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To be able to cope with more than one voltage source in a circuit. 3. To identify a linear circuit. List of Instruments 1 piece VOM 1 set electronics trainer (feedback) 1 piece milliammeter (DC) Wiring Diagram A) Linearity

R 1= 1 K

R

2

=

4

7

0

R

3

=

6

8

0

V

s

B) Superposition

R 1= 1 K

R

2

=

4

7

0

R

3

=

6

8

0

1

5

V

5

V

Data Sheet A) Source 5 10 15 B) Measured values Calculated values Problem and Solution V1 = V1’ + V1’’ = 12.02 – 1.418 = 10.602 V V2 = V2’ + V2’’ = 2.894 + 1.425 = 4.319 V V3 = V3’ + V3’’ = 2.894 – 3.55 = -0.656 V I1 = I1’ + I1’’ = 12 – 1.4 = 10.60 mA I2 = I2’ + I2’’ = 7.7 + 3.8 = 11.5 mA I3 = I3’ + I3’’ = 4.2 – 5.2 = -1 mA Analysis We can say that the relationship between current (input) and voltage (output) is linear for a resistor when it satisfies the following conditions: (1) the response to a sum of inputs is equal to the sum of the individual responses (output). (2) If the excitation is scaled by the constant K in “R(Ki) = K(Ri) = Kv’, then the response is also scaled by K. The algebraic sum of voltages or current caused by each independent source acting alone is equal to the total voltage or current caused by all sources acting together. This law had been proven for the second circuit with an infinitesimal change in values. 15 V ON ON OFF 5V ON OFF ON V1 10.58 12.02 1.418 10.602 V2 4.33 2.894 1.425 4.319 V3 -0.7 2.894 -3.55 -0.656 I1 10.5 12 -1.4 10.6 I2 11.5 7.7 3.8 11.5 I3 -1 4.2 -5.2 -1 V1 (volts) 4.07 8.06 12.12 I1 (mA) 4 8 12

Conclusion By also using an alternative Ohm’s law (I = V/R), we can show that the relationship between voltage (excitation) and current (response) is also linear for a resistor. The concept, known as the principle of superposition is a direct consequence of the linearity property of circuits.

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