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Introduction to research

Research, example of research

Objectives of research
Difference between fundamental and applied research
Characteristics of different types of research
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research
Which research should we do: Qualitative or quantitative
Difference between research methods and methodology
Qualities of a researcher
Paradigm, research paradigm
Ethics, Ethics in research
Ethics in data collection
Ethics in data analysis

B Thinking like a researcher

Basic concepts and issues in research (7 definitions)

Theoretical framework vs. Analytical framework
Variable and its types, role of variable in research
Diff between dependent and independent variable
Importance of dependent and independent variable
Extraneous variable
Deductive vs. Inductive

C Qualitative research tools

Qualitative research,
Characteristics of qualitative research,
General steps in qualitative research,
Characteristics of four qualitative research (chart)

D Research Process

Research process
Stages in a research work
Finding a researchable problem
Research problem
Examples of well-defined problem statement
Technique involved in defining a problem

Justifying the problem

Meaning of review of literature
Objectives of review of literature
What to review and for what purpose
Sources of literature
Research Objectives, Importance of research objectives
Classification of research objectives
Illustrative Example of research objectives
Research Questions, Evaluating Research Question with
Research Hypothesis, Characteristics of good research
Research Hypothesis vs Research question
Research Proposal Vs Synopsis
Components of research proposal (Without explanation),
Steps in the development of a research proposal
Criteria for evaluating research proposal

E. Research Design
Research Design,
Flowchart of research design
Needs for research design.

F. Measurement and Scaling Concepts

Define measurement. Write down the criteria for a good
measurement scale with example.
What are the relations and differences between reliability and
How to improve reliability and validity?
Define Likert scale. Mention the basic procedure for Likert

G. Questionnaire
What is questionnaire?
Illustrate a questionnaire design process.
How does a structured questionnaire differ from an
unstructured questionnaire?

What characteristics should have a good questionnaire?

What are the precautions required in the use of a

H. Sampling design and Sampling Procedures

Mention the different names of sampling techniques?
Describe the difference between a probability sample and nonprobability sample.
What is sample survey? Write down the advantages of sample
survey over census.
Define sample design. How does it differ from research design?
Write down the characteristics of a good sample design.
What are the criteria for evaluating a sample design? Describe
them in brief.
Mathematics of sample size determination

I. Data Collection
What is data? What role plays data in research?
Differences between data and facts
Differences between data and information
Differences between attitude and opinion
What do you mean by secondary data? Give example. What
factors should consider while using secondary data?
What are the various forms of qualitative data collection

J. Data Analysis

Stages of data analysis

Elements of data analysis
Choosing the statistical technique
Multivariate analysis, Classifying multivariate techniques
Analysis of dependence
Analysis of interdependence
SWOT analysis

I. Research Report

Research Report
General format of research report
Evaluation of research report
General format of a scientific paper for publication