEMU) as an interface between the MGW and a higher-level
network management system and/or the user

Network Element Management Unit (NEMU) provides functions related to external O&M
interfaces. These functions include both generic interfacing to the data communication
network (DCN) and application specific functions like processing of fault and performance
management data, implementation of the user interface and support for configuration
management

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

MGW Functional Units


Other Unit Functions:
Timing and Hardware Management Bus Unit (TBU) are to perform network element timing
and synchronization functions and to manage message transfer functions of the hardware
management system.

External Hardware Alarm Unit (EHU) provides a possibility to route external alarms (from
other network devices) via OMU to internal alarm handling system. Another function is to
drive external lamp panel indicating alarms.
WDU (Hard Disk Drive Unit)

FDU (Floppy Disk Unit) is not included in U3C and later deliveries. A USB memory stick can
be connected to the OMU USB port.

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Iu CS Interface

Soc Classification level


79
Nokia Siemens Networks

IP User Plane Interface

Soc Classification level


80
Nokia Siemens Networks

MGW Redundancy Principles


2N (Duplication):
If the spare unit is designated for only one active unit, the software in the unit

pair is kept synchronized so that taking the spare unit in use in fault situations
(switchover) is very fast. This is known as 2N redundancy principle or
duplication.
Units: CACU, CM, MXU, OMU, SFU, TBU, WDU, NPS1P, NPGEP, SWU

N+1 (Replacement):

For less strict reliability requirements, the spare unit may also be designated to
a group of functional units. The spare unit can replace any unit in the group. In
this case, the switchover is a bit slower to execute, because the spare unit
synchronisation (warming) is performed as a part of the switchover procedure.
Units: ISU

SN+ (Load sharing):

A unit group may be allocated no spare unit at all if the group acts as a

resource pool. The number of units in the pool is selected so that there is
some extra capacity available. If a few units of the pool are disabled because
of faults, the rest of the group can still perform its designated functions.
Units: A2SU, TCU, VANU

No Redundancy

Units: NIWU, NIP1, NPS1, IWS1, EHU, NEMU

Soc Classification level


81
Nokia Siemens Networks

MGW Cabinet Types (U4.0/U4.1)


The MGW features three different equipment cabinets:
CAMA
CAMB
CAMC

Each cabinet has four subracks The subracks are numbered


from 1 to 4, from top to bottom.
The first two subracks of CAMA are for essential functions.
The two lower subracks of CAMA and all the subracks of CAMB and
CAMC, in total 10 subracks, are for capacity expansions.

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Nokia Siemens Networks

CAMA Subrack 1 and 2

Soc Classification level


83
Nokia Siemens Networks

CAMA Subrack 3 to 12
Option 1: Subrack configuration with IWS1E/T

Soc Classification level


84
Nokia Siemens Networks

CAMA Subrack 3 to 12
Option 2: Subrack configuration with NIWU/NIP1

Soc Classification level


85
Nokia Siemens Networks

CAMA Subrack 3 to 12
Option 3: Subrack configuration with TCU

Soc Classification level


86
Nokia Siemens Networks

M3: Nokia Switching Platform (Router)

Most of Cisco Router has similar types of command structure.


Some simple useful information.
Commands are case sensitive.
Normally there are three different layers.
Normal- very limited access and limited information.
Enable- Higher level and more information available. Password needed.
Configuration- Change/update in configuration is only possible here.
There is no need to give/type full command. E.g.
#show running_configuration can be type as
#show run
It is possible to get Help for the command/context by using ?

Soc Classification level


87
Nokia Siemens Networks

Simple Cisco Router Commands


To go to enable (privileged mode)
OSR01>enable
OSR01#
(OSR01 is name of router/host)
Prompt changes between > and #.
To go back
OSR01#disable
OSR01>
To exit
OSR01>quit
or
OSR01>exit
To go to configuration mode
OSR01#configure terminal
OSR01(config)#

Soc Classification level


88
Nokia Siemens Networks

Simple Cisco Router Commands


To get history of executed commands
OSR01#show history
To get Router configuration

Reading of Router configuration gives all the configuration details which


in most case is long list. Alternately if just specific information is needed
then separate commands can be executed.

Startup configuration file is the configuration loaded when router is


restarted.

Running configuration file is current configuration, there may be update


after last restart.
OSR01#show startup-config
OSR01#show running-config

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Nokia Siemens Networks

M4: How To Change Cards In The System


STEPS:

Make sure that the unit working state is SENH.


Take proper electrostatic precautions!
Remove the plug-in unit from the subrack.

Check the inter-changeability of the new plugin unit.


Check the strapping of the old and new PIU.
Insert the new plug-in unit in its location.
Set the state of the unit to TE-EX.
Run total diagnosis on the unit.

If a unit is OK, put the unit back into use by


changing operating state to SP or WO,
according to the situation in the exchange.

Soc Classification level


90
Nokia Siemens Networks

Diagnostic User Interface (MSS)


DIAGNOSTICS HANDLING COMMAND <UD_>
MSCi

DX220-LAB

2009-08-06

10:47:55

DIAGNOSTICS HANDLING COMMANDS


?
U:
D:
H:
I:
L:
Q;
S:
Z;

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Nokia Siemens Networks

.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....

DISPLAY MENU
START UNIT TEST/PARTIAL UNIT TEST
START I/O DEVICE TEST
OUTPUT DIAGNOSTIC REPORT HISTORY
INTERROGATE PARTIAL UNIT TESTS
LIST FAULTY UNITS/PROCESSOR UNITS
INTERROGATE CURRENT TESTS
STOP CURRENT TEST
RETURN TO MAIN LEVEL

Diagnostic User Interface (MGW)


DIAGNOSTICS HANDLING COMMAND <UD_>
DIAGNOSTICS HANDLING COMMANDS
?
U:
D:
I:
L:
P:
Q;
S:
H:
Z;

.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....

DISPLAY MENU
START UNIT TEST/PARTIAL UNIT TEST
START I/O DEVICE TEST
INTERROGATE PARTIAL UNIT TESTS
LIST BROKEN UNITS/PROCESSOR UNITS
START PLUG-IN UNIT TEST
INTERROGATE CURRENT TESTS
STOP CURRENT TEST
OUTPUT DIAGNOSTIC REPORT HISTORY
RETURN TO MAIN LEVEL

Soc Classification level


92
Nokia Siemens Networks

M5: Daily Routine Health Check Commands


Alarm Handling
Print active alarms.
[MSS+MGW]ZAHO;
Print alarm history.
[MSS+MGW]ZAHP;
Print blocked alarms.
[MSS]ZABO;
[MGW]ZAFB;

Soc Classification level


93
Nokia Siemens Networks

M5: Daily Routine Health Check Commands


Working States of Units
Check working state of plug-in unit
[MSS+MGW]ZUSI:<unit type>;
[MSS]ZUSL:,INCO:ALL;
Check the I/O device states and data in OMU
[MSS]ISI:,OMU;
Check the I/O device states and data in CHU (one CHU)
[MSS]ZISI:,CHU;
Check the I/O device states and data in CHU (several CHUs)
[MSS]ZISI:,CHU,<unit index>;

Soc Classification level


94
Nokia Siemens Networks

M5: Daily Routine Health Check Commands


Field Reporting
Print information about field reporting
ZTUI;
ZTUT:SER;

TOTAL TRAFFICABILITY PERFORMANCE OF


EXCHENGE
ZTUT:CLR;
CLEAR CODES OF CALLS
ZTUT:CLS;
CLEAR CODES TO DESTINATION
ZTUT:DES;
CLEAR CODES GROUPS TO DESTINATIONS
ZTUT:TRF;
TRAFFICABILITY PERFORMANCE OF EXCHANGE
Output clear codes of the specified signalling.
ZTUT:SSC:<protocol>;
SIGNALLING SPECIFIC CLEAR
CODES OF CALLS

Soc Classification level


95
Nokia Siemens Networks

M5: Daily Routine Health Check Commands


Load Observation
Interrogate load observation
ZTLI:CGR;
ZTLI:CNTL;
ZTLI:COMP;
ZTLI:MBUS;
ZTLI:REJ;

Soc Classification level


96
Nokia Siemens Networks

CIRCUIT GROUP
CONTROL UNIT
COMPUTER
MESSAGE BUS
SIGNALLING COMPUTERS FOR REJECTED
CALLS

M5: Daily Routine Health Check Commands


Network Interface Data
Interrogate network interface data
[MSS+MGW]ZQRI;

Interrogate static route data


[MSS/M13]ZQRL;
[MSS/M14]ZQKB;
[MGW]ZQKB;

Soc Classification level


97
Nokia Siemens Networks

M5: Daily Routine Health Check Commands


CCS7 Network
Print data about the CCS7 network
ZNET;
INTERROGATE
ZNEL;
INTERROGATE
ZNCI;
INTERROGATE
ZNSI:<network>;INTERROGATE
ZNRI:<network>;INTERROGATE
STATES
ZNHI:<network>;INTERROGATE

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Nokia Siemens Networks

NETWORK ITEM STATES


SIGNALLING LINK STATES
SIGNALLING LINK DATA
SIGNALLING LINK SET STATES
SIGNALLING ROUTE SET
SUBSYSTEM STATES

M6: Emergency Handling


HW
Hardware redundancy concepts
To ensure reliability, different back-up techniques are used
depending on the particular element. Furthermore, backedup elements each receive their power supply from separate
DC/DC converters or from the power source of each card.

Soc Classification level


99
Nokia Siemens Networks

M6: Emergency Handling


The following back-up techniques are used:
2N providing duplication. The spare unit is in the hot-standby mode
and when a failure occurs in an active unit, the switchover to the spare
unit is very fast.
N+1 replacement principle. One or more spare units is designated to a
group of functional units. One spare unit can replace any unit in the
group. In this case the switchover is a bit slower to execute because the
spare unit synchronisation (warming) is performed as part of the
switchover procedure. The spare unit is in the cold standby mode.
N+1/L loadsharing principle. A unit group has no allocated spare unit
and the group acts as a resource pool. The number of units in the pool is
selected so that there is some overcapacity. If some units of the pool are
disabled because of faults, the whole group can still perform its
designated functions.
N principle. The network element has several functional units and
several network connections but no replacement or loadsharing is
provided.

Soc Classification level


100
Nokia Siemens Networks

M6: Emergency Handling


SW
Safe copying concepts
Creating regular safecopies of the software and databases
of a Network Element (NE) ensures that you have a
functional copy of the software that you can use if there are
problems with the NE's software or hardware. The size and
type of the NE determine how often you need to create
safecopies.
It is advisable to create safecopies before and after
modifications are made to the NE's software or hardware.
After making any modifications, ensure that the NE works
with the new software or hardware before creating
safecopies. Create a fallback copy of the data files regularly,
for example, every day.

Soc Classification level


101
Nokia Siemens Networks

SW Package Status Handling


safe-copy

FB

BU
status
swapping

rollback

rollback

NW
safe-copy

Soc Classification level


102
Nokia Siemens Networks

status
swapping
rollback

UT

Verifying Fallback Build


SW
Check that the status of the fallback build is FB
ZWQO:CR;
Check the fallback copying log files
ZWKP:<output mode>:EMODE;
ZWKP:<output mode>:PHASES;
You can also use the WQB command to verify that the FB
build corresponds with the MAFILE

Soc Classification level


103
Nokia Siemens Networks