The advances in the technologies related to wireless communication has led to the emergence of several engineering designs to aid the human requirements. Thus with the creeping interests in the wireless and GSM based projects, we came up with this idea of developing a simpler, multipurpose, cost-effective design to control the on -off mechanism of various devices in the field via short message service (sms). There is a growing interest in intelligent home network as a way to offer a comfortable, convenient and safe environment for occupants [1]. In order to enhance the occupants¶ convenience and safety, home security system is indispensable in the field of intelligent home network. The requirements of a home security system include low cost, low power consumption, easy installation and rapid response to alarm incidents. According to connecting mode, home network can be divided into two kinds: wireless network and non wireless network. The wireless technology has some remarkable benefits comparing with non-wireless technology. For example, it makes the installation and maintenance easier and reduces the system cost. Bluetooth, Zigbee, and wireless USB are the most popular technologies in the field of home wireless network Introduces a method to form a home network which provides flexible and dynamic services via Bluetooth. However, the system mentioned in is high power consumption and high cost so that it is not convenient to use in security system. How to inform user in real time when alarm incidents occur has become a crucial feature of home security system. This can be done via internet or GSM/GPRS. GSM/GPRS is more convenient than internet. The main reason is that the GSM/GPRS network has wide spread coverage making the whole system available for almost all the time. Furthermore, GSM/GPRS network has high security infrastructure which makes sure that the information sent or received cannot be monitored. The network examples mentioned in and send


the information to remote users via internet. An d are examples of home systems using GSM/GPRS network for remote controlling. However, only illustrates that GSM is communication method between remote user and home network server but doesn¶t apply it to home security system. The system in [9] only applie s GSM/GPRS technology to intrusion detecting and its communication is non-wireless.




Gsm/gprs Modem

DB 9 connecter

Max 232

LCD Display

Micro Controller At89c51

Load 1

Load 2




This project consists of GSM modem, microcontroller, Motor, led, and display. If the user wants to control some devices in his house he/she have to send the SMS indicating the operation of the device and then the system password, while the MODEM embedded with the system microcontroller receives SMS. The microcontroller will read SMS and check for the password the user had sent with the SMS. The DB 9 connecter is used to interface between the gsm modem and micro controller. Gsm modem is a follows the USART protocol means it follows the serial communication protocol. The output of the DB 9 connecter is given to the max 232 IC to drive the micro controller and to convert the signal levels, the data received from the modem is converted to digital voltage levels is converted by using max 232 ic. The output of the max 232 is given to the port 1 of the micro controller, according to the message retrie ved from the gsm modem next function will be performed. Commands given to the gsm modem are through the sms , which is sent by the user or any gsm subscriber. AT commands are sent to gsm modem to operate the devices and switch on and switch off on loads, de vices etc, According to the commands received from the modem to micro controller, micro controller will read the sms(message) which is in the memory of the micro controller, it follows the commands like switch on and switch off the devices which are connected to the micro controller. Port o of the micro controller is connected to Lcd display, port 0 is connected to pull up resisters, the out put of port 0 is open drain configured so the value of 10K is connected to port 0. Read, write, enable pins of micro controller are connected to the write, read, EA pins of the LCD display. In this project dc motor, led is used as a peripherals. These two devices are switched on and switched off, according to the message received from

the user the modem will sends tha t signals to micro controller. Micro controller will drive all the peripherals which are connected to the micro controller. Commands which are used in gsm modem are called as AT commands. To switch on the led .........................................#LON! To switch off the led...........................................#LOF! To switch on the dc motor................................ #FON! To switch off the dc motor..................................#FOF!


RESISTORS: 1 KŸ----------------- 1 no. 8.2 kŸ----------------1 no. CAPACITORS: 22 µf----------------2 no. 10 µf----------------3 no. 30 pf----------------2 no. Semiconductors: Max 232 ------------------ IC 1 no. 89c51 ----------------------- IC 1 no. Crystal--------------------- 1 no. Diodes (1n4007) ----------1 no. Regulator (7805) ----------1 no. Miscellaneous: Dc motor(5v)---------------1 no. Db 9 connecter pin--------2 no. 2x16 LCD display----------1 no. Gsm modem----------------1 no.

5.1 Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) :


GSM, which stands for Global System for Mobile communications, reigns (important) as the world¶s most widely used cell phone technology. Cell phones use a cell phone service carrier¶s GSM network by searching for cell phone towers in the nearby area. Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication.









established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership.

Need of GSM:

The GSM study group aimed to provide the followings through the GSM:
y y y y y

Improved spectrum efficiency. International roaming. Low-cost mobile sets and base stations (BS) High-quality speech Compatibility with Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and other telephone company services. Support for new services.



GSM Brief History:

Following table shows many of the important events in the rollout of the GSM system; other events were introduced, but had less significant impact on the overall systems. Years 1982 Events CEPT establishes a GSM group in order to develop the standards for a pan-European cellular mobile system. A list of recommendations to be generated by the group is accepted. Field tests are performed to test the different radio techniques proposed for the air interface. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is chosen as the access 1987 method (with Frequency Division Multiple Access [FDMA]). The initial Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is signed by telecommunication operators representing 12 countries. 1988 1989 1990 1991 GSM system is validated. The responsibility of the GSM specifications is passed to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Phase 1 of the GSM specifications is delivered. Commercial launch of the GSM service occurs. The DCS1800 specifications are finalized. The addition of the countries that signed the GSM Memorandum of 1992 Understanding takes place. Coverage spreads to larger cities and airports. 1993 Coverage of main roads' GSM services starts outside Europe.





Data transmission capabilities launched. The number of networks raises to 69 in 43 countries by the end of 1994. Phase 2 of the GSM specifications occurs. Coverage is extended to rural areas. June: 133 network in 81 countries operational. July: 200 network in 109 countries operational, around 44 million subscribers worldwide. Wireless Application Protocol came into existence and 130 countries operational with 260 million subscribers General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) came into existence. As of May 2001, over 550 million people were subscribers to mobile telecommunications

1995 1996 1997

1999 2000 2001

The GSM Specifications:

Specifications for different Personal Communication Services (PCS) systems vary among the different PCS networks. The GSM specification is listed below with important characteristics.


Modulation is a form of change process where we change the input information into a suitable format for the transmission medium. We also changed the information by demodulating the signal at the receiving end. The GSM uses Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation method.
Access Methods:

Because radio spectrum is a limited resource shared by all users, a method must be devised to divide up the bandwidth among as many users as possible.

GSM chose a combination of TDMA/FDMA as its method. The FDMA part involves the division by frequency of the total 25 MHz bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200 kHz bandwidth. One or more carrier frequencies are then assigned to each BS. Each of these carrier frequencies is then divided in time, using a TDMA scheme, into eight time slots. One time slot is used for transmission by the mobile and one for reception. They are separated in time so that the mobile unit does not receive and transmit at the same time.
Transmission Rate:

The total symbol rate for GSM at 1 bit per symbol in GMSK produces 270.833 K symbols/second. The gross transmission rate of the time slot is 22.8 Kbps. GSM is a digital system with an over -the-air bit rate of 270 kbps.
Frequency Band:

The uplink frequency range specified for GSM is 933 - 960 MHz (basic 900 MHz band only). The downlink frequency band 890 - 915 MHz (basic 900 MHz band only).
Channel Spacing:

This indicates separation between adjacent carrier frequen cies. In GSM, this is 200 kHz.
Speech Coding:

GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. The signal passes through this filter, le aving behind a residual signal. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.
Duplex Distance:

The duplex distance is 80 MHz. Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies, 80 MHz apart.
Misc: y Frame duration: 4.615 ms

y Duplex Technique: Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) access mode

previously known as WCDMA.
y Speech channels per RF channel: 8. Send SMS using AT commands Some advanced GSM modems like WaveCom and Multitech, support the SMS text mode. This mode allows you to send SMS messages using AT commands, without the need to encode the binairy PDU field of the SMS first. This is done by the GSM modem

Check if your GSM phone or modem supports SMS text mode:
To check if your modem supports this te xt mode, you can try the following command:

If the modem reponds with "OK" this mode is supported. Please note that using this mode it is onluy possible to send simple text messages. It is not possible to send multipart, Unicode, data and other types of messages.
Setting up the modem If the modem contains a SIM card with is secured with a PIN code, we

have to enter this pin code first: (replace 0000 with your PIN code).



Please not that in most cases you have only 3 attemps to set the correct PIN code. After setting the PIN code, wait some seconds before issueing the next command to give the modem some time to register with the GSM network. In order to send a SMS, the modem has to be put in SMS text mode first using the following command:

In text mode there are some additional parameters that can be set. Using the following command we







The modem will response with a string like this:

+CSMP: 1, 169, 0, 0 OK

To send a message with a validity period of 1 day, the parameters have to be set like this:

Bit 0 and 4 of the first field has to be set, so the first value will become 1 + 16 = 17. Send the following command to the modem to set this parameters:
AT+CSMP=17,167,0,16 <ENTER>

If the modem responds with "OK" ,the modem is ready to send (flash) text messages with a validity period of 1 day.
Sending the message










AT+CMGS="+31638740161" <ENTER>

Replace the above phone number with your own cell phone number. The modem will respond with:

You can now type the message text and send the message using the <CTRL>-<Z> key combination:
Hello World ! <CTRL-Z>


After some seconds the modem will respond with the message ID of the message, indicating that the message was sent correctly:
+CMGS: 62

The message will arrive on the mobile phone shortly.

Sending an Unicode SMS message

Some modems also have the capability to send Unicode or UCS2 messages without encoding a PDU. You can send Unicode messages by only converting the Unicode data to a HEX string and send this string to the modem. To check whether your modem supports this mode, just type the following command:


This commands displays the c odepages supported by the modem. The modem will respond like this:

If this string contains "HEX" or "UCS2", Unicode seems to be supported. To specify that you will use an HEX string to send the message, set the codepage to "HEX" or "UCS2" depending on the modem response. In our example we will set the modem to "HEX" :


Next, we have to specify the correct DCS (Data Coding Scheme) for Unicode messages, which is 0x08. We can set this value by changing the fourth parameter of the AT+CSMP command to '8':
AT+CSMP=1,167,0,8 <ENTER>


The modem is now ready to send messages as Unicode. Now is the time to send the actual message:

AT+CMGS="+31638740161" <ENTER>

Replace the above phone number with you r own cell phone number. The modem will respond with:

The only thing you have to program by yourself, is a simple routine which converts the Unicode string to an hexadecimal string like this:

Which is 'Hello' in Arabic will be converted like this: "06450631062D06280627"

You can send this hexidecimal string to the modem:
06450631062D06280627 <CTRL-Z>

after some seconds the modem will respond with the message ID of the message, indicating that the message was sent correctly:

+CMGS: 63

The message will arrive on the mobile phone shortly.


The first microprocessor introduced in 1981/1971, was made possible by high levels of integration of digital circuits. Continued integration of peripherals and memory on the same integrated circuit as the microprocessor core led to the creation of micro controllers. A micro controller is an integrated circuit composed of a CPU, various peripheral devices, and typically memory, all in one chip. Using one chip that contains all the necessary functions in place of a microprocessor and multiple peripheral chips has reduced the size and the power consumption of control oriented applications. A micro controller is different from a microprocessor both in hardware and software. In hardware it includes peripherals such as I/O, memory, and analog and digital interface. Micro con trollers are more suited for small applications with specific control functions requiring specialized peripherals and interfaces. They are designed for process control and are required to interface to the real world processes. Many of the peripheral devices integrated on a micro controller are for that specific purpose. Analog to digital converters perform the task of converting an analog signal to digital for use by the CPU, and digital to analog converters perform the task of converting digital data into analog value and waveforms to control analog functions. In addition to the analog interface, micro controllers contain peripheral devices that enable them to communicate to other digital components within a system or to monitor and control digital functi ons. Communication interfaces, digital I/O and interrupt controllers fall into this category of peripheral devices. Other peripheral devices often included on the same chip include clocks and timers. In terms of the software, micro controllers have a more compact set of instructions with commands more suited to process control such as input and output from. Single bit operations such as set and reset, bit -wise logical functions or branching instructions that depend on a single bit are commonly

available as part of the instruction set to allow for reading input switch status or on/off control of an external event. Since in a given application the micro controller is programmed for one task, it only has one control program. In a microprocessor based system va rious programs are stored in a mass storage device and then loaded into the RAM for execution. In contrast the micro controller program is typically stored in a ROM or PROM and RAM is used for temporary storage of data.Compared with discrete implementation of a system, the micro controller based approach provides shorter system development time, reduced implementation cost, lower power consumption, and higher reliability. The only drawback, which is often not important, is the lower speed of execution. For example, for a micro controller system to perform a logical operation, several clock cycles are needed to read the inputs, perform the function and output the results. The same operation when implemented with discrete components will provide the results a s soon as the signals have propagated through the logic gates.

Micro-controllers are used in a variety of process control applications, replacing complex digital circuits and sometimes -analog functions while providing more flexibility due to their program mability. Portable electronic devices such as personal audio devices (CD players, MP3 players), mobile telephones, digital cameras and video camcorders rely heavily on the reduced size and low power consumption of micro controller based electronics. These features are crucial to applications like implantable medical devices such as pacemakers, or personal medical monitoring devices like gluco meters (electronic devices used for the measurement of blood glucose). In other applications such as appliances, h ome audio and video, automotive, power management, and temperature control, using a micro controller results in reduced board level circuit complexity and consequently reduced cost. With the growing number of applications using micro controllers, it is not surprising that there are such a wide variety of these components. In

addition to those commonly available, many manufacturers custom -design a micro controller to suit a specific application.


Architecturally all micro controllers share cer tain features. They all contain a CPU, memory and I/O on the same chip. Another common feature is the interrupt handling capability. What sets them apart from one another is the choice of CPU, the structure of memory, and choice of peripheral devices, I/O and interrupt handling hardware. The major distinguishing architectural characteristic of micro controllers is the word size. Micro -controllers are available in 4, 8, 16, or 32 bit wide words. The width of the data path impacts several features of the micro controller. The complexity of the instruction set (number of available instructions and addressing modes), program efficiency (code generation and storage space), execution speed, as well as chip implementation and interfacing complexity are all influen ced by the width of the data path. For simple control tasks 4-bit, and for a vast number of control and measurement applications 8 -bit micro controllers would be sufficient. For higher precision and speed applications like speech and video processing, or complex instrumentation, 16 -bit and 32-bit micro controllers are more appropriate.

Another distinction between micro controllers is the instruction set. Micro controllers with complex instruction set (CISC) provide capability to perform complex computations rapidly. The extensive set of instructions, allow complex operations to be perfor med with few instructions. On the other hand reduced instruction set computers (RISC) decrease program execution time by having fewer less complex instructions. Fewer available instructions results


in faster execution due to smaller size of the op -code and less decoding time needed for each instruction. The trade-off depends on the complexity of operations needed for a specific application. In simple control applications a RISC based micro controller is more suitable because of its lower overhead for each instruction. In more complex applications, the availability of a more diverse instruction set results in a more efficient and faster executing code because fewer instructions are needed to accomplish a complicated task. For micro controller applications the instruction set should include common computational instructions plus instructions optimized for the specific application at hand. Just as in microprocessors, micro controllers are also differentiated according to their memory structure. Von Neumann arc hitecture maps the data and program to same memory address space. In the Harvard architecture the instructions are stored in a separate memory space than that used for data storage. Another memory related architectural characteristic of a processor is the addressing scheme. In linear addressing there is a one to one correspondence between an address and a memory location. So with an 8 -bit address register, 2 8 distinct address locations can be accessed. In segmented addressing a separate register is used to point to a segment in memory, and the address register is used to point to an offset from that segment¶s start point. This way if all of the program or data are in the same segment, in order to access them, only the address register need to be used and the segment register can remain pointing to the start point of that segment. Widely used group of micro controllers is Intel¶s MCS51 family. These micro controllers are also 8 -bit processors, but with a separate 64Kbyte of data and 64Kbyte of program memory space. As implied by this statement, devices in the MCS51 utilize Harvard architecture. All of I/O addresses as well as CPU registers and various peripheral devices¶ registers are mapped in the same space as the data.


The 8051, which is one of the option s in this family, has 5 interrupt sources, 2 external, two timer interrupts and one serial port interrupt. Interrupt priority is resolved through a priority scheme and ranking in the polling sequence. The priority scheme allows each interrupt to be program med to one of two priority levels.

Furthermore if two interrupts with the same priority occur simultaneously, they are serviced based on their rank in the polling sequence. Other manufacturers such as AMD, Dallas Semiconductor, Fujitsu and Philips also supply micro controllers in the MCS51 family. Dallas Semiconductor¶s DC87C550 provides increased performance over Intel¶s 8051 while

maintaining instruction set compatibility. Many instructions that execute in 12 CPU clock cycles in an 8051, will execute in only 4 clocks for the DC87C550 therefore resulting in increased execution speeds of up to three times. Additionally, the DC87C550 has a power management mode that allows slowing of the processor in order to reduce power consumption. This mode can be utilized in battery operated or otherwise low power applications. The architecture of the instruction set varies greatly from one micro controller to another. The choices made in designing the instruction set impact program memory space usage, code execution sp eed, and ease of programming.


Micro controller (at 89c51):


Compatible with MCS-51ΠProducts  4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory  Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles  Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz  Three-level Program Memory Lock  128 x 8-bit Internal RAM  32 Programmable I/O Lines  Two 16-bit Timer/Counters

Six Interrupt Sources  Programmable Serial Channel  Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes









microcomputer with 4K Bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device Is manufactured using Atmel¶s high -density non-volatile memory

technology and is Compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in -system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly -flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full dupl ex serial port, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power -down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.


Fig: pin diagram:
Pin Description: VCC:

Supply voltage.

Port 0:

Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1sare written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull -ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during

program verification. verification.
Port 1:


pull -ups





Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull -ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull -ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.
Port 2:

Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull -ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull -ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memories that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull -ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memories that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.
Port 3:

Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups.The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below:


Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification

Tab 6.2.1 Port pins and their alternate functions

Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.

Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6the oscillato r frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.

Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external prog ram memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN

is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.

External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for parts that require 12 -volt VPP.

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
Oscillator Characteristics:

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on -chip oscillator, as shown in Figs 6.2.3. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 6.2.4.There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, si nce the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide -by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.


Fig: Oscillator Connections

Fig: External Clock Drive Configuration

Notes: 1. Under steady state (non-transient) conditions, IOL must be externally

limited as follows:
y Maximum IOL per port pin: 10 mA y Maximum IOL per 8-bit port: Port 0: 26 mA y Ports 1, 2, 3: 15 mA y Maximum total IOL for all output pins: 71 mA y If IOL exceeds the test c ondition, VOL may exceed the related

specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater than the listed test conditions.
2. Minimum VCC for Power-down is 2V.




DC motors are configured in many types and sizes, including brush less, servo, and gear motor types. A motor consists of a rotor and a permanent magnetic field stator. The magnetic field is maintained using either permanent magnets or electromagnetic windings. DC motors are most commonly used in variable speed and torque. Motion and controls cover a wide range of components that in some way are used to generate and/or control motion. Areas within this category include bearings and bushings, clutches and brakes, controls and drives, drive components, encoders and resolves, Integrated motion control, limit switches, linear actuators, linear and rotary motion components, linear position sensing, motors (both AC and DC motors), orientation position sensing, pneumatics and pneumatic components, positioning stages, slides and guides, power transmission (mechanical), seals, slip rings, solenoids, springs.

Motors are the devices that provide the actual speed and torque in a drive system. This family includes AC motor types (single and multiphase motors, universal, servo motors, induction, synchronous, and gear motor) and DC motors (brush less, servo motor, and gear motor) as well as linear, stepper and air motors, and motor contactors and starters. In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, i t will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion.


Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South" polarization).

Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that Beamers will see), the external magnetic field is produced by highstrength permanent magnets 1. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and atta ched commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets. The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. Given our example two-pole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, and driving it to continue rotating. In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. You can imagine how with our example two -pole motor, if the

rotor i


t t t



of it rot tion



li ned


t e field

net , it ill et

t ere.

eanwhile, with a two-pole

otor, there i a

oment where the ommutator hort out the power uppl touch oth commutator contacts simultaneousl .

i.e., oth rushes

his would e ad for the

power suppl , waste energy, and damage motor components as well. Yet another disadvantage of such a simple motor is that it would exhi it a high amount of torque´ ripple" the amount of torque it could produce is cyclic with the position of the rotor).

So since most small

motors are of a three-pole design, let s tinker with avaScript required):

the workings of one via an interactive animation

You'll notice a few things from this -- namely, one pole is fully energi ed at a time ut two others are "partially" energi ed). As each rush transitions from one commutator contact to the next, one coil's field will rapidly collapse, as the next coil's field will rapidly charge up this occurs within a few microsecond). e'll see more about the effects of this later, but in the meantime you can see that this is a direct result of the coil windings' series wiring:


There's probably no better way to see how an average dc motor is put together, than by just opening one up. Unfortunately this is tedious work, as well as requiring the destruction of a perfectly good motor. This is a basic 3-pole dc motor, with 2 brushes and three commutator contacts.


Computer transfers data in two ways these are 1. Parallel : Often 8 or more lines (wire conductors) are used to transfer data to a device that is only few feet away. 2. Serial : To transfer to a device located many meters away, the serial method is used. The data is sent one bit at a time.

Fig: Mode of Communication

At the transmitting end, the byte of data must be converted to serial bits using parallel-in-serial-out shift register. At the receiving end, there is a serial -inparallel-out shift register to receive the serial data and pack them into byte. When the distance is short, the digital signal ca n be transferred as it is on a simple wire and requires no modulation. If data is to be transferred on the telephone line, it must be converted from 0s and 1s to audio tones. This conversion is performed by a device called a modem,


Serial data communication uses two methods. First are synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time. Second is an asynchronous method transfer a single byte at a time.

It is possible to write software to use either of these methods, but the programs can be tedious and long. There are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial communications namely UART (universal

asynchronous Receiver-transmitter) & USART (universal synchronousasynchronous Receiver-transmitter).

Fig: Diagrammatic Simplex & Duplex Transmission


A protocol is a set of rules agreed by both the sender and receiver. Asynchronous serial data communication is widely used for character -oriented transmissions where each character is placed in between start and stop bits, this is called framing and block-oriented data transfers use the synchronous method. The start bit is always one bit, but the stop bit can be one or two bits the start bit is always a 0 (low) and the stop bit(s) is 1 (high).

Fig: Transmissions of Data Due to the extended ASCII characters, 8-bit ASCII data is common in modern PCs the use of one stop bit is standard. Assuming that we are transferring a text file of ASCII characters using 1 stop bit, we have a total of 10 bits for each character. In some s ystems in order to maintain data integrity, the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. As far as the conductor wire is concerned, the baud rate and bps are the same, and we use the terms interchangeably. The data transfer rate of given computer system depends on communication ports incorporated into that system. An interfacing standard RS232 was set by the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) in 1960. The standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family, its input and output voltage levels is not TTL compatible


where a 1 is represented by -3 ~ -25 V, while a 0 bit is +3 ~ +25 V, making -3 to +3 undefined.

8051 has two pins that are used specifically for transferring and receiving data serially. These two pins are called TxD and RxD and are part of the port 3 group (P3.0 and P3.1).These pins are TTL compatible; therefore, they require a line driver to make them RS232 compatible. To allow data transfer between the PC and an 8051 system without any error, we must make sure that the baud rate of 8051 system matches the baud rate of the PC¶s COM port.

5.5 MAX 232:
The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals. The drivers provide RS-232 voltage level outputs (approx. ± 7.5 V) from a single + 5 V supply via on-chip charge pumps and external capacitors. This makes it useful for implementing RS -232 in devices that otherwise do not need any voltages outside the 0 V to + 5 V range, as power supply design does not need to be made more complicated just for driving the RS-232 in this case. The receivers reduce RS-232 inputs (which may be as high as ± 25 V), to standard 5 V TTL levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V, and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V.The later MAX232A is backwards compatible with the original MAX232 but may operate at higher baud rates and can use smaller external capacitors 0.1 F in place of the 1.0 F capacitors used

with the original device. The newer MAX3232 is also backwards compatible, but operates at a broader voltage range, from 3 to 5.5V. Voltage levels It is helpful to understand what occurs to the voltage levels. When a MAX232 IC receives a TTL level to convert, it changes a TTL Logic 0 to betwee n +3 and +15V, and changes TTL Logic 1 to between -3 to -15V, and vice versa for converting from RS232 to TTL.

This can be confusing when you reali e that the


ata Transmission S ontrol ine

voltages at a certain logic state are opposite from the more information seeRS-232 Voltage evels

voltages at the same logic state. To clarify the matter, see the table below. or







RS V l to

TT / V m

V l X

Data Transmission Rx/Tx) ogic 3V 5V Data Transmission Rx/Tx) ogic

-3V to -15V 5V



RTS/ TS/DTR/DSR) ogic ontrol

-3V to -15V 5V to

Signals 3V 15V

RTS/ TS/DTR/DSR) ogic 1








The DB9 (originally DE-9) connector is an analog 9-pin plug of the DSubminiature connector family (D-Sub or Sub-D). The DB9 connector is mainly used for serial connections, allowing for the asynchronous transmission of data as provided for by standard RS -232 (RS232C). Note that there are DB9-DB25 adapters for easily converting a DB9 plug into a DB25, and vice versa.

Pin number Name

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

CD - Carrier Detect RXD - Receive Data TXD - Transmit Data DTR - Data Terminal Ready GND - Signal Ground DSR - Data Set Ready RTS - Request To Send CTS - Clear To Send RI - Ring Indicator Shield



A variable regulated power supply, also called a variable bench power supply, is one where you can continuously adjust the output voltage to your requirements. Varying the output of the power supply is the recommended way to test a project after having double checked parts placement against circuit drawings and the parts placement guide. This type of regulation is ideal for having a simple variable bench power supply. Actually this is quite important because one of the first projects a hobbyist should undertake is the construction of a variable regulated power supply. While a dedicated supply is quite handy e.g. 5V or 12V, it's much handier to have a variable supply on hand, especially for testing. Most digital logic circuits and processors need a 5 -volt power supply. To use these parts we need to build a regulated 5-volt source. Usually you start with an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC (A 12 volt power supply is included with the Beginner Kit and the Microcontroller Beginner Kit.). To make a 5 volt power supply, we use a LM 7805 voltage regulator IC (Integrated Circuit). The IC is shown below.

The LM7805 is simple to use. You simply connect the positive lead of your unregulated DC power supply (anything from 9VDC to 24VDC) to the Input

pin, connect the negative lead to the Common pin and then when you turn on the power, you get a 5 volt supply from the Output pin.

CIRCUIT FEATURES: Brief description of operation: Gives out well regulated +5V output, output

current capability of 100 mA
Circuit protection: Built-in overheating protection shuts down output when

regulator IC gets too hot
Circuit complexity: Very simple and easy to build Circuit performance: Very stable +5V output voltage, reliable operation Availability of components: Easy to get, uses only v ery common basic

Design testing: Based on datasheet example circuit, I have used this circuit

successfully as part of many electronics projects
Applications: Part of electronics devices, small laboratory power supply Power supply voltage: Unregulated DC 8-18V power supply Power supply current: Needed output current + 5 mA Component costs: Few dollars for the electronics components + the input

transformer cost.





Fi : P


l Ci




This 5V dc acts as Vcc to the microcontroller. The excess voltage is dissipated as heat via an Aluminum heat sink attached to the voltage regulator. Bridge Rectifier: A diode bridge is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below, that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. hen used in its most common application, for conversion of alternating current A ) input into direct current DC) output, it is

known as a bridge rectifier. The diagram describes a di ode-bridge design known as a full-wave rectifier. This design can be used to rectify single phase AC when no transformer center tap is available. A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. This is a widely used configuration, both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally.



l Bri

Recti ier

For both positive and negative swings of the transformer, there is a Forward path through the diode bridge. Both conduction paths cause Current to flow in the same direction through the load resistor, accomplishing full-wave rectification. hile one set of diodes is forward biased, the other set is reverse biased and effectively eliminated from the circuit. Current Fl in the Bri e Recti ier

Current in Bri

e Recti ier

r + e hal cycle


Current in Bri LM7805 Terminal A P Features ‡

e Recti ier


e hal cycle

iti e V ltage Regulator

utput Current up to 1A verload Protection

‡ Thermal

‡ Short Circuit Protection ‡ utput Transistor Safe escri tion The C7805 three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220/Dperating Area Protection

PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.


Fig Different Packages

Internal Block Diagram


Electrical Characteristics of MC7805/LM7805 Note:

Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in Vo due to heating effects must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.



Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Change in VO due to heating effects must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.

Quiescent Current

Peak Output Current

Output Voltage

Qui escent Current


void CheckForFile() { int j,i,count; char c; double elapsed_time; time_t start,finish; if (_dos_findfirst("*.spt",_A_NORMAL,&c_file) == 0) { printf("FILE:%s of %ld bytes \n",c_file.name,c_file.size); process_sms_command(); while (_dos_findnext(&c_file) == 0) { printf("FILE %s of %ld bytes\n",c_file.name,c_file.size); process_sms_command(); } oneloop++; } else { printf("no files to process \n"); time(&start); elapsed_time = 0 .0; printf("WAITING 3 seconds \n"); while (elapsed_time < 3.0) { time(&finish); elapsed_time = difftime(finish,start); } } }

This is part of the procedure which translates the message to X10 command
command void process_sms_command() { double elapsed_time; time_t start,finish; FILE *fd; char spbuf[256]; int i, numread,cmdcode; if(validate()){ // validates that user is authorized by checking users.txt if ((fd = fopen(c_file.name,"r")) != NULL) { numread = fread(spbuf, sizeof(char), c_file.size, fd); fclose(fd); remove(c_file.name); cmd = spbuf[35]; dev = spbuf[37] - '0'; house = spbuf[36]; printf("COMMAND WAS %c for house %c device %d\n",cmd,house,dev); cmdcode = -1;


switch (cmd) { case 'ON': cmdcode =19; break; case 'OFF': cmdcode =27; break; default: break; } printf("cmdcode = %d \n",cmdcode); if (cmdcode > -1) { PutX10(house,dev); PutX10(house,cmdcode); } time(&start); elapsed_time = 0.0; printf("WAITING 3 seconds \n"); while (elapsed_time < 3.0) { time(&finish); elapsed_time = difftime(finish,start); } } else { printf("invalid command \n"); } else { printf("Unauthorized access"); } }

This procedure calls TW523GS with appropriate arpgument
void PutX10 (char House, int Key) { int Result; Result = TW523GS(0x8000 + (((int)(House) & 0x1F) << 8) + Key); }

Actual function which sends the X10 command
int TW523GS(int DataIn) { int temp; _asm { MOV AX,DataIn INT SoftwareInterrupt MOV temp,AX } return temp; }


1. HAND BOOK OF ELECTRONICS BY Ramakanth Gaikwada. 2. 101science.com 3. Datasheets4u.com 4. Wikipedia.com 5. Scribd.com 6. www.seminarprojects.com


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