noether

© All Rights Reserved

7 views

noether

© All Rights Reserved

- EI
- Stochastic Variational Approach to Quantum-Mechanical Few-Body Problems.pdf
- Finite Volume Method
- Basic Hydrodynamics
- lec7
- Algebra
- Hovgaard W. the Principle of Minimum Energy and the Motion of Fluids 1923 (1)
- Majumdar s 1968
- Calculus Materi Tutorial
- Math 102
- Summary Lagrange MB
- Monge Kantorovich.survey (1)
- Murphy_2008_ApJS_179_209
- Adaptive Fem
- ap calculus syllabus
- An eﬃcient discontinuous
- 10_chapter 2.pdf
- Further validation to the variational method to obtain flow relations for generalized Newtonian fluids
- Nonlinear Piezoelectricity in Electroelastic Energy Harvesters
- Lecture 01

You are on page 1of 9

integral does not change if the coordinates are

subject to a continuous transformation. It will be

sufficient to study infinitesimal transformations of

the kind

x '=x + x

r ( )

be

'

' r ( )= r ( )+ r ( )

C'(x')=C{x) + 6C{x) . B.40)

Here for brevity's sake the functional dependance of

the Lagrange density C(x) = {(),/^()) was omitted. C'(x') is

obtained by inserting the primed quantities into the original

Lagrange densitiy C'(x') =

('('),'/'^(')). It is important to understand

that the variation defined above consists of two ingredients, namely the

transformation of the coordinates from x to x' and furthermore the change of

the "shape" of the

field function from to </>'. As an obvious

example, think of a vector field

is rotated. Therefore it is

useful to define a modified variation

6() = '() - () , B.41)

which keeps the value of the coordinate x fixed and

only takes into account the

change of shape of the field.3 The two types of

variations are related through

6() = '() - '(') + '(') ~ )

= 6() - {'(') - '{)) = 6{) - & 8

= 6() - ^ 6 . B.42)

Taylor expansion was inserted

and finally, in lowest order, '(), was replaced by

{). Thus this equation

2 E. Noether: Invariante Variationsprobleme, Nachr.

d. Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss. (Math,

phys. Klasse), Gottingen A918), 235.

3 The quantity 8{) is sometimes called a total

variation, whereas 8{) defined

in B.39) is the local variation since here x' and x

refer to the same point, which

is represented differently only in terms of the two

sets of coordinates.

41

and many of the following results are only valid up

to first order in the variations. This is sufficient since the whole treatment in

any case only applies to

infinitesimal variations.

The modified variation 6 quite conveniently has the

property to commute

with differentiation

~

.

B.43)

This is immediately obvious from the definition

B.41). Variations of the 6

type do not share this property. When calculating

the gradient one finds an

additional term

,

.

^1) {)\ ] '(') '(')

dx'v '(')

+

dxlv

i

'(')

dx'v ^

() dbxv

dxv ,.

'.

B.44)

where, according to B.38), the identity dx'v jdx^ =

gVfl + d6xv'/dx^ was used

and the last step is valid only to first order.

Now we study the consequences that follow if the

transformations B.38)

and B.39) leave the action integral invariant, i.e., we

demand

6W= f d4x'?'(x')- f d4xC(x)=0,

JQ1 JQ

B.45)

where Q' denotes the same volume of integration as

B, being expressed in

terms of the new coordinates x'. We introduce the

variation of the Lagrange

density into: B.45)

6W

= f d4x'6C(x)+ [ d4x'?(x)- [ d4x?(x).

JQ1 JQ1 JQ

B.46)

Transformation of the volume of integration in B.46)

introduces a Jacobi

determinant that in first order reduces to

dSxg dSxg

dV =

d4x =

1+

dx0

xi

dx0

1+

dSx-i

1+

d4x

=A+

B.47)

All terms involving mixed derivatives of the variation

8x'^ are of higher order.

is simplified in first order:

42

2. Classical Field Theory

6W =

[ d4x6C(x) + f d4x?(,

= f d4xFC{x) + ^r<^M) + f d4x?(x)

I

B.48)

Now we express the total variation 6C(x) in terms of

the variations of the

fields and their derivatives:

) 2

()

() \ ox,, J

^rv '

( {)

*) + 4^-?-(*))

()

~

6()

.

-6()

B.49)

B.43) was used, i.e., the fact that variation and

differentiation can be

interchanged. We use the summation convention

not only for the Minkowski

indices but also for the component index r. Thus for

fields with several

degrees of freedom, r = 1,..., N, a summation over r

is implied whenever the

index occurs twice in an expression.

Now we nearly have reached our goal. Since the

range of integration Q can

be chosen arbitrarily, the integrand of B.48) itself

has to vanish if the action

integral is to be invariant, as postulated in B.45).

Using B.49) the integrand

reads

1(\ (\ 1 (\ ~ 1

\j\ltfp KJ*aj it KJ l '* / I \J*aj ii I l^ 1 't* / I

B.50)

The first term is recognized as the Euler-Lagrange

equation B.14). This term

satisfies the equation of motion.

We are left with an expression with vanishing fourdivergence that, using

B.42), can be written as

= o.

B.51)

This is an equation of continuity for the vector field

defined by the terms in

the square bracket, i.e.,

- = 0

dxh

with the "current" density

B.52)

2.4 Conservation Laws in Classical Field Theories 43

G

'v

xv . B.53)

As is well known, an equation of continuity is just

the expression of a conservation law in terms of a differential equation. This

becomes obvious if B.52)

is integrated over three-dimensional space and the

theorem of Gauss is used:

Jv dx Jv dxo Jv

= ^~ [ d3x/o(x) +1 do- /() . B.54)

^x0 Jv JdV

The value of the integral over the surface dV

vanishes since the fields and

their derivatives are assumed to fall off sufficiently

fast at infinity. Therefore

:= / d3xf0(x) B.55)

Jv

is a conserved quantity having a value constant in

time. This is the essential

result of Noether's theorem:

Each continuous symmetry transformation leads

to a conservation

law. The conserved quantity G can be obtained from

the Lagrange

density through the use of B.53) and B.55).

Let us now study several important applications of

Noether's theorem.

- EIUploaded byRoshan Matahi Kurian
- Stochastic Variational Approach to Quantum-Mechanical Few-Body Problems.pdfUploaded byGuilherme Morais
- Finite Volume MethodUploaded bypreshit
- Basic HydrodynamicsUploaded byfayyazasghar2008
- lec7Uploaded byAnonymous 8f2veZf
- AlgebraUploaded bylalirisya
- Hovgaard W. the Principle of Minimum Energy and the Motion of Fluids 1923 (1)Uploaded byChristian Mavarez
- Majumdar s 1968Uploaded byPepe Blanco
- Calculus Materi TutorialUploaded byDimas Adi
- Math 102Uploaded byazizaldebasi1
- Summary Lagrange MBUploaded byHarMarq
- Monge Kantorovich.survey (1)Uploaded bySata Ajjam
- Murphy_2008_ApJS_179_209Uploaded bySomdeb Bandopadhyay
- Adaptive FemUploaded byHari Praneeth
- ap calculus syllabusUploaded byapi-269298733
- An eﬃcient discontinuousUploaded byJuancho Parra
- 10_chapter 2.pdfUploaded byMuneeb Farooq
- Further validation to the variational method to obtain flow relations for generalized Newtonian fluidsUploaded byTaha Sochi
- Nonlinear Piezoelectricity in Electroelastic Energy HarvestersUploaded byFelipe Carvalho
- Lecture 01Uploaded byriteshnainani
- simpson13.docUploaded byAlmahdiSaleh
- Daniel (Los Cambios de Meliza 2016-01-27)Uploaded byMeli Malprt Rodr
- GATE 2011 Syllabus for Production and Industrial Engineering is as FollowsUploaded byAnandanatarajan
- solid stateUploaded byMaria Herrera
- Chapter 6(Integration)Uploaded bySahan Siriwardena
- deltafnUploaded byGines Cosmo
- DST-2015Uploaded byAbu Talha
- Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry Volume 66 Issue 2 2001 [Doi 10.1023%2Fa%3A1013129304353] P. Budrugeac; D. Homentcovschi; E. Segal -- Critical Considerations on the Isoconversional Methods. III. on the EvaluaUploaded bypomon666
- arantUploaded byJ Kang
- Chapte 4Uploaded bySingh Karan

- Green FunctionUploaded byPaul Dirac
- 0902.0190Uploaded byPaul Dirac
- 38_1_59Uploaded byPaul Dirac
- 12 NietzscheUploaded byPaul Dirac
- syUploaded byPaul Dirac
- Lecture Hermite OrthogonalityUploaded byPaul Dirac
- Giancoli - Physics (6th) Chap 14 HeatUploaded bycandhare
- 7350409-Uploaded byPaul Dirac
- 0706.1661Uploaded byPaul Dirac
- IntroductionUploaded byPaul Dirac
- C. David Sherrill- An Introduction to Hartree-Fock Molecular Orbital TheoryUploaded byElectro_Lite
- CHAPTER VUploaded byPaul Dirac
- epjconf_icfp2012_00039Uploaded byPaul Dirac
- Perturb 1Uploaded byPaul Dirac

- 5-4 reteachingUploaded byapi-262003688
- Week 1 A - Introduction to Calculus in Engineering, numbers, & inequality.pptxUploaded byHasan Alaydrus
- C5.pdfUploaded byRahul Sharma
- Hadron App 1Uploaded byGuillermo Ramirez
- Class NotesUploaded bykannobyr
- State Space to Transfer Function Examples.pdfUploaded byGerald Aguilar
- Answer Ps1Uploaded byFatmir Kelmendi
- Linear AlgebraUploaded byEsin Babalık
- Electromagnetic Theory-unit 1Uploaded byannamalaimc
- Jiang Ch06Uploaded byGregorio Gonzalez Zamarripa
- Calculus on Manifolds (Spivak) - SolutionsUploaded bygomdool17
- 2007 June - C4 - QPUploaded byspringfield12
- 8_3_simplex_method (1).xlsUploaded byARIJIT BRAHMA
- (interp1 __ Functions _(MATLAB®_))Uploaded byFrancisca Claudia Melo Melo
- 1.-AlgebraUploaded byChristian D. Allana
- Partial DerivativesUploaded bylol
- Quest Bank Xii Ch 1 8(1)Uploaded byMathew Yoyakky
- CE Engineering MathematicsUploaded byphanirajinish
- 8XTjICF2ER Elements of Continuum MechanicsUploaded byPaula Contreras Toloza
- 9780544368187-HMH Algebra 1 Interactive Student Edition Volume 2 2015.pdfUploaded byReu Quetulio
- Linear AlgebraUploaded byVaniambadi Natarajan
- ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – IIUploaded byKattykeyan Katty
- LatticesUploaded byapi-3864917
- 2 FractionsUploaded bySivaKumar
- DeterminantsUploaded byMirabella Astra
- Quadratic EquationsUploaded bysumit67
- C3 Trig msUploaded byChiwe Thando Matuta
- Ahdueii2nwbshshshewjwiaUploaded byJonas Rhein P. Esguerra
- en.pdfUploaded bygajendra kumar
- qubitUploaded byKadek Ayu Asari