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1 Germanic words ......................................................................................................

6
2 Latin roots ............................................................................................................. 15
2.1 [edit] Verbs.................................................................................................... 18
2.2 [edit] Prepositions used to form compound words .......................................... 19
3 Greek roots ............................................................................................................ 22
3.1.1 [edit] Ǻ................................................................................................... 37
3.1.2 [edit] ī ................................................................................................... 38
3.1.3 [edit] ǻ................................................................................................... 41
3.1.4 [edit] Ǽ ................................................................................................... 43
3.1.5 [edit] ǽ................................................................................................... 45
3.1.6 [edit] Ǿ .................................................................................................. 46
4 List of French words and phrases used by English speakers ................................... 65
4.1 [edit] A .......................................................................................................... 65
4.2 [edit] B .......................................................................................................... 66
4.3 [edit] C .......................................................................................................... 67
4.4 [edit] D .......................................................................................................... 70
4.5 [edit] E .......................................................................................................... 72
4.6 [edit] F........................................................................................................... 73
4.7 [edit] G .......................................................................................................... 74
4.8 [edit] H .......................................................................................................... 75
4.9 [edit] I............................................................................................................ 75
4.10 [edit] J ........................................................................................................... 75
4.11 [edit] L .......................................................................................................... 76
4.12 [edit] M ......................................................................................................... 77
4.13 [edit] N .......................................................................................................... 78
4.14 [edit] O .......................................................................................................... 79
4.15 [edit] P........................................................................................................... 79
4.16 [edit] Q .......................................................................................................... 80
4.17 [edit] R .......................................................................................................... 81
4.18 [edit] S........................................................................................................... 81
4.19 [edit] T .......................................................................................................... 82
4.20 [edit] U .......................................................................................................... 83
4.21 [edit] V .......................................................................................................... 83
4.22 [edit] W - X - Y - Z........................................................................................ 84
4.23 [edit] Not used as such in French ................................................................... 84
4.24 [edit] French phrases in international air-sea rescue ....................................... 90
5 [edit] German terms commonly used in English..................................................... 90
5.1.1 [edit] Sports and recreation .................................................................... 91
5.1.2 [edit] Other aspects of everyday life ....................................................... 91
5.2 [edit] German terms common in English academic context ............................ 92
5.2.1 [edit] Academia...................................................................................... 92
5.2.2 [edit] Architecture .................................................................................. 93
5.3 [edit] German terms mostly used for literary effect ........................................ 93
6 List of English words of Australian Aboriginal origin............................................ 94
6.1 [edit] Flora and fauna ..................................................................................... 94
6.2 [edit] Environment ......................................................................................... 94
6.3 [edit] Aboriginal culture ................................................................................ 94
6.4 [edit] Describing words.................................................................................. 95
6.5 [edit] Place names .......................................................................................... 95
6.6 [edit] Names .................................................................................................. 95
6.7 [edit] Aboriginal-sounding words not of Aboriginal origin............................. 95
7 List of English words of African origin.................................................................. 95
8 List of Arabic loanwords in English....................................................................... 96
8.1 [edit] A .......................................................................................................... 96
8.2 [edit] B .......................................................................................................... 98
8.3 [edit] C .......................................................................................................... 98
8.4 [edit] D .......................................................................................................... 99
8.5 [edit] E .......................................................................................................... 99
8.6 [edit] F........................................................................................................... 99
8.7 [edit] G .......................................................................................................... 99
8.8 [edit] H .......................................................................................................... 99
8.9 [edit] I-J ......................................................................................................... 99
8.10 [edit] K ........................................................................................................ 100
8.11 [edit] L ........................................................................................................ 100
8.12 [edit] M ....................................................................................................... 100
8.13 [edit] N ........................................................................................................ 101
8.14 [edit] O ........................................................................................................ 101
8.15 [edit] P......................................................................................................... 101
8.16 [edit] Q ........................................................................................................ 101
8.17 [edit] R ........................................................................................................ 101
8.18 [edit] S......................................................................................................... 101
8.19 [edit] T ........................................................................................................ 102
8.20 [edit] U-Z .................................................................................................... 102
8.21 [edit] Words that may be Arabic loanwords ................................................. 102
9 List of English words of Chinese origin ............................................................... 103
9.1 [edit] B ........................................................................................................ 103
9.2 [edit] C ........................................................................................................ 103
9.3 [edit] D ........................................................................................................ 104
9.4 [edit] F......................................................................................................... 104
9.5 [edit] G ........................................................................................................ 104
9.6 [edit] H ........................................................................................................ 105
9.7 [edit] K ........................................................................................................ 105
9.8 [edit] L ........................................................................................................ 105
9.9 [edit] M ....................................................................................................... 105
9.10 [edit] N ........................................................................................................ 105
9.11 [edit] O ........................................................................................................ 105
9.12 [edit] P......................................................................................................... 106
9.13 [edit] Q ........................................................................................................ 106
9.14 [edit] R ........................................................................................................ 106
9.15 [edit] S......................................................................................................... 106
9.16 [edit] T ........................................................................................................ 106
9.17 [edit] W ....................................................................................................... 107
9.18 [edit] Y ........................................................................................................ 107
9.19 [edit] Z ........................................................................................................ 107
10 List of English words of Czech origin .............................................................. 107
11 List of English words of Scandinavian origin ................................................... 108
12 [edit] English words of Danish origin .............................................................. 108
13 List of English words of Dutch origin .............................................................. 108
13.1 [edit] A ........................................................................................................ 108
13.2 [edit] B ........................................................................................................ 109
13.3 [edit] C ........................................................................................................ 110
13.4 [edit] D ........................................................................................................ 111
13.5 [edit] E ........................................................................................................ 111
13.6 [edit] F......................................................................................................... 112
13.7 [edit] G ........................................................................................................ 112
13.8 [edit] H ........................................................................................................ 112
13.9 [edit] I.......................................................................................................... 113
13.10 [edit] J ..................................................................................................... 113
13.11 [edit] K .................................................................................................... 113
13.12 [edit] L..................................................................................................... 113
13.13 [edit] M.................................................................................................... 114
13.14 [edit] O .................................................................................................... 114
13.15 [edit] P ..................................................................................................... 114
13.16 [edit] Q .................................................................................................... 114
13.17 [edit] R .................................................................................................... 114
13.18 [edit] S ..................................................................................................... 114
13.19 [edit] T..................................................................................................... 116
13.20 [edit] V .................................................................................................... 116
13.21 [edit] W ................................................................................................... 116
14 List of English words of Etruscan origin .......................................................... 117
15 List of English words of French origin ............................................................. 118
15.1 [edit] W ....................................................................................................... 149
16 List of pseudo-French words adapted to English .............................................. 149
17 List of English Latinates of Germanic origin.................................................... 150
17.1 [edit] I.......................................................................................................... 160
17.2 [edit] J ......................................................................................................... 160
17.3 [edit] K ........................................................................................................ 160
17.4 [edit] L ........................................................................................................ 160
17.5 [edit] M ....................................................................................................... 161
17.6 [edit] N ........................................................................................................ 162
17.7 [edit] O ........................................................................................................ 162
17.8 [edit] P......................................................................................................... 162
17.9 [edit] Q ........................................................................................................ 163
17.10 [edit] R .................................................................................................... 163
17.11 [edit] S ..................................................................................................... 165
17.12 [edit] T..................................................................................................... 166
17.13 [edit] U .................................................................................................... 168
17.14 [edit] V .................................................................................................... 168
17.15 [edit] W ................................................................................................... 168
18 List of English words of Gaulish origin ........................................................... 169
19 List of English words of Hawaiian origin ......................................................... 170
20 List of English words of Hebrew origin ........................................................... 171
20.1 [edit] From Hebrew words ........................................................................... 171
20.2 [edit] From Hebrew names........................................................................... 174
21 List of English words of Hungarian origin ....................................................... 176
22 List of English words of Indonesian origin....................................................... 176
23 List of English words of Irish origin ................................................................ 177
24 List of English words of Italian origin .............................................................. 179
24.1 [edit] Food and culinary terms ..................................................................... 183
24.2 [edit] Language and literature ...................................................................... 185
24.3 [edit] Music ................................................................................................. 186
24.4 [edit] Politics ............................................................................................... 188
24.5 [edit] Science and medicine ......................................................................... 189
24.6 [edit] Other words........................................................................................ 190
25 List of English words of Japanese origin .......................................................... 195
25.1 [edit] Clothing ............................................................................................. 196
25.2 [edit] Culinary ............................................................................................. 197
25.3 [edit] Business ............................................................................................. 199
25.4 [edit] Government and politics ..................................................................... 199
25.5 [edit] Religion.............................................................................................. 199
25.6 [edit] Other .................................................................................................. 200
26 List of English words of Korean origin ............................................................ 201
27 List of English words of Malay origin .............................................................. 201
28 List of English words of Māori origin .............................................................. 204
29 List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas ................... 205
29.1 [edit] Words from Nahuatl ........................................................................... 208
29.2 [edit] Words from Quechua ......................................................................... 209
29.3 [edit] Words from Eskimo-Aleut languages ................................................. 210
29.4 [edit] Words from Arawakan languages ....................................................... 210
29.5 [edit] Words from Tupi-Guaraní languages .................................................. 211
29.6 [edit] Words from other indigenous languages of the Americas.................... 211
30 List of English words of Norwegian origin ...................................................... 213
30.1 [edit] S......................................................................................................... 216
30.2 [edit] T ........................................................................................................ 217
30.3 [edit] U ........................................................................................................ 218
30.4 [edit] V ........................................................................................................ 218
30.5 [edit] W ....................................................................................................... 218
31 List of English words of Persian origin ............................................................ 218
32 List of English words of Polish origin .............................................................. 240
32.1 [edit] Derived from geographic names and ethnonyms ................................. 243
33 List of English words of Portuguese origin ...................................................... 244
33.1 [edit] F-N..................................................................................................... 246
33.2 [edit] P-Z ..................................................................................................... 247
34 List of English words of Scots origin ............................................................... 247
35 List of English words of Scottish Gaelic origin ................................................ 248
36 List of English words of Serbo-Croatian origin ................................................ 252
37 List of English words of Spanish origin ........................................................... 252
37.1 [edit] C ........................................................................................................ 254
37.2 [edit] D ........................................................................................................ 256
37.3 [edit] E ........................................................................................................ 256
37.4 [edit] F......................................................................................................... 256
37.5 [edit] G ........................................................................................................ 256
37.6 [edit] H ........................................................................................................ 256
37.7 [edit] I.......................................................................................................... 256
37.8 [edit] J ......................................................................................................... 257
37.9 [edit] K ........................................................................................................ 257
37.10 [edit] L..................................................................................................... 257
37.11 [edit] M.................................................................................................... 257
37.12 [edit] N .................................................................................................... 258
37.13 [edit] O .................................................................................................... 258
37.14 [edit] P ..................................................................................................... 258
37.15 [edit] Q .................................................................................................... 259
37.16 [edit] R .................................................................................................... 259
37.17 [edit] S ..................................................................................................... 260
37.18 [edit] T..................................................................................................... 260
37.19 [edit] V .................................................................................................... 261
37.20 [edit] W ................................................................................................... 261
37.21 [edit] Z..................................................................................................... 261
38 List of English words of Swedish origin .......................................................... 261
39 List of English words of Tagalog origin ........................................................... 262
40 List of English words of Turkic origin ............................................................. 262
41 List of English words of Ukrainian origin ........................................................ 272
42 List of English words of Welsh origin .............................................................. 273
42.1 [edit] Words that derive from Welsh ............................................................ 273
42.2 [edit] Words that derive from Cornish .......................................................... 274
42.3 [edit] Words with indirect or possible links .................................................. 274
42.4 [edit] Welsh words used in English .............................................................. 274
43 List of English words of Yiddish origin ........................................................... 275
44 A hybrid word ................................................................................................. 278
45 Greek and Latin roots in English ...................................................................... 280
45.1 [edit] A ........................................................................................................ 280
45.2 [edit] B ........................................................................................................ 283
45.3 [edit] C ........................................................................................................ 285
45.4 [edit] D ........................................................................................................ 294
45.5 [edit] E ........................................................................................................ 295
45.6 [edit] F......................................................................................................... 297
45.7 [edit] G ........................................................................................................ 301
45.8 [edit] H ........................................................................................................ 303
45.9 [edit] I.......................................................................................................... 306
45.10 [edit] J ..................................................................................................... 308
45.11 [edit] K .................................................................................................... 309
45.12 [edit] L..................................................................................................... 309
45.13 [edit] M.................................................................................................... 312
45.14 [edit] N .................................................................................................... 314
45.15 [edit] O .................................................................................................... 317
45.16 [edit] P ..................................................................................................... 321
45.17 [edit] Q .................................................................................................... 333
45.18 [edit] R .................................................................................................... 335
45.19 [edit] S ..................................................................................................... 337
45.20 [edit] T..................................................................................................... 348
45.21 [edit] U .................................................................................................... 353
45.22 [edit] V .................................................................................................... 355
45.23 [edit] X .................................................................................................... 359
45.24 [edit] Z..................................................................................................... 359
45.25 ....................................................................................................................... 360

‘ Germanic‘rds‘

Germanic‘ atinate‘ atin‘srce‘


abandon
relinquish relinquere < re- + linquere
leave, leave off
abdicate abdicāre < ab- + dicātus
forsake
desert dēserere < dē- + serere
forlet
renounce renūntiāre < re- + nūntius
give up
ache
hurt
smart pain poena < Gk poinē
woe agony L.L. agōnia < Gk agōniā
sore
throe
allegiance fidelity fidēlitās
troth loyalty lēgālis
anger rage rabiēs
wrath ire īra
array
row
series seriēs < serere
range, rank
order ordō
line, lineup
sequence L.L. sequentia < sequēns < sequī
set
lot
ask
inquire in + quaerere
beseech
request re + quaerere
beg
beacon
signal M.L. signāle
buoy
indicator M.L. indicātor
flag
herald
harbinger
guide
before
beforehand
prior prior
ahead of
ere
behaviour
action āctiō
bearing
attitude L.L. aptitūdō
etiquette
manner V.L. *manuāria < L manuārius < manus
guise
conduct M.L. conductus < L condūcere
way
behest command V.L. commandāre
bidding order ordō
behoof
gain
advantage L.L.*abantaticum
boon
benefit benefactum
blessing
welfare
begin
commence com + initiāre
start
belief
mindset
gospel creed crēdere
truth
leaning
belly
midriff abdomen abdomen
womb
blee
hue colour color
dye
body, embodiment
corpus, corpse corpus
frame
carcass M.L. carcosium, carcasium < ?
makeup
cadaver cadāver
lich
brotherly fraternal frāternus
bug
insect insectum
beetle
build
rear construct cōnstruere < com + struere
raise
business
affair ad + facere
undertaking
buy purchase pro- + V.L. *captiare
calf veal vitellus, vitulus
calling career L.L. carrāria (via) < Celtic
job profession M.L. professiō
lifework vocation vocātiō
livelihood occupation occupātiō
living employment implicāre + -mentum
chagrin
displeasure dis- + L placēre
dismay
dissatisfaction dis- + L satisfactiō
shame
child
bairn
infant īnfāns
baby
kid
choose
opt optare
pick
chore task M.L. tasca
cold
chilly frigid frigidus
freezing
come
land
reach arrive ad + ripa
get to
make (to a place)
cow
bull
beef bōs/bovis
neat
cattle V.L. capitale
ox
steer
daily diurnal diurnalis
deadly mortal mortālis
baneful fatal fatum
deem
judge iūdicāre
regard
consider consīderāre
hold
esteem consīderāre
feel
deer venison venātiō/nis
dog
canid, canine canis
hound
drink
swill
imbibe imbibere < in + bibere
carouse
wassail
pigeon V.L. pibionem
dove
culver columbula
earnest
grim serious L.L. sēriōsus
stern
dirt
earth
soil solium
land
terrain terrenum < terra
ground
landscape
eastern oriental orīri
eat
dine V.L. diseieunare < dis + ieiunare
sup/supper
eld age aevitās ( < aevum) + -age
lifetime
lifespan
end
fulfill finish fīnīre
halt complete complēre
wrap up discontinue dis- + continuāre
stop
fare
trek
travel V.L. *trepaliāre
go abroad
journey V.L. *diurnāta
take a trip
voyage viāticum
rove
gallivant
fast
rather
snell rapid rapidus
quick
swift
fatherly paternal paternus
feeling
sentiment
awareness sensus, sentiō
sensation
touch
fill up
stock replenish re + plēnus
renew
first
foremost primary prīmus
main
flood
inundate inundāre < in + unda
overwhelm
follow ensue in- + sequi
former
erstwhile previous praevius < prae- + via
foregoing preceding praecēdere < prae- + cēdere
whilom
forbid prohibēre < pro + habēre
prohibit
ban inter + dicere, dictus
forecast
projection prōjectiō < prō + iacere
outlook
foretell
soothsay
predict praedīcere
forebode
foreshadow
freedom liberty lībertās < līber
friendly amicable amīcus
garden
yard
court co- + hortus
park
enclosure in- + claudere
pound
paddock
gather assemble ad + simul
forgather
gather up
group
cluster
gift
present prae- + essere
handsel
give
afford provide pro + vidēre
furnish
gladness
bliss
fairness
joy gaudium
merriment, mirth
pleasure placēre
winsomeness
delight dēlēctāre
happiness
glee
thrill
god deity deus
good
well
helpful
beneficial beneficium
gainful
wholesome
worthwhile
go on
proceed pro- + cedere
wend
green verdant viridis
guess
fathom
estimate aestimare
sound
gauge
harbour
port portus
haven
hardship
difficulty difficultās
ordeal
hate
loathe detest de- + testari
scorn
height
altitude altitūdō (< altus)
loftiness
help
assist assistere < ad + sistere
abet
hen pullet pullus
hill
barrow
mount mōns, montis
mound
down, dune
holiday
leave
vacation vacātiō
break
furlough
holy
sacred sacrāre
hallowed
island
ait, eyot isle insula
holm
itch
irk
irritate irritāre
tease
fret
kind
ilk
type typus
brand
class classis
breed
sort sors
set
genre genera
strain
tier
know
wit/wot
recognize re + cognoscere
espy
spot
late
tardy tardus
delayed
leader
king
duke dux
head
president praesidēns
baron
earl
length longitude longitūdō (< longus)
lie (lie down)
repose re- + pausa
rest
recline re- + clinare
lean (back)
loving
amorous amōrōsus
fond
many multiple multi + plūs
manifold numerous numerosus
rife abundant abundantem
teeming copious copiosus
match
fit correspond con + respondēre
answer to
mean
intend intendere
betoken
signify significare
stand for
meet encounter incontrāre < in + contrā
midday noon nona
mistake
error error (< errāre)
blunder
motherly maternal māternus
new
novel novus
fresh
modern modernus
now
nightly nocturnal nocturnus
old
stale
ancient V.L. *anteanus < ante
elderly
of yore
other different differre
else alter- alterare
oven
hearth
kiln culina
stove
furnace fornax
oast
smithy, smithery
road
way street V.L. strata
boulevard
rot
putrefy putrefacere
defile, befoul
see
perceive per- + capere
ken
seem appear apparere
seethe
boil bullīre
bubble
selfhood
likeness identity L.L. identitās < idem et idem + -itās
selfdom
selfsame identical M.L. identicus + -al
sell
trade
vend vendere < venum + dare
deal in
bargain
shape
build form forma
outline
sheep
mutton M.L. multō (< Celtic)
lamb
shut close clausus
shy timid timidus
sight
vision vidēre/vīsum
seeing
skill
craft art ars
cunning
skillful
crafty adept adeptus < adipiscī
deft
sleeping
slumbering
dormant dormīre
idle
fallow
small minute minūtus < minuere
little
tiny
wee
snake
serpent serpens
worm
sorrow
care grief gravare < gravis
woe
speak
converse con- + vertere
talk
discourse dis- + currere
prate, prattle
stound
time
tide moment mōmentum
while interval intervallum
throw
spell
sundry various varius
mixed miscellaneous miscellus
swine
farrow
sow, boar pork porcus
pig
hog
teach
educate ēdūcāre < ēdūcere
show
tell relate relatus < re- + ferre
make known narrate narrare
thinking
thoughtful pensive pēnsāre
mindful
thought
hunch
idea idea
inkling
clue
threat danger V.L. *dominarium < dominus
plight peril periculum'
fear menace minaciae < minari
token
sign signum
mark
symbol symbolum < Gk sýmbolon
hallmark
trace V.L. *tractiāre
hint
indication indicātiō
stamp
tongue
speech language V.L. *linguaticum < L. lingua
talk
twin
double duplus
twofold
duplicate duplicātus < duplicāre < duplex
twi-
understand
get comprehend comprehendere
grasp
uphold
bolster
bear up
undergird support ē- + levāre
upbear
shore up
stay
uplifting
elevating ē- + levāre
raising, rearing
utter
pronounce pro- + nuntsecuiare
say
utterly
altogether
totally tōtālis
fully
wholly
wage
meed salary salārium
hire
wait, await
bide
expect ex + spectāre
tarry
ween
notice nōtitia
warning alert It all'erta < L ērigere
tip off recommendation M.L. recommendātiō
admonition admonitiō
wash
cleanse
rinse
launder M.L. lavandāria < lavare
lave
bathe
scrub
watch
keep observe ob + servāre
behold
watchful
waking vigilant vigilāre
wary
wed marry marītāre
wedlock marriage V.L. *maritaticum
weird
odd
queer
uncouth strange extrāneus
outlandish
eldritch
eerie
worldly secular saeculāris
weep
greet (cry), regret
cry quiritare
bawl
wail
whine
weighty
meaningful important M.L. importantus
key
western occidental occidere
whole entire integer
width
breadth latitude latitūdō (< latus)
span
wild
savage silvaticus < silva
fell
feral fera
grim
wise
clever
insightful
enlightened prudent prudēns < providēns
keen
knowledgeable
shrewd
wish
will
yearning desire desiderāre
longing
lust
womanly feminine femininus
wood (a wood)
holt
weald/wold
bush, boscage forest M.L. *foresta, partially < L.L. forestis; partially < Frankish *forhist
grove
brush
thicket
wordbook dictionary dictiōnārium
work
labor labor
drudge, drudgery
writing
script scrīptum < scrībere
writ
yearly annual annalis
yellow ochre ochra
youthful
juvenile iuvenis
young
youth
adolescence adolescere < ad + alescere
teenhood

‘ atin‘rts‘

atin‘ns‘and‘djectives‘
itatin‘rm‘ eclining‘stem‘
eaning‘ nglish‘derivative‘
acerbus acerb- bitter acerbic
acētum acēt- vinegar acetic
aedificium aedifici- building edifice
alacer alacr- quick alacrity
albus alb- white album, albino
alius ali- other alien
anima anim- soul, life animate, animal
animus anim- mind, anger animosity
annus ann- year annual
ānser ānser- goose anserine
aqua aqu- water aquamarine, aquatic
audāx audāc- brave, bold audacious
auris aur- ear aural
avis avi- bird avian, aviary
bellum bell- war bellicose, belligerence, antebellum
bonus bon- good bonus
± melior ± melior- ± better ± ameliorate
± optimus ± optim- ± best ± optimist
bōs bov- cow bovine
canis can- dog canine
cerv x cerv c- neck cervix
c vis c v- citizen civil, civilian
clāvicula clāvicul- little key clavicle
coniūnx coniug- spouse conjugal
cornū corn- horn unicorn, capricorn
deus de- god deity, deification
diēs diē- day diary, quotidian
discipulus discipul- student disciple
dominus domin- lord dominion, dominate, domain
domus dom- house domestic, domicile
equus equ- horse equestrian
falx falc- sickle falcate
fēlēs (or fēlis) fēl- cat feline
fēmina fēmin- woman feminine, effeminate
f lius f li- son filial, affiliation
f nis f ni- limit infinite, final
flōs flōr- flower floral, florist
folium foli- leaf folio, foliage, portfolio
fōrma fōrm- form, shape, beauty formal, information
fors fort- luck fortuitous
fortis fort- strength fortitude, fortify, effort
frāter frātr- brother fratricide, fraternity
frōns front- forehead front,frontal
frūx frūg- fruit frugal
fūmus fūm- smoke fume
genus gen- birth, offspring, creation generation, genuine
homō homin- man (human being) hominid
ignis ign- fire ignite
 
nsula nsul- island insulate, peninsula
iūdex iūdic- judge judge, judicial, adjudicate
iūs iūr- right, law justice, jurisdiction
lacrima lacrim- tear lachrymose
lēx lēg- law legal, alleged
lūna lūn- moon lunar, lunatic
lupus lup- wolf lupine
magister magistr- master magistrate
magnus magn- big magnitude
± māior ± māior- ± bigger ± major
± maximus ± maxim- ± biggest ± maximum
malus mal- bad malevolence, malice, malignant
± peior ± peior- ± worse ±pejorative
±pessimus ± pessim ± worst ±pessimist
manus manu- hand, band of men manual
mare mar- sea marine, maritime
māter mātr- mother matron, maternal
mora mor- delay moratorium
nihil nihil- nothing nil, nihilism, annihilate
nox noct- night nocturnal
oculus ocul- eye inoculate, ocular
onus oner- load exonerate, onus
pater patr- father patron, paternal
 
pav mentum pav ment- ground pavement
pēs ped- foot pedestrian
prior prior- former priority
 
± pr mus ± pr m- ± first ± prime
pulcher pulchr- beautiful pulchritude
punctum pun(c)t- point punctuation, punctual, contrapuntal
rēx rēg- king regal
rūs rūr- farm rural, rustic
sinister sinistr- left sinister
terra terr- land terrain, terrestrial
unda und- wave undulate, inundate
urbs urb- city urban, suburb
ursus urs- bear ursine
vehiculum vehicul- wagon vehicle
vērus ver- truth veracity, verify

v lla vill- country house village, villa
vir vir- man (male person) virile
vulpēs vulp- fox vulpine
   


In some Latin verbs, a preposition caused a vowel change in the root of the verb. For example, "capiō"
becomes "incipio".

atin‘ erbs‘
itatin‘ resent‘ erect‘ articipial‘

eaning‘ pical‘derivative‘
rm‘ stem‘ stem‘ stem‘
agō ag- eg- āct- do action, agenda, agent
amō am- amav- amat- like, love amateur, enamor
audiō aud- audiv- audit- hear audible
capiō cep- capt- capable, captive, recipient,
cap- take
-cipiō -cip- -cept- reception
cēdō cēd- cess- yield, depart recede, recession
cogitō cogit- cogitav- cogitat- think, ponder cogitate
colligo collig- collegi collect- collect collect
claudō claud- claus-
close conclude, conclusive
-clūdō -clūd- -clūs-
clinō clin- clinat- lean inclination, recline
cubō cub- cubat- lie incubator
currō curr- cucurr- curs- run current, recursion
dat-
dō d- ded- give add, dative, editor
-dit-
doleō dol- dolui dolit- grieve dolor, condolence
dubitō dubit- dubitav- dubitat- doubt indubitable
eō e- i- it- go ambition, obituary
faciō fec- fact-
fac- make effective, facile, factory
-ficiō -fic- -fect-
ferō fer- tul- lāt- bring fertile, refer, relate
  
f gō f g- f x- fix- fix crucifixion
findō find- fiss- cleave, split fission
fingō fing- fict- fashion, invent fiction
flectō flect- flex- bend deflect, reflex
flō fl- flat- blow inflate
fluō flu- flux- flow effluent, influx
for f- fat- say, speak affable, infant
gradior gradi- gress-
none step ingredient, progressive
-gredior -gredi- -gress-
gustō gust- gustav- gustat- taste gustation
iaciō iec- jact-
iac- throw inject, projectile
-iciō (j)ic- -ject-
laudō laud- laudav- laudat- praise laud, laudable
linquō linqu- liqu- lict- abandon derelict, relinquish
locō loc- locav- locat- place, put location
lūdō lūd- lūs- play collude, collusion
mergō merg- mers- dip emerge, immerse

mittō mitt- m s- miss- send commit, missive
moveō mov- mov- mot- move motion, motive, motor, move
nascor nasci natus none be born nascent, natal, prenatal
necō nec- necav- necat- dead
nōscō nōsc- nōt- notable
nosc- know
-gnōscō -gnōsc- -gnōt-, -gnit- cognitive
bring news of,
nuntiō nunt- nuntiav- nuntiat- announce
announce
petō pet- petiv- petit- seek, attack compete, petulant
pōnō pōn- posu- posit- put component, position
portō port- portat- carry deport, portage
premō
prem- press- press- push imprimatur, oppress, pressure
-primō
pugnō pugn- pugnav- pugnat- fight pugnacious
putō put- putav- putat- think compute, putative
rideō ris- laugh, smile derision, ridiculous
rumpō rump- rup- rupt- break interrupt, rupture
sciō sci- sciv- scit- know science
  
scr bō scr b- scrips- scr pt- write describe, scripture, scribble
sedeō sede- sed- sess- sit sedentary, sediment, session
sequor sequ- secut- sum follow consecutive, sequence
sum es- fu- futur- be essence, future
veniō ven- vent- come convene, prevention
vertō vert- vers- vers- turn reverse, revert, version

videō vidē- vid- v s- see video, vision
vivō viv- vix- vict- live vivacity, victim, victorious
benevolent, malevolent,
volō vell- volu- wish
volition
volvō volv- volūt- roll evolve, revolution
voveō vov- vot- vow votive

  
   

 

atin‘ repsitins‘

rd‘
eaning‘ reixes‘

ā, ab away from ab-, a-, abs-, as-

ad to, toward ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, ar-


(ambi) around ambi-, amb-

ante before ante-, anti-

circum around circum-

cis this side of cis-

contrā against, opposite to contra-, contro-

cum together, with con-, co-, col-, com-, cor-

dē down from de-

dis- apart dis-, di-, dif-, dir-

ex, ē from, out of ex-, e-, ef-

extrā outside extra-

in in, into in-, il-, im-, ir-


nfrā below infra-

inter among, between inter-, intel-

intrā within intra-, intro-

iuxtā beside juxta-


ob, obs by reason of ob-, oc-, of-, op-

paene almost pen-

per thorough, through per-

post after, behind post-

prae before pre-

praeter past preter-

prō for, in front of pro-, por-, prod-

(re) again, back re-, red-

sē without se-, sed-

sub below, under sub-, su-, suc-, suf-, sug-, sum-, sup-, sus-

subter beneath subter

super above, over super-

suprā above, more than supra-

trāns across trans-, tra-, tran-

ultrā beyond ultra-


O‘ Greek‘rts‘

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

adiabatic, agnostic,
ahistorical, amoral, anaemia,
anaesthesia, anhydrous,
a- a-/an- without, not
anonymous, apathy,
asymmetric, asymptote,
atrophic

reckoning-
abax abac- board, used for abacus, abaculus, abax
counting votes

abyss, abyssal,
ābussos abyss- bottomless abyssocottidae,
abyssopelagic

akhatēs akhat- agate agate

glory, delight,
āgalma agalmat- agalmatolite, Agalmatophilia
honour, statue

agathism, agathodaemon,
agathē agath- good
kalokagathia

agape, agapanthus,
agapē agap- fraternal love
agapanthaceae

comedian, comedy, melody,


ode, parody, prosody,
aeidō -od-/-ed- I sing
psalmody, rhapsody,
tragedian, tragedy

adelphos adelph- brother adelphogamy, Philadelphia


illustrious,
agauos agau- agave, agavaceae
noble

impressment
angareiā angarei- for public angary, angaria, angariate
service

angiosperm,
angiocardiography,
angiodysplasia,
angiogenesis, angiogram,
angeion angio- vessel
angiography, angioma,
angiopathy, angioplasty,
angiosperma, angiostatin,
angiotensin,

angelos angel- messenger angel, archangel, evangelist

hagiography, hagiology,
hagios hagio- holy
hagiographa

ancistrocladus,
angistron ancistr- hook ancistrocactus,
ancistrocheirus

ancylus, angle,
ancyl- crooked, ankyloglossia, ancylopoda,
ankulos
angul- curved [1] ankylosaurid,
ankylostomiasis

stiffening of ankylosis, ankyloglossia,


ankulōsis ankyl-Ƞsi-
the joints ankylosaurus

ankyra anchor- anchor anchoring, anchor, ankyrin

ankōn ankon- elbow ancona, ancon, anconal

agora agor- marketplace


agora. agoraphobia,
agoranomos

agra -agra seizure, trap podagra, pellagra

agrobiology, agronomics,
agros agro- tilled land
agrology

agrostology, agrostophyllum,
agrōstis agrostid- a type of grass
agrostistachys

I press tight,
angina
ankhō ankh- strangle,
anxious
throttle, choke

pedagogue, anagoge,
agō ag- I drive, lead
mystagogue

agōnia agōni- agony agonize, antagonistic, agony

unconquerable,
adamas adamant- adamant, adamantine
diamond

adelphopoiesis, adelphous,
adelphos adelph- brother
monadelphous

unknown, adelopod, adelospondyli,


adēlos adelo-
obscure adelophagi, adelophryne

adenoma,
adēn adeno- gland adenomelablastoma,
adenomyosis, adenosine

god of the
Hades hade-/hado- hadean, Hades, hadopelagic
underworld

hadros hadro- thick hadron, hadrosaurus


adiaphoros adiaphor- indifferent adiaphora, adiaphorism

not to be
aduton adyt- adytum
entered

aerios aeri- of the air aerial, aerie

aerobic, aerobics,
aerobios aerobi- living in air
aerobiology, anaerobic

distasteful,
aēdēs aed- aedes
unpleasant

aerodynamics, aerofoil,
aero-
aēr air aeronautics, aerobatics,
air-
airplane, airship

aēchos aecho- without sound anechoic, anechoic chamber


athēra ather- gruel atheroma, atherosclerosis
contestant in
athlētēs athlet- athlete, athletics
the games
aithalē aithal- soot aethalops, ethallobarbital
massless
aithēr aither- ether, ethereal
medium
aigagros aigagr- wild goat aegagrus, aegagropila
beach, aegialornis, aigialosaur,
aigialos aigial-
seashore aegialornithidae
aigis aigid- armour of Zeus aegis
torture,
aikia aiki- aecium, aeciospore
suffering
ailurophobia, aelurodon,
ailuros ailuro- feline
aeluroscalabotinae
haimo- anemia, anemic, hemophilia,
haima blood
haimat- hemorrhage
Keeper of the
Aiolus Aiol- Winds   Aeolic, Aeolian, Aeolotropy
Myth
aipeinos aipin- high, lofty aepisaurus,
high and steep, aepycamelus, aepyornis,
aipus or aipos aipy-
utter aepyornithidae, aepyceros
aisthētikos aisthēt-ik- of sense- aesthetic, aesthetician,
perception, aestheticism, aesthete,
sensitive, aesthetics, anesthesia
perceptive
I dishonour,
aiskhunō aiskhun- aeschynanthus, aeschynite
shame
aitia aiti- cause etiology
aikhmē aichm- point of a spear aechmophorus, aechmea
aiōn eon- age eon
lasting for an
aiōnios aionȚ- aeonium, aeonian
age
the field of
Akadēmia akadēm- academe, academic, academy
Academos
akakia akaki- harmless acacia
akaluphē acalyph- stinging-nettle acalypha, acalyphoideae
acanthus, acantharea,
acanthite, acanthocephala,
akanthos acanth- thorn plant acanthocercus,
acanthodactylus,
acanthosaura
akari acar- a kind of mite acarid, acariasis, acarology
not incomplete,
akatalēktos acatalekt- acatalectic
incessant
acephali, acephaly,
akephalos acephal- headless
acephalous
unswerving,
aklinēs aclin- without aclinic, aclinic line
inclination
highest point acme
akmē acm-
facial eruption acne, acnestis
akoluthos acoluth- follower anacoluthon, acolyte
akonē akon- whetstone aconitum, paragon
akouō acou-st- I hear acoustic, acoustics
acrobat, acrocephalus,
acrochordidae, acrochordon,
akron acro- edge, topmost
acromantula, acronym,
acrotomophilia
headline, end-
akrostikhis acrostichid- acrostic
line
actinium, actinobacteria,
actinodine, actinolite,
actinometer, actinomorphic,
aktis aktino- ray
actinomycetes, actinophryid,
actinophryids, actinopteri,
actinopterygii, actinozoa
a variety of
alabastros alabastr- alabaster
mineral
allantoeidēs allanto-eid- sausage-shaped allantois, allantoin
alethia alethe- truth alethiology
I ward off, Alexander, alexipharmic,
alexō alex(o)-
defend alexithymia, alexiteric
aleuron aleuro- flour, meal aleurone, aleuromancy
-algia, arthralgia, cardialgia,
cephalalgia, fibromyalgia,
algos alg- pain
myalgia, neuralgia, nostalgia,
odontalgia, otalgia
I anoint with
aleiphō aleiph- aliphatic compound
oil
alkimos alc- strong analcite
Alcyonaria, halcyon,
halkuōn halkuon- kingfisher
Halcyon, halcyonidae
I interpret
allēgorō allēgor- allegory
allegorically
allēlon allēlo- of one another allelomorph, parallelogram
allochthon, allodium,
allodontidae, allogenes,
allograft, allography,
allolactose, allometry,
allo- allomorph, allopath,
allos other, different
all- allopatry, allophony,
allopoiesis, allopurinol,
allosaur, allotroph,
allotropic, allotropy
allergy
salt halogen, haloaromatic,
hals hal-
sea halobacteria, halosaur
allotropy, allotropes,
allotropos allotrop- strange
allotropism,
I flee from,
shun, avoid,
escape [2]
haluskō halluc- alt. f. L. hallucinosis, hallucinate
hallucinar, to
dream, be
deceived
a plant
alyssos alyss- believed to alyssum, Alyssa
cure rabies
alphabet, alphabetize,
alpha alpha- alpha alphagram, alphandia,
alphanumeric, alpha particle
alōpēx alopek- fox alopecia
round shape,
halōs halo- the disk of the halo
sun, circular
arcade at
Delphi
female
Amazon, Amazonomachy,
Amazōn Amazon- warriors  
Amazonite, Amazonia
Myth
the foster-
Amalthēa Amalthe- Amalthea
mother of Zeus
a kind of
amanitai amanit- amanita, amanitaceae
fungus
unfading amaranth, amaranthaceae,
amarantos amaranth-
flower amaranthoideae
name of a
amarullis amarull- shepherdess amaryllis, amaryllidaceae
  Myth
amaurōsis amaur-osi- blacken amaurosis, amaurobiidae
amblygonite, amblyopia,
amblus ambly- dim
amblypoda
ambrotos ambrot- immortal ambrosia, ambrotype
alembic, alembication,
ambyx ambyk- cup
alembicated
ambōn ambon- raised edge ambo
not drunk or
amethustos amethyst- amethyst, amethystizon
intoxicating
without
ametros ametro- ametropia
measure
amiantos amiant- undefiled amianthus
ammoperdix, ammophila,
ammos ammo- sand
ammotrechidae
amnēsia amnēsi- oblivion amnesia
forgetfulness,
amnēstia amnēsti- amnesty, amnestic
amnesty
ammōniakos ammōni- from Ammōn ammonia, ammoniacal
horn of ammonite, ammonoid,
ammōnis ammon-
Ammōn ammonoidea
amnion, amniotic,
amnos amn- lamb
amniocentesis, amnioscope,
amoebē amoeb- change amoeba, amoebic
amorphos amorph- shapeless amorphous, amorphic
amylin, amyloid, amylose,
amylon amyl- starch amylopectin, amylase,
amyls, amylophagia, amyl
amygdala, amygdalin,
amugdalē amygd- almond tree amygdule
almond
amphipoda, amphioxus,
amphi amphi- on both sides
amphiglossus
throw on either
amphiballō amphibol- amphibole, amphibology
side, to doubt
living a double
amphibios amphibi- amphibious, amphibians
life
amphibolos amphibol- doubtful amphibole, amphibolite
short at both
amphibrakhus amphibrachy- amphibrach, amphibolite
ends
amphitheatro
amphitheatr- theater amphitheater, amphitheatric,
n
Amphiktyoni religious
amphiktyoni- Amphictyony, amphictyonic
a alliance
long at both
amphimakros amphimacr- amphimacer
ends
amphoreus amphore- bearer amphora, ampulla
amphoteros amphoter- each of two amphoteric
again,
anabolism, anachronism,
ana ana- backward,
anaplasia
upward
anabasis, anabatic,
anabainō anaba- I go up
anabantidae
I dip
anabaptizō anabapt-is- anabaptist
repeatedly
anabiōnō anabio- I return to life anabiosis,
putting off,
anabolē anabol- anabolism, anabolic steroid
delaying
putting
anagluphos anaglyp- wrought in low anaglyph
relief
transpose the
letters of one
-ȞĮȖȡĮȝ- anagram, anagrammatize
word so as to
form another
spiritual uplift,
anagōgē anagog- reference to a anagoge, anagogy,
principle
anadromos anadrom- running up anadromous
anadō anade- bind up anadem
anadipōlsis anadiplo- to redouble anadiplosis
anadromos anadrom- running up anadromous
anathema,
anathema anathemat- accursed
anathematize,
anaisthēsia anaesthe- lack of anaesthesia,
sensation, anaesthesiologist, anaesthetic
insensibility
under surgical
treatment
anaklisis anacli- to lean back anaclitism, anaclitic,
-ȞĮțȠȜȠȣșȚ- inconsequence anacoluthon
push back,
anacrousis anacrusi- beginning of a anacrusis
tune
analgesia, analgetic,
analgesia analgesi- painlessness
analgesics
analegō analeg- gather analects
analēmma analeimmat- support analemma
analeptikos analept- restorative analeptic
analkimos analcim- weak analcime, analcite
analogia analogi- proportion [3] analogy
proportionate,
analogos analog- analogous, wikt:analogue
conformable [4]
loosen, analysis, analytical, analyze,
analuō analy-
simplify analyst
analphabētos analphabet- uneducated analphabetic, analphabetism
anamnesis,
recollection,
anamnēsis anamnesi-
reminiscence
anamnestic,
anamorphōsis anamorphōsi- transformation anamorphosis, anamorphic
lord, master,
anax anakt- anax
king
anapaestic
anapaistos anapaist- anapest, anapestic
verse
anaplastos anaplast- remolded anaplastic, anaplasia
-ȞĮʌȜȘȡȦIJȚ
filling up anaplerotic
ț-
respiration,
anapnoē anapno- anapnoic, anapnograph
breathing
anapodeiktos anapodeict- not proved anapodeictic
expansion,
anaptuksis anaptyxi- anaptyxis
explanation
anarthros anarthr- not articulated anarthria, anarthrous
anarchy, anarchism,
anarkhos anarch- without a ruler
anarchist
I furnish with a
anastomoō anastomo- mouth, open anastomosis
up
anastrephō anastreph- to turn back anastrophe
anateineinō anata- I stretch anatase
anatolē anatol- East Anatolia, Anatolian
anatomy, anatomical,
anatomia anatomi- dissection
anatomist
anatropia, anatropal,
anatrepō anatrop- to reverse
anatropous
anapherō anaphor- bring back anaphora
anaphylaxis, anaphylactic,
anaphulassō anaphylak- I guard
anaphylactoid
wrong time
-ȞĮȤȡȠȞ-Țı- anachronistic, anachronism
reference
anchorite, anchoress,
anachōrō anachore- go back, retire
anachoretic
Andromeda, Andromeda
Andromēda Andromēd- wife of Perseus
polifolia
anemometer, anemoscopy,
anemos anemo- wind
anemoscope, anemophilous
anecdote, anecdotal,
anekdotos anecdot- unpublished
anecdotist
lit. daughter of
anemonē anemon- anemone, sea-anemone
the wind
cessation from
anergia anergi- anergy
work
aneurusma aneurusm- dilation aneurysm, microaneurysm
androcentrism, androgen,
android, andrologist,
man (male andrology, androstephium,
anēr andrȠ- androsterone, misandry,
human)

monandry, polyandry
collection of
antholōgion anthologi- anthology, anthologist
extracts
anthology, anthophyta,
anthostema, anthogonium,
anthos antho- flower Anthozoa, anthocleista,
anthotype, anthocyanin,
anthocerotophyta
anthrakitēs anthracit- kind of coal anthracite, anthracite iron
anthrax, anthracotherium,
anthrax anthr- coal
anthracosauria, anthracosis
anthropology,
anthropomorphism,
anthrōpos anthrōpo- human being anthropopathy,
anthropometrics,
anthropomancy,
anthropopath,
anthropoglot,anthroponyms,
anthroposophical,
anthroponym,
anthropomorphists,
anthropocentrism,
anthropomorphics,
anthropoidea,
anthroposemiotics,
misanthrope, zoanthropy
anienai ani- to go up anion, anionic
unequal,
anisogamous, anisometric,
anisos aniso- dissimilar,
anisometropia, anisotropic
uneven
annēson annes- dill anise, aniseed, anisette
anodos anod- way up anode, anodising
anomos anom- lawless anomie, anomic
anorgos anorg- not wrathful anorgasmic, anorgasmia
anorec- anorexia, anorectic,
anorexia lack of appetite
anorexi- anorexigenic
anorthosite, anorthoclase,
anorthos anortho- sloping
anorthite
struggle
antagonize, antagonist,
-ȞIJĮȖȦȞȚȗ- against, prove
antagonism, antagonistic
a match for
antarktikos Antarctic- Antarctic [5] antarctic, antarctica,
antibiotic, anticyclone,
opposite, antidiabetic, antihero,
anti anti-
counter antihistamine, antioxidant,
antiseptic, antistatic
to give as a
antidoton antidot- antidote, antidoting
remedy against
contradiction antinomy, antinomianism,
antinomia antinom-
between laws antinomia (brachiopod)
antipathetic,
of opposite
antipatheia antipath-
feelings
antipathy
the opposite
foot, antipodes, antipodean,
antipous antipod-
diametrically antipodal
opposed
make to
antisēpō antisep- antisepsis, antiseptic
putrefy in turn
antistrophos antistroph- to invert antistrophe
antithesis, antithetic,
antitithenai antithe- to oppose
antithetical
speak the
antiphrazō antiphra(d)- antiphrasis
opposite
sounding in
antiphōnos antiphon- antiphon, anthem
answer
antron antr- cave, cavity antrum
to have an
antōnymein antonym- opposite antonym, antonymous
denomination
anhydrite, anhydrous,
anhudros anhydr- waterless, arid
anhydrobiosis
anōdunos anodyn- waterless, arid anodyne, anodynous
anomalocarid, anomalopidae,
anomalopus, anomaluridae,
anōmalos anōmal- uneven
anomaly, abnormal through
Latin
anonymity, anonymous,
anōnumos anonym- nameless
anonymity, anonymously
unprofitable, anopheles, anopheline,
anōphelēs anophel-
useless anophelorastia
axiological, axiology,
axios axio- worthy axiology, axiom, axiomatic,
axiomatisation
axon- axoneme, axoplasm,
axōn axis
axi- axisymmetric
aoristos aorist- indefinite aorist
aortē aort- the great artery aortic, aorta
apatheism, apatheist,
apathēs apathe(s)- without feeling
apathetic, apathy
hapax apax once hapax legomenon, hapaxes
apatē apat- deceit apatite, apatosaurus
haplodiploid, haploid,
haplous haplo- single haploidisation, haplorrhini,
haplotype
apology, apostrophe,
apo apo- away from
apocrypha
far from the
apogeion apogei- apogee
earth
-ʌȠįİȚțIJ- demonstrable apodictic, apodictically
apodidonai apodo- to give back apodosis
something laid
apothema apothemat- apothem
down
apotheōsis apothe-osi- to deify apotheosis, apotheon
apothēkē apothek- storehouse apothecary, apothecium
apokaluptō apocalyp- to reveal apocalypse
apokoptō apokop- cut off apocopation, apocope
apokrinō apokrin- to set apart apocrine
apokruptō apokryp- to hide away apocrypha, apocryphal
apology, apologue,
apologia apologi- apology apologetic, apologeticism,
apologia
apomixis apomixi- without mixing apomixis, apomictic
to become
-ʌȠȞİȣȡ- aponeurosis
tendinous
cripple by a
apoplēssō apoplēk- apoplexy, apoplectic
stroke
aporos apor- impassable aporia
apostatēs apostat- defector apostate, apostasy
apostellō apostol- send away apostle, apostolic
apostrophe, apostrophic,
apostrephō apostroph- turn away
apostrophising
something that
apotropaion apotropa- apotropaic, apotropaism
averts evil
apodidae, apoda, apus,
apous apod- without feet
apodization
apophanai apopha- to say no apophasis
to speak
-ʌȠijșİȖȖ- apothegm
plainly
grow out like a apophysis, apophysomyces,
apophuomai apophu-
shoot zygapophysis
Apteryx, Apterygidae,
apteros apter- wingless Apterygota,
Apteropanorpidae
arakhnē arachnē- spider arachnid
argillos argill- clay argillite, argillaceous
areocentric, areology,
Arēs areo- planet Mars
areography
arithmos arithm- number arithmetic
to ward off, to
defend, to
assist -ȡțȑİȚȞ
arkeō ark- alt. f. L. arceo arc, arcade
"to enclose,
keep out,
prevent
inflammation
arthritis arthritid- arthritis, osteoarthritis
of joint
arthropod, arthroscopy,
arthron arthrȠ- joint
arthropathy
dysarthria, diarthrosis,
arthrōsis arthrosi- articulation
anarthrous
arithmos arithm- number arithmetic, logarithm
aristos aristo- best aristocracy
area in
Peloponnese,
arcadia arcadi- Greece, Acadian
emblematic of
rural peace
bear, the
northern
arktos arct- arctic
constellation
Ursa Major
arktouros arctur- bearward arcturus, arcturis, arcturian
harmony, harmonium,
agreement,
harmonia harmoni- harmonica, harmonisation,
harmony
harmonics, enharmonic
harmos arm- joint, shoulder harmotome, arm
arrhythmia, arrhythmic,
arrhuthmia arrythmi- lack of rhythm
antiarrhythmic
artios artio- even artiodactyl
arkhaios archaio- ancient archaeology, archetype
archaic, archbishop, anarchy,
arche arche-/archi- chief, authority archidiptera, archigram,
archipelago, architeuthidae
arkhitektōn architecton- chief builder architecture, architect
archon, archosaur,
arkhōn archont- ruler
archostemata
arōma aromat- spice aroma, aromatic compounds
-as suffix(-ad)- suffix Olympiad, Naiad
astheneia asthen- weakness asthenia, asthenopia
asthma asthmat- asthma asthmatic
Mythological
Asia, Asian, Asianisation,
Asia asia- daughter of
asiaphile
Iapetos
asparagine acid, aspartame,
aspharagos asparag- asparagus
aspartate
aspis aspid- shield asp
astēr ast(e)r- star asteroid, asterisk
-ıIJȚȖȝĮIJ- without focus astigmatism
vertebra,
astragalos astragal- astragalus
knucklebone
astronomy, astrology,
astron astro- constellation
astrophysics, astrodynamics,
astronaut, astrolabe
asulon asyl- sanctuary asylum
stopping of the
asphuxia asphyxi- asphyxiant
pulse
atmosphaira atmosphair- vapor + sphere atmosphere, atmospheric
name of a
Atlas atlant- atlas, Atlantic
Titan
atomos atom- un + cut atomic, atomizer
atonia atoni- slack atony, atonal
atropos atrop- inexorable atropos, atropine, atropa
A region of
Attiki attic- east-central attic, atticism
Greece
authentikos authentic- original authentication, authentic
austēros auster- harsh, bitter austerity
absolute
autarchia autarchi- autarchy, autarchism
governing
autarkia autark- self-sufficiency autarky
of the land autochthon, autochthonic,
autochthōn autochthon-
itshelf autochthonous
a seeing for
autopsia autopsi- autopsy
oneself
auxanein aux- to increase auxin, auxesis
self (reflexive
autos auto- autonomy, automatic
pronoun)
aphairein aphaire- take away apheresis, hemapheresis
aphanes, aphaniotis,
aphanēs aphan- unseen
aphanite, aphanitic
aphasia, aphasiology, anomic
aphatos aphat- speechless
aphasia
aphienai aphe- to let go aphesis, aphetic, aphetism
risen from sea-
Aphroditē aphrodit- foam, name of aphrodisiac, aphrodisia,
a goddess
without
akhainein achen- achene
yawning
a variety of
achātēs akhat- agate, agateware
mineral
achromatic, achromatin,
akhrōmatos achrȠmat- without color achromatopsia, achromatism,
achromatic
alcoholic
apsinthion apsinthi- absinthe
liqueur
apse, apsis, apsidal, hassium,
hapsis apsid- arch
Diapsida

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bathos batho- depth bathos

bathus bathu- deep bathybius, bathymetry, bathyscaphe, bathysphere

bacteremia, bacteria, bactericide. bacteriocin, bacteriophage,


bacterion bacterio- stick, staff
bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriostasis, bacteriuria

bal-/ball-
ballo I throw balista, ballistics, ballistite, ballistocardiography, ballistospore
ist-

dip, immerse,
baptizein bapt-is- anabaptist, baptise, baptism, baptist, baptistery, pedobaptism
cleanse

stranger, a non-
barbaros barbaro- barbarian, barbarism,
Greek

baros baro- weight barology, barometer, isobar, millibar

barus baru- heavy baryon, baritone

basileus basil- king basil, basilica, basilicon, basilisk

basis basi- walk, go base, basis, basilect

batrakhos batrakh- frog batrachite


bdella bdell- leech bdelloidea

bible, bibliography, bibliolatry, bibliomancy, bibliomania,


biblion biblio- book
bibliophile, bibliotherapy

bios bio- life antibiotic, autobiography, biography, biology, biopsy, bios

blastos blasto- sprout, germ blastoderm, blastoid, blastoma, blastula

boulē boul- will abulia, boule, hyperboulia

north, the north


boreas borea- Aurora Borealis, hyperborean
wind

bous bou- ox boustrophedon, bulimia

brakhus brakhu- short brachycephalic

bradus bradu- slow bradycardia, bradykinin, bradyphrasia

bromate, bromide, bromidrosis, bromine, bromocriptine,


bromos brom- stink
bromargyrite

bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchocele, bronchophony,


bronkhos bronkh- windpipe
bronchoscopy, bronchotomy, bronchus

brontē bront(o)- thunder brontology, brontosaurus, brontotheriidae

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gados gad- cod Gadidae

apogee, geology, Gaia, geochronology, geometry, geography,


gaia, gē ge-/geo- earth
perigee

gala galact(o)- milk galactose, galactosemia, galactosamine, galax, galaxy

galea galea galley galley

galion galion bedstraw galium

gamma gamma gamma gammadion, gamut

agamia, agamidae, bigamy, hierogamy, gamete, monogamy,


gamos gam- marriage
polygamy

subcutaneous
ganglion gangli- ganglion, ganglionectomy
tumour

gangraina gangraina gangrene gangrene

ganos gano- bright ganodonta

gasteromycete, gastrectomy, gastritis, gastroenterology,


gastēr gast(e)r(o)- stomach
gastrolith, gastromancy, gastronomy, gastropoda

genesis gen- birth genetic, genesis, gene

geras gerat- old age geriatric

geranos geran- crane geranium


geron geront- old man gerontocracy, gerontology, gerousia

geuein geu- to taste ageusia, ageustia, hypergeusia, parageusia

gnō- agnosticism, agnostic, agnostida, agnostidae, agnost, diagnostic,


gignōskein to know
gnē- gnosis, gnosticism

huge,
gigas gigant- giant, gigabyte, gigantic
enormous

blue-green,
glaukos glauk- glaucoma, glauconite
gray

gloios gloi(o)- gluey glioblastoma, glioma, gliosarcoma, gliosis, gliotoxin, gloeocapsa

anthropoglot, diglossia, epiglottis, epiglottitis, gloss, glossary,


glossis gloss- glossodynia, glossematics, glossolalia, glossopteris, glottis,
tongue
glottis glott- glottochronology, idioglossia, isogloss, monoglottism, polyglot,
proglottid, xenoglossy

gloutos glout- buttock gluteus

carving, carved
glyphe glyph- glyph, petroglyph
work

glucosamine, glucose, glycemia, glyceria, glyceride, glycerol,


glukus glyk- sweet
glycine, glycolysis

glokhis glokhin- arrow-head glochidium

gnathos gnath(o)- jaw gnathitis, gnathopod, gnathostomata

thought,
gnōmē gnome gnome
opinion
inspector,
gnōmōn gnomon gnomon
indicator

goeteia goeteia witchcraft goety

gomphos gomph bolt gomphosis

graphein graph- to write autograph, biography, graphics, geography, xerography

grypos gryp griffin griffin

gynaeceum, gynaecocracy, gynecology, gynocentrism,


gunē gunaik- woman
misogynist, polygyny

decagon, diagonal, dodecagon, enneagon, hendecagon, heptagon,


gonia goni- angle hexagon, goniometer, gonioscopy, octagon, orthogon, polygon,
tetragon, trigonometry

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daimon daimon a divinity daimon, demon, demonology

dakruon dakruo- tear dacryocystitis, dacryon

daktulos daktul- finger dactyl, dactyliomancy, dactylosaurus, dactylitis, pterodactyl

dasus dasu- thick, dense dasylirion, dasymeter, dasypeltis


decad, decalogue, decameron, decamethonium, decasyllable,
deka deka ten
decathlon

delta delta the letter delta delta

small writing
deltion deltio- deltiology
tablet

delphis delphin dolphin dauphin

demnion demnion bed didemnum

district, its
demagogy, deme, demiurge, democracy, demographic,
dēmos dēmo- inhabitants,
demography, demotic, Dimotiki
commoners

dendrite, dendrochronology, dendroclimatology, dendrogram,


dendron dendr(o)- tree dendrology, liriodendron, Philodendron, rhododendron,
Toxicodendron

dermatoglyphics, dermatology, dermatome, dermatomyositis,


derma derm[a]- skin
dermatophyte, dermis

deuteros deutero- second deuterium, Deuteronomy

dia dia through adiabatic, diabetes, diagnosis, dialogue

diabolos diabol- devil diablotin, diablerie, diabolism

diaita diait way of life diet

servant,
diakonos diakon deacon
messenger
didumoi didum- in twins didymium, epididymis

narration,
diegesis diegesi- diegesis
narrative

housekeeping,
dioikesis dioikesi diocese
management

dioptron dioptr- spy-glass dioptre

dis di- twice diatomic, digamma

in two, asunder,
dikha dikho- dichogamy, dichotomy
apart

skin, hide, piece


diphthera diphther- diphtheria
of leather

chionodoxa, doxology, doxography, orthodoxy, paradox,


doxa dox- opinion, praise
paradoxology, paradoxurus

drasis drasi- action drastic

racing, running,
aerodrome, Dromaeosauridae, dromedary, dromomania,
dromos drom- racecourse,
dromotropic, hippodrome, syndrome
course

adynamia, adynamic, aerodynamics, aerodyne, amplidyne,


autodyne, dynameter, dynamicism, dynamics, dynamism,
power, strength, dynamite, dynamo, dynamometer, dynamotor, dynasty, dynatron,
dunamis dun-
force dyne, electrodynamics, heterodyne, hydrodynamics, isodynamic,
magnetohydrodynamics, metadyne, neutrodyne, psychodynamics,
superheterodyne, thermodynamics

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->įȠȝȐȢ hebdomas ->įȠȝĮį- hebdomad- week hebdomad

encyclopedia,
-ȖțȣțȜȠʌĮȚįİȓĮ -ȖțȣțȜȠʌĮȚįİȚ-
lit. rounded encyclopedia
- enkuklopaideia - enkuclopaidei-
education

-Ȗȫ ego ȑȖȠ- ego- I, me, my ego

icon, picture,
İ-țȫȞ eikon İ-țoȞ- icon- icon, iconicity, iconoclast
painting

-țȜİȚȥȚȢ ecleipsis -țȜİȚȥȚ- eklipsi- eclipse eclipse, eclipsis, ecliptic

İ-ȡȒȞȘ eirene İ-ȡȘȞ- eiren- peace, harmony irene

-ȜĮȚȠȞ elaion -ȜĮȚ- elai- oil vaseline

-ȜĮıIJȚțȩȢ elastikos -ȜĮıIJȚț- elastik- elastic elastic, elasticity

-ȜȚȟ helix -ȜȚț- helik- helix helix, helicopter, helicity

-ȜȜİȚȥȚȢ elleipsis -ȜȜİȚȥ- ellipse- ellipse ellipse, ellipsis, ellipsoid, ellipticity

-ȡȖȠȞ ergon -ȡȖ- erg- work erg, ergonomics, zymurgy

-ʌȚȖȡĮijȒ epigraphe -ʌȚȖȡĮij- epigraph- title, inscription anepigraphic, epigraph, epigraphy

-ʌȓıțȠʌȠȢ episkopos -ʌȚıțȠʌ- episkop- overseer bishop, episcopacy


good knowledge
-ʌȚıIJȒȝȘ episteme -ʌȚıIJȘȝ- epistem- episteme, epistemology
(science)

-ȡʌİIJȩȞ herpeton -ȡʌİIJȩ- herpeto- creeping animal herpetology

erysipelas, erysipeloid, Erythrina,


erythrism, erythrite, erythritol,
erythroblast, erythroblastosis,
-ȡȣșȡȩȢ erythros -ȡȣșȡ- erythr- red erythrocyte, erythrocytosis,
erythrolitmin, erythromycin,
erythronium, erythropoiesis,
erythropoietin, erythrose

-ʌIJȐ hepta -ʌIJĮ- hepta- seven heptarchy, heptagon, heptameter

-IJȣȝȠȞ etymon -IJȣȝȠȞ- etymon true etymology

İ- eu İ-- eu- well, good eulogy, eunomia, euphemism, euphoria

İ-ȡȪȢ eurys İȣȡ- eur- wide Europe

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zēlos ȗȘȜ- zel- zeal zeal, zealot, zealotry, zelotypia

search,
zēto ȗȘIJİ- zete- zetetic
inquire

zeugnyo ȗİȣȖȞ- zeugn- to yoke syzygy, zeugma, zygote


zephyros ȗİijȣȡ- zephyr- west wind zephyr

zizuphon ȗȓȗȣijȠȞ zizuphon jujube ziziphus

zōnē ȗȦȞ- zōn- belt zone

azoospermia, bryozoa, cryptozoa, cryptozoology, Mesozoa,


metazoon, placozoa, protozoa, protozoology, spermatozoon,
zoantharia, zoanthropy, zoochlorella, zodiac, zoea, zoetrope,
zōon ȗ-Ƞ- zōo- animal
zoo, zoogeography, zoography, zoolatry, zoology, zoomorphism,
zoophilia, zoophyte, zoopraxiscope, zoospore, zootomy,
zooxanthella

zoster ȗȦıIJȒȡ- zoster girdle zoster

zygon ȗȣȖȠ- zygo a yoke zygon, zygospore

azyme, enzyme, exoenzyme, isoenzyme, isozyme, lysozyme,


zymē ȗȣȝ- zym- leaven
pancreozymin, ribozyme, zymase, zymogen, zymosis, zymurgy

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-Ȗİȝ-Ȟ hēgemōn -ȖİȝȠȞ- hēgemon- leader hegemony

-įȪȢ hēdus -įȣ- hēdu- sweet hedychium

-șȠȢ ēthos -ș- ēth- moral ethics, ethos

anthelion, aphelion, helianthus, heliocentric,


-ȜȚȠȢ hēlios -ȜȚȠ- hēlio- sun
heliochrome, helion, heliodon, heliograph,
heliography, heliometer, helioscope, helioseismology,
heliostat, heliotropic, heliotropism, helium, parhelion,
perihelion

ephemeral, ephemeris, ephemeron, hemera,


-ȝȑȡĮ hēmera -ȝȑȡ- hēmer- day hemeralopia, Hemerobiidae, hemerocallis,
nycthemeron

-ȫȢ ēōs -Ƞ- ēo- dawn eocene, eolith, eosin, eosinophil, eozoon

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euthanasia, thanatology,
șȐȞĮIJȠȢ thanatos șĮȞĮIJ- thanat- death
thanatosis

atheism, theocracy,
șİȩȢ theos șİ- the- a god
theology, theism

șİȦȡȓĮ theōria șİȦȡȚ- theori- theory theory

medical psychotherapy, therapeutics,


șİȡĮʌİȓĮ/șİȡĮʌİȪİȚȞ therapeia/therapeuein șİȡĮʌİȣ- therapeu
treatment therapy

hyperthermia, hypothermia,
șİȡȝȩȢ thermos șİȡȝ- therm- hot isotherm, thermal,
thermoelectric

an elevated dethronement,
șȡȩȞȠȢ thronos șȡȠȞ- thron-
seat enthronement, throne

‘ 

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-İȡȩȢ hieros -İȡȠ- hiero- sacred hierarchy, hieroglyph

hipparch, hippeastrum, hippocampus,


-ʌʌȠȢ hippos -ʌʌ(Ƞ)- hipp(o)- horse hippodrome, hippogriff, hippology,
hippopotamus, hippuris, hippus

-ıIJȠȡȓĮ historia -ıIJȠȡȚ- histori- history history

physician,
-ĮIJȡȩȢ iatros -ĮIJȡ(Ƞ)- iatr(o)- psychiatrist, geriatrics
healer

one¶s own,
-įȚȠȢ idios -įȚ(Ƞ)- idi(o)- idiolect, idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
private

ei-/oi-/i-
-ȑȞĮȚ ienai İ-/Ƞ-/-/-ȠȞIJ- go anion, ion
/iont-

-ȤșȪȢ ikhthus -Ȥșȣ- ikhthu- fish ikhthus, ichthyology

j ‘

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cacophony, cacochymy, cacodemon, cacodyl,


țĮțȩȢ kakos țĮțȠ- kako- bad
cacoethes, caconym, cacotopia, cacoxenite

țĮȜȠ- kalo- calotype


țĮȜȩȢ kalos beautiful
țĮȜȜȚ- kalli- calligraphy, calisthenics

țĮȜȣʌIJ- kalypt- apocalypse, apocalypticism, calyptra,


țĮȜȪʌIJȦ kalypto I cover
țĮȜȣȥ- kalyps- calyptrogyne, eucalyptus

sea-crab,
țȐȝȝĮȡȠȢ kammaros țĮȝȝĮȡ- kammar- gammaridae
lobster
acarpous, artocarpus, ascocarp, carpel,
carpolite, carpology, dipterocarpaceae,
discocarpus, endocarp, exocarp, hydnocarpus,
lithocarpus, macrocarpa, mericarp, mesocarp,
țĮȡʌȩȢ karpos țĮȡʌ- carp- fruit
monocarpic, oligocarpus, parthenocarpy,
pericarp, physocarpus, pilocarpine, podocarp,
polycarpic, schizocarp, sporocarp, stenocarpus,
trachycarpus

țȐȡȣȠȞ karuon țȐȡȣȠȞ karuon nut dikaryon

acatalepsy, autocatalysis, catabolism,


catachresis, cataclysm, catadioptrics,
catagenesis, cataglottis, catalepsy, catalysis,
downwards,
țĮIJȐ kata țĮIJȐ- kat(a)- catalog, cataphora, catastrophe, cataplasm,
along
cataplexy, cataract, catarrh, catasetum,
catastasis, catasterism, catastrophe,
catastrophism, catatonia, category, katabasis

țȑȞIJȡȠȞ kentron țȑȞIJȡ- kentr- centre centre, central, androcentrism, anthropocentrism

țȑȡĮȢ keras țİȡĮIJ(Ƞ)- kerat(o)- horn ceratopsid, ceratosaurus, triceratops

sea monster,
țȒIJȠȢ kētos țȘIJȠ kēto- cetacea, cetology
whale

țȚșȐȡĮ kithara țȚșĮȡ- kithar- lute guitar, zither

to move,
țȚȞ-ıșĮȚ kinesthai țȚȞȘıȚ- kines- psychokinesis, kinetic energy, kinesis
motion

țȓȡțȠȢ kirkos țȚȡțȠ- kirko- ring, circle circus

țȜȫȞ klōn țȜȦȞ- klōn- branch, twig clone, cloning

order, the
cosmetic, cosmography, cosmology,
țȩıȝȠȢ kosmos țȠıȝ- kosm- universe,
cosmopolitan
jewel
țȡȣʌIJȩȢ kruptos țȡȣʌIJ- krupt- hidden cryptology, encryption

țȡȐIJȠȢ kratos țȡĮIJ- krat- power, rule autocrat, democracy, bureaucracy

ț-įȠȢ kūdos țȣį kūd- glory, fame kudos

țȪțȜȠȢ kuklo țȣțȜ(Ƞ) kukl(o)- circle cycle, cyclotron

ț-ȝĮ kuma țȣȝĮIJ kumat- wave cymatium, myokymia

țȪȦȞ, kūon, cynanthropy, cynic, cynicism, cynocephaly,


țȣȞ kun- dog
țȣȞȩȢ kunos cynodont, cynosure

țȪıIJȘ kuste țȣıIJ kust- cyst, bladder cyst, cystectomy, cysteine

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
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ȜĮȩȢ lāos ȜĮȠ- lāo- people laity

leg-
ȜȑȖȦ lego ȜİȖ/ȜȠȖ- to say epistemology, dialect
/log-

ȜȑșĮȡȖȠȢ lethargos ȜȘșĮȡȖ- letharg- forgetful lethargy, Lethe

assumption,
Ȝ-ȝȝĮ lemma ȜȘȝȝĮIJ lemmat dilemma, lemma
premiss

ȜȑȟȚȢ lexis ȜİȟȚ- lexi- word alexia, dyslexia, lexicography, lexicon,

ȜİȣțȩȢ leukos ȜİȣțȠ- leuko- white leukemia, leukocyte


acrolith, batholith, coccolith, coprolith, cystolith,
eolith, gastrolith, laccolith, lithate, lithiasis,
lithography, lithology, lithomancy, lopolith,
ȜȓșȠȢ lithos ȜȚșȠ- litho- stone
megalith, microlith, monolith, neolithic, otolith,
paleolith, Paleolithic, phacolith, phytolith, protolith,
regolith, tonsillolith, xenolith

thought,
ȜȩȖȠȢ logos ȜȠȖȠ- logo- logic, theology
word

break,
Ȝȣ-/Ȝȣ-
ȜȪȦ luō lū-si- loosen, analysis, electrolysis, lysis, Lysistrata
ıȚ-
dissolve

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fond of mathematics, mathematical,


ȝĮșȘȝĮIJȚțȩȢ mathēmatikos ȝĮșȘȝĮIJȚț- mathēmatik-
learning polymath

macron, macrobiotic,
ȝĮțȡȩȢ makros ȝĮțȡȠ- makro- long
macroeconomics

that can be
ȝȐȜĮȖȝĮ malagma ȝĮȜĮȖȝĮIJ- amalagmat amalgam, amalgamation
softened

megabyte, megafauna,
ȝİȖĮ- mega-
ȝȑȖĮȢ megas big, large megaphone,
ȝİȖĮȜȠ- megalo-
megalomania, megalopolis

ȝȑșȠįȠȢ methodos ȝİșȠį- method- method method

pigmented, Melanesia, melanocyte,


ȝȑȜĮȢ melas ȝİȜĮȞ- melan-
black, ink melancholy, melanoma
ȝȑIJĮȜȜȠȞ metallon ȝİIJĮȜȜ- metal- metal medal, metalloid

ȝİIJȡȫ metro ȝİIJȡ- metr- to measure geometry, metre

ȝȘȤĮȞȒ mechane ȝȘȤĮȞ- mechan- machine machine, mechanics

ȝȚțȡȩȢ mikros ȝȚțȡȠ- mikro- small micron, microscope

 
ȝ-ıȠȢ m sos ȝȚı- m s- hatred misandry, misogyny, misanthrope

amnesia, amnesty, Mneme,


ȝȞ-ıIJȚȢ mnēstis ȝȞȘ- mne- memory
mnemonic

monotony, monologue,
alone, solitary, monogamy, monocle, monolith,
ȝȩȞȠȢ monos ȝȠȞȠ- mono-
forsaken monotheist, monopsony,
monopoly

ȝȦȡȩȢ moros ȝȦȡȠ- moro- dull moron, oxymoron

a patron
ȂȠ-ıĮ Mousa ȝȠȣı- mous- goddess of the Muse, music, museum
arts

fibromyalgia, myoblast,
ȝ-Ȣ mus ȝȣȠ- muo/myo- muscle myocarditis, myoclonus, myocyte,
myoglobin

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

ȞȐȞȠȢ nanos ȞĮȞȠ- nano- dwarf nanometry, nanosecond, nanotechnology


giant
ȞȐȡșȘȟ narthex ȞȐȡșȘț- narthek narthex
fennel

aeronautics, astronaut, astronautics, naumachia,


ȞĮȣIJȚțȩȢ nautikos ȞĮȣIJ- naut- sailor, ship
nausea, nautical, nautilus

necromancy, necrophilia, necrophobia, necropolis,


ȞİțȡȩȢ nekros ȞİțȡȠ- nekro- dead body
necrosis

drink of
ȞȑțIJĮȡ nektar ȞİțIJĮȡ- nektar nectar
the gods

new,
ȞȑȠȢ neos ȞİȠ- neo- neon, neologism, neolithic, neopaganism
young

neuralgia,neurapraxia, neurasthenia, neurectomy,


nerve, neurine, neuritis, neurobiology, neurochemistry,
Ȟİ-ȡȠȞ neuron Ȟİȣȡ(Ƞ)- neur(o)-
sinew neurogenesis, neurolemma, neurolinguistics,
neurology, neuron, neuropathy, neurosis

nephrectomy, nephritis, nephrology, nephron,


ȞİijȡȩȢ nephros Ȟİijȡ(Ƞ)- nephr(o)- kidney
nephropathy, nephrosis, nephrotomy

ȞȓțȘ nike ȞȚț- nik- victory Berenice, Veronica

ȞȩıȠȢ nosos ȞȠıȠ- noso- disease nosology

j

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

Xanthippe, xanthene, xanthine, xanthophyll,


ȟĮȞșȩȢ xanthos ȟĮȞș- xanth- yellow
xanthosis, xanthus

ȟȑȞȠȢ xenos ȟİȞȠ- xeno- xenia, xenon, xenophobia, xenophobic, xenopus


strange, stranger,
guest

ȟȘȡȩȢ xeros ȟȘȡȠ- xero- dry xerasia, xerography, xerophyte, xerophthalmia, xerox

ȟȓijȠȢ xiphos ȟȚij- xiph- sword xiphias

ȟȪȜȠȞ xulon ȟȣȜ- xul- wood xylan, xylem, xylene, xylitol, xylophone, xylyl

ȟȪȦ xyo ȟȣ- xy- scrape xyster, xyston, xystus

‘ 

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

-įȠȪȢ odous -įȠȞIJ- odont- tooth orthodontia

androecium, ecocentrism, ecology, ecomuseum,


econometrics, economics, economism, economy,
ecophysiology, ecopoiesis, ecoregion, ecosphere,
Ƞ-țȠȢ oikos Ƞ-țȠ- oiko- house ecosystem, ecotechnology, ecotone, ecotourism,
ecotoxicity, ecotoxicology, ecotype, ecozone,
macroeconomics, microeconomics, oeconomus,
synoecism

Ƞ-ȞȠȢ oinos Ƞ-ȞȠ- oino- wine oenomel, oenology

ȠțIJȫ okto ȠțIJ- okt- eight octagon, octopus

-ȜȓȖȠȢ oligos -ȜȚȖȠ- oligo- few, little oligarchy

-ȝȠ- homo- -ȝȠ- homo- same homogeneity, homology, homomorphism,

-ȝȠȚȠȢ homoios -ȝȠȚȠ- homoio- similar homeomorphism, homeopathy, homeoptoton,


homeosis, homeostasis, homeoteleuton,
homeothermic

-ȖțȠȢ onkos ȠȖțȠ- onko- mass, bulk oncogene, oncogenesis, oncology

hyperoxaluria, oxalis, oxamide, oxidation, oxide,


sharp, acid,
-ȟȪȢ oxus -ȟȣ- oxu- oxoacid, oxycephaly, oxycodone, oxygen,
sour
oxygenation, oxymoron

-ȡĮȝĮ orama -ȡĮȝĮIJ- oramat- a sight diorama, panorama

organ,
-ȡȖĮȞȠȞ organon -ȡȖĮȞ- organ- instrument, organ, organism
tool

straight,
-ȡșȩȢ orthos -ȡș- orth- correct, orthography, orthogonal
normal

-ȡȓȗȦȞ horizon -ȡȚȗȠȞIJ- horizont- horizon horizontal

-ȡȞȚȢ ornis -ȡȞȚș- ornith- bird Ornithodelphia, ornithology, ornithomancy

limit,
-ȡȠȢ horos -ȡȠ- hor- horopter
boundary

Ƞ- ou Ƞ-- ou- not utopia

pathos

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

education,
ʌĮȚįİȓĮ paideia ʌĮȚįİȚĮ- paideia- encyclop(a)edia
culture
paleoanthropology, paleobiology,
paleobotany, paleocene,
ʌĮȜĮȚȩȢ palaios ʌĮȜĮȚ(Ƞ)- palai(o)- ancient, old paleoecology, paleogeology,
paleography, paleolithic,
paleontology, paleozoic

ʌĮ-Ȣ pais ʌĮȚį- paid- boy, child paediatrician, pedophilia, pederast

alongside of,
paradox, paranormal, paraphilia,
ʌĮȡȐ para ʌĮȡ(Į)- par(a)- by, past,
parasite
beyond

pantheism, pantomime, panacea,


ʌ-Ȣ pas ʌĮȞ-, ʌĮȞIJȠ- pan-, panto- all, complete
pandemic

ʌĮIJȒȡ patēr ʌĮIJȡ- patr- father patriarch

ʌİȚȡ-Ȟ peiran ʌİȚȡĮ- peira attack, assault pirate, piracy

ʌİȓȡĮ peira ʌİȚȡ- peir experience empirical, empiricism

ʌİȡȓ peri ʌİȡȚ- peri around perimeter, period, periphrasis

ʌȑIJȡĮ petra ʌȑIJȡĮ- petra rock petrify, petroleum, petrology

pleiotropy, pleochroism,
more,
pleocytosis, pleomorphism,
ʌȜİȓȦȞ pleion ʌȜİȚȦ-/ʌȜİȦ- pleio/-pleo abundance, to
pleonasm, pleonaste, pleonexia,
be full
plethora

ʌȜȘȖȒ plege ʌȜȘȖ-}- pleg- stroke diplegia, paraplegia

megalopolis, metropolis, polis,


ʌȩȜȚȢ polis ʌȠȜİ- pole- city
political, police, polity
bipolar, North Pole, Polaris,
ʌȩȜȠȢ polȠs ʌȠȜ- pol- axis, sky
polarity, polarization

hoi polloi, polygamy, polyglot,


ʌȠȜȪȢ polus ʌȠȜȣ- polu- many, much Polynesia, polyphony, polytechnic,
polytonic

hippopotamus, Mesopotamia,
ʌȠIJĮȝȩȢ potamos ʌȠIJĮȝ- potam- river
Potamogalinae

amblypoda, amphipod, arthropod,


bipod, brachiopod, branchiopod,
cephalopod, chenopod, decapod,
gastropod, gnathopod, heteropoda,
isopod, lagopus, macropod,
ʌȠ-Ȣ pous ʌȠį- pod foot
myriapod, octopus, Oedipus,
ornithopod, pauropod, podiatrist,
platypoda, platypus, prosauropod,
pseudopod, sauropod, tetrapod,
theropod, tripod, xenopus

priest, presbyopia, presbyter,


ʌȡİı>ȪIJİȡȠȢ presbuteros ʌȡİı>ȣIJİȡ- presbuter- elder, older
presbytery

proclamation,
ʌȡȩȖȡĮȝȝĮ programma ʌȡȠȖȡĮȝȝĮIJ- programmat- programmer, program
agenda

ʌȡȩ pro ʌȡȠ- pro- before prophet

prothonotary, protobiont, protocol,


protoconch, protocone, protolith,
ʌȡȦIJ(Ƞ)-
ʌȡ-IJȠȢ prōtos proto-/proth- first proton, protonema, protoplasm,
/ʌȡȦș-
protoplast, protosome, prototheria,
prototype

helicopter, Lepidoptera,
ʌIJİȡȩȞ pteron ʌIJİȡ(Ƞ)- pter(o)- wing ornithopter, pteranodon,
Pterichthyodes, pterodactyl

 
itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

rhabdite, rhabditida, rhabdology,


-Ȑ>įȠȢ rhabdos -Į>į- rhabd- rod
rhabdomancy, rhabdovirus

-ȘIJȠȡȚțȒ rhetorica -ȘIJȠȡ- rhetor- art of speech rhetoric

a flowing,
-İ-ȝĮ rheuma -İȣȝĮIJ- rheumat- rheumatism, rheum
rheum

-ȓȗĮ rhiza -ȓȗ(Ƞ)- rhiz(o)- root corallorhiza, rhizobium, rhizome, rhizophora

rhinencephalon, rhinitis, rhinoceros,


-ȓȢ rhis -ȚȞ- rhin- nose
rhinolith, rhinoplasty

-ȩįȠȞ rhodon -ȠįȠ- rhodo- rose, red rhododendron, rhodium

--ȠȓĮ -rhoia -ȡȡȠȚĮ -rrhoia flow, flux gonorrhea, leukorrhea, logorrhoea

-ȩȝ>ȠȢ rhombos -Ƞȝ>(Ƞ)- rhomb(o)- rhombus rhombus

-- rho --/-ȦIJ- rho-/rhot the letter rho rhotacism

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

ıȐȡȟ sarx ıĮȡțȠ- sarko- flesh sarcophagus,sarcasm, sarcoidosis, sarcoma

ıĮ-ȡȠȢ sauros ıĮȣȡȠ- sauro- lizard dinosaur. Saurida


ıțȠʌȩȢ skopos ıțȠʌ- skop- observer scope, telescope

knowledge,
ıȠijȓĮ sophia ıȠijȚĮ- sophia- philosophy, sophistry
wisdom

anastrophe, antistrophe, apostrophe[6],


ıIJȡȠijȒ strophe ıIJȡȠijȒ- -stroph- turning
catastrophe, epistrophe, strophe

ıIJȡȩijȠȢ strophos ıIJȡȩij- stroph- a turning apostrophe[6], boustrophedon

ıȪȝ>ȠȜȠȞ sumbolon ıȣȝ>ȠȜ- sumbol- symbol symbol

ıȪıIJȘȝĮ sustēma ıȣıIJȘȝĮIJ- sustēmat- system system, systematic

disphenoid, sphene, sphenocrates,


ıijȒȞ sphēn ıijȒȞ(Ƞ)- sphēn(o)- wedge
sphenodontia, sphenoid

ıijȒȟ sphēx ıijȘț- sphēk- wasp sphecidae, sphex

ıȤȠȜȒ skholē ıȤȠȜ- skhol- leisure, school school, scholar, scholium

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

parataxis, phototaxis, syntax,


IJȐȟȚȢ taxis IJĮȟȚ- taxi- arrangement taxidermy, taxon, taxonomy,
thermotaxis

tachometer, tachycardia, tachygraphy,


IJĮȤ-Ȣ tachys IJĮȤȣ- tachy- swift
tachylite, tachyon

IJȑȜȠȢ telos IJİȜİı/IJİȜİ(Ƞ)- teles/tele(o)- end teleology, teleonomy, teleostome


telegram, telegraph, telemetry,
IJ-Ȝİ tele IJȘȜİ- tele- afar, far off telepathy, telephone, telescope,
television, telethon

oxytetracycline, pentylenetetrazol,
tetracaine, Tetragrammaton,
IJȑIJIJĮȡİȢ tettares IJİIJȡĮ- tetra- four
tetrahedron, tetralogy, tetrapod,
tetrarchy

IJȠȟȚțȩȞ toxicon IJȠȟȚț- toxic- poison toxic, toxicology, toxin, toxoplasma

IJȩʌȠȢ topos IJȠʌ(Ƞ)- top(o) place dystopia, topology, utopia

IJȡȩʌĮȚȠȞ tropaion IJȡȠʌĮ- tropa to defeat trophy

of the turning of
IJȡȠʌȚțȩȢ tropicos IJȡȠʌȚț- tropic- tropicamide, tropics
the sun, tropical

nourishment, amyotrophy, atrophy, auxotrophy,


IJȡȠijȒ trophē IJȡȠijȚț- trophic- food (genitive chemotroph, dystrophy, heterotrophy,
form) psychotropic[6]

‘  ‘ 

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

-įȞȠȞ hudnon -įȞȠ- hudno- truffle hydnocarpus

achlorhydria, anhydrous, dehydration,


-įȦȡ hudōr -įȡȠ- hudro- water
hydrodynamics, hydrogen, hydrolysis

-įȡȠȥ hudrops -įȡȠʌ- hudrop- dropsy dropsy

soundness,
-ȖȚİȚȞȒ hugiene -ȖȚİȚȞ- hugien- hygiene
health
-ȖȡȩȢ hugros -Ȗȡ/-ȖȡȠ- hugr/hugro- moist hygrine, hygrometer, hygroscopy

-ȜȘ hulē -ȜȘ/-Ȝ- hulē/hul- wood, forest hyla, hyle, hylodes, hylozoism

super-, pro-,
-ʌȑȡ huper -ʌȑȡ- huper- hyperactivity, hyperbole, hypersensitivity
trans-, over-

-ʌȞȠȢ hupnos -ʌȞȠ- hupno- sleep hypnotism

hypoblast, hypochlorite, hypochondria,


-ʌȠ hupo -ʌ(Ƞ)- hup(o)- sub-, under
hypodermic

i 

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

anthropophagy, bacteriophage,
ijȐȖȦ phagō ijĮȖ- phag- I eat
esophagus, sarcophagus

ijȐȞĮȚ phanai ijĮ- pha- to say phatic, prophet

ijĮȓȞȠȝĮȚ phainomai ijĮȚȞȠ- phaino- I appear phenomenon

ijȑȡȦ phero ijİȡ- pher- bring Berenice, varnish, Veronica

ijȚȜȚĮ- philia- Philadelphia, philosophy, pedophilia,


ijȚȜȓĮ/ijȓȜȠȢ philia/philos friendship/friend
/ijȚȜȠ- /philo- zoophilia

ijȠ>ȓĮ phobia ijȠ>ȚĮ- phobia- irrational fear,


phobia, Phobos
ijȩ>ȠȢ phobos ijȠ>Ƞ- phobo- fear

phonetic, phonograph, phonology,


ijȦȞȒ phōnē ijȦȞȘ- phōnē- voice
telephone, vibraphone, xylophone
frantic, paraphrenia, phrenitis,
ijȡȒȞ phren ijȡİȞ- phren- heart, mind
phrenology, schizophrenia

ijȪıȚȢ phusis ijȣıȚ}- phusi- nature physical, physics

dermatophyte, geophyte, macrophyte,


microphyte, neophyte, oophyte,
periphyton, phytic acid, phytochemical,
ijȣIJȩȞ phuton ijȣIJȠ- phuto- plant
phytology, phytopathology, phytotomy,
saprophyte, spermatophyte, thallophyte,
zoophyte

ijȦȢ/ijĮ- pha-
ij-Ȣ phōs /ijȦı- /phōs- light phosphorus, photography, photogenic
/ijȦIJ- /phōt-

j  ‘ 

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

loose,
ȤĮȓIJȘ khaitē ȤĮȚIJȘ- khaitē- polychaete
flowing hair

yawning
ȤȐıȝĮ kasma ȤȐıȝ(ĮIJ)- khasm(at)- chasm, chasmogamy
hollow

primal
ȤȐȠȢ khaos ȤĮȠı- khaos- chaos, gas
emptiness

ȤĮȡĮțIJȒȡ kharakter ȤĮȡĮțIJȘȡ- kharakter- character character, characteristic, characterology

cheironomy, chirograph, chirography,


ȤİȚȡ kheir ȤİȚȡ- kheir- hand Chiroptera, chiromancy, Chironomidae,
chiropractor, surgeon[6]

ȤȚȫȞ khion ȤȚȠȞ- khion- snow chionodoxa


ȤȠȡİȓĮ khoreia ȤȠȡİȚ- chorei- dance choreography

ȤȠȡȩȢ khoros ȤȠȡȠ- choro- dance choir, chorale, chorus

ȤȡȒıȚȝȠȢ chresimos ȤȡȘıȚȝȠ- chresemo- useful chrestomathy

chrism, chrismation, chrismarium, Christ,


ȤȡȓȦ khrio ȤȡȚ- khri- anoint
Christmas

Ȥȡ-ȝĮ khroma ȤȡȦȝĮIJ- khromat- colour chromate, chromaticism

ȤȡȩȞȠȢ khronos ȤȡȠȞ- khron- time chronology, chronometer

chrysalis, chrysanthemum, chrysene,


ȤȡȣıȩȢ khrusos Ȥȡȣı- khrys- gold
chrysoberyl, chrysocolla

i

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

to play,
ȥȐȜȜİȚȞ psāllein ȥȐȜ- psal- psallmelodicon, psalm, psalter
twang

ȥȐȝȝȠȢ psāmmos ȥĮȝȝȠ- psammo- sand psammoma, Psammophis

ȥ-ijȠȢ psephos ȥȘij(Ƞ)- pseph(o)- pebble isopsephy, psephite, psephology

false, a pseudechis, pseudepigrapha, pseudobranch,


ȥİ-įȠȢ pseudos ȥİȣįȠ/ȥİȣį- pseud(o)-
falsity pseudonym, pseudopod, pseudoscience

to grope
ȥȘȜĮij-Ȟ pselaphan ȥȘȜĮij- pselaph- pselaphinae
about
mere,
psilanthropism, psilocybin, psilomelane,
ȥȚȜȩȢ psilos ȥȚȜȠ- psilo- bare,
psilophyta
smooth

muscles
ȥȩĮ psoa ȥȠĮ- psoa- of the psoas
loin

neuropsychology, psionics, psychasthenia,


psyche, psychedelic, psychiatry, psychic,
psychoacoustics, psychoanalysis, psychobabble,
psychodrama, psychogenesis, psychographic,
psychohistory, psychokinesis, psycholinguistics,
spirit,
ȥȣȤȒ psūkhē ȥȣȤ- psūkh- psychology, psychometrics, psychometry,
soul
psychoneuroendocrinology,
psychoneuroimmunology, psychopathy,
psychopharmacology, psychophysics,
psychophysiology, psychosis, psychosomatic,
psychosurgery, psychotherapy, psychotropic

Psychrolutidae, psychrometer, psychrometrics,


ȥȣȤȡȩȢ psuchros ȥȣȤȡȠ- psuchro- cold
psychrophile

‘ 

itatin‘rm‘ t‘rm‘
eaning‘ nglish‘ erivative‘

-
omega -ȝİȖĮ- omega large o omega
ȝȑȖĮ

-ȩȞ ōon -Ƞ- ōo- egg oocyte, oology

-ȡĮ hōra -ȡĮ- hōra- season, hour horology, horometry, horoscope

suffix indicating noun


-ȦıȚȢ -osis -ȦıȚ- -osi- halitosis, metamorphosis
derived from verb

-IJȠ- oto --IJ(Ƞ)- ot(o)- ear


otitis, otolaryngology, otolith, otology,
otoplasty, otoscope

‘ ist‘‘rench‘rds‘and‘phrases‘sed‘b‘ nglish‘speakers‘
  
M gogo
in abundance. It pertains to the familiar language in French.
M la [...]
in the manner of/in a similar manner to [...]
M la carte
literally: on the card or on the menu; (in restaurants refers to ordering individual dishes rather than
a fixed-price meal)
M propos
regarding (note that the correct French syntax is à propos de)
abattoir
slaughterhouse
accouchement
confinement during childbirth; the process of having a baby; only this last meaning remains in
French
adieu
farewell; as it literally means "to God," it carries more weight than "au revoir" ("goodbye",
literally "see you later"): it is definitive, implying you will never see the other person again.
Depending on the context, misuse of this term can be considered as an insult, as you'll wish for the
other person's death or will say that you don't wish to see the other person ever again while alive.
It is used for "au revoir" in south of France[1] and to point a deprivation from someone or
something.
adroit
skillful, clever, in French: habile, as a "right-handed" person would be using his "right" hand, as
opposed to his left one with which he would be "gauche" meaning "left".
aide-de-camp
"camp assistant"; assistant to a senior military officer
aide-mémoire
"memory aid"; an object or memorandum to assist in remembrance, or a diplomatic paper
proposing the major points of discussion
allez!
"go!", as in "go team!"
ancien régime
a sociopolitical or other system that no longer exists, an allusion to pre-revolutionary France (used
with capital letter in French with this meaning : Ancien Régime)
aperçu
preview; a first impression; initial insight.
apéritif
a before-meal drink (in familiar French, it is shortened as "un apéro"). In French : before-meal
drink, not necessary followed by a meal. Cornerstone of French sociability.
appellation contrôlée
supervised use of a name. For the conventional use of the term, see Appellation d'origine contrôlée
après moi, le déluge
remark attributed to Louis XV of France; used in reference to the impending end of a functioning
French monarchy and predicting the French Revolution. (After me, the deluge) 617 Squadron
Royal air Force famously known as The Dam Busters use this as their motto. Also a verse in the
song Après Moi by Regina Spektor.
arête
a narrow ridge. In French, also fishbone; edge of a polyhedron or graph; bridge of the nose.
armoire
a type of cabinet; wardrobe.
art nouveau
a style of decoration and architecture of the late 19th and early 20th centuries (usually bears a
capital in French : Art nouveau).
attaché
a person attached to an embassy; in French is also the past participle of the verb attacher (=to
fasten, to tight, to be linked...)
au contraire
on the contrary.
au courant
up-to-date; abreast of current affairs.
au fait
being conversant in or with, or instructed in or with.
au jus
literally, with juice, referring to a food course served with sauce. Often redundantly formulated, as
in 'Open-faced steak sandwich, served with au jus.'. No longer used in French, except for the slang
"être au jus" (to be informed)
au pair
a young foreigner who does domestic chores in exchange for room and board. In France, those
chores are mainly child care/education.
au revoir!
"See you later!" In French a contraction of Au plaisir de vous revoir (to the pleasure of seeing you
again).
avant-garde (pl. avant-gardes)
applied to cutting-edge or radically innovative movements in art, music and literature; figuratively
"on the edge", literally, a military term, meaning "vanguard" (which is the deformation of avant-
garde) or "advance guard", in other words, "first to attack" (antonym of arrière-garde).
avant la lettre
used to describe something or someone seen as a precursor or forerunner of something (such as an
artistic or political movement) before that something was recognized and named, e.g. "a post-
modernist avant la lettre", "a feminist avant la lettre"; the expression literally means before the
letter, i.e. "before it had a name".
avec plaisir
my pleasure (lit. "with pleasure")

  
ballet
a classical type of dance
beau geste
literally "beautiful gesture"; gracious gesture; also, a gesture noble in form but meaningless in
substance. in French : a selfless/generous/fair-play act.
Beaux-Arts
monumental architectural style of the early 20th century made famous by the Académie des
Beaux-Arts
beaucoup
plenty, lots of, much; merci‘beacp: thanks a lot; misused in slang, for example "beaucoup
money" (French would add the preposition de : "beaucoup d'argent"), especially in New Orleans,
LA. Occasionally corrupted to Koo oo, typically in the context of French influenced by
Vietnamese culture.
bel esprit (pl. beaux esprits)
literally "fine mind"; a cultivated, highly intelligent person
belle
a beautiful woman or girl. Common uses of this word are in the phrases the belle of the ball (the
most beautiful woman or girl present at a function) and southern belle (a beautiful woman from
the southern states of the US)
belles-lettres
literally "fine letters"; literature regarded for its aesthetic value rather than its didactic or
informative content; also, light, stylish writings, usually on literary or intellectual subjects
bien fait !
literally "well done"; used to express schadenfreude when someone is well-deservedly punished
bien pensant
literally "well thinking"; right thinking, orthodox
blasé
unimpressed with something because of over-familiarity, jaded.
bon appétit
literally "good appetite"; enjoy your meal
bon mot
well-chosen word(s), particularly a witty remark
bon vivant
one who enjoys the good life, an epicurean
bon voyage
have a good trip!
bonjour
"good day", the usual greeting
bonne chance
"good luck" (as in, 'I wish you good luck')
les boules
(vulgar) literally "the balls"; meaning that whatever you are talking about is dreadful
bourgeois
member of the bourgeoisie. The word used to refer to shopkeepers living in towns in the Middle
Ages. Now the term is derogatory, and it applies to a person whose beliefs, attitudes, and practices
are conventionally middle-class.
bric-M-brac
small ornamental objects, less valuable than antiques; a collection of old furniture, china, plate and
curiosities. Cf. de bric et de broc, corresponding to our "by hook or by crook", and brac , refuse.
brioche
a sweet yeast bun, kind of a crossover between a popover and a light muffin; French also use the
term as slang for 'potbelly', because of the overhang effect.
brunette
a brown-haired girl. For brown-haired man, French uses brun and for a woman brune. No more
used in French, unlike brun(e), except in very old literature. The masculine form, brunet (for a
boy) is even more rarely used.
bureau (pl. bureaux)
office. Also means "desk" in French.

  
ça ne fait rien
"that doesn't matter"; rendered as san fairy Ann in British WWI slang [2].
cachet
lit. "stamp"; a distinctive quality ; quality, prestige.
café
a coffee shop (also used in French for "coffee").
café au lait
coffee with milk; or a light-brown color. In medicine, it is also used to describe a birthmark that is
of a light-brown color (café au lait spot).
carte blanche
unlimited authority; literally "white card" (i.e. blank check).
carte de visite
a calling card, literally "visiting card".
carte d'identité
identity card.
ce n'est pas grave
"It doesn't matter, it's not a big deal" (informal).
c'est bon
"that's good".
c'est la guerre!
"That's War!"; or "Such is war!" Often used with the meaning that "this means war", but it can be
sometimes used as an expression to say that war (or life in general) is harsh but that one must
accept it.
c'est la mode.
"That's the fashion."
c'est la vie!
"That's life!"; or "Such is life!" It is sometimes used as an expression to say that life is harsh but
that one must accept it.
c'est magnifique!
"That's great!"; literally it's magnificent.
Ceux qui rient le vendredi, pleureront le dimanche
Those who laugh on Friday will cry on Sunday.
chacn‘ses‘gts‘‘‘chacn‘ses‘gts‘‘‘chacn‘sn‘gt [all 3 are used]
"to each his (their) own taste(s)".
chaise longue
a long chair for reclining; (also rendered chaise lounge or chase lounge via folk etymology).
Champs-Élysées
literally "Elysian Fields"; Avenue des Champs-Élysées, one of the largest boulevards in Paris.
Often referred as simply "les Champs" ; l'"Élysée" (or "palais de l'Elysée") refers to the French
Republic President's main residence, which is situated close to the Champs-Élysées. Figuratively,
it also means the President himself (equivalent to the saying "the White House decided...").
chanteuse
a female singer
chapeau
a hat. In French, chapeau is also an expression of congratulations similar to the English "hats off
to...."
chargé d'affaires
a diplomat left in charge of day to day business at a diplomatic mission. Within the United States
Department of State a chargé is any officer left in charge of the mission in the absence of the
titular chief of mission.
charlatan
a person who is a fraud, a fake, a hoaxer, a deceiver, a con artist.
châteaux en Espagne
literally "castles in Spain"; imaginary projects, with little hope of realisation (means the same as
"castles in the air" or "pie in the sky"). No known etymology, though it was already used in the
13th century in the Roman de la rose.
chauffeur
driver
chef d'œuvre
a masterpiece
cherchez la femme
"look for the woman", in the sense that, when a man behaves out of character or in an otherwise
apparently inexplicable manner, the reason may be found in his trying to cover up an illicit affair
with a woman, or to impress or gain favour with a woman. First used by Alexandre Dumas (père)
in the third chapter of his novel Les Mohicans de Paris (1854).
chevalier d'industrie
"knight of industry" : one who lives by his wits, specially by swindling.
chez
at the house of : often used in the names of restaurants and the like; Chez Marie = "Marie's"
chic
stylish
chignon
a hairstyle worn in a roll at the nape of the neck
cinéma vérité
realism in documentary filmmaking
cinq, cinque
five; normally referring to the 5 on dice or cards. In French, always spelt cinq.
cliché
lit. negative; trite through overuse; a stereotype
clique
a small exclusive group of friends without morale; always used in a pejorative way in French.
commandant
a commanding officer. In France, used for an airline pilot (le commandant de bord), in the Army
as appellative for a chef de bataillon or a chef d'escadron (roughly equivalent to a major) or in the
Navy for any officer from capitaine de corvette to capitaine de vaisseau (equivalent to the Army's
majors, lieutenant-colonels and colonels) or for any officer heading a ship.
comme ci, comme ça
"like this, like that"; so-so, neither good nor bad. In French, usu. couci-couça.
comme il faut
"as it must be" : in accord with conventions or accepted standards; proper.
communiqué
lit. communicated; an official communication.
concierge
a hotel desk manager (in French also refers to the caretaker of a building usually living at the front
floor ; concierges have a reputation for gossiping)
concordat
an agreement; a treaty; when used with a capital C in French, it refers to the treaty between the
French State and Judaeo-Christian religions during the French Empire (Napoleon) : priests,
ministers and rabbis became civil servants. This treaty was abolished in 1905 (law Church-State
separation) but is still in use in Alsace-Lorraine (those territories were under German
administration during 1871±1918)
confrère
a colleague, esp. in the medical and law professions.
congé
a departure; in French when used in the plural form refers to vacations
conte
a short story, a tale; in French a conte has usually a fantasy context (such as in fairytales) and
always begins with the words "Il était une fois" ("Once upon a time").
contre-coup
against the blow
contre-jour
against daylight
contretemps
an awkward clash; a delay
coquette
a flirtatious girl; a tease
cordon sanitaire
a policy of containment directed against a hostile entity or ideology; a chain of buffer states; lit.
"quarantine line"
cortège
a funeral procession; in French has a broader meaning and refers to all kinds of processions.
corvée
forced labor for minimal or no pay. In French, overall an unpleasant/tedious task.
cotte d'armes
coat of arms.
coup de foudre
lit. thunderbolt ("strike of thunder"); a sudden unforeseen event, usually used to describe love at
first sight.
coup de grâce
the final blow that results in victory (literally "blow of mercy"), historically used in the context of
the battlefield to refer to the killing of badly wounded enemy soldiers, now more often used in a
figurative context (e.g., business). Frequently pronounced without the final "s" sound by English
speakers who believe that any such sound at the end of a French word is supposed to be silent.
coup de maître
stroke of the master, master stroke
coup d'œil
a glance, literally "a blow (or touch) of the eye".
coup de théâtre
unexpected dramatic turn of events, a plot twist
couture
fashion (usually refers to high fashion)
couturier
a fashion designer (usually refers to high fashion, rather than everyday clothes design)
crèche
a nativity display; more commonly (in UK), a place where children are left by their parents for
short periods in the supervision of childminders; both meanings still exist in French
crème brûlée
a dessert consisting primarily of custard and toasted sugar, that is, caramel; literally "burnt cream"
crème de la crème
best of the best, "cream of the cream", used to describe highly skilled people or objects. A
synonymous expression in French is « fin du fin ».
crème fraîche
literally "fresh cream", a heavy cream slightly soured with bacterial culture, but not as sour or as
thick as sour cream
crêpe
a thin sweet or savoury pancake eaten as a light meal or dessert
cri du cœur
"cry from the heart" : an impassioned outcry, as of entreaty or protest
croissant
a crescent-shaped bread made of flaky pastry
cri d'amour
a "cry of love"
critique
a critical analysis or evaluation of a work, or the art of criticizing.
cuisine minceur
gourmet cooking for staying thin
cul-de-sac
a dead-end (residential) street; literally "bottom (buttocks) of the bag".

  
d'accord
in accord; agreed; sure; OK; of course
de nouveau
again; anew. Cf. de novo
de règle
according to custom;
de rigueur
required or expected, especially in fashion or etiquette
de trop
excessive, "too much"
déclassé
of inferior social status
décolleté
a woman's garment with a low-cut neckline that exposes cleavage, or a situation in which a
woman's chest or cleavage is exposed; décolletage is dealt with below.
décor
the layout and furnishing of a room
découpage
decoration with cut paper
demi-glace
a reduced wine-based sauce for meats and poultry
demi-sec
semi-dry, usually said of wine
déjM vu
"already seen" : an impression or illusion of having seen or experienced something before.
dénouement
the end result
dérailleur
a bicycle gear-shift mechanism
dernier cri
the latest fashion; literally "latest scream"
derrière
rear; buttocks; literally "behind"
déshabillé
partially clad or scantily dressed; also a special type of garment.
désolé
sorry
détente
easing of diplomatic tension
diablerie
witchcraft, deviltry, or, more figuratively, "wickedness"
Dieu et mon droit
motto of the British Monarchy. It appears on a scroll beneath the shield of the coat of arms of the
United Kingdom.
directeur sportif
lit. sports director. A person responsible for the operation of a cycling team during a road bicycle
race. In French, it means any kind of sports director.
divertissement
an amusing diversion; entertainment
dossier
a file containing detailed information about a person; it has a much wider meaning in modern
French, as any type of file, or even a computer directory
douceur de vivre
"sweetness of life"
doyen
the senior member of a group; the feminine is doyenne
dressage
a form of competitive horse training, in French has the broader meaning of taming any kind of
animal
droit du seigneur
"right of the lord" : the purported right of a lord in feudal times to take the virginity of one of his
vassals' brides on her wedding night (in precedence to her new husband). The actual French term
for this hypothetical custom is droit de cuissage (from cuisse 'thigh').
du jour
said of something fashionable or hip for a day and quickly forgotten; today's choice on the menu,
as soup du jour, literally "of the day"
  
eau de toilette
perfume; can be shortened as eau (water); literally "grooming water." Usually refers to a product
which is less expensive, because it has less aromatic compounds, and is thus used more for
everyday purposes
écarté
a card game; also a ballet position
échappé
dance movement foot position
éclair
a cream and chocolate icing pastry
éclat
Great brilliance, as of performance or achievement. Conspicuous success. Great acclamation or
applause
écorché
flayed; biological graphic or model with skin removed
élan
a distinctive flair or style
élan vital
literally "vital ardor"; the vital force hypothesized by Henri Bergson as a source of efficient
causation and evolution in nature; also called "life-force"
éminence grise
"grey eminence" : a publicity-shy person with little formal power but great influence over those in
authority
en bloc
as a group
en passant
in passing
en principe, oui
"in principle, yes" : a diplomatic way of saying 'no'
en route
on the way
(je suis) enchanté(e)
"(I am) enchanted (to meet you)" : a formal greeting on receiving an introduction. Often shortened
to simply "enchanté".
enfant terrible
a disruptively unconventional person, a "terrible child".
ennui
boredom.
entente
diplomatic agreement or cooperation. L'Entente cordiale (the Cordial Entente) refers to the good
diplomatic relationship between France and United Kingdom before the first World War.
entre nous
confidentially; literally "between us"
entrée
literally "entrance"; the first course of a meal (UK English); used to denote the main dish or course
of a meal (US English).
entremets
desserts/sweet dishes. More literally, a side dish that can be served between the courses of a meal.
entrepreneur
a person who undertakes and operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some
accountability for the inherent risks
escargot
snail
escritoire
writing desk; spelled "écritoire" in current French
esprit de corps
"spirit of the body [group]" : a feeling of solidarity among members of a group; morale. Often
used in connection with a military force.
esprit de l'escalier
"wit of the stairs" : a concise, clever statement you don't think of until too late, e.g. on the stairs
leaving the scene
l'État, c'est moi!
"I am the state!" ² attributed to the archetypal absolute monarch, Louis XIV of France
étude
a musical composition designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the
performance of an instrument. French for "study".
excusez-moi
excuse me; can be used sarcastically (depends on the tone)
excusez le mot!
excuse the word!; if a certain word has negative connotations (for example, a word-joke at a time
of grief)
extraordinaire
extraordinary, usually as a following adjective, as "musician extraordinaire"
et toi ?
and you? (Je m'appelle (your name), Et toi ?)(my name is (your name) and yours?)

  
façade
the front view of an edifice (from the Italian facciata, or face); a fake persona, as in "putting on a
façade" (the ç is pronounced like an s)
fait accompli
lit. accomplished fact; something that has already happened and is thus unlikely to be reversed. A
done deal. In French only used in the expression "placer/mettre quelqu'un devant le fait accompli"
meaning to present somebody with a fait accompli.
faute de mieux
for want of better
faux
false, ersatz, fake.
faux amis
"false friends" : words in two different languages that have the same or similar spelling, and often
the same etymology but different meanings, such as the French verb rester which means "to stay"
rather than "to rest"
faux pas
"false step" : violation of accepted, although unwritten, social rules
femme fatale
"deadly woman" : an attractive woman who seduces and takes advantage of men in order to
achieve personal goals after which she discards or abandons the victim. Used to describe an
attractive woman with whom a relationship is likely to result, or has already resulted, in pain and
sorrow
feuilleton
"little leaf of paper" : a periodical, or part of a periodical, consisting chiefly of non-political news
and gossip, literature and art criticism, a chronicle of the latest fashions, and epigrams, charades
and other literary trifles.
fiancé/e
betrothed; lit. a man/woman engaged to be married.
fier de l'être
proud of being; "French, and proud to be so"
film noir
a genre of dark-themed movies from the 1940s and 1950s that focus on stories of crime and
immorality
fils
used after a man's surname to distinguish a son from a father, as George Bush fils (in French, "fils"
= son)
fin de saison
"end of season" : marks the end of an extended (annual) period during which business increases
significantly, most commonly used for the end of summer tourism
flambé
a cooking procedure in which alcohol (ethanol) is added to a hot pan to create a burst of flames,
meaning "flamed" in French. Also used colloquially in reference to something on fire or burned.
flambeau
a lit torch
flâneur
a gentleman stroller of city streets; an aimless idler
fleur-de-lis
a stylized-flower heraldic device; the golden fleur-de-lis on an azure background were the arms of
the French Kingdom (often spelled with the old French style as "fleur-de-lys")
foie gras
fatty liver; usually the liver of overfed goose, hence: pâté‘de‘ie‘gras, pâté made from goose
liver. However, "foie gras" generally stands for "paté de foie gras" as it is the most common way
to use it.
folie M deux
a simultaneous occurrence of delusions in two closely related people, often said of an unsuitable
romance
force majeure
an overpowering event, an act of God (often appears in insurance contracts)
froideur
coldness (for behavior and manners only)

   
gaffe
blunder
garçon
literally "boy" or "male servant"; sometimes used by English speakers to summon the attention of
a male waiter (has a playful connotation in English but is condescending in French)
gauche
tactless, does not mean "left-handed" (which is translated in French as "gaucher"), but does mean
"left"
gaucherie
boorishness
Gautier et Garguille
all the world and his wife (possibly derived from a 17th century French comic Hugues Guérin,
who performed under the stage name Gautier-Garguille, though it is likely that he in turn may
have taken this pseudonym from earlier 16th century recorded sayings: prendre‘Gatier‘pr‘
Gargille: "to take Gautier for Garguille", that is to mistake one person for another; il‘n'‘a‘ni‘
Gatier,‘ni‘Gargille: "he is neither Gaultier nor Garguille", that is, 'he is no-one')
genre
a type or class, such as "the thriller genre"
glissade
slide down a slope
les goûts et les couleurs ne se discutent pas
"tastes and colours are not argued over"; one does not argue over differences in taste, to each his
own. French People usually shorten the sentence, to "les goûts et les couleurs..."
grâce M
"thanks to", "by the grace of", naming credit or fortune
Grand Prix
a type of motor racing, literally "Great Prize"
grand projet
literally "large project"; usually a government funded large scale civil engineering or technology
project executed for prestige or general social benefit, and not immediately (if ever) profitable
Grand Guignol
a horror show, named after a French theater famous for its frightening plays and bloody special
effects. (uignol can be used in French to describe a ridiculous person, in the same way that clown
might be used in English.)

 ! "
habitué
one who regularly frequents a place
haute couture
"high sewing" : Paris-based custom-fitted clothing; trend-setting fashion
haute cuisine
upscale gastronomy; literally "upper cooking".
haute école
advanced horsemanship; literally "upper school"
hauteur
arrogance; lit. height
haut monde
fashionable society, the "upper world"
homme du monde
cultured, sophisticated man, "man of the world"
Honi soit qui mal y pense.
"Shame on him who thinks ill of it"; or sometimes translated as Evil be to him who evil thin s; the
motto of the English Order of the Garter (modern French writes honni instead of Old French honi)
hors concours
"out of the running"; a non-competitor, e.g. in love
hors de combat
out of the fight : prevented from fighting, usually by injury
hors d'œuvre
"outside the [main] work" : appetizer
huis-clos
"closed door" : an enclosed space such as a room or cell, where action or speech can not be seen or
heard from outside; title of a play by Jean-Paul Sartre

 # $
idée fixe
"fixed idea": obsession; in music, a leitmotiv.
impasse
a deadlock.
insouciant/e
a nonchalant man/woman
ingénu/e
an innocent young man/woman, used particularly in reference to a theatrical stock character who
is entirely virginal and wholesome. L'Ingénu is a famous play written by Voltaire.

 % &
j¶accuse
"I accuse"; used generally in reference to a political or social indictment (alluding to the title of
Émile Zola¶s exposé of the Dreyfus affair, a political scandal which divided France from the 1890s
to the early 1900s which involved the false conviction for treason in 1894 of a young French
artillery officer of Jewish background)
j'adore
literally, I adore. I love to the full extent.
j'adoube
In chess, an expression said discreetly signaling an intention to straighten out the pieces, without
being committed to moving or capturing the first one touched as per the game's rules; lit. "I
adjust". From adouber, to dub (the action of knighting someone)
Jacques Bonhomme
a name given to a French peasant as tamely submissive to taxation. Also the pseudonym of the
14th century peasant leader Guillaume Caillet
je m'appelle
my name is...
je m'en fous
"I don't give a damn / a fuck".
je ne regrette rien
"I regret nothing" (from the title of a popular song sung by Édith Piaf: "Non, je ne regrette rien").
Also the phrase the UK's then Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont chose to use to
describe his feelings over the events of September 16, 1992 ('Black Wednesday')
je ne sais pas
"I don't know"; collapses to chais pas Å pa in modern colloquial speech
je ne sais quoi
"I-don't-know-what" : an indescribable or indefinable 'something' which distinguishes the object in
question from others which are superficially similar.
je t'aime
I love you. Implies "I like you" too. The French word "aimer" implies all the different kinds of
love (love = like). In order to differentiate the two, one would say simply "je t'aime" to one's love
whereas one would say "je t'aime bien" (lit. I love you well) to a friend.
je suis
I am
jeunesse dorée
"gilded youth"; name given to a body of young dandies who, after the fall of Robespierre, strove
to bring about a counter-revolution. Today used for any offspring living an affluent lifestyle.
joie de vivre
"joy of life/living"

  '
laïcité
separation of the State and the different Churches (at first, it concerned especially Catholicism). In
France, where the concept originated, it means an absence of religious interference in government
affairs and government interference in religious affairs. But the concept is often assimilated and
changed by other countries. For example, in Belgium, it usually means the secular-humanist
movement and school of thought.
laissez-faire
"let do"; often used within the context of economic policy or political philosophy, meaning
leaving alone, or non-interference. The phrase is the shortcut of Laissez faire, laissez passer, a
doctrine first supported by the Physiocrats in the 18th century. The motto was invented by Vincent
de Gournay, and it became popular among supporters of free-trade and economic liberalism. It is
also used to describe a parental style in developmental psychology, where the parent(s) does not
apply rules nor guiding.
laissez-passer
a travel document, a passport
laissez les bons temps rouler
Cajun expression for "let the good times roll": not used in proper French, and not generally
understood by Francophones outside of Louisiana, who would say "profitez des bons moments"
(enjoy the good moments)
lamé
a type of fabric woven or knit with metallic yarns
lanterne rouge
the last-place finisher in a cycling stage race; most commonly used in connection with the Tour de
France
layette
a set of clothing and accessories for a new baby
lèse majesté
an offense against a sovereign power; or, an attack against someone's dignity or against a custom
or institution held sacred (from the Latin "crimen laesae maiestatis": the crime of injured majesty)
liaison
a close relationship or connection; an affair. The French meaning is broader; "liaison" also means
bond such as in "une liaison chimique" (a chemical bond)
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood" (motto of the French Republic)
lieu
from Latin locus ("place"); in‘Ä‘: "instead of", "in the place of". This is illustrated for instance
in the English word "lieutenant", which literally means "place-holder"
littérateur
an intellectual (can be pejorative in French, meaning someone who writes a lot but does not have a
particular skill)
louche
of questionable taste;
Louis Quatorze
"Louis XIV" (of France), the Sun King, usually a reference to décor or furniture design. Also the
namesake of the winner of the 1996 Preakness.
Louis Quinze
"Louis XV" (of France), associated with the rococo style of furniture, architecture and interior
decoration

  (
macramé
coarse lace work made with knotted cords
mademoiselle
young unmarried lady, miss; literally "my noble young lady"
mais oui
"but of course!". Often used as a sarcastic reply in French, in order to close the debate by feigning
to agree.
maison
house
malaise
a general sense of depression or unease
mange tout
another phrase describing 'peas' (litt : "Eat-all", due to the fact that some peas can be cooked and
eaten with their pod.)
mal de mer
motion sickness, literally "seasickness"
Mardi gras
Fat Tuesday, the last day of eating meat before Lent. Note that there isn't a capital to gras
marque
a model or brand
matériel
supplies and equipment, particularly in a military context (French meaning is broader and
corresponds more to "hardware")
mauvais quart d'heure
"bad quarter hour" : a short unpleasant or uncomfortable moment
mélange
a mixture
mêlée
a confused fight; a struggling crowd
ménage M trois
"household for three" : a sexual arrangement between three people
merci beaucoup
"Thank you very much!"
merde
"shit"
merde alors
"shit then"
métier
a field of work or other activity; usually one in which one has special ability or training
milieu
social environment; setting (has also the meaning of "middle" in French.)
mirepoix
a cooking mixture of two parts onions and one part each of celery and carrots
mise en place
a food assembly station in a commercial kitchen
mise en scène
the process of setting a stage with regard to placement of actors, scenery, properties, etc.; the stage
setting or scenery of a play; surroundings, environment
moi
"me"; often used in English as an ironic reply to an accusation; for example, "Pretentious? Moi?"
moi aussi
"me too", used to show agreeing with someone
le moment suprême
"the supreme moment"; the climax in a series of events (for example at the unveiling of an art
exhibition)
Mon Dieu!
my God!
monsieur pl ‘| 
a man, a gentleman. Also used as a title, equivalent to Mr. or Sir.
montage
a blending of pictures, scenes, or sounds
le mot juste
"the just word"; the right word at the right time. French uses it often in the expression chercher le
mot juste (to search for the right word)
motif
a recurrent thematic element
moue
a pursing together of the lips to indicate dissatisfaction, a pout
mousse
a whipped dessert or a hairstyling foam; in French, means any type of foam

  )
natation
swimming
né, née
"born" : a man/woman¶s birth name (maiden name for a woman), e.g., "Martha Washington, née
Custis".
n'est-ce pas?
"isn't it [true]?"; asked rhetorically after a statement, as in "Right?"
noblesse oblige
"nobility obliges"; those granted a higher station in life have a duty to extend (possibly token)
favours/courtesies to those in lower stations
nom de guerre
pseudonym to disguise the identity of a leader of a militant group, literally "war name", used in
France for "pseudonym"
nom de plume
author's pseudonym, literally "pen name". Originally an English phrase, now also used in France
nouveau
new
nouveau riche
newly rich, used in English to refer particularly to those living a garish lifestyle with their
newfound wealth.
nouvelle cuisine
new cuisine
nouvelle vague
Literally meaning "new wave". Used for stating a new way or a new trend of something.
Originally marked a new style of French filmmaking in the late 1950s and early 1960s, reacting
against films seen as too literary (whereas the phrase "new wave" is used in French to qualify
some '80's music, such as Depeche Mode.)

  *
objet d'art
a work of art, commonly a painting or sculpture
œuvre
"work", in the sense of an artist's work; by extension, an artist's entire body of work
orange
orange
ouais
yeah
oui
yes

   
panache
verve; flamboyance
papier-mâché
lit. chewed paper; a craft medium using paper and paste
par avion
by air mail. The meaning is broader in French, it means by plane in general.
par excellence
"by excellence" : quintessential
parkour
urban street sport involving climbing and leaping, using buildings, walls, curbs to ricochet off
much as if one were on a skateboard, often in follow-the-leader style. It's actually the phonetic
form of the French word "parcours", which means "route".
pas de deux
a close relationship between two people; a duet in ballet
pas de problème
no problem
pas de trois
a dance for three, usually in ballet.
passe-partout
a document or key that allows the holder to travel without hindrance from the authorities or enter
any location.
pastiche
a derivative work; an imitation
patois
a dialect; jargon
père
used after a man's surname to distinguish a father from a son, as in "George Bush père."
la petite mort
an expression for orgasm; literally "the little death"
peut-être
perhaps, possibly, maybe
pied-M-terre
"foot-on-the-ground" or "foothold"; a place to stay, generally applied to the city house in
contradistinction to the country estate of the wealthy
pis-aller
"worse"; an undesirable option selected because the other choices were even worse
piste
referring to skiing at a ski area (on piste) versus skiing in the back country (off piste).
plat du jour
a dish served in a restaurant on a particular day but which is not part of the regular menu; literally
"dish of the day"
plongeur (fem. plongeuse)
a male (or female) dishwasher
plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose (or plus ça change, plus c¶est pareil)
the more things change, the more they stay the same
plus royaliste que le roi
"more royalist than the king", i.e. more enthusiastic than the cause deserves
pomme
apple
porte cochère
an architectural term referring to a kind of porch or portico-like structure.
poseur
"poser" : a person who pretends to be something he is not; an affected or insincere person: a
wannabe
pot-au-feu
stew, soup
pour encourager les autres
"to encourage others"; said of an excessive punishment meted out as an example. The original is
from Voltaire's Candide and referred to the execution of Admiral John Byng.[3]
pourboire
"for drink"; gratuity, tip; dnner‘n‘prbire: to tip.
prêt-M-porter
"ready to wear" (clothing off the shelf), in contrast to hate‘ctre
première dame
"first lady"
protégé/e
a man/woman who receives support from an influential mentor.
provocateur
a polemicist

  +
Quai d'Orsay
address of the French foreign ministry in Paris, used to refer to the ministry itself.
Quatorze juillet
"14th July" Bastille Day. The beginning of the French Revolution in 1789; used to refer to the
Revolution itself and its ideals. It is the French National Day.
quel dommage!
"What a pity!"
quelle horreur!
:hat a horrible thing! (can be used sarcastically).
quelle surprise!
"What a surprise!"
Qu'est-ce que c'est ?
"What is this/that?"
qui vive ?
"who is living?" (modern language : who is here ?) : a sentry's challenge. Obsolete, but for the
expressions "sur le qui-vive" (literally "on the point of saying qui vive") ² on the alert, vigilant
² and "il n'y a pas âme qui vive" (literally "no soul is/lives here", soul meaning person).
quoi de neuf?
"What's new?" What's up?

  ,
raconteur
a conversationalist
raison d'État
reason of state (always with a capital "É" in French).
raison d'être
"reason for being" : justification or purpose of existence
rapport
to be in someone's "good graces"; to be in synch with someone; "I've developed a rapport with my
co-workers"; French for: relationship
rapprochement
the establishment of cordial relations, often used in diplomacy
reconnaissance
scouting; like connoisseur, modern French use a "a", never a "o" (as in reconnoissance).
reportage
reporting; journalism
répondez s'il vous plaît. (RSVP)
Please reply. Though francophones may use more usually "prière de répondre", it is common
enough. (Note: RSLP ["Répondre s'il lui plaît"] is used on old-fashioned invitations written in the
3rd person, usually in "Script" typography ² at least in Kelgium)
ressentiment
a deep-seated sense of aggrievement and powerlessness
restaurateur
a restaurant owner
Rive Gauche
the left (southern) bank (of the River Seine in Paris). A particular mindset attributed to inhabitants
of that area, which includes the Sorbonne
roi fainéant
"do-nothing king" : an expression first used about the kings of France from 670 to 752 (Thierry III
to Childeric III), who were puppets of their ministers. The term was later used about other royalty
who had been made powerless, also in other countries, but lost its meaning when parliamentarism
made all royals powerless.
rôle
a part or function of a person in a situation or an actor in a play
roman M clef
"novel with a key" : an account of actual persons, places or events in fictional guise
roux
a cooked mixture of flour and fat used as a base in soups and gravies

 ! -
sabotage
subversive destruction, from the practice of workers fearful of industrialization destroying
machines by tossing their sabots ("wooden shoes") into machinery
saboteur
one who commits sabotage
Sacrebleu!
"holy Blue!" general exclamation of horror and shock; a stereotypical minced oath. Very dated in
France and rarely heard.
sang-froid
"cold blood" : coolness and composure under strain; stiff upper lip. Also pejorative in the phrase
meurtre de sang-froid ("cold-blooded murder").
sans
without
sans-culottes
"without knee-pants", a name the insurgent crowd in the streets of Paris gave to itself during the
French Revolution, because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length pants or trousers) instead of
the chic knee-length culotte of the nobles. In modern use: holding strong republican views.
saperlipopette
goodness me
sauté
lit. jumped ; quickly fry in a small amount of oil.
sauve qui peut!
those who can should save themselves. Used as a pragmatic response to an accident. Equivalent to
the English "every man for himself".
savant
"knowing" : a wise or learned person; in English, one exceptionally gifted in a narrow skill.
savoir-faire
literally "know how to do"; to respond appropriately to any situation.
savoir-vivre
fact of following conventional norms within a society; etiquette (etiquette also comes from a
French word, "étiquette")
s'il vous plaît (SVP)
"if it pleases you", "if you please"
si vous préférez
"if you prefer"
sobriquet
an assumed name, a nickname (often used in a pejorative way in French)
soi-disant
so-called; self-described; literally "oneself saying"
soigné
fashionable; polished
soirée
an evening party
sommelier
a wine steward
soupçon
a very small amount (In French, can also mean suspicion)
soupe du jour
"soup of the day", meaning the particular kind of soup offered that day
succès d¶estime
a "success in the estimation of others", sometimes used pejoratively
il faut souffrir pour être belle
"beauty does not come without suffering" ; lit. "you have to suffer to be pretty"
sur le tas
as one goes along; on the fly
Système D
resourcefulness, or ability to work around the system; from débrouillard, one with the knack of
making do. A typical phrase using this concept would translate directly to "Thanks to System D, I
managed to fix this cupboard without the missing part."

 # .
tableau
chalkboard. The meaning is broader in French : all type of board (chalkboard, whiteboard, notice
board...). Refers also to a painting (see tableau vivant, below) or a table (chart).
tant mieux
so much the better.
tant pis
"too bad," "oh well, that's tough".
tenné
orange-browm, 'rust' colour, not commonly used outside of heraldic emblazoning.
tête-M-tête
"head to head"; an intimate get-together or private conversation between two people.
toilette
the process of dressing or grooming. Also refers in French, when plural ("les toilettes"), to the
toilet room.
torsade de pointes
meaning "twisting around a point", used to describe a particular type of heart rhythm.
touché
acknowledgment of an effective counterpoint; literally "touched" or "hit!" Comes from the fencing
vocabulary.
tour de force
"feat of strength" : a masterly or brilliant stroke, creation, effect, or accomplishment.
tout de suite
lit. everything (else) follows; "at once", "immediately" (per Oxford English Dictionary).
très
very (often ironic in English)
très beau
very beautiful
trompe-l'œil
photograph-like realism in painting; literally "trick the eye"

 % /
unique
One of a kind. Unique is considered a paradigmatic absolute and therefore something cannot be
very unique.

   
vas-y!
Go Ahead! Used to encourage someone (pronounced vah-zee)
va-t'en!
imperative form, like above, literally meaning "Go from here" but translating more closely as "Go
away". Roughly equivalent to idiomatic English get lost or get out.
vendu (pl. vendus)
sellout. Lit. sold (past tense of "vendre" = to sell); used as a noun, it means someone who betrays
for money.
venu/e
invited man/woman for a show, once ("come"); unused in modern French, though it can still be
used in a few expressions like bienvenu/e (literally well come : welcome) or le premier venu
(anyone; literally, the first who came).
vin de pays
literally "county wine"; wine of a lower designated quality than appellatin‘cntrlée
vinaigrette
salad dressing of oil and vinegar; diminutive of vinaigre (vinegar)
vis-M-vis
"face to face [with]" : in comparison with or in relation to; opposed to. From "vis" (conjugated
form of "voir", to see). In French, it's also a real estate vocabulary word meaning that your
windows and your neighbours' are within sighting distance (more precisely, that you can see inside
of their home).
viva, vive [...]!
"Long live...!"; lit. "Live"; as in "Vive la France!", "Vive la République!", ³Vive la Résistance!´,
"Vive le Canada!", or "Vive le Québec libre!" (long live free Quebec, a sovereigntist slogan
famously used by French President Charles de Gaulle in 1967 in Montreal). Unlike "viva" or
"vivat", it cannot be used as such, it needs a complement.
vive la différence!
"[long] live the difference"; originally referring to the difference between the sexes, the phrase
may be used to celebrate the difference between any two groups of people (or simply the general
diversity of individuals)
voilM!
literally "see there"; in French it can mean simply "there it is"; in English it is generally restricted
to a triumphant revelation.
volte-face
a complete reversal of opinion or position, about face
Voulez-vous coucher avec moi (ce soir) ?
"Do you want to sleep with me (tonight)? " In English it appears in Tennessee Williams's play A
Streetcar Named Desire, as well as in the lyrics of a popular song by Labelle, "Lady Marmalade".
In French, it is a rude and cheesy pick-up line ("coucher" is vulgar in French).
voyeur
lit. someone who sees; a peeping tom.

  0121314
le zinc
bar/café counter.
zut alors!
"Damn it!" or the British expression "Blimey!", a general exclamation. Just plain zut is also in use
² often repeated for effect, for example, zut, zut et zut! There is an album by Frank Zappa titled
Zoot Allures. The phrase is also used on the Saturday Night Live Weekend Update sketch by
recurring character Jean K. Jean, played by Kenan Thompson.

  ) 5  6


6
accoutrement
personal military or fighting armaments worn about one's self; has come to mean the
accompanying items available to pursue a mission. In French, means a funny or ridiculous
clothing; often a weird disguise or a getup, though it can be said also for people with bad taste in
clothing.
agent provocateur
a police spy who infiltrates a group to disrupt or discredit it. In French it has both a broader and
more specific meaning. The Académie française, in its dictionary, says that an agent provocateur
is a person working for another State or a political party (for examples), whose mission is to
provoke troubles in order to justify repression.
appliqué
an inlaid or attached decorative feature. Lit. "applied", though this meaning doesn't exist as such in
French, the dictionary of the Académie française indicates that in the context of the arts, "arts
appliqués" is synonym of decorative arts.
après-ski
after s iing socializing after a ski session; in French, this word refers to boots used to walk in
snow (e.g. MoonBoots).
artiste
a skilled performer, a person with artistic pretentions. In French : an artist. Can be used ironically
for a person demonstrating little professional skills or passion.
auteur
A film director, specifically one who controls most aspects of a film, or other controller of an
artistic situation. The English connotation derives from French film theory. It was popularized in
the journal Cahiers du cinéma: auteur theory maintains that directors like Hitchcock exert a level
of creative control equivalent to the author of a literary work. In French, the word means author,
but some expressions like "cinéma d'auteur" are also in use.
au naturel
nude; in French, literally, in a natural manner or way ("au" is the contraction of "M le", masculine
form of "M la"). It means "in an unaltered way" and can be used either for people or things. For
people, it rather refers to a person who doesn't use make-up or artificial manners (un entretien au
naturel = a backstage interview). For things, it means that they weren't altered. Often used in
cooking, like "thon au naturel" : canned tuna without any spices or oil. Also in heraldry, meaning
"in natural colours", especially flesh colour, which is not one of the "standard" colours of heraldry.
M la mode
fashionable; also, with ice cream (in the U.S.) or with cheese in some U.S. regions. In French, it
only means "fashionable".
baguette
a long, narrow loaf of bread with a crispy crust, otherwise called 'French bread' in the United
Kingdom and United States. In French, a "baguette" refers to many objects which are long and
narrow, including some kind of bread described above (which has also some subvarieties), a
magical wand or chopsticks. Also, there are many varieties of bread, and some "French bread" are
not called in France "baguette", but rather "épi" or "ficelle".
bête noire
a scary or unpopular person, idea, or thing, or the archetypical scary monster in a story; literally
"black beast." In French, "être la bête noire de quelqu'un" ("to be somebody's bête noire") means
that you're particularly hated by this person or this person has a strong aversion against you,
regardless of whether you're scary or not. The dictionary of the Académie française only admits its
use for people, though other dictionaries admits it for things or ideas too. It's familiar in French.
boutique
a clothing store, usually selling designer/one off pieces rather than mass-produced clothes. Can
also describe a quirky and/or upmarket hotel. In french, it can describe any shop, clothing or
otherwise.
boutonnière
In English, a boutonnière is a flower placed in the buttonhole of a suit jacket. In French, a
boutonnière is the buttonhole itself.
bureau de change (pl. bureaux de change)
a currency exchange. In French, it means the office where you can change your currency.
c'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas la guerre
"it is magnificent, but it is not war" ² quotation from Marshal Pierre Bosquet commenting on the
charge of the Light Brigade. Unknown quotation in French.
cap-M-pied
from head to foot; modern French uses de pied en cap.
cause célèbre
An issue arousing widespread controversy or heated public debate, lit. famous cause. It's correct
grammatically, but the expression is not used in French.
cinq M sept
extraconjugal affair between five and seven pm. In French, though it can also mean this, it
primarily means any relaxing time with friends between the end of work and the beginning of the
marital obligations.
chanson
1) a classical "art song," equiv. to the German lied or the Italian aria; or 2) in Russian, a cabaret-
style sung narrative, usually rendered by a guttural male voice with guitar accompaniment. In
French, it simply means a song.
claque
a group of admirers; in old French, the claque was a group of people paid to applaud or disturb a
piece at the theater; in modern French, it means "a slap"; "clique" is used in this sense (but in a
pejorative way).
coiffeur
hairstyle. In French, means a hairstylist, a hairdresser, a barber.
connoisseur
an expert in wines, fine arts, or other matters of culture; a person of refined taste. It is spelled
connYisseur in modern French.
corsage
A bouquet of flowers worn on a woman's dress or worn around her wrist. In French, it refers to a
woman's chest (from shoulder to waist) and, by extension, the part of a woman's garment which
covers this area.
coup de main (pl. coups de main)
a surprise attack. In French, "[donner] un coup de main" means "[to give] a hand" (to give
assistance). Even if the English meaning exists as well, it is old-fashioned.
coup d'état (pl. coups d'État)
a sudden change in government by force; literally "hit (blow) of state". French uses the capital É,
because using or not a capital change the sense of the word (ºtat : a State, as in a country; état : a
state of being). It also can NOT be shortened as "coup", which means something else altogether in
French.
crudité
an appetizer consisting of grated raw vegetables soaked in a vinaigrette. In French, it means
uncooked vegetable, traditionally served as an entrée (first part of the meal, contrary to an
appetizer which is considered as outside of the meal), with or without a vinaigrette or another
sauce. Almost always used in the plural form in French (as in, crudités).
début
first public performance of an entertainment personality or group. In French, it means "beginning".
The English sense of the word exist only when in plural form : "[faire] ses débuts [sur scène]" (to
make one's débuts on the scene).
décolletage
a low-cut neckline, cleavage (This is actually a case of "false friends": Engl décolletage = Fr
décolleté; Fr décolletage means: 1 action of lowering a female garment's nec line; 2 Agric:
cutting leaves from some cultivated roots such as beets, carrots, etc; 3 Tech Operation
consisting of ma ing screws, bolts, etc one after another out of a single bar of metal on a parallel
lathe
déjM entendu/lu
already heard/read. They do not exist as an expression in French: the Académie française[4] says
that un déjà vu (a feeling of something already seen) can be used but not un déjà entendu or un
déjà lu.
démarche
a decisive step. In French, it means all the different kinds of manners you can walk.
dépanneur
a neighbourhood general/convenience store, term used in eastern Canada (often shortened to "dép"
or "dep"). In French, it means a repairman. A convenience store would be a "supérette" or
"épicerie [de quartier]".
émigré
one who has emigrated for political reasons. In French, it means someone who emigrated. To
imply the political reason, French would use of the word "exilé" (exiled).
encore
A request to repeat a performance, as in ³Encore !´, lit. again; also used to describe additional
songs played at the end of a gig. Francophones would say «Une autre !» (Another one !) to request
« un rappel » (an encore).
en masse
in a mass or group, all together. In French, 'mass' only refers to a physical mass, whether for
people or objects. It cannot be used for something immaterial, like, for example, the voice : "they
all together said 'get out'" would be translated as "ils ont dit 'dehors' en choeur" ([like a chorus]).
Also, 'en masse' refers to numerous people or objects (a crowd or a mountain of things).
en suite
as a set (do not confuse with "ensuite", meaning "then"). In French, "suite", when in the context of
a hotel, already means several rooms following each other. "J'ai loué une suite au Ritz" would be
translated as "I rented a suite at the Ritz". "En suite" is not grammatically incorrect in French, but
it's not an expression in itself and it is not used.
épée
a fencing weapon descended from the duelling sword. In French, apart from fencing (the sport) the
term is more generic : it means sword.
escritoire
a writing table. It is spelt écritoire in modern French.
exposé
a published exposure of a fraud or scandal (past participle of "to expose"); in French refers to a
talk or a report on any kind of subject.
extraordinaire
extraordinary, out of the ordinary capacity for a person. In French, it simply means extraordinary
(adjective) and can be used for either people, things or concepts. The rule that systematically puts
'extraordinary' after the noun in English is also wrong, because in French, an adjective can be put
before the noun to emphasize - which is particularly the case for the adjective 'extraordinaire'. In
fact, French people would just as well use 'un musicien extraordinaire' as 'un extraordinaire
musicien' (an extraordinary male musician, but the latter emphasizes his being extraordinary).
femme
a stereotypically effeminate gay man or lesbian (slang, pronounced as written). In French, femme
(pronounced 'fam') means "woman".
fin de siècle
comparable to (but not exactly the same as) turn-of-the-century but with a connotation of
decadence, usually applied to the period from 1890 through 1910. In French, it means "end of the
century", but it isn't a recognized expression as such.
foible
a minor weakness or quirkiness. The word is spelt faible in French and means "weak" (adjective).
Weakness is translated as faiblesse (noun).
forte
a strength, a strong point, typically of a person, from the French fort (strong) and/or Italian forte
(strong, esp. "loud" in music) and/or Latin forte (neutral form of fortis, strong). French use "fort"
both for people and objects.
According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, "In forte we have a word derived from French that in
its "strong point" sense has no entirely satisfactory pronunciation. Usage writers have denigrated
\'for-"tA\ and \'for-tE\ because they reflect the influence of the Italian-derived forte. Their
recommended pronunciation \'fort\, however, does not exactly reflect French either: the French
would write the word le fort and would rhyme it with English for [French doesn't pronounce the
final "t"]. All are standard, however. In British English \'fo-"tA\ and \'fot\ predominate; \'for-"tA\
and \for-'tA\ are probably the most frequent pronunciations in American English."
The New Oxford Dictionary of English derives it from fencing. In French, "le fort d'une épée" is
the third of a spade nearer the hilt, the strongest part of the sword used for parrying.
fromage
cheese. Used in place of Say cheese when taking pictures of people to get them to smile, one
would utter Say fromage French people would use the English word "cheese" or "ouistiti".
la sauce est tout
"The sauce is everything!" or "The secret's in the sauce!" Tagline used in a 1950s American TV
commercial campaign for an American line of canned food products. Grammatically correct but
not used in French, where one might say "Tout est dans la sauce" or "C'est la sauce qui fait
(passer) le poisson" (also fig.).
marquee
the sign above a theater that tells you what's playing. From "marquise" which not only means a
marchioness but also an awning. Theater buildings are generally old and nowadays there's never
such a sign above them anymore; there's only the advertisement for the play (l'affiche).
naïve
a man or woman lacking experience, understanding or sophistication. In French, it only refers to
the latest two and often has a pejorative connotation, as in gullible. Also, naïve can only be used
for women; the masculine form is "naïf".
ooh la la!
"wowie!" Expression of exaggerated feminine delight; variation of an expression more commonly
used by the French, "oh la la!" which means "yikes!" or "uh-oh!" The "wowie" intent does exist in
French, but is not as pretentious as the English usage.
outré
out of the ordinary, unusual. In French, it means outraged (for a person) or exaggerated,
extravagant, overdone (for a thing, esp. a praise, an actor's style of acting, etc.) (In that second
meaning, belongs to "literary" style)
passé
out of fashion. The correct expression in French is "passé de mode". Passé means past, passed, or
(for a colour) faded.
peignoir
a woman¶s dressing gown. In French it is a bathrobe. A dressing gown is a "robe de chambre" (lit.
a bedroom dress).
petite
small; waiflike; skinny; In French, it only means small and does not have those other connotations
it has in English. Also, this is the feminine form of the adjective (used for girls...); the masculine
form is "petit".
philosophe
a French intellectual and writer of the Enlightenment. In French, it applies to any philosopher.
pièce d'occasion
"occasional piece"; item written or composed for a special occasion. In French, it means "second-
hand hardware". Can be shortened as "pièce d'occas'" or even "occas'" (pronounced "okaz").
portemanteau (pl. portemanteaux)
a blend; a word which fuses two or more words or parts of words to give a combined meaning. In
French, lit. a carry coat, referred to a person who carried the royal coat or dress train, now
meaning a large suitcase; more often, a clothes hanger. The equivalent of the English
"portemanteau" is un mot-valise (lit. a suitcase word).
potpourri
medley, mixture; French write it "pot-pourri", lit. rotten pot (it is primarily a pot where you put
different kind of flowers or spices and let it dry for years for its scent).
précis
a concise summary. In French, when talking about a school course, it means an abridged book
about the matter. Literally, 'Précis' means precise, accurate.
premier
prime minister or head of government. In French, it is only an adjective meaning "first".
première
refers to the first performance of a play, a film, etc. In French, it means "the first", and only for a
live performance; it cannot be used as a verb ("the film premiered on November" is the equivalent
of "the film firsted in November").
raisonneur
a type of author intrusion in which a writer inserts a character to argue the author's viewpoint ;
alter ego, sometimes called 'author avatar'. In French, a "raisonneur" is a character which stands
for moral and reason in a play, i.e. not necessarily the author's point of view. The first meaning of
this word though is a man (fem. raisonneuse) who overdo reasonings, who tires by objecting with
numerous arguments to every order.
recherché
lit. searched; obscure; pretentious. In French, means sophisticated or delicate, or simply studied,
without the negative connotations of the English.
reprise
repetition of previous music in a suite, programme, etc. In French it may mean an alternate version
of a piece of music, or a cover version. To express the repetition of a previous musical theme,
French would exclusively use the Italian term coda.
résumé
in North American English, a document listing one's qualifications for employment. In French, it
means summary; they would use instead curiculum vitæ, or its abbreviation, C.V. (like most other
English speakers)
rendezvous
lit. "go to"; a meeting, appointment, or date. Always in two words in French, as in "rendez-vous".
Its abbreviation is RDV.
risqué
sexually suggestive; in French, the meaning of risqué is "risky", with no sexual connotation.
Francophones use instead "osé" (lit. "daring") or sometimes "dévergondé" (very formal language).
"Osé", unlike "dévergondé", cannot be used for people themselves, only for things (pictures...) or
attitudes.
table d'hôte (pl. tables d'hôte)
a full-course meal offered at a fixed price. In French, it is a type of lodging where, unlike a hotel,
you eat with other patrons and the host. Lit. "the host's table" : you eat at the host's table whatever
he prepared for him or herself, at the family's table, with a single menu. Generally, the menu is
composed of traditional courses of the region & the number of patrons is very limited.
tableau vivant (pl. tableaux vivants, often shortened as tableau)
in drama, a scene in which actors remain still as if in a picture. Tableau means painting, tableau
vivant, living painting. In French, it is an expression used in body painting.
vignette
a brief description; a short scene. In French, it is a small picture.

après-garde
Avant-garde's antonym. French (and most English speakers) uses arrière-garde (either in a
military or artistic context).
art deco
a style of decoration and architecture of the early 20th century made famous by the Exposition
internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes. Spelled "art déco" (note the accent) in
French.
brassiere
French use brassière (note the accent). Also, the French equivalent of "bra" would be "un soutien-
gorge" (which can be familiarly abbreviated as soutif). A "brassière", in French, is a special kind
of woman undergarment for sports ; larger than a simple "soutien-gorge", it offers a better support
of the breast.
cinquefoil
five-petal, five-leaf flower of the genus Potentilla, family Rosaceae; also a circular 5-lobed
ornamental design. Spelt qinteeille in French.
corduroy
Suggested as "corde du roi" ("the king's cord") but this doesn't exist in French. More likely from
1780 American English "cord" and 17th "duroy", a coarse fabric made in England.
demimonde
a class of women of ill repute; a fringe group or subculture. Fell out of use in the French language
in the 19th century. Frenchmen still use "une demi-mondaine" to qualify a woman that lives
(exclusively or partially) of the commerce of her charms but in a high-life style.
demitasse
small cup, usually for coffee. Comes from "une demi-tasse", literally a half cup. It's not an
expression as such in French.
double entendre
double meaning. French would use either "un mot / une phrase M double sens" (a word / a sentence
with two meanings) or "un sous-entendu" (a hidden meaning). The verb entendre, to hear
(modern), originally meant to understand. "Double entendre" has, however, been found previously
in French documents dating back to the 15th century.[citation needed] The dictionary of the Académie
française lists the expression "M double entente" as obsolete.
homage
term used for films that are influenced by other films, in particular by the works of a notable
director. French word is written "hommage", and is used for all shows of admiration, respect, or in
a close sense for dedication of an artwork to another.
léger de main
"light of hand" : sleight of hand, usually in the context of deception or the art of stage magic
tricks. Means nothing in French and has no equivalent.
maître d¶
translates as master o'. Francophones would say maître d¶hôtel (head waiter) instead (French
never uses "d'" alone).
negligee
A robe or a dressing gown, usually of sheer or soft fabric for women. French uses négligé
(masculine form, with accents) or nuisette. Négligée qualifies a woman who neglects her
appearance.
pièce de résistance
the best; the main meal, literally "a piece that resists". Francophones use plat de résistance (main
dish).
repertoire
the range of skills of a particular person or group. It is spelt répertoire, in French ; also, the
meaning is slightly different : it means the range of songs / musics a person or group can play.
reservoir
a holding tank for liquids; an artificial pond for water. It is spelt réservoir, in French.
succès de scandale
Success through scandal; Francophones might use « succès par médisance ».
voir dire
jury selection (Law French). Literally "to speak the truth".[5] (Anglo-Norman voir [truth] is
etymologically unrelated to the modern French voir [to see].)[6]

  
66
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1 5
 

International authorities have adopted a number of words and phrases from French for use by speakers of
all languages in voice communications during air-sea rescues. Note that the "phonetic" versions are
presented as shown and not the IPA.

SECURITAY
(securité, ³safety´) the following is a safety message or warning, the lowest level of danger.
PAN PAN
(panne, ³breakdown´) the following is a message concerning a danger to a person or ship, the next
level of danger.
MAYDAY
([venez] m'aider, come to help me"; note that aidez-moi means "help me") the following is a
message of extreme urgency, the highest level of danger. (MAYDAY is used on voice channels for
the same uses as SOS on Morse channels)
SEELONCE
(silence, ³silence´) keep this channel clear for air-sea rescue communications.
SEELONCE FEE NEE
(silence fini, ³silence is over´) this channel is now available again.
PRU DONCE
(prudence, ³prudence´) silence partially lifted, channel may be used again for urgent non-distress
communication.
MAY DEE CAL
(médical, ³medical´) medical assistance needed.

‘ Oedit]‘German‘terms‘cmmnl‘sed‘in‘ nglish‘

¢‘ Berliner Weisse, sour beer infused with fruit syrup


¢‘ Biergarten, open±air drinking establishment
¢‘ Bratwurst (sometimes abbv. brat), type of sausage
¢‘ Delikatessen, speciality food retailer, fine foods
¢‘ Hamburger, sandwich with a meat patty and garnishments
¢‘ Hasenpfeffer, type of rabbit (or hare) stew
¢‘ Hefeweizen, unfiltered wheat beer (containing yeast)
¢‘ Frankfurter, pork sausage
¢‘ Kirschwasser, spirit drink made from cherries
¢‘ Kohlrabi, type of cabbage
¢‘ Kraut, cabbage; sometimes used as a derisive term for Germans
¢‘ Lager, beer made with bottom-fermenting yeast and stored for some time before serving
¢‘ Leberwurst, pork liver sausage
¢‘ Maß, a unit of volume used for measuring beer
¢‘ Muesli, breakfast cereal (Swiss German diminutive of "mues"; related to English "mush".)
¢‘ Pilsener (or Pils, Pilsner), pale lager beer
¢‘ Brezel, evolved into Pretzel, flour and yeast based pastry
¢‘ Pumpernickel, type of sourdough rye bread, strongly flavoured, dense, and dark in colour
¢‘ Rollmops, rolled, pickled herring fillet
¢‘ Sauerkraut, fermented cabbage
¢‘ Schnaps, distilled beverage
¢‘ Spritzer, chilled drink from white wine and soda water (from "spritzen" = to spray)
¢‘ Stein, large drinking mug, usually for beer (from "Steingut" = earthenware, referring to the
material)
¢‘ Strudel (e. g. Apfelstrudel), a filled pastry
¢‘ Wiener, hot dog (from "Wiener Würstchen" = sausage from Vienna)
¢‘ Wiener Schnitzel, crumbed veal cutlet
¢‘ Wurst, sausage, cold cuts
¢‘ Zwieback, a "twice baked" bread; variants: German hard biscuits; Mennonite double yeast roll.

 ‘ Oedit]‘prts‘and‘recreatin‘

¢‘ Abseil (German spelling: sich abseilen, a reflexive verb, to rope (seil) oneself (sich) down (ab));
the term abseiling is used in the UK and commonwealth countries, "roping (down)" in various
English settings, "rappelling" in the US and "snapling" by Israelis.
¢‘ Blitz, taken from Blitzkrieg (lightning war). It is a team defensive play in American or Canadian
football in which the defense sends more players than the offense can block.
¢‘ Karabiner, snaplink, a metal loop with a sprung or screwed gate, used in climbing and
mountaineering; modern short form/derivation of the older word 'Karabinerhaken'; translates to
'riflehook'. The German word can also mean Carbine.
¢‘ Fahrvergnügen meaning "driving pleasure"; originally, the word was introduced in a Volkswagen
advertising campaign in the U.S., one tag line was: "Are we having Fahrvergnügen yet?").
¢‘ Kletterschuh, climbing shoe (mountaineering)
¢‘ Rucksack (more commonly called a backpack in U.S. English)
¢‘ Schuss, literally: shot (ski) down a slope at high speed
¢‘ Turnverein, a gymnastics club or society
¢‘ Volksmarsch / Volkssport, non-competitive fitness walking
¢‘ Volkswanderung
¢‘ Wunderbar

 ‘ Oedit]‘ther‘aspects‘‘everda‘lie‘

¢‘ ±bahn as a suffix, e.g. Infobahn, after Autobahn


¢‘ Blücher, a half-boot named after Prussian General Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (1742±1819);
also a hand in the British card game Napoleon.
¢‘ Dachshund, literally badger dog, a dog breed
¢‘ Doberman Pinscher, a dog breed
¢‘ Doppelgänger, "double-goer"; also spelled in English as doppelganger; a double or look-alike.
However, in English the connotation is that of a ghostly apparition of a duplicate living person.
¢‘ Dreck, literally dirt or smut, but now means trashy, awful (through Yiddish, OED s.v.)
¢‘ Dummkopf, dumm=dumb/not intelligent + Kopf=head; a stupid, ignorant person
¢‘ Ersatz, replacement
¢‘ Fest, festival
¢‘ Flak, ÄugYbwehrjanone, literally: air-defence cannon, for anti-aircraft artillery or their shells,
also used in flak jacket; or in the figurative sense: "drawing flak" = being heavily criticized
¢‘ Gemütlichkeit, coziness
¢‘ Gesundheit, literally: health; an exclamation used in place of "bless you!" after someone has
sneezed
¢‘ Kaffeeklatsch, afternoon meeting where people (most times referring to women) chitchat while
drinking coffee or tea; Kaffee = coffee, Klatsch = gossip, klatschen = chitchatting
¢‘ kaput (German spelling: aputt), out-of-order
¢‘ Kindergarten, children¶s garden, day-care centre, playschool, preschool
¢‘ Kitsch, cheap, sentimental, gaudy items of popular culture
¢‘ Kraut, a derogatory term for a German, literally means cabbage in German
¢‘ Lebensraum, space to live
¢‘ Meister, Master, also as a suffix: ±meister
¢‘ Nazi, short form for Nationalsozialist (= National Socialist)
¢‘ Neanderthal (modern German spelling: Neandertal), of, from, and or pertaining to the "Neander
Valley", site near Düsseldorf where early Homo neanderthalensis fossils were found
¢‘ Oktoberfest, Bavarian Folk Festival held annually in Munich during late September and early
October
¢‘ Poltergeist, mischievous, noisy ghost; cases of haunting, involving spontaneous psychokinesis
¢‘ Rottweiler, breed of dog
¢‘ Schadenfreude, delight at the misfortune of others
¢‘ Schnauzer, breed of dog
¢‘ Spitz, a breed of dog
¢‘ uber, über, over; used to indicate that something or someone is of better or superior magnitude,
e.g. ðbermensch
¢‘ Ur± (German prefix), original or prototypical; e.g. r±feminist, Ursprache, Urtext
¢‘ verboten, prohibited, forbidden. Both in English and German, this word has authoritarian
connotations.
¢‘ Volkswagen, brand of automobile
¢‘ Wanderlust, the yearning to travel
¢‘ Wiener as in "You're a Wiener", signifying a spineless, weak person. In German, the term
"Würstchen" (the diminuitive form of :urst) is used in its place
¢‘ Wunderkind, wonder child, a child prodigy
¢‘ Zeitgeist, spirit of the time
¢‘ Zeppelin, type of rigid airship named after its inventor

   
5
 87 6559
  ‘ ‘Oedit]‘cademia‘

¢‘ Ansatz, basic approach


¢‘ Festschrift, book prepared by colleagues to honor a scholar, often on an important birthday such as
the sixtieth.
¢‘ Leitfaden, guidelines
¢‘ Methodenstreit, disagreement on methodology
¢‘ Privatdozent
¢‘ Q document
  ‘ Oedit]‘rchitectre‘

¢‘ Bauhaus
¢‘ Jugendstil
¢‘ Plattenbau
¢‘ Biedermeier

   
5
  7: 
7
5
:

There are a few terms which are recognised by many English speakers but are usually only used to
deliberately evoke a German context:

¢‘ Autobahn ² particularly common in British English and American English referring specifically
to German motorways which have no general speed limit.
¢‘ Achtung ² Literally, "attention" in English.
¢‘ Frau and Fräulein ² Woman and young woman or girl, respectively in English. Indicating marital
state, with Frau ² Mrs. and Fräulein ² Miss; in Germany, however, the diminutive Fräulein
lapsed from common usage in the late 1960s . Regardless of marital status, a woman is now
commonly referred to as Frau, because from 1972 the term Fräulein has been officially phased
out for being politically incorrect and should only be used if expressly authorized by the woman
concerned.
¢‘ Führer (umlaut is usually dropped in English) ² always used in English to denote Hitler or to
connote a Fascistic leader ² never used, as is possible in German, simply and unironically to
denote a (non-Fascist) leader or guide, (i.e. Bergführer: mountain guide, Stadtführer: city guide
(book), Führerschein: driving licence, Flugzeugführer: Pilot in command, etc.)
¢‘ Gott mit uns, (in German means "God be with us"), the motto of the Prussian king, it was used as
a morale slogan amongst soldiers in both World Wars. It was bastardized as "Got mittens" by
American and British soldiers, and is usually used nowadays, because of the German defeat in
both wars, derisively to mean that wars are not won on religious grounds.
¢‘ Hände hoch ² hands up
¢‘ Herr ² evokes German context; In modern German either the equivalent of Mr./Mister, used to
directly address an adult male person or used in the of "master" over something or someone. (ex.:
Sein eigener Herr sein: to be his own master) Derived from the adjective hehr, meaning
"honourable" or "senior", it was historically a title noblemen were entitled to, equivalent to the
english word Lord. (ex.: Herr der Fliegen is the German title of Lord of the Flies) In a religious
environment used to denote God, there in a colloquial context often ²and especially among
Catholics² contracted into Herrgott (Lord-God).
¢‘ Lederhosen (Singular Lederhose in German denotes one pair of leather short pants or trousers. The
original Bavarian word is Lederhosn, which is both singular and plural.)
¢‘ Leitmotif (German spelling: Leitmotiv) Any sort of recurring theme, whether in music, literature,
or the life of a fictional character or a real person.
¢‘ Meister ² used as a suffix to mean expert (Maurermeister), or master; in Germany it means also
champion in sports (:eltmeister, Europameister, Landesmeister)
¢‘ Nein ² no
¢‘ Raus ² meaning Out! ² shortened (colloquial) (depending on where the speaker is, if on the
inside "get out!" = hinaus, if on the outside "come out!" = heraus). It is the imperative form of the
german verb heraus ommen (coming out (of a room/house/etc.) as in the imperative " omm'
raus"!). [5]
¢‘ Reich ² from the Middle High German "rich", as a noun it means "empire" and "realm", which
may still be seen in the English word "bishopric". In titles where it is part of a compound noun, for
example, "Deutsche Reichsbahn," it is equivalent to the English word "national" (German
National Railway), or "Reichspost" (National Postal Service). To English speakers, Reich does not
denote its literal meanings, "empire" or "rich", but strongly connotes Nazism and is often used to
suggest Fascism or authoritarianism, e.g., "Herr Reichsminister" used as a title for a disliked
politician.'
¢‘ Ja ² yes
¢‘ Jawohl a German term that connotes an emphatic yes ² "Yes, Indeed!" in English. It is often
equated to "yes sir" in Anglo-American military films, since it is also a term typically used as an
acknowledgement for military commands in the German military.
¢‘ Schnell! ² Quic ! or Quic ly!
¢‘ Kommandant ² commander (in the sense of person in command or Commanding officer,
regardless of military rank), used often in the military in general (Standort ommandant: Base
commander), on battleships and U-Boats (Schiffskommandant or U-Boot-Kommandant),
sometimes used on civilian ships and aircraft.
¢‘ Schweinhund (German spelling: Schweinehund) ² literally: Schwein = pig, Hund = dog,
vulgarism like in der verdammte Schweinehund (the damned pig-dog). But also used to describe
the lack of motivation (for example to quit a bad habit) Den inneren Schweinehund be ämpfen =
to battle the inner pig-dog.

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘stralian‘briginal‘rigin‘
  7
5555
¢‘ barramundi ¢‘ geebung ¢‘ quandong
¢‘ bilby ¢‘ gidgee ¢‘ quokka
¢‘ bindi ¢‘ gilgie ¢‘ quoll
¢‘ ding-dang-Like a kayak ¢‘ gymea ¢‘ taipan
¢‘ bogong ¢‘ jarrah ¢‘ wallaby
¢‘ boobook ¢‘ kangaroo ¢‘ wallaroo
¢‘ brigalow ¢‘ koala ¢‘ waratah
¢‘ brolga ¢‘ kookaburra ¢‘ warrigal
¢‘ budgerigar ¢‘ kurrajong ¢‘ witchetty
¢‘ bunyip ¢‘ mallee ¢‘ wobbegong
¢‘ coolibah ¢‘ marri ¢‘ wombat
¢‘ cunjevoi ¢‘ mulga ¢‘ wonga
¢‘ currawong ¢‘ myall ¢‘ wonga-wonga
¢‘ dingo ¢‘ numbat ¢‘ yabby
¢‘ galah ¢‘ pademelon
¢‘ gang-gang ¢‘ potoroo

  ;


¢‘ billabong
¢‘ bombora (rapids- often used to describe offshore reef breaks)
¢‘ boondie A rock (Noongar, W.A.)
¢‘ gibber (a boulder)
¢‘ gilgai
¢‘ min-min lights (ground-level lights of uncertain origin sometimes seen in remote rural Australia)
¢‘ pindari (high ground)
¢‘ willy willy

   
8577

¢‘ boomerang ¢‘ gunyah ¢‘ nulla-nulla
¢‘ bunyip ¢‘ humpy (a hut) ¢‘ waddy (a wooden
¢‘ coolamon (wooden curved ¢‘ lubra (an offensive word for club)
bowl used to carry food or woman, from a Tasmanian ¢‘ woomera
baby) language) ¢‘ wurlie - a hut
¢‘ corroboree ¢‘ mia-mia (a hut)
¢‘ didgeridoo

   
 8
 
¢‘ Koori - Aboriginal people from Victoria and ¢‘ Noongar - Aboriginal people from southern
New South Wales Western Australia
¢‘ cooee ¢‘ yabber - to talk
¢‘ Murri - Aboriginal people from Queensland ¢‘ yakka - work
¢‘ yarndi - marijuana

   755 
Main article: List of Australian place names of Aboriginal origin

  )5 

¢‘ Kylie (Noongar word for "throwing stick")


¢‘ Narelle (possibly a back-formation of Sydney suburb Narellan)

   
8571 8
  
857
8
¢‘ bandicoot : (from Telugu) ¢‘ goanna : (corruption of iguana)
¢‘ cockatoo : (from Malay) ¢‘ jabiru : (from the Spanish)
¢‘ didgeridoo : (onomatopoeic) ¢‘ Nullarbor : (Latin for no trees)
¢‘ emu : (from Arabic, via Portuguese, for large bird)

ë‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘rican‘rigin‘

¢‘ banana - West African, possibly Wolof banana


¢‘ banjo - probably Bantu mbanza
¢‘ basenji- breed of dog from the Congo
¢‘ biltong - from Afrikaans - cured meat (often used in South African English)
¢‘ bongo - West African boungu
¢‘ braai - from Afrikaans - barbecue (often used in South African English)
¢‘ buckra - from Efik and Ibibio mba ara "master"[1]
¢‘ bwana - from Swahili, meaning big boss, important person
¢‘ chachacha possibly from Kimbundu, onomatopoeia for ringing bells or rattles worn around the
legs of a female dancers.
¢‘ chigger - possibly from Wolof and Yoruba jiga "insect")
¢‘ chimpanzee - from a Bantu language, possibly Tshiluba ivili-chimpenze
¢‘ cola - from West African languages (Temne ola, Mandinka olo)
¢‘ coffee - disputed; either from the Ethiopian region/Kingdom of Kaffa, where coffee originated, or
Arabic ahwa
¢‘ conga - feminized form of Congo through Spanish
¢‘ dengue - possibly from Swahili dinga
¢‘ djembe from West African languages [2]
¢‘ fandango- possibly from the kikongo empire[3]
¢‘ Geranuk - Somali: Gerenuk means "giraffe-necked" in the Somali language
¢‘ gnu - from Bushman !nu through Hottentot i-ngu and Dutch gnoe
¢‘ goober - possibly from Bantu (Kikongo and Kimbundu nguba)
¢‘ gumbo - from Bantu (Kimbundu ngombo meaning "okra")
¢‘ indaba - from Xhosa or Zulu languages - 'meeting' (often used in South African English)
¢‘ jambalaya possibly from tshiluba
¢‘ jamboree possibly from swahili "jambo".
¢‘ jazz - from West African languages (Mandinka jasi, Temne yas)
¢‘ jive - possibly from Wolof jev
¢‘ jumbo - from Swahili (jambo or jumbe or from Kongo nzamba "elephant")
¢‘ juju - Yoruba
¢‘ juke, jukebox - possibly from Wolof and Bambara dzug through Gullah
¢‘ kalimba
¢‘ Kwanzaa - from the Swahili phrase matunda ya wanza, meaning "first fruits".
¢‘ kwashiorkor - from Ga language, Coastal Ghana meaning "swollen stomach"
¢‘ impala - from Zulu im-pala
¢‘ lapa - from Sotho languages - enclosure or barbecue area (often used in South African English)
¢‘ macaque - from Bantu ma a u through Portuguese and French
¢‘ mamba - from Zulu or Swahili mamba
¢‘ mambo - possibly West African through Haitian Creole
¢‘ marimba - from Bantu (Kimbundu and Swahili marimba, malimba)
¢‘ marimbula
¢‘ merengue (dance) possibly from Fulani mererek i meaning to shake or quiver
¢‘ mumbo jumbo - uncertain West African etymology
¢‘ mojo - from Fula moco'o "medicine man" through Louisiana Creole French or Gullah
¢‘ obeah - from West African (Efik ubio, Twi ebayifo)
¢‘ okra - from Igbo  r
¢‘ okapi - from a language in the Congo
¢‘ safari - from Swahili travel, ultimately from Arabic
¢‘ samba from an African language through Brazilian Portuguese [4][5], carnaval website
¢‘ sambo - Fula sambo meaning "uncle"
¢‘ sangoma - from Zulu - traditional healer (often used in South African English)
¢‘ tango - probably from Ibibio tamgu
¢‘ tsetse - from a Bantu language (Tswana tsetse, Luhya tsiisi)
¢‘ trek - from Afrikaans - move (often used in South African English)
¢‘ ubuntu - Bantu languages
¢‘ voodoo - from West African languages (Ewe and Fon vodu "spirit")
¢‘ yam - West African (Fula nyami, Twi anyinam)
¢‘ zebra - possibly from a language in the Congo
¢‘ zombie - Central African (Kikongo zumbi, Kimbundu nzambi)

ᑠist‘‘rabic‘lanrds‘in‘ nglish‘
!  
admiral
----------, amīr al-bihār commander of the seas.
adobe
----- a---ūb, the bricks.
albacore
-------- al-ba ūra, perhaps from ba ūr, premature.
albatross (or algatross)
------ al-Ȗa--ās (or al-gha--ās), the diver.
alchemy
-------- al īmiyā. The Arab word had its origin in the Greek word hēmia, hēmeia,
but the word entered into Medieval Latin via the Arabs, particularly Alexandrian alchemists.[2]
alcohol
----- - ------ in the literature of late European alchemy, the quintessence of an
earthly substance. See khl in this list. The idea of "quintessences of earthly substances" and the
use of "alcohol" to denote quintessences are developments in European alchemy in the 14th
century. From the 1500s on, the denotation of "alcohol" narrowed down to "quintessence of wine"
or "spirit of wine", i.e., ethanol, CH3CH2OH, as the term "alcool vini" (quintessence of wine) got
shortened to "alcool" or "alcohol". The term alco(h)ol vini supplanted the original quinta essentia
vini, "fifth essence of wine".[3]
alcove
--- - ---- al-qubba, "the vault".
alembic
------- al-anbiq, "still" (the distillation device), from Greek ambix, stem ambi -, "cup".
algebra
----- al-jabr, the restoring of missing parts. The modern mathematical sense comes from
the title of the book al- itāb al-mu hta-ar fī -isāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala, "The Compendious
Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" by the 9th-century mathematician Abu Ja'far

Mu-ammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizm .
algorithm and algorism
--------- al- hwārizmī, a short name for the mathematician Mu-ammad ibn Mūsa
 
al-Khwārizm . The appellation al-Khwārizm means "from Khwārizm".
alidade
----- , ΓΩΎ˴πϋ ˶ . A surveying instrument.
alizarin
------- al-Å a-ārah, the juice. A dye.
alkali
----- from qalā, to fry, to roast. 'Alkali' originally meant a saline substance derived from
the ashes of plants.
almanac
------al-manā h, "the climate", possibly from Greek almenichia on, calendar
alfalfa
al-fisfisa, fresh fodder [7]
amalgam
------ al-malgham. [8]
amber
amber/anbar, yellow [9]
aniline
---- - --- ----- al-nili, from Sanskrit [4]
apricot
------- al-birquq
arsenal
--- ------- dār a---ināÅ a, house of manufacturing
artichoke
------- al-xurshūf
assassin
 
------ -ashshāshīn, Arabic designation of the Nizari branch of the Ismā' l Shia Muslims
during the Middle Ages, literally 'users of hashish.
attar
--- itr/utur, perfume,aroma. [10]
aubergine
--------- al-bādhinjān, from Persian bâdinjân ultimately from the Sanskrit vatin
gana.
azimuth
------ as-sumūt, the paths
azure
------ al-lazward, 'lapis lazuli' - from Persian.

!  
benzoin, benzene
---- ---- labān jāwī, "frankincense of Java". Benzoin is an organic chemical solvent
extracted from a resin of an Asian tree.
bezoar
bazahr, from Persian.
bonito
bainīth.
borage, boraginaceae
Today a large family of plants (2000 species). Some had medicinal use in medieval times and the
word comes from Arabic abū µāraq meaning "sweat inducer" [5]. Some plants of the borage family
are named lkanet, from Arabic al anna, from Arabic henna.[5]
borax
---- buraq, from Persian.

!  
caliber
---- qâlib, 'mould', derived from Arabic.[6]
camphor
----- afur. [11]
candy
--- qandi, Arabic word in turn from Persian qand "cane (sugar)", in turn probably from
Sanskrit khanda "piece (of sugar)"
carat
qirat, from Greek
carafe
from ---- gharrāfa, see decanter.[5]
caraway
------ arāwiya
carmine
ultimately from Sanskrit rmi-ja. See 'kermes' below.
carob
Ώϭ˷ήΧ xarrūb, (1) locust; (2) carob bean
carrack
this is a type of ship, from qarāqīr plural of qurqur
checkmate
--- --- shah māt, 'The king is dead'[7]
chemistry
see alchem in this list
cipher
--- sifr, zero
civet
zaba¶d [12]
coffee
---- qahwa, itself possibly from Kefa, Ethiopia, where the plant originated.
cotton
Ϧ˸τϗ˵ qutun
crimson
------- qirmazi, related to the qirmiz, the insect that provided the dye; from Sanskrit[4]
curcuma, curcumin
plant species and yellow dye, was used in medieval alchemy, from Arabic word ur um =saffron,
turmeric.[13]
!  
divan
----- dīwān, from Persian.
dragoman
------ tarjumān, from Aramaic turgemānā, in turn from Akkadian.[8]

!  
elixir
------- al-'i sīr, (1) philosopher's stone; (2) medicinal potion. From Greek xērion,
powder for drying wounds

!  
fanfare
from Arabic farfar meaning chatterer[5]
fustic
this dye comes from ------- -- ------- fos-ee-, ultimately from Greek
ʌȚıIJĮțȘ pista ē, pistachio tree[8]

!   
garble
Ȗarbala, sift; ultimately from Latin cribellum, sieve
gauze
ΰϗ˷ qazz, in turn from Persian kazh (--) "raw silk".
gazelle
---- ghazāl
gerbil
See jerba in this list; the word "gerbil" is a European created diminutive of "jerboa", but the
words refer to distinct species.
ghoul
--- ghūl
giraffe
----- zarāfa

! ! "
harem
---- harīm, forbidden thing or place
hashish
---- hashīsh, grass, Cannabis
hazard
from French 'hasart', probably through Spanish, from Arabic al-zār, the die[4]; said by William of
Tyre to be ultimately from the name of Castle Hasart' or 'Asart' in Syria[4]
henna
--- hinna

! # $1&
ifrit
----- Ifreet an ancient demon.
jar
--- jarrah, earthen vase
jasmine, jessamine
from Arabic ------ yas(a)min. [14]
jinn
Arabic is ---- al Jinn (note that genie is not derived from this, though it may be influenced
by it)
jerboa
----- jarbūa. See also gerbil in this list.
julep
from Arabic julab[5]
Jumper (dress)
from Arabic jubbah, a "loose outer garment"[5]

! % <
kermes
---- qirmiz ultimately from Sanskrit rmi-ja, worm-produced[4]
kohl
----- al- uhl, kohl, powdered stibnite

!  '
lacquer
la .
lilac
from Arabic lilak, from Pers. lilak, variant of nilak "bluish," from nil "indigo" [15]
Lemon
----- "citrus fruit,".
lime
---- leemah "citrus fruit," a back-formation or a collective noun from ----- laymun
"lemon"[16]
loofah
from the Egyptian Arabic word lūfa ----.
lute
----- al-Å ūd, "the oud", a forerunner of the guitar.

!  (
macrame
miqrama, embroidered veil (via French)
mafia
Perhaps mahyas, "aggressive, boasting, bragging."[9]; but the OED suggests another Arabic
derivation, from Sicilian marfusu ('scoundrel'), from Spanish marfuz ('traitor') from Arabic marfud
('outcast')
magazine
------ ma hāzin, storehouses,
marcasite
Arabic marqashī-ā meant pyrite minerals in medieval alchemy. In English marcasite today is a
type of pyrite.[5]
mattress
---- matrah, (1) spot where something is thrown down; (2) mat, cushion
mocha
--- al-mu hā, city of Mocha, Yemen
mohair
---- mu hayyar, having the choice
monsoon
---- mawsim, season
mummy
----- mūmiyyā, embalmed corpse (ultimately from Persian).
muslin
derived from the name of the Iraqi city of ---- Mosul, where cotton fabric was manufactured
!  )
nadir
---- na-īr, parallel or counterpart
nunation
from the Arabic name of the 'n' sound: nuun --- . Medical term: overly frequent or abnormal
use (as in stammering) of the sound of the letter n.

!  *
orange
From Arabic word ----- naranj, from Tamil via Sanskrit and Persian.

!   
popinjay
---- babaȖā Parrot.

!  +
qat / khat
--- at The plant Catha edulis.

!  ,
racquet or 'racket'
---- rāhah, palm of the hand
realgar
rahj al-ghar,[8] a mineral
ribes
today a genus of bushy plants which includes the blackcurrants and gooseberries, the word comes
from medieval Arabic ribas. The Arabic meaning included sorrel plants.[5]
ream (quantity of sheets of paper)
---- rizma, bale, bundle
roc
ru h h, possibly from Persian.

! ! -
safari
from Swahili safari, journey, in turn from (Arabic: ---, safar). [17]
safflower
---- , ---- asfar, yellow .
saffron
------ zaffarān (or zaffarān), species of crocus plant bearing orange stigmas and purple
flowers.
sash
--- shāsh, wrap of muslin. See mslin in this list.
scarlet
from Arabic siqillat or siqlat meaning "fine cloth" (cloth of various colors but red most
common)[5]
serendipity
from Serendip, a fairy tale place, from Sarandib, the Arab word for Sri Lanka[5]
sequin
--- si a, die, coin
sherbet, sorbet, syrup
---- sharāb, a drink
soda, sodium
Arguably from ----- suwwāda, ---- suwayd, or ----- suwayda, a species of
plant whose ashes yield sodium carbonate[10], and alternatively from Arabic suda or la sa'uda,
meaning headache, which becomes a name for a headache remedy in Latin sodanum.[11]
sofa
suffa, stone ledge
spinach
from Arabic isbanakh, earlier isfānākh, from Persian isfānākh/aspanakh. "It was the Arabs who
introduced the spinach into Spain, whence it spread to the rest of Europe."[5]
sugar
ή˷Ϝγ su ar, sugar, ultimately from Sanskrit shar ara, gravel, pebbles [4] [18]
sumac
summāq "ϕΎ˴Ϥγ", from Arabic.

! # .
tahini
---- -a-īn, flour, which derives from the Arabic verb for "grind"
talc
--- -alq, from Persian.
tamarind
--- ---- tamr-hindī, date of India
tare
tar-a, a discard (something discarded)[8]
tariff
------ taÅ rīfa (or ta9rīfa), act of making known; notification
tazza
--- -ašt, round, shallow, drinking cup made of metal. Amer. Heritage Dict.

! % /14
zenith
--- ----- samt ar-ra's, zenith, vertex
zero
--- sifr, cipher, zero.
zircon, zirconium
A mineral in Arabic alchemy, from Arabic zarqun (------ ) meaning bright red, from
Persian zargun (-----) meaning golden-colored[5]

!  0
 655: 
5 75
 
average
------ (----- ------ --- -- -----) - ----- of disputed
origin; possibly from Å awārīya, damaged merchandise, or from Italian avere or French avoir,
property, from Latin habere, to have
baccalaureate
It has been suggested [19] that the Latin and general European term 'baccalaureatus' derives from
the Arabic phrase bi-haqq al-riwayati, which occurs in Ijazah degrees that were awarded by
Madrassas (Islamic schools) as early as 1147 CE. The OED, while admitting that its origins are
not clear, do not link it to Arabic.
barbican or Barbacan
Outer fortification of a city or castle, perhaps from Arabic or Persian µ --- ---- bab-
khanah =gate-house".[20], [21]
caramel
origin is uncertain; usually derived from a Latin root, but according to the OED "An Arabic source
is conjectured by Littré".
drub
possibly Arabic 'daraba', "beat". (OED).
gala
perhaps from Arabic hil'a, fine garment given as a presentation. [22]; so far certainly rooted in
French gala, show - from Italian gala, finery[4]
gibberish
---- jabir; the name of the Arabic alchemist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, whose name was Latinized
as "Geber".[12]
mascara
uncertain origin; possibly from ----- mas hara "buffoon" or from an unknown language.
In modern Arabic mas hara means to ridicule
massage
uncertain whether ultimately from either Arabic --- massa, to stroke, or from Greek massein,
to knead
monkey
Monequin is old French (recorded as Monnekin by Hainault in 14c.). May be a diminutive of a
personal name, or could be from the general Romanic word and this could ultimately be from the
Arabic maimun "monkey," literally "auspicious," but a euphemism, since the sight of apes was
held by some Arabs to be unlucky. See Dictionary Reference.com.
Mulatto
disputed etymology either from Spanish (mulato, diminutive of 'mule') or Arabic.
rice
"riz", from Arabic --. ; usually derived as O. Fr. ris, from Latin and Greek oryza, ultimately
Tamil arisi [4]
risk
possibly from Arabic rizq, but also argued to be from Greek [23].
satin
probably from Arabic zaytūnī, of Zaytun, or Late Latin seta, silk
talisman
a blend of the Arabic loan from Greek and the Greek itself [24]
tobacco
usually supposed to be from Haitian, but possibly an application of an already existing European
loan from Arabic tabbaq.[25]
toque
kind of round hat, possibly from Arabic taqa.
traffic
tafriq, distribution. According to [26], 'Klein suggests ultimate derivation of the It. word from
Arabic tafriq "distribution."'

!‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘hinese‘rigin‘
#  
Brainwashing
A direct translation from Chinese xǐ nǎo (where literally means "wash", while means
"brain", hence brainwash), a term and psychological concept first used by the People's Volunteer
Army during the Korean War. It may refer to a forcible indoctrination to induce someone to give
up basic political, social, or religious beliefs and attitudes and to accept contrasting regimented
ideas; or persuasion by propaganda or salesmanship. The term "brainwashing" came into the
mainstream English language after Western media sources first utilized the term to describe the
attitudes of POWs returning from the Korean War.
Bok choy
(Cantonese) baakchoi), a Chinese cabbage: literally 'white vegetable'

#  
Char
colloquial English word for 'tea', originally from Chinese (Mandarin chá).
Catsup
see Ketchup
Cheongsam
from Cantonese (cheungsaam), lit. long clothes.
China
via Latin from the name of the Ch'in Dynasty
Chop chop
from Cantonese chu chu , lit. hurry, urgent
Chopsticks
from Chinese Pidgin English chop chop.
Chop suey
from Cantonese (tzapseui), lit. mixed pieces
Chow
from Chinese Pidgin English chowchow which means food, perhaps based on Cantonese , lit.
stir fry (cooking)
Chow chow
any of a breed of heavy-coated blocky dogs of Chinese origin
Chow mein
from Taishanese (chau meing), lit. stir fried noodle, when the first Chinese immigrants, from
Taishan came to the United States.
Confucianism
from Confucius, Latinized form of (kǒng fūzǐ) 'Master Kong'
Cumshaw
from Amoy , feeling gratitude

#  
Dalai Lama
the lama who is the chief spiritual adviser of the Dalai Lama. -- Dalai Lama Etymology --
Panchen from Chinese (Beijing) b*nch*n Date-- 1794. The word Lama (Tibetan Blama) is used in
an English translation of Martini¶s Conquest of China in 1654; Dalai-lama in 1698.
Dim sum and Dim sim
from Cantonese (dimsam), lit. little heart

#  
Fan-tan
from Cantonese (fāntān), lit. (take) turns scattering
Feng shui
from feng, wind and shui, water ; (slang) Denotes an object or scene is aesthetically balanced
(generally used in construction or design)
Foo dog
from Mandarin f Buddha (from their use as guardians of Buddhist temples)

#   
Ginkgo
mistransliteration of in Japanese
Ginseng
from Mandarin (renshen), name of the plant. Some say the word came via Japanese (same
kanji), although now means 'carrot' in Japanese; ginseng is ('Korean carrot').
Go
From the Japanese name igo of the Chinese board game. Chinese , Mandarin: Weiqi.
Gung-ho
from Mandarin , short for
Gyoza
Japanese , gairaigo from Chinese (Mandarin: Jiaozi), stuffed dumpling. Gyoza refers
to the style found in Japan.
#  "
Hoisin (sauce)
from Cantonese (hoísin), lit. seafood

#  <
Kanji
Japanese name for Chinese characters: , lit. Chinese characters. Chinese: HMn zì.
Kaolin
from , lit. high mountain peak, the name of a village or suburb of Jingde Town, in Jiangxi
Province, that was the site of a mine from which kaolin clay ( gāo lǐng tǔ) was taken to make
the fine porcelain produced in Jingde. See
http://kepu.jsinfo.gov.cn/big5/mineral/sight/sgh516.html (accessed on 10 March 2008).
Keemun
kind of tea, Mandarin qímén
Ketchup
possibly from Cantonese or Amoy , lit. tomato sauce/juice
Koan
Japanese ōan, from Chinese (Mandarin gōng'àn), lit. public record
Kowtow
from Cantonese (Mandarin, kòu tóu) , lit. knock head
Kumquat or cmqat
from Cantonese name of the fruit (Gamgwat)
Kung fu
the English term to collectively describe Chinese martial arts; from Cantonese (Gongfu), lit.
efforts

# ! '
Lo mein
from Cantonese (lòu-mihn), lit. scooped noodle
Longan
from Cantonese , name of the fruit
Loquat
from Cantonese , old name of the fruit
Lychee
from Cantonese (laitzi), name of the fruit

# # (
Mao-tai or mtai
from Mandarin (máotái jiǔ), liquor from Maotai (Guizhou province)
Mahjong
from Mandarin (ma jiang), lit. the mahjong game
Mu shu (pork)
from Mandarin (mùxū), lit. wood shredded

# % )
Nankeen

Chinese, from Chinese, a durable cotton, buff-colored cloth originally made in (Nán J ng).
Nunchaku
Okinawan Japanese, from Min (Taiwan/Fujian) , lit. double jointed sticks

#  *
Oolong
from Amoy , lit. dark dragon
#   
Paigow
from Cantonese , a gambling game
Pekin
from southern Mandarin , a patterned silk cloth
Pinyin
from Mandarin , lit. put together sounds
Pekoe
from Amoy , lit. white downy hair

#  +
Qi
from Mandarin (qì), air
Qipao
from (qípáo), female traditional Chinese clothing (male version: cheongsam)

#  ,
Ramen
Japanese , gairaigo, from Chinese (Lamian) lit. pulled noodle. Ramen refers to a
particular style flavored to Japanese taste and is somewhat different from Chinese lamian.

#  -
Sampan
from Cantonese , the name of such vessel.
shanghai
from Chinese city Shanghai, to put someone aboard a ship by trickery or intoxication; to put
someone in a bad situation or press someone into work by trickery. From an old practice of using
this method to acquire sailors for voyages to Shanghai.
shantung
from Mandarin "shantung" (or sometimes "Shantung") is a wild silk fabric made from the
silk of wild silkworms and is usually undyed.
Shaolin
from Mandarin , One of the most important Kungfu clans.
Shar Pei
from Cantonese , lit. sand skin.
Shih Tzu
from Mandarin , lit. Chinese lion dog
Shogun
Japanese , from Chinese , lit. general (of) military. The full title in Japanese was Seii
Taishōgun ( ), "generalissimo who overcomes the barbarians"
Sifu

from Cantonese , (Mandarin sh fu), master.


Silk
possibly from 'si' , lit. silk
Souchong
from Cantonese (siúchúng ch'ā), lit. small kind tea
Soy
From Japanese shoyu , Chinese , (Mandarin jiMngyóu).

#  .
Tai Chi
from Mandarin
Tai-Pan
from Cantonese (daaibaan), lit. big rank (similar to big shot)
Tangram
from Chinese Tang ( ) + English gram
Tao and aism
(also a/ aism) from Mandarin dào
Tea
from Amoy
Tofu
Japanese , lit. bean curd from Chinese (Mandarin dòufu).
Tong
from Cantonese
tung oil
from Chinese tóng yóu, oil expressed from nuts of the tong tree
Tycoon
via Japanese , lit. high official; or , lit. great nobleman
Typhoon
not to be confused with the monster typhon. See also other possible Arabic origin.[citation needed]

#  0
Wok
from Cantonese
Won ton
from Cantonese , lit. 'cloud swallow' as a description of its shape, similar to Mandarin
Wushu
from Mandarin , lit. martial arts
Wuxia
from Mandarin , lit. martial arts and chivalrous

# ! 3
Yamen
from Mandarin , lit. court
Yen (craving)
from Cantonese , lit. addiction (to opium)
Yen (Japanese currency)
Japanese en, from Chinese (Mandarin yuán), lit. round, name of currency unit
Yin Yang
from Mandarin 'Yin' meaning feminine, dark and 'Yang' meaning masculine and bright

# # 4
Zen
Japanese , from Chinese (Mandarin Chán), originally from Sanskrit Dhyāna / Pali jhāna.

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘ ech‘rigin‘

¢‘ bsrdistan (in Czech Absurdistán) - word created by Eastern Bloc dissidents, passed into
English mainly through works of Václav Havel.
¢‘ Kdeiser - after Budweis, the German name of Budějovice, a city in southern Bohemia
¢‘ dllar - from High German thaler, a nickname for the silver coins that were minted from the ore
found in Jáchymov in western Bohemia, called Joachimsthal in German (literally Joachim's
Valley)[1][2]
¢‘ háček - a diacritical mark, literally "little hook", e.g. č is letter c having háček. Also known as
"caron".
¢‘ hit er - from houfnice, a 15th century Hussite catapult; houf meaning crowd or band

¢‘ klache ± from oláč or oláče .


¢‘ pils,‘pilsner,‘pilsener - after Pilsen, the German name of Plzeň, a Czech city. The name of the city
is derived from Old Czech plz (damp, moist).[3]
¢‘ pistl - from píšťala, an 15th century Hussite firearm (alternative sources have been suggested,
see the article for details)
¢‘ plka - from Polá or pols ý, a Czech dance named in remembrance of the November Uprising of
1830; or from Půl a, in English half because of its tempo
¢‘ rbt - from Czech robota (labour, drudgery), introduced in Karel Čapek's play R.U.R. from the
1920s.
¢‘ semtex - a plastic explosive named after Semtín, part of the city of Pardubice, Czech Republic,
location of its manufacturer.
¢‘ tnelling - a colloquial term for financial fraud committed by company's own management or
major shareholders. Widely used in the Czech Republic (and Slovakia) since the first half of 1990s
to describe the massive asset stripping during transition from planned economy.

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘candinavian‘rigin‘

¢‘ cog
¢‘ flense
¢‘ flounder
¢‘ lug (haul v.; handle n.)
¢‘ howe (meaning hill, knoll, or mound)
¢‘ midden
¢‘ mink
¢‘ nudge
¢‘ rig (rigg, as in a ship's "riggings")
¢‘ snug
¢‘ spry
¢‘ wicker

‘ Oedit]‘ nglish‘rds‘‘ anish‘rigin‘

¢‘ atto-
¢‘ femto-

O‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘ tch‘rigin‘


  
Aardvark
from Afrikaans/Dutch, literally "earth-pig" (the animal burrows), from aard (="earth") + var en
(="pig")[1]
Afrikaans
from Afri aans (via Afrikaans) (="African" adj.)
Ahoy
from hoi (="hello")
Aloof
from a- + Middle English loof (="weather gage," also "windward direction"), probably from
Dutch loef (="the weather side of a ship"); originally a nautical order to keep the ship's head to the
wind, thus to stay clear of a lee-shore or some other quarter, hence the figurative sense of "at a
distance, apart" [2]
Anchor
"liquid measure," that of Rotterdam, once used in England, from Dutch [3]
Apartheid
from Afrikaans apartheid (literally "separateness"), from Dutch apart (="separate") + suffix -heid
(cognate of English -ness) [4]
Avast
a nautical interjection (="hold! stop!"), probably worn down from Dutch houd vast (="hold
fast")[5]

  
Bamboo
from Dutch bamboe, from Portuguese bambu, earlier mambu (16th century), probably from Malay
samambu, though some suspect this is itself an imported word [6]
Bantam
after Bantam, former Dutch residency in Java, from which the small domestic fowl were said to
have been first imported [7]
Batik
from Dutch, from Malay mbati (="writing, drawing") [8]
Bazooka
"metal tube rocket launcher," from name of a junkyard musical instrument used as a prop by U.S.
comedian Bob Burns, extension of bazoo (slang for "mouth" or "boastful talk"), probably from
Dutch bazuin (="trumpet") [9]
Beaker
from be er [10] (="mug, cup")
Beleaguer
from belegeren (="besiege, attack with an army") [11]
Berm
from French berme, from Old Dutch baerm (in Dutch, the English meaning is now archaic, berm
being used as "usually grassy ground alongside a road") [12]
Bicker
"a skirmish, fight," bi ern, probably from Middle Dutch bic en (="to slash, stab, attack") + -er,
Middle English frequentative suffix [13]
Blare
blèren (="to wail"), possibly from an unrecorded Old English *blæren, or from Middle Dutch
bleren (="to bleat, cry, bawl, shout") [14]
Blasé
from French blasé, past participle of blaser (="to satiate"), origin unknown; perhaps from Dutch
blazen (="to blow"), with a sense of "puffed up under the effects of drinking" [15]
Blaze (to make public, often in a bad sense, boastfully)
from Middle Dutch blasen (="to blow, on a trumpet) [16]
Blink
from Middle Dutch blin en (="to glitter") [17]
Blister
from Old French blestre, perhaps from a Scandinavian source or from Middle Dutch blyster
(="swelling") [18]
Block (solid piece)
from Old French bloc (="log, block"), via Middle Dutch bloc (="trunk of a tree") or Old High
German bloh [19]
Blow (hard hit)
blowe, from northern and East Midlands dialects, perhaps from Middle Dutch blouwen (="to
beat") [20]
Bluff (poker term)
perhaps from Dutch bluffen (="to brag, boast") or verbluffen (="to baffle, mislead") [21]
Bluff (landscape feature)
from Dutch blaf (="flat, broad"), apparently a North Sea nautical term for ships with flat vertical
bows, later extended to landscape features [22]
Blunderbuss
from Dutch donderbus, from donder (="thunder") + bus (="gun," originally "box, tube"), altered
by resemblance to blunder [23]
Boer
(="Dutch colonist in South Africa") from Dutch boer (="farmer"), from Middle Dutch [24]
Bogart
after Humphrey Bogart[25]. Bogart means "(keeper of an) orchard"[26].
Boodle
perhaps from Dutch boedel (="property") [27]
Boom
from boom (="tree"); cognate to English beam, German baum[28]
Boomslang
via Afrikaans from boomslang (="tree snake")
Booze
from Middle Dutch busen (="to drink in excess"); [29] according to JW de Vries busen is
equivalent to buizen [2]
Boss
from baas [30]
Bow (front of a ship)
from boeg [31]
Brackish
from Scottish brac , from Middle Dutch bra (="salty," also "worthless") [32]
Brandy (wine)
from brandewijn (literally "burnt wine") [33]
Brawl
from brallen [34]
Brooklyn
after the town of Breukelen near Utrecht [35]
Bully
from boel (="lover," "brother"), from Middle High German buole, maybe influenced by bull[36].
Bulwark
from bolwer [37]
Bundle
from Middle Dutch bondel (=diminutive of bond), from binden "bind," or perhaps a merger of this
word and Old English byndele (="binding") [38]
Bumpkin
from bomme ijn (="little barrel") [39]
Bung
from Middle Dutch bonge (="stopper"), or perhaps from French bonde, which may be of
Germanic origin, or from Gaulish bunda [40]
Buoy
from boei (="shackle" or "buoy") [41]
Bush (uncleared district of a British colony)
probably from Dutch bosch, in the same sense, since it seems to appear first in former Dutch
colonies [42]

  
Caboose
from ambuis or ombuis (="ship's kitchen", "galley") [43]
Cam
from Dutch cam (="cog of a wheel," originally "comb"), cognate of English comb
Clove (disambiguation)
from loof [2] (="steep valley", "gorge")
Cockatoo
from a etoe [44]
Coleslaw
from oolsla (literally "cabbage salad") [45]
Commodore
probably from Dutch ommandeur, from French commandeur, from Old French comandeor [46]
Cookie
from oe je, or in informal Dutch oe ie [47] (="biscuit", "cookie")
Coney Island
from Conyne Eylandt (literally "Rabbits' Island")
Crimp
from rimpen (= "to shrink") [2]
Cruise
from Dutch ruisen (="to cross, sail to and fro"), from ruis (="cross") [48]
Cruller
from Dutch rullen (="to curl") [49]

  
Dam
from Middle Dutch dam (compare Amsterdam or Rotterdam) [50]
Dapper
from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German dapper (="bold, strong, sturdy,") [51]
Deck
from de (originally "covering") [52]
Decoy
from de ooi (="the cage," used of a pond surrounded by nets, into which wildfowl were lured for
capture) [53]
Delftware
from Delft, town in Holland where the glazed earthenware was made; the town named from its
chief canal, from Dutch delf, (literally "ditch, canal"), which is related to Old English dælf and
modern delve [54]
Dike
from dij (="embankment") [55]
Dock (maritime)
from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German doc e [56]
Domineer
from Dutch domineren (="to rule") [57]
Dope
old meaning "sauce," now "drugs," comes from the Dutch verb (in)dopen (usually ="to baptize,"
but here ="to dip in") [58]
Dredge
from Scottish dreg-boat (="boat for dredging") or Middle Dutch dregghe (="drag-net"), one
possibly from the other but hard to tell which came first; probably ultimately from root of drag [59]
Drill (verb)
from Middle Dutch dril, drille and in modern Dutch drillen [60]
Drug
from Old French drogue, perhaps from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German droge-vate (="dry
barrels"), with first element mistaken as word for the contents (see dry goods), or because
medicines mostly consisted of dried herbs [61]
Dune
from Middle Dutch dune, before from Celtic dun (="hill"), in modern Dutch duin

  
Easel
from ezel (=originally (and still) "donkey") [62]
Etch
from ets or etsen [63]
Excise (noun)
(="tax on goods") from Middle Dutch excijs, apparently altered from accijns (="tax"); English got
the word, and the idea for the tax, from Holland [64]
  
Filibuster
from Spanish filibustero from French flibustier ultimately from Dutch vrijbuiter (="pirate" or
"freebooter") [65]
Flense
from Danish flense or Dutch vlensen [66]
Foist
from Dutch vuisten (="take in hand"), from Middle Dutch vuist (="fist") [67]
Forlorn hope
from verloren hoop (literally "lost troop," figuratively "suicide mission," "cannon fodder") [68]
Freebooter
from vrijbuiter [69]
Freight
from vracht [70]
Frolic
from vrolij (="cheerful") [71]
Furlough
from verlof (="permission (to leave)") [72]

   
Galoot
(="awkward or boorish man"), originally a sailor's contemptuous word (="raw recruit, green
hand") for soldiers or marines, of uncertain origin; "Dictionary of American Slang" proposes
galut, Sierra Leone creole form of Spanish galeoto (="galley slave"); perhaps rather Dutch slang
loot (="testicle"), lootza (="scrotum"), used figuratively as an insult [73]
Gas
from gas, a neologism from Jan Baptista van Helmont, derived from the Greek chaos [74]
Geek
from gec (gek) (="fool") [75] [76]
Gherkin
from Dutch plural of gur (="cucumber"), shortened form of East Frisian augur [77]
Gimp (cord or thread)
from Dutch gimp [78]
Gin
from jenever [79]
Gnu
from gnoe (from Bushman !nu) [80]
Golf
from olf (="bat, club," but also a game played with these) [2]
Grab
from grijpen (="to seize, to grasp, to snatch") [81]
Gruff
from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German grof (="coarse (in quality), thick, large") [82]
Guilder
from gulden [83]

 ! "
Hale (verb)
(="drag, summon"), from Old Frankonian haler (="to pull, haul"), from Frankonian *halon or Old
Dutch halen, both from Proto Germanic [84]
Hankering
from Middle Dutch han eren or Dutch hun eren [85]
Harlem
called after the city of Haarlem near Amsterdam
Hartebeest
from Afrikaans, from Dutch hertebeest "antelope," from hert "deer" (cognate to "hart") + beest
"beast" [86]
Hoboken
possibly named after the Flemish town Hoboken, from Middle Dutch Hooghe Kuechen or Hoge
Keu en (="High Beeches" or "Tall Beeches")
howitzer
from Dutch houwitzer, which in turn comes from German Haussnitz and later Haubitze.
Hottentot
from South African Dutch, said to mean "stammerer," it is from hot en tot "hot and tot," nonsense
words imitative of the clicking, jerking Khoisan speech [87]
Hoist
possibly from Middle Dutch hijsen [88]
Holster
from holster [89]
Hooky
from hoe je (=corner) in the sense of "to go around the corner" [90]
Hoyden
maybe from heiden (=backwoodsman), from Middle Dutch (=heathern) [91]

 # $
Iceberg
probably from Dutch ijsberg (literally ice mountain). [92]
Ietsism
from Dutch ietsisme (literally: somethingism) an unspecified faith in a higher or supernatural
power or force
Isinglass
probably from Dutch huizenblas (No longer used) [93]

 % &

  <
Keelhauling
from ielhalen (literally "to haul keel")[94]
Keeshond
prob. from special use of Kees (shortening of proper name Cornelius) + hond "dog" [95]
Kill (body of water)
from il from Middle Dutch ille (literally "riverbed") [96]
Kink
from in referring to a twist in a rope [97]
Knapsack
possibly from napza (literally "bag of snacks") [98]
Knickerbocker
The pen-name was borrowed from Washington Irving's friend Herman Knickerbacker, and
literally means "toy marble-baker." Also descendants of Dutch settler of New York are referred to
as Knickerbockers and later became used in reference to a style of pants [99]

  '
Landscape
from landschap [100]
Leak
possibly from le en (="to drip, to leak") [101]
Loafer
from loper (="walker") [102]
Loiter
from Middle Dutch loteren [103]
Luck
from Middle Dutch luc, shortening of gheluc (="happiness, good fortune")('geluk' in modern
Dutch) [104]

  (
Maelstrom
from maalstroom (literally "grinding current" or "stirring current") (possibly Norse in origin) [105]
Manikin
from Brabantian manne en (literally "little man") [106]
Mannequin
via French from Dutch (Brabantian) manne en (literally "little man") [107]
Mart
from Middle Dutch marct (literally "market") (modern Dutch: mar t) [108]
Measles
possibly from Middle Dutch masel "blemish" (modern Dutch: mazelen) [109]
Meerkat
from Dutch meer at [110] (but the words do not have the same meaning)
Morass
from moeras (="swamp") [111]

  *
Offal
possibly from Middle Dutch afval (="leftovers, rubbish") [112]

   
Patroon
from patroon (="patron") [113]
Pickle
c.1440, probably from Middle Dutch pe el [114]
Pinkie
Pinkje/Pinkie [115]
Pit
the stone of a drupaceous fruit : from pit [116]
Plug
from plugge, originally a maritime term.[117]
Polder
from polder
Poppycock
from pappe a (=dialect for "soft dung") [118]
Pump
from pomp [119]

  +
Quack
shortened from quac salver, from wa zalver (literally "someone who daubs ointments") [120]

  ,
Roster
from rooster (="schedule, or grating/grill") [121]
Rover
from rover (="robber") [122]

 ! -
Santa Claus
from Middle Dutch Sinter laas (="Saint Nicholas"), bishop of Asia Minor who became a patron
saint for children. (Dutch and Flemish feast celebrated on the 5th and 6th of December
respectively) (Origins of Santa Claus in US culture)[123]
Schooner (boat)
from schoener
Scone
from schoon (="clean") [124]
Scow
from schouw (a type of boat) [125]
Shoal
from Middle Dutch schole (="large number (of fish)") (etymology not sure)
Skate
from schaats. The noun was originally adopted as in Dutch, with 'skates' being the singular form
of the noun; due to the similarity to regular English plurals this form was ultimately used as the
plural while 'skate' was derived for use as singular." [126]
Sketch
from schets [127]
to Scour
from Middle Dutch scuren (now "schuren") [128]
Skipper
from Middle Dutch scipper (now schipper, literally "shipper") [129]
Sled, sleigh
from Middle Dutch slede, slee [130]
Slim
"thin, slight, slender," from Dutch slim "bad, sly, clever," from Middle Dutch slim "bad, crooked,"
[131]

Sloop
from sloep [132]
Slurp
from slurpen [133]
Smack (boat)
possibly from sma "sailboat," perhaps so-called from the sound made by its sails [134]
Smearcase
from smeer aas (="cheese that can be spread over bread, cottage-cheese")
Smelt
from smelten (="to melt") [135]
Smuggler
from Low German smuggeln or Dutch smo elen (="to transport (goods) illegally"), apparently a
frequentative formation of a word meaning "to sneak" [136]
Snack
perhaps from Middle Dutch sna en (="to long" (sna en naar lucht="to gasp for air") originally
"to eat"/"chatter") [137]
Snoop
from snoepen (to eat (possibly in secret) something sweet) [138]
Snuff
from snuiftaba (literally "sniff tobacco") [139]
Splinter
from splinter [140]
Split
from Middle Dutch splitten [141]
Spook
from spoo (="ghost(ly image)") [142]
Spoor
from spoor (="track"/"trail")
Stoker
from sto en (="stoke a fire") [143]
Stern
hind part of a ship related to Steven in Dutch and Stiarn in Frisian [144]
Still life
from Dutch stilleven [145]
Stoop (steps)
from stoep (="flight of steps, doorstep") [146]
Stockfish
from Dutch sto vis (= "stick fish")
Stove
from Middle Dutch stove (="heated room"). The Dutch word stoof, pronounced similarly, is a
small (often wooden) box with holes in it. One would place glowing coals inside so it would
emanate heat, and then put one's feet on top of it while sitting (in a chair) to keep one's feet warm.
[147]

Sutler
from zoetelaar (="one who sweetens", sweetener, old-fashioned for "camp cook") [148]

 # .
Tattoo (military term)
from taptoe (literally "close the tap"). So called because police used to visit taverns in the evening
to shut off the taps of casks. [149]
Tickle
from ietelen [150]
Trek
from tre en (via Afrikaans) (literally "to march" or "to travel") [151]
Trigger
from tre er (Trekken ="to pull") [152]
Tulip
from tulp [153]

 %  
Vang
from Dutch vangen (=to catch)
Veldt
South African grassland, 1785, from Afrikaans, from older Dutch veld (="field") [154]

  0
Waffle (noun)
from Dutch wafel, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German wafel [155]
Walrus
from walrus [156]
Wagon
from Dutch wagen, Middle Dutch waghen (= "cart, carriage, wagon") [157]
Wentletrap
from Dutch wenteltrap: wentelen (= "winding, spiraling") and trap (= "stairway").
Wiggle
from wiggelen (= "to wobble, to wiggle") or wiegen (= "to rock") [158]
Wildebeest
from wild beest (literally wild beast, via Afrikaans) [159]
Witloof
from Belgian Dutch witloof (literally wit "white" + loof "foliage"), Northern Dutch witlof [160]
Wrack
probably from wra [161]
Yacht
from obsolete Dutch jaght, from Middle Low German jacht, short for jachtschip (literally "hunting
ship") [162]
Yankee
from Jan Kees, a personal name, originally used mockingly to describe pro-French revolutionary
citizens, with allusion to the small keeshond dog, then for "colonials" in New Amsterdam (Note:
this is not the only possible etymology for the word yankee. For one thing, the Oxford English
Dictionary has quotes with the term from as early as 1765, quite some time before the French
Revolution.) [163]

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘ trscan‘rigin‘

antenna
from antenna<antemna, "yard-arm, sail." Possibly Etruscan *antithemna>*ant(th)emna from
Greek anatithēmenos, something set up.[1]
arena
from arēna "arena"<harēna, "arena, sand"<archaic hasēna<Sabine fasēna, unknown Etruscan
word as the basis for fas- with Etruscan ending -ēna.[2]
autumn
from autumnus "autumn." Just as Etruscan veltha, an earth god, appears as Latin Vola or Olta and
is in Voltumna and Vertumnus, so the parallel construction autumnus ought to come from
Etruscan autu-, related to avil, "year": *av(i)-to-m(e)nos, with loss of the l. There are some names
with both l and t: avlethaium, authnal, avtle, and so on, which appear related to autu or auta in
Venetic, the idea being that autumn signifies the passing of the year.[3]
belt
from balteus, "sword belt." The sole connection between this word and Etruscan is a statement by
Marcus Terentius Varro that it was of Etruscan origin. All else is speculation.[4]
catamite
from catmite
ceremony
cup
defenestration
element
from elementum, 'letter'
fenestra
histrionic
from histrionicus, from histrio, "actor"
ides
ludicrous
mantissa
market
military
mundane
from mundus, 'earth', from munth, 'land'
mutule
palace
palate
people
person
possibly from phersu, 'mask'
satellite
from satnal, 'attendant'
scurrilous
sentinel
from satnal, 'attendant'
Serge (first name)
serve
from servus, 'a slave'
spurious
style
from stilus (indirectly)
stylus
from stilus
vernacular
from vernaculus, 'domestic', from verna, 'a native slave'
viburnum

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘rench‘rigin‘

¢‘ abbatial (Fr. abbatial)


¢‘ abbreviation, from abréviation
¢‘ abet
¢‘ abhor (Fr. abhorrer)
¢‘ ability (Fr. habilité)
¢‘ abjection
¢‘ ablation (Fr. ablation)
¢‘ ablative
¢‘ able, from Old French, compare modern Fr. habile or capable
¢‘ ablution
¢‘ abnormal compare anormal
¢‘ abolish, compare abolir
¢‘ abomination
¢‘ abortive
¢‘ abound
¢‘ abridge, Fr. abréger
¢‘ absence
¢‘ absolute, from Middle French, compare modern Fr. absolu
¢‘ absorb (Fr. absorber)
¢‘ abstain (Old Fr. abstenir)
¢‘ abstinence
¢‘ abstract
¢‘ abstruse
¢‘ abundance (Old Fr. abundance, now abondance)
¢‘ abuse (Fr. abuser)
¢‘ academic (Fr. académique)
¢‘ academy, compare académie
¢‘ Acadia (Fr. Acadie)
¢‘ acceleration (Fr. accélération)
¢‘ accent (Fr. accent)
¢‘ accept (Fr accepter)
¢‘ access (Fr. accès)
¢‘ accession
¢‘ accident
¢‘ acclimate (Fr. acclimater)
¢‘ accolade (Fr. accolade)
¢‘ accommodation
¢‘ accompany (Fr. accompagner)
¢‘ accomplice (Fr. complice)
¢‘ accomplish (Fr. accomplir)
¢‘ accord
¢‘ accost
¢‘ account (Fr. compte)
¢‘ accourtre
¢‘ accoutrement (Fr. accoutrement)
¢‘ accredit
¢‘ accrue
¢‘ accusation
¢‘ accusative (Old Fr. accusatif)
¢‘ accuse
¢‘ accustom (Old Fr. acostumer, now accoutumer)
¢‘ ace, compare as
¢‘ acid, compare acide
¢‘ acoustic, compare acoustique
¢‘ acquisitive
¢‘ acquit
¢‘ acrobat (Fr. acrobate)
¢‘ acrostic, compare acrostiche
¢‘ action
¢‘ activity, compare activité
¢‘ adaptation
¢‘ adhesive, compare adhésif or feminine form adhésive
¢‘ adieu, which literally means "to God" (à Dieu), farewell
¢‘ adjective, compare adjectif
¢‘ administer (Fr. administrer)
¢‘ admire, compare admirer
¢‘ adolescence
¢‘ adopt, compare adopter
¢‘ adore, from Old French, compare modern Fr. adorer
¢‘ adroit
¢‘ advantage, compare avantage
¢‘ adventure, from Old French, compare modern Fr. aventure
¢‘ adverb, compare adverbe
¢‘ adversary, from Old French, compare modern Fr. adversaire
¢‘ advertisement, compare avertissement (warning)
¢‘ advise, compare aviser (to assess [a situation])
¢‘ advocate (noun), from Old French avocat - in modern French this means an attorney or lawyer
¢‘ affair, from Old French, compare modern Fr. affaire (business)
¢‘ affection
¢‘ affiliation
¢‘ affinity, compare affinité
¢‘ affliction
¢‘ affluence
¢‘ age
¢‘ agent provocateur
¢‘ aggression, compare agression
¢‘ M gogo, or a-go-go, in abundance
¢‘ agree (Old Fr. agreer)
¢‘ agreeable, compare agréable
¢‘ aid (Old Fr. aide)
¢‘ aim (Old Fr. esmar)
¢‘ M la, in the style of...
¢‘ alabaster, from Old French alabastre (>Latin> Greek> Ancient Egyptian a-labaste)
¢‘ M la carte
¢‘ alas, from Old French, compare modern Fr. hélas
¢‘ alert, compare alerte
¢‘ align, compare aligner
¢‘ allocation
¢‘ allure, look or air
¢‘ almond, from Old French, compare modern Fr. amande; compare also Spanish almendra.
//NOTE: I believe almond (and almendra) come from arabic
¢‘ amateur
¢‘ ambience
¢‘ ambiguous, from ambigu
¢‘ ambition
¢‘ ambergris, from ambre gris, grey amber
¢‘ ambulance
¢‘ ameliorate
¢‘ ammunition, from munition
¢‘ amnesty, compare amnistie
¢‘ amorous, from Old French, compare modern Fr. amoureux
¢‘ ample
¢‘ amplitude
¢‘ amusement
¢‘ analyse, compare analyser
¢‘ animal
¢‘ anarchism
¢‘ anarchist (Fr. anarchiste)
¢‘ anatomy, compare anatomie
¢‘ ancestor, from Old French, compare modern Fr. ancêtre
¢‘ ancient, compare ancien
¢‘ angle
¢‘ anglophobe, someone who fears or dislikes England or the English
¢‘ anglophone, a speaker of English (Fr. anglophone)
¢‘ anguish (from Old French anguisse, now angoisse)
¢‘ anise
¢‘ annals
¢‘ annex, compare annexer
¢‘ annihilation
¢‘ announce
¢‘ annoy, from Old French anoier, now ennuyer
¢‘ annual (Fr. annuel)
¢‘ annuity (Fr. annuité)
¢‘ annular (Fr. annulaire)
¢‘ anoint, compare oindre
¢‘ anomie
¢‘ antecedent, compare antécédent
¢‘ anther, compare anthère
¢‘ antique
¢‘ apartment, compare appartement
¢‘ apathy, compare apathie
¢‘ aplomb
¢‘ apostrophe
¢‘ apparel, from Old French, compare modern Fr. appareil
¢‘ application
¢‘ appliqué
¢‘ apprehend, compare appréhender
¢‘ après-ski
¢‘ apropos, compare à propos
¢‘ arbitrage
¢‘ arcade
¢‘ archetype
¢‘ area, from aire
¢‘ arête, a mountainous ridge
¢‘ argent (Fr. argent)
¢‘ argue, from Old French, compare modern Fr. arguer
¢‘ army, compare armée> desarmée, armement Le français langue de la guerre et de l'amour (French
as language of war and love)
¢‘ arrest, from O.Fr. arester
¢‘ article
¢‘ artificial, from artificiel
¢‘ artist (Fr. artiste)
¢‘ assembly (Fr. assembler)
¢‘ assume, from assumer (in its old meaning : to suppose)
¢‘ assurance
¢‘ attack (Fr. attaque)
¢‘ attaché
¢‘ attorney (Fr. procureur)
¢‘ attitude
¢‘ aubergine, British name for eggplant
¢‘ au naturel
¢‘ aunt (Old Fr. ante)
¢‘ authority (Fr. autorité)
¢‘ avalanche
¢‘ avenue (Fr. avenue)
¢‘ average (Fr. moyenne)
¢‘ averment
¢‘ aversion (Fr. aversion)
¢‘ avert
¢‘ aviation (Fr. aviation)
¢‘ avid (Fr. avide)
¢‘ avocet
¢‘ avoid (Old Fr. evuider)
¢‘ avoirdupois
¢‘ avouch
¢‘ avow (Fr. aveu)
¢‘ axiom (Fr. axiome)
¢‘ aye-aye
¢‘ azimuth (from Old French, from Arabic as-sumut)
¢‘ azure (Old Fr. azur, from Old Spanish azur, from Arabic, in turn from Persian)hi

¢‘ bacon:-)
¢‘ baggage, from French bagage
¢‘ ballet
¢‘ band, from bande
¢‘ bandeau, a type of headdress
¢‘ banquet
¢‘ barge
¢‘ baroque
¢‘ barrel (Fr. baril)
¢‘ barren, from Old French
¢‘ barricade
¢‘ barrier
¢‘ base
¢‘ Baton Rouge, Bâton Rouge
¢‘ battle (Old Fr. bataille)
¢‘ bay, compare baie
¢‘ bayonet, compare baïonnette
¢‘ beagle (Fr. bagle)
¢‘ beak, compare bec
¢‘ Béarnaise, a type of sauce, named after a region in France (Béarn)
¢‘ beau, a lover or a dandy
¢‘ beauty (Old Fr. beauté)
¢‘ beast (Old Fr. beste)
¢‘ beaux arts, fine arts
¢‘ beef (Fr. boeuf)
¢‘ benefit (Fr. bénéfice)
¢‘ beret, compare béret
¢‘ bête noire
¢‘ bicycle, compare bicyclette > vélo
¢‘ bidet
¢‘ bikini
¢‘ billet
¢‘ billet-doux, a love letter
¢‘ binge, after a beer-festival in Binche, Belgium
¢‘ biscuit
¢‘ bistro
¢‘ bivouac
¢‘ bizarre
¢‘ blank (Old Fr. blanc)
¢‘ blanket, from Old French blanquette Blanquette de veau
¢‘ blasé
¢‘ bloc > blocage
¢‘ blonde
¢‘ boil (Old Fr. boilir)
¢‘ Boise
¢‘ bomb
¢‘ bombard (Fr. "bombarde")
¢‘ bombe
¢‘ bon appétit
¢‘ bon mot
¢‘ bonnet, from Old French, compare modern Fr. bonnet
¢‘ bon-vivant
¢‘ bon voyage
¢‘ bon-bon (Fr. "bonbon")
¢‘ bouillabaisse
¢‘ boule
¢‘ boulevard
¢‘ bound (leap), from bond
¢‘ bouquet
¢‘ bourgeoisie
¢‘ bracelet
¢‘ bran, from Old French bran or bren
¢‘ brandish, compare brandir
¢‘ brasserie
¢‘ brassiere, compare brassière, although the modern French for this is soutien-gorge
¢‘ brave
¢‘ bravery
¢‘ bric-a-brac
¢‘ brigade
¢‘ brilliant, compare brillant
¢‘ brioche
¢‘ briquette
¢‘ brochure, from brocher - to stitch
¢‘ broderie anglaise, a type of embroidery
¢‘ brunette
¢‘ buckle, compare boucle
¢‘ budget, from Old Fr. bougette (a little purse)
¢‘ buffet
¢‘ bullet, from boulette, although the modern French for this is balle
¢‘ bureau
¢‘ button, from bouton

¢‘ cabal, compare cabale


¢‘ cabaret
¢‘ cache, compare cacher
¢‘ cadet
¢‘ café
¢‘ cafetière
¢‘ cagoule
¢‘ cajole, compare cajoler
¢‘ calque
¢‘ camaraderie
¢‘ camouflage
¢‘ camp
¢‘ campaign, compare campagne
¢‘ canapé
¢‘ canard, aeronautical term
¢‘ cancel, from canceller, evolution of chanceler (1293) (to cross out)
¢‘ capacity
¢‘ cape, compare cap, land jutting into the sea, as in Cape Horn
¢‘ captain (from capitaine)
¢‘ car (Norman-Fr. carre)
¢‘ card (Fr. carte)
¢‘ career (Fr. carrière)
¢‘ casserole
¢‘ cassette
¢‘ castle (Old North Fr. castel)
¢‘ castor
¢‘ casual (Old Fr. casuel)
¢‘ casuist, compare casuiste
¢‘ cataclysm
¢‘ catalogue
¢‘ catch
¢‘ category
¢‘ caterpillar
¢‘ catholic
¢‘ cattle
¢‘ cause
¢‘ cavalry, compare cavalerie
¢‘ celebrate, from célébrer
¢‘ cement (Old Fr. ciment)
¢‘ cense, compare encenser
¢‘ censer (Old Fr. censier)
¢‘ centime (Fr. centime)
¢‘ centre (Old Fr. centre)
¢‘ chaise longue or sometimes chaise lounge
¢‘ chalet
¢‘ chalice, from calice
¢‘ chance
¢‘ change
¢‘ character, from caractère
¢‘ chase, compare chasse
¢‘ château, compare castle
¢‘ chatelaine
¢‘ chattel
¢‘ chauffeur
¢‘ chauvinism
¢‘ cheat (Old Fr. escheat)
¢‘ check (Old Fr. eschec)
¢‘ checkmate, compare échec et mat or possibly from old arabic
¢‘ cheer (Old Fr. chiere)
¢‘ chef compare chief
¢‘ chemise
¢‘ chemist, from chimiste
¢‘ cheque
¢‘ cherish (Old Fr. chériss-)
¢‘ cherry (Old North Fr. cherise)
¢‘ cheval de frise, a military term
¢‘ cheval-glass, from cheval - horse
¢‘ Chicago (from Fort Chécagou)
¢‘ chief (Old Fr. chief, compare chef)
¢‘ chieftain (Old Fr. chevetain, compare chief)
¢‘ chiffon
¢‘ chivalry
¢‘ cinema, compare cinéma
¢‘ city (Old Fr. cite)
¢‘ claim (Old Fr. clamer)
¢‘ clairvoyance
¢‘ clarinet, compare clarinette
¢‘ classic
¢‘ cliché
¢‘ cloche, a kind of hat
¢‘ closet, from Old French closet
¢‘ Coeur d'Alene
¢‘ coiffeuse
¢‘ coin (Old Fr. coigne)
¢‘ collage
¢‘ collar, from collier, from cou (neck)
¢‘ colonel, compare modern Fr. colonel
¢‘ combustible
¢‘ comedian and comedienne, compare comédien and comédienne
¢‘ comic, from comique (funny)
¢‘ commandant, commanding officer
¢‘ commendation
¢‘ commode
¢‘ common
¢‘ communion
¢‘ communiqué
¢‘ communism (Fr. communisme)
¢‘ community, from Old Fr. comunalté, modern Fr. communauté
¢‘ company (milit.), from compagnie
¢‘ competent
¢‘ competitor
¢‘ complete
¢‘ compliment, from compliment
¢‘ comrade, from camarade
¢‘ concede, from concéder
¢‘ congratulations
¢‘ connoisseur (from connaisseur)
¢‘ conscience
¢‘ convenient, from covenant, convenable
¢‘ cordon
¢‘ cormorant, compare cormoran
¢‘ cornet
¢‘ corniche
¢‘ corporal Old.Fr. corporal
¢‘ corps
¢‘ corset
¢‘ costume
¢‘ cotton (Old Fr. 'coton')
¢‘ council
¢‘ count
¢‘ county (Old Fr. comté)
¢‘ countenance (Old Fr. : continere, Modern French : contenance)
¢‘ counter
¢‘ counterfeit, from Old French, compare modern Fr. contrefaire
¢‘ country (Old Fr. cuntree)
¢‘ coup
¢‘ coup d'état
¢‘ coup de grâce
¢‘ couple
¢‘ coupon
¢‘ courage (Old Fr. corage)
¢‘ courageous
¢‘ courgette, in the UK, but called zucchini in the US
¢‘ courier
¢‘ course
¢‘ court
¢‘ courtesy
¢‘ couscous
¢‘ cousin (Old Fr. cosin)
¢‘ couture
¢‘ couturier
¢‘ cover (Old Fr. covrir)
¢‘ crème brûlée
¢‘ crème caramel
¢‘ crème de menthe
¢‘ crêpe crêperie
¢‘ Croissant - Croissanterie
¢‘ croupier
¢‘ crouton, from the diminutive form of the old French word, Croust, (later to come into modern
French as the word croûte), meaning Crust.
¢‘ crown, from couronne
¢‘ crust, from Croûte, or Crust, in French.
¢‘ cry (Old Fr. crier)
¢‘ cuisine
¢‘ cul-de-sac
¢‘ culotte
¢‘ cult (Fr. culte)
¢‘ culture (Fr. culture)
¢‘ curfew (Fr. couvre-feu)
¢‘ custom, from Old French coustume, compare modern Fr. coutume

¢‘ dais, from Old French deis


¢‘ dalmatic (Old Fr. dalmatique)
¢‘ dame
¢‘ damage (Old Fr. damage)
¢‘ damn (Fr. damner)
¢‘ debt (Old Fr. dete)
¢‘ déclassé
¢‘ décolletage
¢‘ décor or decor
¢‘ découpage
¢‘ defamation, from diffamation
¢‘ default, from Old French, compare modern Fr. défaut
¢‘ defeat (Fr. "défaite")
¢‘ déjM vu
¢‘ de luxe or deluxe
¢‘ demand
¢‘ demi-monde
¢‘ démodé
¢‘ denouement
¢‘ dépanneur
¢‘ department
¢‘ deploy, from Old French, compare modern Fr. déployer
¢‘ depot
¢‘ derail, compare dérailler
¢‘ derive (Fr. "dérive")
¢‘ derogation (Fr. dérogation)
¢‘ derrière
¢‘ descend (Old Fr. descendre)
¢‘ desert (Old Fr. desert)
¢‘ Des Moines (Fr. des moines of the monks)
¢‘ dessert
¢‘ detachment (Fr. détachement)
¢‘ detail (Fr. détail)
¢‘ detain (Old Fr. detenir)
¢‘ détente
¢‘ determine
¢‘ detonation
¢‘ detriment
¢‘ Detroit (Fr. détroit = strait)
¢‘ deuce, from deux (two)
¢‘ development or develop
¢‘ deviation
¢‘ device (Old Fr. devis)
¢‘ devise
¢‘ devoid
¢‘ devotion
¢‘ devour (Old Fr. devorer)
¢‘ devout (Old Fr. devot)
¢‘ diabolical
¢‘ diadem
¢‘ diamanté
¢‘ diet
¢‘ different
¢‘ digestion
¢‘ dignity (Old Fr. dignete)
¢‘ dilate
¢‘ diligence
¢‘ dime (Old Fr. disme, modern French "dîme", from "dix", ten)
¢‘ diplomacy, compare diplomatie
¢‘ direction (Fr. direction)
¢‘ disadvantage
¢‘ disappoint (Fr. desappointer)
¢‘ disarm (Old Fr. desarmer)
¢‘ discothèque or discotheque, thus disco
¢‘ discover (Old Fr. descovrir)
¢‘ disguise (Old Fr. desguisier)
¢‘ disport (Old Fr. desporter, modern Fr. "déporter")
¢‘ diverse
¢‘ divinity
¢‘ division
¢‘ double (Old Fr. duble)
¢‘ doubt (Old Fr. douter)
¢‘ douche, from French, meaning shower
¢‘ dozen, from Old French, compare modern Fr. douzaine
¢‘ dress (Old Fr. dresser)
¢‘ due (Old Fr. deu)
¢‘ during (Old Fr. durer, compare endure)
¢‘ duty (Anglo-Fr. duete from Old Fr. deu)
¢‘ duvet

¢‘ eager, from Old French aigre


¢‘ eagle, from Old French, compare modern Fr. aigle
¢‘ easy, from Old French, compare modern Fr. aisé
¢‘ echelon, compare échelon
¢‘ éclair
¢‘ ecstasy, from Old French, compare modern Fr. extase
¢‘ élite
¢‘ eloquence, compare éloquence
¢‘ emigré
¢‘ emir from Fr. émir, colloquial pronunciation of Ar. amir "commander"
¢‘ emperor (Old Fr. emperere)
¢‘ empire
¢‘ emplacement
¢‘ employ (Old Fr. employer)
¢‘ empress
¢‘ enclave
¢‘ encore
¢‘ encourage, from Old French, compare modern Fr. encourager
¢‘ endive
¢‘ endue
¢‘ endure (Old Fr. endurer)
¢‘ endurance
¢‘ enfranchise
¢‘ enemy (Old Fr. ennemi)
¢‘ energy (Fr. énergie)
¢‘ engage, compare engager
¢‘ enjoy (Old Fr. enjoir)
¢‘ enmity, from Old French, compare modern Fr. inimitié
¢‘ ennui
¢‘ enrage, compare enrager
¢‘ enrich, compare enrichir
¢‘ ensemble
¢‘ en suite
¢‘ ensure, from 'assurer
¢‘ entente
¢‘ enter, compare entrer
¢‘ entomb, from Old French, compare modern Fr. entomber
¢‘ entrant
¢‘ entrée (but is first part of the meal in French)
¢‘ entrepreneur (Fr. from entreprendre undertake)
¢‘ envelope, compare enveloppe
¢‘ environ, from Old French, compare modern Fr. environs
¢‘ environment or environmental
¢‘ envisage, compare envisager
¢‘ envoy, compare envoyé
¢‘ envy, compare envier
¢‘ epaulet or epaulette, compare épaulette
¢‘ épée
¢‘ ephebe, from éphèbe
¢‘ ephemeral, from "éphémère
¢‘ epic, from épique
¢‘ epicurean, from épicurien
¢‘ epidemic, from épidémie
¢‘ epilogue
¢‘ episcopal
¢‘ episode
¢‘ epithet, from épithète
¢‘ épris
¢‘ equal, from égal
¢‘ equality, from Old French, compare modern Fr. égalité
¢‘ equation
¢‘ equilibrate, from équilibrer
¢‘ equipage, compare équipage
¢‘ équipe
¢‘ equipment, from équipement
¢‘ equitable
¢‘ equity, from équité
¢‘ eradicate, compare éradiquer
¢‘ erase, from araser
¢‘ erect, from ériger (to build)
¢‘ ermine, from hermine
¢‘ erode, compare éroder
¢‘ erudite, compare érudit
¢‘ escapade
¢‘ escargots
¢‘ escarpment
¢‘ essence
¢‘ establish (Old Fr. establisse)
¢‘ estate (Old Fr. estat)
¢‘ ether
¢‘ etiquette, étiquette
¢‘ Eucharist (Old Fr. eucariste)
¢‘ European, compare européen
¢‘ evangelist, compare évangéliste
¢‘ evaporation, compare évaporation
¢‘ evasion, compare évasion
¢‘ example
¢‘ exclamation
¢‘ exhibition (Old Fr. exhibicion)
¢‘ expire, compare expirer
¢‘ exploit, compare exploiter
¢‘ exposé or expose
¢‘ extraction (Fr. extraction)
¢‘ extraordinaire
¢‘ extravagance

¢‘ fabric, compare fabrique


¢‘ fabulous
¢‘ face
¢‘ facile
¢‘ factor
¢‘ faience, compare faïence
¢‘ failure
¢‘ family
¢‘ fanfare
¢‘ fantastic
¢‘ fantasy, compare fantaisie
¢‘ farce
¢‘ farm (Old Fr. ferme)
¢‘ fashion, from Old French façon
¢‘ fatal
¢‘ fatigue
¢‘ fault (Old Fr. faute)
¢‘ faux pas
¢‘ feasible
¢‘ feast (Old Fr. feste)
¢‘ feint, compare feinte
¢‘ felicity, from Old French, compare modern Fr. félicité
¢‘ felon, from Old French, compare modern Fr. félon
¢‘ female (Old Fr. femelle)
¢‘ feminine, compare féminin
¢‘ fertility, compare fertilité
¢‘ figure
¢‘ fiancé
¢‘ fierce
¢‘ fillet, compare filet
¢‘ film noir
¢‘ final
¢‘ finance
¢‘ fine (Old Fr. fin)
¢‘ flageolet
¢‘ flambé tarte flambée
¢‘ flan
¢‘ flèche
¢‘ fleur-de-lis
¢‘ flexible
¢‘ floret, from Old French, compare modern Fr. fleurette
¢‘ florin
¢‘ floss
¢‘ flourish (Old Fr. floriss, compare flower)
¢‘ flower (Old Fr. fleur)
¢‘ fluid, compare fluide
¢‘ flux
¢‘ foliage (Fr. feuillage)
¢‘ folly (Old Fr. folie)
¢‘ fondant
¢‘ font (Fr. fonte)
¢‘ fool (Old Fr. fol)
¢‘ force majeure
¢‘ foreign (Old Fr. forain)
¢‘ forest (Old Fr. forest)
¢‘ forte compare fort (strong)
¢‘ fortune
¢‘ found (Old Fr. founder)
¢‘ fountain from O.Fr. fontaine, still used in modern french.
¢‘ foyer
¢‘ fracas
¢‘ fraction, from Old French, compare modern Fr. fraction
¢‘ franchise
¢‘ francophone, a speaker of French (Fr. francophone)
¢‘ frappé
¢‘ frigate, compare frégate
¢‘ frisson
¢‘ fritter, compare friture
¢‘ frontier
¢‘ fruit
¢‘ function (Old Fr. function)
¢‘ fund
¢‘ fuselage
¢‘ fusible
¢‘ fusion
¢‘ futile
¢‘ future (Old Fr. futur)

¢‘ gabardine
¢‘ gaffe
¢‘ gallant, compare galant
¢‘ gallop, from galop
¢‘ galvanize
¢‘ ganache
¢‘ gangrene
¢‘ gangue
¢‘ garage
¢‘ garter, from Old French, compare modern Fr. jarretière
¢‘ gasket
¢‘ gateau
¢‘ gauche
¢‘ gay (Old Fr. gai)
¢‘ gel
¢‘ gelatin or gelatine, from gélatine
¢‘ gem, from gemme
¢‘ general
¢‘ generic
¢‘ generosity
¢‘ generous
¢‘ gender, from genre
¢‘ genial
¢‘ genius, from génie
¢‘ gent
¢‘ gentle, from Old Fr. gentil (both noble and sweet)
¢‘ genteel
¢‘ gently, from gentiment
¢‘ gesticulation
¢‘ gesture, from geste (movement)
¢‘ giant
¢‘ gigantism
¢‘ gigolo
¢‘ gleet (Old Fr. glette)
¢‘ glissade
¢‘ globe (Fr. globe)
¢‘ global
¢‘ goblet, from Old Fr. gobelet (a deep cup)
¢‘ gondolier
¢‘ gorge
¢‘ gorgeous
¢‘ gouache
¢‘ gourmet
¢‘ govern, governance, government, governor
¢‘ grace
¢‘ gracious, from Old French, compare modern Fr. gracieux
¢‘ grammar, from Old French, compare modern Fr. grammaire
¢‘ grand
¢‘ grant
¢‘ gratin
¢‘ grief
¢‘ group
¢‘ gruel, from gruau
¢‘ guard, from garde
¢‘ guide
¢‘ guillotine
¢‘ gulf, from Old French, compare modern Fr. golfe

¢‘ hangar
¢‘ harlequin, from Arlequin, a character from the Italian comedy
¢‘ haste, from OF. (Compare contemporary French hâte)
¢‘ haute couture high sewing
¢‘ hazard (Old Fr. hasard)
¢‘ Hollandaise
¢‘ honour or honor, Old French, compare modern Fr. honneur
¢‘ hors d'œuvre
¢‘ hospital (Fr. hôpital)
¢‘ host, compare with "hôte", or, in the meaning of an army, with Old Fr. "ost´
¢‘ hostage
¢‘ hotel, compare hôtel
¢‘ huge (Old Fr. ahuge)
¢‘ humanity (Old Fr. humanité)

¢‘ illustration
¢‘ Illinois
¢‘ ignore
¢‘ ignorance
¢‘ ignorant
¢‘ imagine
¢‘ imaginative
¢‘ immediate
¢‘ imbecile, compare imbécile
¢‘ indictment
¢‘ infant
¢‘ infantry (from infanterie)
¢‘ influence
¢‘ influx
¢‘ inform
¢‘ information (Old Fr. information)
¢‘ infrastructure
¢‘ infusion
¢‘ ingénue
¢‘ injustice (from injustice)
¢‘ ink (Old Fr. enque)
¢‘ insurance, from assurance
¢‘ insurgent, from insurgé
¢‘ insurmountable, from insurmontable
¢‘ insurrection
¢‘ integrate, from intégrer
¢‘ integrity
¢‘ integrant
¢‘ intellect or intellectual
¢‘ intelligence
¢‘ intention
¢‘ intercession
¢‘ interchange
¢‘ intercourse
¢‘ interdict
¢‘ interest
¢‘ interfere
¢‘ interlace
¢‘ intense
¢‘ intrinsic, compare intrinsèque
¢‘ ivory, from Old French, compare modern Fr. ivoire

¢‘ jack, Old Fr. jaque or jacque, a garment, from Jacques, general nickname for peasants who used
to wear this garment (see jacket)
¢‘ jacket, Old Fr. jaquette, diminutive form of jaque
¢‘ jade
¢‘ j'adoube
¢‘ jardiniere
¢‘ jargon
¢‘ jelly (from gelée)
¢‘ je ne sais quoi
¢‘ jet
¢‘ jetty
¢‘ jew, from Old French giu
¢‘ jewel, from joyau
¢‘ juggle
¢‘ joie de vivre
¢‘ join, from joindre
¢‘ joint
¢‘ journey (Old Fr. journée)
¢‘ judge, from juge , jugement,
¢‘ juggle, from jongler
¢‘ juggler
¢‘ just, from Old French juste
¢‘ justice, from Old French, compare modern Fr. justice

¢‘ kepi, compare épi


¢‘ kiosk, (Fr. iosque)
¢‘ kermess or kirmess (Fr. ermesse)
¢‘ kilo
¢‘ kilogram (Fr. ilogramme)
¢‘ kilometre (Fr. ilomètre)

¢‘ label
¢‘ labour or labor, compare labourer
¢‘ lace
¢‘ lackey, compare laquais
¢‘ laissez-faire
¢‘ laissez-passer
¢‘ lamé
¢‘ lancer
¢‘ lancet
¢‘ language (Old Fr. langage)
¢‘ L'Anse aux Meadows (Fr. L'anse aux méduses : Jellyfish Cove)
¢‘ large
¢‘ largess
¢‘ latrine
¢‘ launder
¢‘ laundry
¢‘ laurel
¢‘ laver (Fr. laveoir)
¢‘ lay, literary sense
¢‘ leisure, from Old French, compare modern Fr. loisir
¢‘ liaison
¢‘ lias
¢‘ libel, from Old Fr. un libelle (short memorandum)
¢‘ liberal
¢‘ liberty (from Old Fr . liberté)
¢‘ library
¢‘ libre
¢‘ license
¢‘ licorice
¢‘ lieu
¢‘ lieutenant
¢‘ limousine
¢‘ lingerie
¢‘ liquor, from liqueur
¢‘ litre
¢‘ lorgnette
¢‘ Louisiana (Fr. Louisiane land of Louis XIV)
¢‘ Louisville, Louisville (named after Louis XVI)
¢‘ loupe
¢‘ love (as used in tennis)
¢‘ lozenge, from Old French, compare modern Fr. losange
¢‘ luminary, compare luminaire
¢‘ lustre or luster

¢‘ machine
¢‘ madam (Old Fr. ma dame)
¢‘ mail (Old Fr. male)
¢‘ Maine (name of the former French province of Maine)
¢‘ maintain (Old Fr. maintenir)
¢‘ maintenance
¢‘ maisonette, compare maisonnette
¢‘ majesty (Fr. majesté)
¢‘ majority (Fr. majorité)
¢‘ maladroit
¢‘ male (Old Fr. masle)
¢‘ malinger (Fr. malingre)
¢‘ mangetout
¢‘ manger
¢‘ mannequin
¢‘ manœuvre or manœuver, compare manœuvre
¢‘ maquis
¢‘ mardi gras
¢‘ marine, compare marin
¢‘ marionette (Fr. marionnette)
¢‘ marmalade, compare marmelade
¢‘ marriage, compare mariage
¢‘ marshal, from Old French, compare modern Fr. maréchal
¢‘ marvel
¢‘ marvelous, from merveilleux
¢‘ mascot
¢‘ masculine
¢‘ mask, compare masque
¢‘ masque
¢‘ mass (Old Fr. masse)
¢‘ massacre, compare massacrer
¢‘ massage
¢‘ masseur
¢‘ masseuse
¢‘ mathematics
¢‘ matron
¢‘ mattress, from Old French, compare modern Fr. matelas
¢‘ May, compare mai
¢‘ Mayday, from m'aider which means literally to help me
¢‘ medal, compare médaille
¢‘ mediocre, compare médiocre
¢‘ mêlée
¢‘ memory, (from mémoire)
¢‘ ménage M trois
¢‘ mercy (Old Fr. mercit, merci)
¢‘ meridian
¢‘ merit
¢‘ merle
¢‘ merlin (from Old Fr. esmerillon via Anglo-Fr. merilun)
¢‘ merlon
¢‘ meringue
¢‘ mésalliance
¢‘ mesclun
¢‘ mess
¢‘ message
¢‘ messenger
¢‘ Messiah (Fr. Messie)
¢‘ messianic (Fr. messianique)
¢‘ metro (Fr. métro)
¢‘ military
¢‘ mille-feuille
¢‘ Mille Lacs (USA), means thousand lakes
¢‘ milliard (Fr. milliard)
¢‘ million
¢‘ millionaire (Fr. millionnaire)
¢‘ miniature
¢‘ mine or mining, as in a coal mine
¢‘ minister (Old Fr. ministre)
¢‘ minstrel
¢‘ mitten, compare mitaine
¢‘ modern
¢‘ modify
¢‘ module
¢‘ moil
¢‘ moist (Old Fr. moiste, now "moîte")
¢‘ moment (Old Fr. moment)
¢‘ monad
¢‘ monarch (from monarque)
¢‘ monarchism (from monarchisme)
¢‘ monarchy (from monarchie)
¢‘ monetary (from monétaire)
¢‘ money (Old Fr moneie)
¢‘ monition
¢‘ monster (Fr. monstre)
¢‘ monobloc
¢‘ monocle
¢‘ monogamy (Fr. monogamie)
¢‘ monogram
¢‘ monolith
¢‘ monologue (Fr. monologue)
¢‘ montage
¢‘ morgue
¢‘ mortality
¢‘ mosaic (Fr. mosaïque)
¢‘ motif
¢‘ mot juste
¢‘ mount (from mont)
¢‘ mountain (from montagne)
¢‘ mousse
¢‘ moustache or mustache, compare moustache
¢‘ move (Old Fr. moveir)
¢‘ movement (from mouvement)
¢‘ muffle (Old Fr. moufle)
¢‘ mule, as a type of footwear
¢‘ murder (Old Fr. murdre)
¢‘ muscle
¢‘ musket (from mousquet)
¢‘ musketeer (from mousquetaire)
¢‘ mustard, from Old French, compare modern Fr. moutarde
¢‘ mutton
¢‘ mystery (Old Fr. mystère)
¢‘ mystic
¢‘ mystique

¢‘ nacelle
¢‘ naïve
¢‘ née or nee, feminine past participle of naître to be born
¢‘ Nez perce (Fr. Nez percés = Pierced noses)
¢‘ nice (Old Fr. nice)
¢‘ niche
¢‘ nicotine, from Jean Nicot
¢‘ niece (Fr. nièce)
¢‘ noble
¢‘ noblesse oblige
¢‘ noise (Old Fr. noise)
¢‘ nonpareil
¢‘ note
¢‘ notice
¢‘ nouveau
¢‘ nouveau riche
¢‘ nouveau roman
¢‘ nouvelle cuisine
¢‘ nouvelle vague
¢‘ novel
¢‘ novelty
¢‘ november
¢‘ novice (Old Fr. novice)
¢‘ nuance
¢‘ nuisance
¢‘ null
¢‘ nullity (Fr. nullité)
¢‘ number (Old Fr. nombre)
¢‘ numerator
¢‘ numismatic
¢‘ nun (Old Fr. nonne)
¢‘ nurse
¢‘ nurture
¢‘ nutrition (Fr. nutrition)
¢‘ nutritive
¢‘ nymph (Old Fr. nimphe)

¢‘ oboe (via Italian), from French "haut bois´


¢‘ ocean, from O.Fr. occean
¢‘ œuvre
¢‘ offend
¢‘ offense (Fr. offense)
¢‘ office
¢‘ officer (Old Fr. officier)
¢‘ official
¢‘ ogive (Fr. ogive)
¢‘ ogre
¢‘ oil (Old Fr. oile)
¢‘ ointment (Old Fr. oignement)
¢‘ olive
¢‘ omelette, compare omelette
¢‘ omission
¢‘ omnibus
¢‘ opacity
¢‘ opal
¢‘ operation
¢‘ opinion (Old Fr. opinion)
¢‘ opportune
¢‘ opportunism (Fr.opportunisme)
¢‘ opportunity
¢‘ oppose (Old Fr. opposer)
¢‘ opposite
¢‘ opposition (Old Fr. oposicion)
¢‘ oppress (Old Fr. oppresser)
¢‘ optative (Fr. optatif)
¢‘ optician
¢‘ optimism (Fr. optimisme)
¢‘ option
¢‘ oracle (Old Fr. oracle)
¢‘ orange (Old Fr. orenge)
¢‘ ordain (Old Fr. ordener)
¢‘ order (Old Fr. ordre)
¢‘ organic
¢‘ organism
¢‘ organise
¢‘ orgy
¢‘ origin
¢‘ original
¢‘ ormolu
¢‘ ornament
¢‘ ornithopter
¢‘ orpine
¢‘ orthography, from Old French, compare modern Fr. orthographe
¢‘ oubliette

¢‘ pair
¢‘ palace (Old Fr. palais)
¢‘ palm (Old Fr. palme)
¢‘ panache
¢‘ pansy (Fr. pensée)
¢‘ pant (Old Fr. pantaisier)
¢‘ pantaloon (Fr. pantalon)
¢‘ panther (Old Fr. pantère)
¢‘ papier mâché
¢‘ parade
¢‘ paragon
¢‘ parent
¢‘ parentage
¢‘ parfait
¢‘ parley
¢‘ parliament
¢‘ part (Old Fr. part)
¢‘ partial (Old Fr. parcial, compare modern Fr. partial)
¢‘ partisan
¢‘ partition
¢‘ pass (Old Fr. passer)
¢‘ passion
¢‘ passé
¢‘ passive
¢‘ passport
¢‘ paste
¢‘ pastel
¢‘ pastiche
¢‘ pastille
¢‘ pastor
¢‘ pasture
¢‘ pasturage
¢‘ pasty
¢‘ pastry
¢‘ patch
¢‘ pâté
¢‘ patent
¢‘ paternity
¢‘ pathetic
¢‘ pathology
¢‘ patience (Old Fr. pacience)
¢‘ patient
¢‘ patisserie
¢‘ pause (Old Fr. pause)
¢‘ pawn (Old Fr. pan, pant)
¢‘ peace (Old Fr. pais)
¢‘ peach
¢‘ pear
¢‘ pell-mell (Fr. pêle-mêle)
¢‘ pelt (Old Fr. pelete)
¢‘ pen (Old Fr. penne)
¢‘ penal
¢‘ pencil
¢‘ pension
¢‘ pensive
¢‘ penthouse (Old Fr. apentis)
¢‘ people (Old Fr. peupel)
¢‘ perchance
¢‘ perceiver
¢‘ perch (Old Fr. perche)
¢‘ perdition
¢‘ perfect
¢‘ perfection
¢‘ perfume, from Middle French, "parfum"
¢‘ person (Old Fr. persone)
¢‘ petty (Old Fr. petit)
¢‘ petulant, compare pétulant
¢‘ phial
¢‘ philanthropic (Fr. philanthropique)
¢‘ philately (Fr. philatélie)
¢‘ philharmonic
¢‘ philosophy (Old Fr. filosofie)
¢‘ philtre (Fr. philtre)
¢‘ physics (Fr. physique)
¢‘ phantom (Fr. fantôme)
¢‘ phlebotomy
¢‘ phlegm
¢‘ piece (Old Fr. piece)
¢‘ pied M terre
¢‘ piety (Old Fr. piete)
¢‘ pipette
¢‘ piquant
¢‘ piqué
¢‘ pirouette
¢‘ piss (Old Fr. pisser, still used today in slang)
¢‘ pistol
¢‘ pistole
¢‘ plain (Old Fr. plain)
¢‘ plaque
¢‘ plastic (Fr. plastique)
¢‘ plat du jour
¢‘ plate
¢‘ plateau
¢‘ platform (Fr. plateforme)
¢‘ platoon (Fr. peloton)
¢‘ platter
¢‘ plebiscite (Fr. plébiscite)
¢‘ plea (Old Fr. plait)
¢‘ please (Fr. plaire)
¢‘ pleasant (Old Fr. plaisant)
¢‘ pleasantry (Old Fr. plaisanterie)
¢‘ pleasure (Old Fr. plesir, modern French "plaisir")
¢‘ plead
¢‘ pledge (Old Fr. plege)
¢‘ plié
¢‘ plumage
¢‘ plumb
¢‘ plumber (Old Fr. plommier)
¢‘ plume, nom de plume
¢‘ plural (Old Fr. pluriel)
¢‘ plurality
¢‘ plus ça change
¢‘ plush
¢‘ pneumatic
¢‘ poach, as in cookery, from Old French, compare modern Fr. pocher
¢‘ poem (Fr. poème)
¢‘ poesy (Old Fr. poesie)
¢‘ poetic (Fr. poétique)
¢‘ policy, from police (as a contract)
¢‘ poor (Old Fr. poure, compare poverty)
¢‘ populace (Fr. populace)
¢‘ popular
¢‘ pork
¢‘ porous
¢‘ porpoise
¢‘ port (Old Fr. port)
¢‘ portage
¢‘ porter
¢‘ portion
¢‘ portmanteau
¢‘ pose, compare poser
¢‘ position (Old Fr. position)
¢‘ positive (Old Fr. positif)
¢‘ posology
¢‘ possess (Old Fr. possesser, modern Fr. posséder)
¢‘ possibility
¢‘ possible (Fr. possible)
¢‘ post, compare poste
¢‘ poultry
¢‘ poutine
¢‘ poverty (O.Fr. poverte, compare poor)
¢‘ power (Old Fr. poeir)
¢‘ practical (Old Fr. practique)
¢‘ practise
¢‘ precious
¢‘ pregnant
¢‘ prejudice
¢‘ premier (Fr. = first)
¢‘ premiere (Fr. première)
¢‘ prepare
¢‘ prerogative
¢‘ presence
¢‘ present
¢‘ president
¢‘ prêt-M-porter
¢‘ pretend
¢‘ pretense
¢‘ price (Old Fr. pris)
¢‘ prince (Old Fr. prince)
¢‘ princess
¢‘ princical
¢‘ principality (Old Fr. principalité)
¢‘ principle
¢‘ print
¢‘ prison (Old Fr. prisoun)
¢‘ prize compare price
¢‘ proof (Old Fr. proeve)
¢‘ pronoun (Fr. pronom)
¢‘ pronounce
¢‘ pronunciation
¢‘ proper (Old Fr. propre)
¢‘ property
¢‘ prophecy (Old Fr. profecie)
¢‘ prophesy
¢‘ proportion (Old Fr. proportion)
¢‘ propose, from proposer
¢‘ proposition (Old Fr. proposition)
¢‘ prorogue
¢‘ prosaic
¢‘ prose (Old Fr. prose)
¢‘ prosecution
¢‘ protection (Old Fr. protection)
¢‘ protein
¢‘ protestation
¢‘ protocol (Old Fr. prothocole)
¢‘ proud (Old Fr. prud)
¢‘ province (Old Fr. province)
¢‘ pulley
¢‘ punish (Old Fr. puniss-)
¢‘ pure (Old Fr. pur)
¢‘ purify (Old Fr. purifier)
¢‘ purpose (Old Fr. porpos)
¢‘ putty (Modern Fr. potée)

¢‘ qualify
¢‘ quality
¢‘ quantity
¢‘ quarter
¢‘ quartet
¢‘ quartier
¢‘ quatrain
¢‘ quatrefoil
¢‘ quay
¢‘ Québécois
¢‘ quest
¢‘ question
¢‘ questionnaire
¢‘ queue
¢‘ quiche
¢‘ quiet
¢‘ quilt
¢‘ quintessence
¢‘ quintuple
¢‘ quit
¢‘ quittance
¢‘ quotidian

¢‘ rabble (Fr. râble)


¢‘ raconteur
¢‘ rage (Old Fr. raige)
¢‘ raison d'être
¢‘ rare (Old Fr. rere)
¢‘ rarefy
¢‘ rarity
¢‘ ratatouille
¢‘ rate
¢‘ ration
¢‘ rave
¢‘ real (O.Fr. reel)
¢‘ realm
¢‘ reason (Old Fr. raison)
¢‘ reasonable
¢‘ rebound
¢‘ receipt, from un reçu, un récépissé
¢‘ receive (Old Fr. receivre, modern Fr. recevoir)
¢‘ reception
¢‘ receptor
¢‘ recitation
¢‘ recite
¢‘ record
¢‘ reclaim
¢‘ recognize
¢‘ recognizance
¢‘ recoil
¢‘ recollection
¢‘ Récollet
¢‘ reconnoitre, compare reconnaître
¢‘ record
¢‘ recorder (Old Fr. recordeur)
¢‘ recover
¢‘ recovery
¢‘ recreation
¢‘ recruit
¢‘ rector
¢‘ rectory
¢‘ regret, from Old French, compare modern Fr. regretter
¢‘ reign, from régnier
¢‘ remain (Old. Fr. remaindre)
¢‘ remark
¢‘ remarkable
¢‘ rendezvous
¢‘ reservoir
¢‘ responsible
¢‘ rest ("remainder, part that is left")
¢‘ restaurant
¢‘ restaurateur
¢‘ resume
¢‘ résumé
¢‘ revenue
¢‘ riposte
¢‘ risqué
¢‘ rock ("stone", Old Fr. ro(c) que)
¢‘ role (Fr. rôle, compare roll)
¢‘ roll (Old Fr. rolle)
¢‘ Roman
¢‘ romantic
¢‘ rotisserie
¢‘ rouge
¢‘ roué
¢‘ roulette
¢‘ round
¢‘ roundel
¢‘ rouse
¢‘ rout (Old Fr. route)
¢‘ route
¢‘ routine
¢‘ roux
¢‘ royal (Old Fr. roial)
¢‘ royalty
¢‘ rubble
¢‘ rubric
¢‘ rush (Old Fr. ruser)
¢‘ ruse
¢‘ russet
¢‘ rut

¢‘ sabot
¢‘ sabotage
¢‘ saboteur
¢‘ sachet
¢‘ sacrament, compare sacrement
¢‘ Saint Louis (named for Louis IX)
¢‘ salon
¢‘ saloon, compare salon
¢‘ sample (Old Fr. essample)
¢‘ satin
¢‘ sauce (Old Fr. sauce)
¢‘ sauté
¢‘ savage (Old Fr. sauvage)
¢‘ savant
¢‘ savate
¢‘ save (Anglo-fr. sa(u) ver, Old Fr. salver)
¢‘ savoir faire
¢‘ scepter
¢‘ scholar
¢‘ science
¢‘ screw (Old Fr. escroue)
¢‘ seal (Old Fr. seel)
¢‘ séance
¢‘ search (Old Fr. cerchier)
¢‘ season (Old Fr. saison)
¢‘ second (Old Fr. second)
¢‘ sensitive
¢‘ sentence (Old Fr. sentence)
¢‘ sentiment (Old Fr. sentement)
¢‘ sentinel
¢‘ sepal
¢‘ separable
¢‘ separation
¢‘ septillion (from sept seven)
¢‘ sepulchre
¢‘ sepulchral
¢‘ sequester
¢‘ serf (Old Fr. serf)
¢‘ sergeant or serjeant, from Old French, compare modern Fr. sergent
¢‘ servant
¢‘ several (from Old Fr. seperalis via Anglo-Fr. several)
¢‘ sex
¢‘ similar (Fr. similaire)
¢‘ simple (Old Fr. simple)
¢‘ skirmish (from escarmouche)
¢‘ slice (Old Fr. esclis)
¢‘ slot (Old Fr. esclot)
¢‘ snye
¢‘ sober (Old Fr. sobre)
¢‘ sobriety (from sobriété)
¢‘ sobriquet
¢‘ sociable (Fr. sociable)
¢‘ social (Fr. social)
¢‘ socialism (Fr. socialisme)
¢‘ society (Fr. société)
¢‘ socket
¢‘ soil (Old Fr. soil)
¢‘ soiree (Fr. soirée)
¢‘ sojourn (Old Fr. sojorn)
¢‘ solder
¢‘ sole
¢‘ solemnize
¢‘ solicit (Old Fr. solliciter)
¢‘ solicitor (Old Fr. solliciteur)
¢‘ solid
¢‘ solidarity (Fr. solidarité)
¢‘ soldier
¢‘ sombre (Fr. sombre)
¢‘ sort (Old Fr. sorte)
¢‘ soufflé
¢‘ sound (Old Fr. son)
¢‘ soupçon
¢‘ sovereign (from souverain)
¢‘ sovereignist (Fr. souverainiste)
¢‘ special
¢‘ spirit (Old Fr. esprit)
¢‘ stage (Old Fr. estage)
¢‘ state (Old Fr. estat, modern Fr. état)
¢‘ stay
¢‘ stereotype
¢‘ story (Old Fr. estorie)
¢‘ stray
¢‘ stress (Old Fr. estresse)
¢‘ structure (Old Fr. structure)
¢‘ study (Old Fr. estude, modern Fr. étude)
¢‘ stuff (Old Fr. estoffe, modern Fr. étoffe)
¢‘ stupid (from stupide)
¢‘ sturgeon, from esturgeon
¢‘ subject, from sujet
¢‘ subtle (from subtile)
¢‘ subtlety(from subtilité)
¢‘ succession
¢‘ successor
¢‘ succumb (from succomber)
¢‘ succour
¢‘ suffer (from souffrir)
¢‘ sufficient
¢‘ suit, from Old Fr. seoir
¢‘ suitor
¢‘ superior
¢‘ superlative
¢‘ support (Old Fr. supporter)
¢‘ suppose (Old Fr. supposer)
¢‘ sure (Old Fr. sur, seur)
¢‘ surety (Old Fr. seurté)
¢‘ surface
¢‘ surgeon (from chirurgien)
¢‘ surgery (from chirurgie)
¢‘ surgical (from chirurgical)
¢‘ surmise
¢‘ surmount
¢‘ surname (Old Fr. surnom)
¢‘ surpass
¢‘ surplus
¢‘ surprise
¢‘ surrender (Old Fr. surrendre)
¢‘ surrealism (Fr. surréalisme)
¢‘ suspend
¢‘ suspense (Fr. suspens)
¢‘ suspension
¢‘ sustain
¢‘ system

¢‘ tablature
¢‘ table
¢‘ tableau
¢‘ tablet
¢‘ tailor (Old Fr. tailleor)
¢‘ talc
¢‘ tally
¢‘ talon
¢‘ tambour
¢‘ tamp
¢‘ tampon
¢‘ tapestry
¢‘ tapis
¢‘ target
¢‘ tariff (Fr. tarif)
¢‘ tarot
¢‘ tarnish (Fr. ternir)
¢‘ Tartar (Old Fr. Tartare)
¢‘ tart, as in cookery, compare tarte
¢‘ task (from Old Fr. tasche via Norman Fr. tasque)
¢‘ taste (Old Fr. tast)
¢‘ taupe
¢‘ tax (Old Fr. taxer)
¢‘ taximeter (Fr. taximètre)
¢‘ teat (Old Fr. tete)
¢‘ telegraph (Fr. télégraphe)
¢‘ temporal (Old Fr. temporel)
¢‘ temporize
¢‘ tempt (Old Fr. tempter)
¢‘ tenant
¢‘ tench (Old Fr. tenche)
¢‘ tend (Old Fr. tend)
¢‘ tender
¢‘ tendon (Fr. tendon)
¢‘ tennis (Old Fr. Tenez, to start the game)
¢‘ tent
¢‘ terrace, from terrasse
¢‘ terrible
¢‘ terror (Old Fr. terreur)
¢‘ terrorism (first used during French Revolution)
¢‘ theatre
¢‘ theology (Old Fr. theologie)
¢‘ theorem (Fr. théorème)
¢‘ therapeutics (Fr. thérapeutique)
¢‘ thermal
¢‘ toilet, compare toilette
¢‘ tonne
¢‘ torrid
¢‘ tortuous
¢‘ torture
¢‘ touch (Old Fr. touchier)
¢‘ toupée
¢‘ tout de suite or toot sweet, compare tout de suite
¢‘ transfer
¢‘ transparent
¢‘ trial
¢‘ triangle
¢‘ tribe (Old Fr. tribu)
¢‘ tribunal
¢‘ trompe l'œil
¢‘ troop, from troupe
¢‘ troupe
¢‘ try (Old Fr. trier)
¢‘ tuff
¢‘ tube
¢‘ tyrant (from Fr. tyran, through Latin tyrannus and Greek turannos)

¢‘ unique
¢‘ unity
¢‘ universal
¢‘ university
¢‘ universe
¢‘ urgent
¢‘ use
¢‘ usurp
¢‘ usurper

¢‘ vague
¢‘ vast (Fr. vaste, compare waste)
¢‘ veal (Old Fr. veel)
¢‘ velcro, from velours, velvet, and crochet, hook
¢‘ ventre M terre
¢‘ verdigris, from vert de gris, the colour of the copper oxide
¢‘ verdict
¢‘ Vermont (from les verts monts the green mountains)
¢‘ versatile
¢‘ verse
¢‘ version
¢‘ vert
¢‘ vertical
¢‘ very (Old Fr. verai)
¢‘ vesper
¢‘ vest
¢‘ view (Old Fr. veue)
¢‘ victory
¢‘ vigour
¢‘ vile
¢‘ villain (Old Fr. villain)
¢‘ village (Old Fr. village)
¢‘ vintage
¢‘ viol (Old Fr. viel(l) e)
¢‘ violence (Old Fr. violence)
¢‘ violent
¢‘ vin, vin blanc, vin rouge, vin rosé, etc
¢‘ vintage
¢‘ virgin (Old Fr. virgine)
¢‘ virginal
¢‘ virtue
¢‘ vis-a-vis
¢‘ visible
¢‘ viscount
¢‘ vogue
¢‘ voice
¢‘ voilM
¢‘ void
¢‘ volant
¢‘ volatile
¢‘ volley
¢‘ volte-face
¢‘ voluble
¢‘ volume (Old Fr. volume)
¢‘ voluntary
¢‘ volunteer
¢‘ voluptuous
¢‘ volute
¢‘ voodoo (from a West African language)
¢‘ voucher
¢‘ voyage (Old Fr. veiage)
¢‘ voyeur

  0

Many imported words beginning with "w" in English have cognates in French that start with a "g" or "gu".
This is because the English word was not borrowed directly from French or Old French, but from other
languages closely related to French, like Norman and Anglo-Norman, where the original "w" sound was
preserved (the majority of these words are words of Germanic origin, and stem mainly from either the
Frankish language, or other ancient Germanic languages, like Burgundian). In Old French, the initial "w"
sound was prefixed by the letter "g" as "gw" and then the "w" sound was later lost. The "w" survives in
orthography as "u" in "gu", but only to produce a hard "g" sound.

¢‘ wage (Cf Old Fr. gage)


¢‘ wager, (Cf Old Fr. gager.
¢‘ war, (Cf Old Fr. guerre.)
¢‘ wardrobe, (Cf French arde-Robe, meaning the keep a dress, or clothes.)
¢‘ warrant, Cf French garantie.
¢‘ waste (Old Northern Fr. wast, Cf Modern French gâter "to spoil, waste")
¢‘ Wisconsin, from Ouisconsin, a French variant of a Native American word

‘ ist‘‘psed!rench‘rds‘adapted‘t‘ nglish‘

¢‘ double entendre ² still used in English long after it had changed to "double entente" or, more
often, "double sens" in France, and ironically has itself two meanings, one of which is of a
sexually dubious nature. This might be classed a kind of "pseudo-Gallicism".

¢‘ bon viveur ² the second word is not used in French as such, while in English it often takes the
place of a fashionable man, a sophisticate, a man used to elegant ways, a man-about-town, in fact
a bon vivant. In French a viveur is a rake or debauchee; bon does not come into it.
The French bon vivant is the usage for an epicure, a person who enjoys good food. Konne vivante
is not used.

¢‘ Entrée in French on a restaurant menu does not have the meaning of "main course" that it does in
American English (in French that is "plat"), but instead refers to the course preceding the main
course, namely the first course in a three course meal, or what in British English is also called a
"starter" and in American English an "hors d'oeuvre". Thus a three course meal in French consists
of an "entrée" (first course), a "plat" (the main course) and "dessert". [Source: universal French
menu usage and Larousse "Grand Dictionnaire Français/Anglais - Anglais-Français": s.v. entrée
(7): First course, starter: "je prendrai une salade en entrée -- I'll have a salade to start with."]

¢‘ Rendez-vous ² merely means "meeting" or "appointment" in French, but in English has taken on
other overtones. Connotations such as secretiveness have crept into the English version, which is
sometimes used as a verb. It has also come to mean a particular place where people of a certain
type, such as tourists or people who originate from a certain locality, may meet. In recent years,
both the verb and the noun have taken on the additional meaning of a location where two
spacecraft are brought together for a limited period, usually for docking or retrieval.[citation needed]

¢‘ Portmanteau words are called mot-valises in French. The word portemanteau (or porte-manteau)
generally refers to a coat hanger nowadays. However, it used to also refer to a form of suitcase
containing two separated hinged compartments, which metaphorically became a word containing
two distinct words. Interestingly, the French word mot-valise literally means "suitcase-word".

ë‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘atinates‘‘Germanic‘rigin‘

¢‘ -ard
¢‘ aband
¢‘ abandominium
¢‘ abandon
¢‘ abandonee
¢‘ abandum
¢‘ abannation
¢‘ abannition
¢‘ abet
¢‘ abettal
¢‘ abettor
¢‘ abut
¢‘ abutment
¢‘ affray
¢‘ afraid
¢‘ al fresco
¢‘ Alan
¢‘ Albert
¢‘ Alemanni
¢‘ Alice
¢‘ Aline
¢‘ Alison
¢‘ allegiance
¢‘ Allen
¢‘ allot
¢‘ allotment
¢‘ allure
¢‘ Alphonso
¢‘ Alsace
¢‘ ambassador
¢‘ ambergris
¢‘ ambuscade
¢‘ ambush
¢‘ Amelia
¢‘ amuse
¢‘ amusement
¢‘ Anglicize
¢‘ Anglo
¢‘ Anglo-Saxon
¢‘ Anglophile
¢‘ Anglophone
¢‘ Archibald
¢‘ arrange
¢‘ arrangement
¢‘ array
¢‘ attach
¢‘ attachment
¢‘ attache
¢‘ attack
¢‘ attire
¢‘ Audrey

¢‘ baboon
¢‘ bacon
¢‘ badge
¢‘ baggage
¢‘ balcony
¢‘ baldric
¢‘ Baldwin
¢‘ bale
¢‘ ballon
¢‘ balloon
¢‘ ballot
¢‘ banal
¢‘ banality
¢‘ band "flat strip"
¢‘ band "group"
¢‘ bandage
¢‘ bandeau
¢‘ bandit
¢‘ bandolier
¢‘ bandy
¢‘ banish
¢‘ bank "financial institution"
¢‘ bankrupt
¢‘ bankruptcy
¢‘ banner
¢‘ banquet
¢‘ banquette
¢‘ bargain
¢‘ baron
¢‘ baroness
¢‘ baronet
¢‘ barrel
¢‘ barren
¢‘ bastard
¢‘ bastardize
¢‘ baste
¢‘ Bastille
¢‘ bastion
¢‘ bawd
¢‘ bawdy
¢‘ beak
¢‘ beaker
¢‘ beggar
¢‘ beignet
¢‘ belfry
¢‘ berm
¢‘ Bertha
¢‘ Bianca
¢‘ bigot
¢‘ bigotry
¢‘ bison
¢‘ bivouac
¢‘ blanch
¢‘ Blanche
¢‘ blancmange
¢‘ blank
¢‘ blanket
¢‘ blasé (also blase)
¢‘ blazon
¢‘ blemish
¢‘ bleu
¢‘ blister
¢‘ bloc
¢‘ block
¢‘ blockade
¢‘ blond
¢‘ blonde
¢‘ blouse
¢‘ bludgeon
¢‘ blue
¢‘ bobbin
¢‘ bocce
¢‘ bondage
¢‘ bonnet
¢‘ boot
¢‘ booty
¢‘ bordello
¢‘ border
¢‘ boss "button, bump"
¢‘ botony
¢‘ boudoir
¢‘ bouffant
¢‘ boulevard
¢‘ boulevardier
¢‘ bouquet
¢‘ bourgeois (also burgeois)
¢‘ bourgeoise
¢‘ bourgeoisie
¢‘ boutonniere
¢‘ brach
¢‘ bracket
¢‘ braggart
¢‘ braise
¢‘ brandish
¢‘ brawn
¢‘ braze
¢‘ brazier
¢‘ bream
¢‘ breccia
¢‘ bric-a-brac
¢‘ brick
¢‘ brioche
¢‘ briquette
¢‘ brisk
¢‘ broil "to cook"
¢‘ broil "to quarrel"
¢‘ brose
¢‘ browse
¢‘ brulee
¢‘ brunet
¢‘ brunette
¢‘ Bruno
¢‘ brush "dust sweeper; hairbrush"
¢‘ brush "shrubbery, underbrush"
¢‘ brusque
¢‘ Brussels
¢‘ bucket
¢‘ buffer
¢‘ buffet "to strike"
¢‘ buffet "table"
¢‘ buffoon
¢‘ buoy
¢‘ buoyance
¢‘ buoyancy
¢‘ buoyant
¢‘ burette
¢‘ burgeon
¢‘ burgess
¢‘ burglar
¢‘ burglarize
¢‘ burglary
¢‘ Burgundy
¢‘ burin
¢‘ burnish
¢‘ busk
¢‘ butcher
¢‘ butt (of a joke)
¢‘ butt "to hit with the head"
¢‘ butte
¢‘ button
¢‘ buttress

¢‘ cahoot (also cahoots)


¢‘ Camembert
¢‘ camerlengo
¢‘ camouflage
¢‘ can-can
¢‘ canard
¢‘ cantankerous
¢‘ Carlos
¢‘ Carolina
¢‘ caroline
¢‘ Carolingian
¢‘ carouse
¢‘ carousal
¢‘ carp (fish)
¢‘ carte blanche
¢‘ Casablanca
¢‘ casserole
¢‘ Catalan
¢‘ chagrin
¢‘ chamberlain
¢‘ chamois
¢‘ charabanc
¢‘ Charlemagne
¢‘ Charles
¢‘ charlotte
¢‘ chemise
¢‘ cheval de frise
¢‘ chic
¢‘ chicane
¢‘ chicanery
¢‘ chiffon
¢‘ chiffonade
¢‘ chiffonier
¢‘ choice
¢‘ claque
¢‘ cliche (also cliché)
¢‘ clique
¢‘ cloak
¢‘ cloche
¢‘ Clovis
¢‘ coach
¢‘ coat
¢‘ cockade
¢‘ cockaigne
¢‘ cocotte
¢‘ coif
¢‘ coiffeur
¢‘ coiffure
¢‘ cologne
¢‘ condom
¢‘ Conrad
¢‘ contraband
¢‘ contraption
¢‘ coquette
¢‘ corvette
¢‘ coterie
¢‘ cotillion
¢‘ cottage
¢‘ cramp
¢‘ cravat
¢‘ crawfish
¢‘ crayfish
¢‘ creche
¢‘ cricket
¢‘ croquet
¢‘ croquette
¢‘ crotch
¢‘ crouch
¢‘ croup
¢‘ crow (crowbar)

crowbar

¢‘ cruet
¢‘ crush
¢‘ cry

¢‘ dance
¢‘ dart
¢‘ debauch

debauchery

¢‘ deboshed
¢‘ debris
¢‘ debut
¢‘ debutante
¢‘ deforestation
¢‘ defray
¢‘ delay
¢‘ demarcation
¢‘ derange
¢‘ detach
¢‘ develop
¢‘ development
¢‘ dig
¢‘ disarray
¢‘ disband
¢‘ disenfranchise
¢‘ disengage
¢‘ disguise
¢‘ dislodge
¢‘ dismay
¢‘ drab
¢‘ drape

drapery
¢‘ droll
¢‘ drug
¢‘ dune
¢‘ dungeon

¢‘ eclat
¢‘ egret
¢‘ elope
¢‘ embassy
¢‘ emblazon
¢‘ emboss
¢‘ embrasure
¢‘ embroider
¢‘ embroil
¢‘ enamel
¢‘ encroach
¢‘ enfranchise
¢‘ engage
¢‘ engagement
¢‘ engrave
¢‘ enhance
¢‘ enrich
¢‘ entrap
¢‘ envelop
¢‘ envelope
¢‘ equerry
¢‘ equip
¢‘ Ermentrude
¢‘ ermine
¢‘ escarpment
¢‘ eschew
¢‘ escrow
¢‘ espionage
¢‘ -esque
¢‘ etiquette

¢‘ falcon
¢‘ faubourg
¢‘ Fauve
¢‘ Fauviast
¢‘ fee
¢‘ felon
¢‘ felony
¢‘ Ferdinand
¢‘ feud
¢‘ feudal
¢‘ fiasco
¢‘ fie
¢‘ filbert
¢‘ filibuster
¢‘ filter
¢‘ flagon
¢‘ flamenco
¢‘ flamingo
¢‘ flan
¢‘ flâneur
¢‘ flange
¢‘ flank
¢‘ flask
¢‘ flatter
¢‘ flinch
¢‘ flotilla
¢‘ flotsam
¢‘ flounder (fish)
¢‘ forage
¢‘ foray
¢‘ forest

forestation
forester
forestry

¢‘ framboise
¢‘ franc
¢‘ Frances
¢‘ franchise
¢‘ Francis
¢‘ Franciscan
¢‘ Franco-
¢‘ Franglais
¢‘ frank
¢‘ frankincense
¢‘ Franklin
¢‘ frappe
¢‘ fray (feeling of alarm)
¢‘ Frederick
¢‘ fresco
¢‘ frisk
¢‘ frizz
¢‘ frock
¢‘ fry (young fish)
¢‘ fur
¢‘ furbish
¢‘ furnish
¢‘ furniture

¢‘ gabardine
¢‘ gable
¢‘ gadget
¢‘ gaffe
¢‘ gaiety
¢‘ gain
¢‘ gaiter
¢‘ gala
¢‘ gallant
¢‘ gallimaufry
¢‘ gallop
¢‘ garage
¢‘ garb
¢‘ garbage
¢‘ garçon
¢‘ garden
¢‘ gardenia
¢‘ garibaldi
¢‘ garland
¢‘ garment
¢‘ garner
¢‘ garnish
¢‘ garret
¢‘ garrison
¢‘ garrote
¢‘ gasket
¢‘ gauche
¢‘ gaudy
¢‘ gauge
¢‘ Gaul
¢‘ gaunt
¢‘ gauntlet
¢‘ gay
¢‘ Geoffrey
¢‘ Gerald
¢‘ Gerard
¢‘ Gertrude
¢‘ ghetto
¢‘ gibbet
¢‘ gibbon
¢‘ giblets
¢‘ gigolo
¢‘ Gilbert
¢‘ gimlet
¢‘ gnocchi
¢‘ goblin
¢‘ Godfrey
¢‘ gonfalon
¢‘ gopher
¢‘ gothic
¢‘ gourmand
¢‘ gourmet
¢‘ grape
¢‘ grapnel
¢‘ grappa
¢‘ grapple
¢‘ grate (verb)
¢‘ greaves
¢‘ grimace
¢‘ grippe
¢‘ Griselda
¢‘ grizzle
¢‘ grommet
¢‘ grouch
¢‘ group
¢‘ growl
¢‘ grudge
¢‘ gruel
¢‘ guarantee
¢‘ guard
¢‘ Guelph
¢‘ guerdon
¢‘ Guernsey
¢‘ guerrilla
¢‘ guidance
¢‘ guide
¢‘ guidon
¢‘ guile
¢‘ guise
¢‘ guy "rope"
¢‘ guy
¢‘ gyrfalcon

¢‘ haggard
¢‘ haggis
¢‘ halberd
¢‘ hale "to drag, summon"
¢‘ halt "stop"
¢‘ halyard
¢‘ hamlet
¢‘ hamper "large basket"
¢‘ hangar
¢‘ harangue
¢‘ harass
¢‘ harassment
¢‘ harbinger
¢‘ hardy
¢‘ harlequin
¢‘ harlot
¢‘ harness
¢‘ harpoon
¢‘ harpsichord
¢‘ harridan
¢‘ hash
¢‘ haste
¢‘ hatch "to mark with lines"
¢‘ hatchet
¢‘ hauberk
¢‘ haughty
¢‘ haul
¢‘ haunch
¢‘ haunt
¢‘ haut cuisine
¢‘ hautboy
¢‘ hauteur
¢‘ Havana
¢‘ havoc
¢‘ hawser
¢‘ heinous
¢‘ helmet
¢‘ Henry
¢‘ herald
¢‘ Herbert
¢‘ heron
¢‘ hideous
¢‘ hobbledehoy
¢‘ hockey
¢‘ hod
¢‘ hodgepodge
¢‘ hoe
¢‘ hollandaise
¢‘ Howard
¢‘ Hubert
¢‘ huge
¢‘ Hugh
¢‘ Huguenot
¢‘ hurt
¢‘ hurtle
¢‘ hut
¢‘ hutch

  $

¢‘ infiltrate
¢‘ install
¢‘ installment
¢‘ irregardless

  &

¢‘ jangle
¢‘ jape
¢‘ jersey
¢‘ jibe
¢‘ jig
¢‘ Jocelin
¢‘ jolly

  <

  '

¢‘ Lambert
¢‘ lampoon
¢‘ Lancelot
¢‘ lanyard
¢‘ lattice
¢‘ lawn
¢‘ lay "short song"
¢‘ lecher
¢‘ lecherous
¢‘ Leonard
¢‘ Leopold
¢‘ leotard
¢‘ Lewis
¢‘ lickerish
¢‘ liege
¢‘ lingua franca
¢‘ list
¢‘ lobby
¢‘ locket
¢‘ lodge
¢‘ loggia
¢‘ logistics
¢‘ loin
¢‘ Lombard
¢‘ loop (metalurgy) "hot bloom"
¢‘ Lorraine
¢‘ lothario
¢‘ lottery
¢‘ lotto
¢‘ Louis
¢‘ louver
¢‘ lowboy
¢‘ luff
¢‘ luge
¢‘ lurch (in games)
¢‘ lure

  (

¢‘ mackerel
¢‘ mail "post"
¢‘ maim
¢‘ malinger
¢‘ malkin
¢‘ mangle
¢‘ mannequin
¢‘ maraud
¢‘ march "walk, stride"
¢‘ march "botder"
¢‘ Marcomanni
¢‘ margrave
¢‘ marmoset
¢‘ marmot
¢‘ marque
¢‘ marquee
¢‘ marquis
¢‘ marshal
¢‘ marten
¢‘ mascara
¢‘ mask
¢‘ mason
¢‘ masque
¢‘ masquerade
¢‘ massacre
¢‘ Matilda
¢‘ Maud
¢‘ mayhem
¢‘ meringue
¢‘ merlin
¢‘ Merovingian
¢‘ mignon
¢‘ Milicent
¢‘ minion
¢‘ mis- (in French words)
¢‘ mitten
¢‘ mock
¢‘ mooch
¢‘ morass
¢‘ morganatic
¢‘ mortgage
¢‘ motley
¢‘ mousse
¢‘ muffle
¢‘ murdrum
¢‘ muse
¢‘ mushroom

  )

¢‘ Nordic
¢‘ Norman
¢‘ nouveau riche

  *

¢‘ oboe
¢‘ Oliver
¢‘ Orlando
¢‘ Ostrogoth

 !  

¢‘ packet
¢‘ pall-mall
¢‘ park
¢‘ parquet
¢‘ patch "clown, fool"
¢‘ patois
¢‘ patrol
¢‘ patten
¢‘ paw
¢‘ pawn "something left as security"
¢‘ perform
¢‘ picaresque
¢‘ piccolo
¢‘ picket
¢‘ picnic
¢‘ pike "weapon"
¢‘ pinch
¢‘ piquant
¢‘ pique
¢‘ pitcher "jug"
¢‘ placard
¢‘ plaque
¢‘ plat
¢‘ plate
¢‘ plateau
¢‘ platform
¢‘ platinum
¢‘ platitude
¢‘ platter
¢‘ pledge
¢‘ poach "to push, poke"
¢‘ poach "to cook in liquid"
¢‘ pocket
¢‘ poke "sack"
¢‘ poltroon
¢‘ potpourri
¢‘ pottage
¢‘ pouch
¢‘ pouf

 # +

¢‘ quail
¢‘ queasy
¢‘ quiche
¢‘ quiver "case for arrows"

 % ,

¢‘ rabbit
¢‘ race "lineage"
¢‘ racist
¢‘ raffish
¢‘ raffle
¢‘ raiment
¢‘ ramp
¢‘ rampage
¢‘ rampant
¢‘ ranch
¢‘ random
¢‘ range
¢‘ ranger
¢‘ rank "order, position"
¢‘ rapier
¢‘ rasp
¢‘ raspberry
¢‘ ratchet
¢‘ rave
¢‘ Raymond
¢‘ rearrange
¢‘ rebuff
¢‘ rebuke
¢‘ rebut
¢‘ rebuttal
¢‘ refresh
¢‘ refurbish
¢‘ regain
¢‘ regard
¢‘ Reginald
¢‘ regret
¢‘ regroup
¢‘ rehash
¢‘ relay
¢‘ remark
¢‘ replevin
¢‘ retire
¢‘ retouch
¢‘ reverie
¢‘ reward
¢‘ reynard
¢‘ rhyme
¢‘ ribald
¢‘ ribbon
¢‘ Richard
¢‘ riches
¢‘ ricochet
¢‘ riffraff
¢‘ rifle "firearm"
¢‘ rifle "to plunder"
¢‘ rink
¢‘ rinse
¢‘ riot
¢‘ rivet
¢‘ roach "small fish"
¢‘ roan
¢‘ roast
¢‘ rob
¢‘ robe
¢‘ Robert
¢‘ rocket "projectile"
¢‘ Roderick
¢‘ Roger
¢‘ rogue
¢‘ Roland
¢‘ Rolf
¢‘ romp
¢‘ rotisserie
¢‘ rubbish
¢‘ rubble
¢‘ ruffian
¢‘ rummage
¢‘ Russia

  -

¢‘ saber
¢‘ sable
¢‘ sabotage
¢‘ sackbut
¢‘ sacre bleu
¢‘ safeguard
¢‘ salon
¢‘ saloon
¢‘ savate
¢‘ Saxon
¢‘ scabbard
¢‘ scaffold

scaffolding

¢‘ scale (of a fish or reptile)


¢‘ scallop
¢‘ Scandinavian
¢‘ scaramouche
¢‘ scarf "strip of cloth"
¢‘ scarp
¢‘ scavenge
¢‘ scavenger
¢‘ scherzo
¢‘ scion
¢‘ scorn
¢‘ screen
¢‘ scrimmage
¢‘ scroll
¢‘ scrum
¢‘ scupper
¢‘ seize
¢‘ seizure
¢‘ seneschal
¢‘ shock
¢‘ sirloin
¢‘ skate
¢‘ skew
¢‘ skewbald
¢‘ skiff
¢‘ skirmish
¢‘ slash
¢‘ slat
¢‘ slate
¢‘ slender
¢‘ slice
¢‘ sloop
¢‘ slot "track, trail"
¢‘ sobriquet
¢‘ soke
¢‘ sopaipilla
¢‘ sorrel "reddish brown"
¢‘ sorrel (plant)
¢‘ sound "to fathom, probe"
¢‘ soup
¢‘ souse
¢‘ spate
¢‘ spavin
¢‘ spell
¢‘ spool
¢‘ spy
¢‘ staccato
¢‘ stall "to delay"
¢‘ stallion
¢‘ stampede
¢‘ standard
¢‘ staple "mainstay"
¢‘ stay "prop, support"
¢‘ stockade
¢‘ stour "conflict"
¢‘ stout
¢‘ strand "string, fiber"
¢‘ strife
¢‘ strive
¢‘ stucco
¢‘ stuff
¢‘ sturgeon
¢‘ sup "to dine"
¢‘ supper
¢‘ surcoat
¢‘ Swabian
¢‘ Swiss

  .

¢‘ tabard
¢‘ tack
¢‘ taco
¢‘ tampion
¢‘ tampon
¢‘ tan
¢‘ tannin
¢‘ tap
¢‘ target
¢‘ tarnish
¢‘ teat
¢‘ tedesco
¢‘ tetchy
¢‘ Teutonic
¢‘ Theobald
¢‘ Theodric
¢‘ Tibert
¢‘ tick "credit"
¢‘ ticket
¢‘ till "cashbox"
¢‘ tirade
¢‘ tire "wheel"
¢‘ toccata
¢‘ tocsin
¢‘ touch
¢‘ touché
¢‘ touchy
¢‘ toupee
¢‘ towel
¢‘ track
¢‘ trampoline
¢‘ trap "owndom, personal belongings"

trappings

¢‘ treachery
¢‘ trebuchet
¢‘ triage
¢‘ trial
¢‘ trick
¢‘ tricot
¢‘ trill
¢‘ trip
¢‘ troll "to stroll"
¢‘ trolley
¢‘ trollop
¢‘ trombone
¢‘ trompe l'oeil
¢‘ troop
¢‘ trot
¢‘ troupe
¢‘ trump "to deceive, cheat"
¢‘ trump "horn"
¢‘ trumpery
¢‘ trumpet
¢‘ try
¢‘ tryst
¢‘ tuffet
¢‘ tuft
¢‘ tumbrel
¢‘ tunnel
¢‘ turbot

  /

¢‘ Ulster
¢‘ unafraid
¢‘ unattached
¢‘ unblemished
¢‘ unbutton
¢‘ underbrush
¢‘ undeveloped
¢‘ undisguised
¢‘ unflattering
¢‘ unfurnished
¢‘ unguarded
¢‘ unmask
¢‘ untouchable
¢‘ unwarranted

   

¢‘ vagrant
¢‘ vandal
¢‘ vanguard
¢‘ Varangian
¢‘ veneer
¢‘ vermouth
¢‘ Visigoth
¢‘ vogue

  0

¢‘ wad
¢‘ wafer
¢‘ wage "payment"
¢‘ wage "bet"
¢‘ wager
¢‘ wait
¢‘ waiter
¢‘ waive
¢‘ Waldensian
¢‘ wallet
¢‘ Walloon
¢‘ wallop
¢‘ Walter
¢‘ war
¢‘ warble
¢‘ warden
¢‘ warder
¢‘ wardrobe
¢‘ warmonger
¢‘ warrant "defender"
¢‘ warrant "to keep safe"
¢‘ warranty
¢‘ warren
¢‘ warrior
¢‘ warship
¢‘ waste "to spoil, squander"
¢‘ waste "desolate area"
¢‘ wastrel
¢‘ wile
¢‘ William
¢‘ wince

ᑠist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘Galish‘rigin‘

ambassador
from Old French embassadeur, from Latin ambactus, from Gaulish *ambactos, "servant",
"henchman", "one who goes about".
beak
from Old French bec, from Latin beccus, from Gaulish becco.
bilge
from Old French boulge, from Latin bulga, from Gaulish bulgā, "sack".
bran
from Gaulish brenno, through the French bren, "the husk of wheat", "barley...".
budge (lambskin)
from Old French bulge, from Latin bulga, from Gaulish bulgā, "sack".
budget
from Old French bougette, from bouge, from Latin bulga, from Gaulish bulgā.
bulge
from Old French boulge, from Latin bulga, from Gaulish bulgā, "sack".
car
from Norman French carre, from L. carrum, carrus (pl. carra), orig. "two-wheeled Celtic war
chariot," from Gaulish arros.
down
from Celtic root dún.
duffel
from the placename Duffel, from dubro en locus, from Gaulish dubrum, *dubron, "water".
dune
from Middle Dutch, Middle Low German, or French, all from Gaulish *dunom.
embassy
from Middle French embassee, from Italian ambasciata, from Old Provençal ambaisada, from
Latin Ambactus, from Gaulish *ambactos, "servant", "henchman", "one who goes about".
glean
from Old French glener, from Late Latin glennare, from Gaulish glanos, "clean".
gob
from Old French gobe, likely from Gaulish *gobbo-.
palfrey
from Old French palefrei, from Latin paraverēdus from Greek para + Latin verēdus, from Gaulish
*vorēdos.
piece
from Old French, from Vulgar Latin *pettia, likely from Gaulish.
truant
from Old French, from Gaulish *trougo-, "miser".
valet
from French, from Gallo-Romance *vassallittus, from Middle Latin vassallus, from vassus, from
Old Celtic *wasso-, "young man", "squire".
varlet
from Middle French, from Gallo-Romance *vassallittus, from Middle Latin vassallus, from
vassus, from Old Celtic *wasso-, "young man", "squire".
vassal
from Old French, from Middle Latin vassallus, from vassus, from Old Celtic *wasso-, "young
man", "squire".

!‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘"aaiian‘rigin‘

"aaiian‘rd‘
eaning‘
A kind of rough-surface volcanic rock (in Hawaiian: 'a'ā). Note that there are
Å AÅ a two glottal stops before and after the first "a". Thus, it is not spoken as "ahh",
but as "ah-ah".
Akamai A Hawaiian word meaning "intelligent", "clever", or "smart".
Hawaiian word for "hello", "goodbye", and "love"; outside of HawaiÅ i, only
Aloha
the first two meanings are used.
a Polynesian shrub, Piper methysticum, of the pepper family, the aromatic
Å Awa
roots of which are used to make an intoxicating beverage
Hawaiian for "foreigner" or "outsider". Usually directed towards Caucasians
or people from the mainland. May be said offensively, but is commonly said
Haole
familiarly (not to be confused with haÅ ole, meaning "without breath"; the
two have completely different meanings).
Honu Hawaiian name for the green sea turtle
Ancient Hawaiian form of dance. In the older days, men used to do hula as a
sign of masculinity and as a war dance. Also see haka. Many people get
Hula
confused between the Hawaiian hula (more graceful and slower) and the
Tahitian hula (quicker and more hip movements)
The reef triggerfish. The humuhumunukunukuapua'a is notorious for its long
name, which many struggle to pronounce correctly (Humu (hoo-moo) +
HumuhumunukunukuāpuaÅ a
humu (hoo-moo) + nuku (noo-koo) + nuku (noo-koo) + a (ah) + pua'a (poo-
ah-ah))
Kahuna Hawaiian priest, wizard, or shaman; used in the slang phrase "big kahuna"
KamaÅ aina A local; someone who has lived in Hawaii for a long time
Keiki Hawaiian word for "child"
The candlenut tree, state tree of Hawaii, so named because the nuts were
used as candles. Kukui nut leis were worn by celebrities such as Jessica
Kukui
Simpson and Tyra Banks in 2005-07 and became popular must-have
accessories.
A veranda or patio, from the word lānai (not to be confused with the island,
Lanai
LānaÅ i
Lei A garland of flowers and/or leaves to be worn
Luau A Hawaiian feast (Hawaiian: lūÅ au)
Hawaiian for "thank you"; used by Adam Corolla nationally as well as
Mahalo
others[citation needed]
Mahi-mahi Hawaiian word for the dolphin fish
Hawaiian word for "shark" (not to be confused with the Spanish "mano",
Mano
meaning "hand")
A loose gown or dress incorrectly pronounced moo-moo in English, but
Mu umu u (Mumu)
properly pronounced "muÅ umuÅ u" in Hawaiian.
Å Ohana Hawaiian word meaning "family"
Pahoehoe A kind of smooth-surface volcanic rock
A type of volcanic glass fibers named after Pele, the Hawaiian fire goddess
Pele's hair
of volcanoes (see also limu o Pele)
Pele's tears Solidified pieces of lava named after Pele
Poi A type of Hawaiian food made from mashing corms of the taro plant
A hole or perforation. Puka shells are round shells with center holes, strung
Puka
together to make popular necklaces.
A hand gesture common in Hawaii by raising the thumb and pinky fingers to
Shaka
make a sign similar to the American Sign Language symbol for "Y".
From Hawaiian "tapu", now Romanized "kapu". Also Tongan "tapu" or
Taboo
Fijian "tabu".
A small guitar-like musical instrument that resembles the Portuguese
Ukulele
cavaquinho (lit. "jumping flea")
Wiki Hawaiian word for "fast"; used in the "Wiki Wiki Shuttle" and "Wikipedia"

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘"ebre‘rigin‘


%  
"

 
abacus
from Greek aba -, abax 'slab' (MW), probably from ʷʡʠ 'abaq 'dust' (AHD)
agora (currency)
from (AHD) agorah 'small coin' (MW)
aliyah
from (AHD) 'aliyah 'ascent' (MW)
almemar
from 'almemar 'bema', from Arabic (AHD)
amen
from ʯ ʮʠ 'amen (MW) 'certainly', 'verily' (AHD)
baal
from ba'al 'lord' (AHD, MW)
bar mitzvah
from (AHD) ʤʥ ʶʮ ʸʡ bar miswah 'son of the law' (MW) (bat‘mit vah : from (AHD) ʤʥ ʶʮ ʺʡ bath
miswah 'daughter of the law' (MW))
bath (volume)
from bath (MW) '10 gallons liquid measure' (AHD)
behemoth
from (MW) ʺʥ ʮʤʡ behemot 'beasts' (AHD)
bethel
from (AHD) ʬʠʺʩ ʡ beth'el 'house of God' (MW)
cabal
from (AHD) ʤʕʬˎʕ ʷʔ qabbalah 'received (lore)' (MW)
camel
from (AHD) ʬʮʢ "Gamal" ('desert animal')
challah
from (AHD) hallah 'challah' ('egg-rich yeast-leavened bread') (MW)
chazan, hazan
from hazzan 'cantor' (MW) + in part from Aramaic, both from Akkadian (AHD)
cherub
from (AHD) ʡʥ ʸʫ erubh 'cherub' ('celestial hierarchy angel') (MW)
chutzpah
from (AHD) huspah 'supreme self-confidence' (MW)
cider
from (AHD) ʸ ʫʹ she har 'strong drink' (MW)
corban
from (AHD) qorban 'offering' (MW)
dybbuk
from dibbuq 'dybbuk' ('wandering soul') (AHD, MW)
ephah
from (AHD) epha 'ephah' ('1/10 homer dry measure'), from Egyptian (MW)
ganef
(AHD) from gannabh 'thief' (MW)
gerah
from (MW) gera 'grain', 'bean' (AHD)
get (divorce document)
from get 'document of release' (MW)
golem
from ʭʬʥ ʢ golem (AHD) 'shapeless mass' (MW)
goy
from goy 'nation' (AHD, MW)
gun moll
from (AHD) gannabh 'thief' (MW) + from Miryam (AHD) 'Miriam' (MW, OED) ('rebelliously')
halacha
from hala hah 'way' (MW)
hallelujah
from ʤʩ ʥ ʬʬʤ halleluyah 'praise the LORD' (AHD, MW)
hebraize
from (MW) ʩ ʸʡʲ 'ibri 'Hebrew' (AHD) ('region across [descendant]') (SC)
heder
from hedher 'room' (MW)
homer (volume)
from homer '100 gallons capacity' (MW), 'heap' (AHD)
hora
from horah 'hora' ('circle dance of Romania and Israel'), from Romanian (MW), from Greek
(AHD)
jubilee
from (AHD) ʬʡʥ ʩ yobhel 'ram's horn', 'jubilee' (MW)
kabbalah
from (AHD) ʤʕʬˎʕ ʷʔ qabbalah 'received (lore)' (MW)
kibbutz
from ʵʥʡʩʷ qibbu- (MW) 'gathering' (AHD)
klezmer
from (AHD) ʸʮʦ ʩʬʫ eley zemer 'musical instruments' (MW)
kosher
from (AHD) ʸʹʫ asher 'fit', 'proper' (MW)
leviathan
from (AHD) ʯ ʺʩʥ ʬ liwyathan 'sea monster' (MW)
macabre
from French (danse) macabre (MW), perhaps from Greek Ma abios (AHD), from ʩ ʡʫʮma abi
'Maccabee' ('my hammer')
manna
from ʯ ʮ man 'manna' (AHD, MW) ('whatness') (SC)
matzo
from (AHD) massah 'matzo' ('unleavened bread') (MW)
maven
from (AHD) ʯ ʩ ʡʮ mebhin 'one who is experienced' (MW), 'one who understands' (OED)
menorah
from (AHD) menorah 'candlestick' (MW)
meshuga
from (AHD) ʲʢ ʥʹʮ meshugga' 'crazy' (MW)
messiah
in part from (AHD) ʧʩ ʹʮ mashiah 'anointed' (MW) + in part from Aramaic (AHD, MW)
mezuzah
from mezuzah 'doorpost' (AHD, MW)
midrash
from (AHD) midhrash 'exposition', 'explanation' (MW)
minyan
from minyan 'number', 'count' (MW), from Aramaic (AHD)
mitzvah
from (AHD) ʤʥ ʶʮ mi-wah 'commandment' (MW)
moshav
from (AHD) moshabh 'dwelling' (MW)
omer
from 'omer 'omer' (AHD) ('1/10 ephah dry capacity') (MW)
pascal
from 'Pascal' (AHD, MW), from ʧʱʴ pesah 'Passover'[citation needed]
paschal
from ʧʱʴ pesah 'Passover' (AHD, MW, OED)
pharaoh
from par'oh 'pharaoh' (AHD) ('ruler of ancient Egypt'), from Egyptian (MW)
rabbi
from ʩ ʡʸ rabbi 'my master' (AHD, MW)
sabbatical
from (MW) ʺʡˇ sabbat 'Sabbath' ('day of rest') (AHD)
sack
from Greek sa os (MW), perhaps from Hebrew ʷ ʹ saq 'bag', 'sackcloth' (OED), from Phoenician
(AHD)
satanic
from ʯ ʨʹsatan 'adversary' (MW), 'devil' (AHD)
schmooze
(AHD) from shemu'oth 'news', 'rumor' (MW)
schwa
from ʠ ʥʹ schewa' 'schwa' ('unstressed mid-central vowel') (MW), probably from Syriac (AHD)
seder
from (AHD) sedher 'order' (MW)
selah
from (AHD) selah (MW) 'suspension', 'pause' (SC)
seraph
from (MW) sarap 'seraph' ('celestial being') (AHD)
shalom
from (AHD) shalom 'peace' (MW)
shalom aleichem
from (AHD) shalom 'ale hem 'peace unto you' (MW)
shammes
from (AHD) ʹʮʹ shammash 'sexton' (MW)
shamus
perhaps from (AHD) ʹʮʹ shammash 'sexton' (MW)
shekel
from ʬ ʷʹ sheqel '252 grains weight' (MW), from Canaanite (AHD)
shibboleth
from (AHD) ʺ ʬʥ ʡʩ ʹ shibboleth 'stream' (MW), 'ear of grain' (OED)
shiksa
from (AHD) sheqes 'blemish', 'abomination' (MW)
siddur
from siddur 'arrangement' (AHD), 'order' (MW)
sukkah
from su ah 'booth', 'shelter' (MW)
sycamine
from (AHD, MW) ʤʕʮʷ ʑ̌ shiqmah 'mulberry tree' (OED)
teraph
from (AHD) teraphim 'household god' (MW)
torah
from tora 'law', 'instruction' (AHD)
tush
from (AHD) ʺʧʺ tahath 'under', 'beneath' (MW)
tzitzit, zizith
from (AHD) ʺʩʶʩʶ sisith 'tzitzit' ('fringes', 'tassels') (MW)
yeshiva
from (AHD) ʤʡ ʩʹʩ yeshibhah 'talmudic school' (MW)
zaddik
from saddiq 'just', 'righteous' (MW)

%  
"
5 
abelia
from 'Abel' (AHD, MW), from ʬʡʤ Hebhel 'Abel'[1] (from a word meaning 'emptiness': SC)
abelian
from 'Abel' (AHD, MW), from ʬʡʤ Hebhel 'Abel'[1] (from a word meaning 'emptiness' : SC)
abigail
from 'Abigail' (MW), from Avigail (from a phrase meaning 'father of exaltation': HH)
adam-and-eve
from ʭʣʠ Adham 'Adam' + from ʤʥʧ Hawwah 'Eve' (MW) (from words meaning respectively 'earth'
and 'living': HH)
babel
from ʬʡʡ Kabhel, from an Akkadian phrase meaning 'gate of God' (MW)
bedlam
from 'Bedlem' (AHD, MW), from ʭʧʬ ʺʩ ʡ Keth Lechem 'Bethlehem' (from a phrase meaning 'house
of bread')
bejesus
from (AHD) Yeshua' 'Jesus' (MW) (from a word meaning 'savior': HH)
davit
from (AHD) Dawidh 'David' (MW) (from a word meaning 'loving': SC)
galilee
from Latin (MW) galilaea 'Galilee' (AHD), from galiyl 'circle', 'circuit' (SC)
hansom
from 'Hansom' (MW), from 'Hans',[2] from Yohanan 'John' (from a phrase meaning 'the Lord is
gracious': SC, HH)
jack
from Yohanan 'John' (MW) (from a phrase meaning 'the Lord is gracious': SC, HH) + perhaps in
part from Ya'qob 'Jacob' (from a word meaning 'He has protected') (AHD)
jakes
perhaps from Ya'aqobh 'Jacob' (from a word meaning 'He has protected') (AHD)
jeez
from (AHD) Yeshua' 'Jesus' (MW) (from a word meaning 'savior': HH)
jehu
from Yehu 'Jehu' (MW) (from a phrase meaning 'Jehovah [is] He': SC)
jeremiad
from (AHD) Yirmeyah 'Jeremiah' (MW) (from a phrase meaning 'the LORD will rise': SC)
jeroboam
from 'Jeroboam' (AHD, MW), from Yarov'am 'Jeroboam' (from a phrase meaning 'people will
contend': SC)
jesuit
from Yeshua' 'Jesus' (AHD) (from a word meaning 'savior': HH)
jimmy
from 'Jimmy' (MW), from 'James', from Ya'aqobh 'Jacob' 'Jacob' (from a word meaning 'He has
protected') (AHD)
jezebel
from (AHD) ʬʡʦʩ ʠ Izebhel 'Jezebel' (MW) (from a word meaning 'chaste': SC)
joe
from Yoseph 'Joseph' (MW) (from a word meaning 'He shall add': HH)
john
from (AHD) Yohanan 'John' (MW) (from a phrase meaning 'the Lord is gracious': SC, HH)
jorum
perhaps from 'Joram' (AHD, MW), from Yehoram 'Joram' (from a phrase meaning 'Jehovah-
raised': SC)
joseph
from (AHD) Yoseph 'Joseph' (MW) (from a word meaning 'He shall add': HH)
judas
from (MW) ʤʣʥʤʩ yehuda (AHD) (from a word meaning 'celebrated': SC)
lazar
from (AHD) El'azar 'Lazarus' (MW) (from a phrase meaning 'God is my help: HH)
lazaretto
from (AHD) El'azar 'Lazarus' (MW) (from a phrase meaning 'God is my help: HH) + from
'Nazareth' (AHD, MW), from ʺʔʸʶʍ ʰʕ Nazhrath 'Nazareth' (from a word meaning 'truth', 'sprout',
'separate')[citation needed]
macadam
from McAdam (MW), in part from Adham 'Adam' (from a word meaning 'earth': HH)
macadamia
from Macadam (MW), in part from Adham 'Adam' (from a word meaning 'earth': HH)
marry (interjection)
from Miryam 'Mary' (AHD), 'Miriam' (MW, OED) (perhaps from a word meaning 'rebelliously'
[SC] or perhaps from Egyptian [HH])
moll
from Miryam 'Mary' (AHD), 'Miriam' (MW, OED) (perhaps from a word meaning 'rebelliously'
[SC] or perhaps from Egyptian [HH])
nance
from 'Nancy' (MW, AHD), probably in part from ʤʰʧ Channah 'Anna' (OED) (from a word
meaning 'He has favored': HH)
nimrod
from ʣʥ ʸʮʰ Nimrodh (AHD, MW)
philistine
from ʭʩ ʺ ʹʬʴ Pelistim 'Aegean people who settled Philistia' (AHD)  from 'Philistia' (MW), from
ʺʹʬ ʴ Pelesheth 'Philistia' (from a word meaning 'rolling', 'migratory': SC)
rube
(AHD) from Re'ubhen 'Reuben' (MW) (from a phrase meaning 'see ye a son': SC)
samaritan
from (MW) Greek Samareia 'Samaria' (AHD), from Shomron (from a word meaning 'watch-
station': SC)
semitist
from Shem 'Shem' (MW) (from a word meaning 'name': SC)
simony
from (AHD) Shim'on 'Simon' (MW) (from a word meaning 'hearkening': HH)
sodom
from (MW) ʭʥ ʣʱ s'dom 'Sodom' (AHD, OED) (from a word meaning 'burnt': SC)
toby
from Greek Tobias (AHD, MW), from Toviah 'Tobias' (from a phrase meaning 'God is good': HH)
tom
from 'Thomas' (AHD), from t'om 'twin' (MW)

 ‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘"ngarian‘rigin‘

biro
From Lászl Kír, the Hungarian inventor of the ballpoint pen.
coach
From ocsi, a horse drawn wagon with springs above the axles. Named after the village of Kocs
in which this type of vehicle was invented. The verb 'to coach' is also derived from this root.
czardas
From csárdás, a hungarian folk dance. Csárda also means µtavern¶.
goulash
From gulyás, a type of stew known in Hungarian as gulyás in Hungary, µgulyásleves¶ is a soup
dish; leves meaning soup. ulyás also means µherdsman¶ dealing with cows, as the noun gulya is
the Hungarian word for cow herd.
halászlé
, or Fisherman's Soup, a very hot and spicy river fish soup with a lot of paprika. (The actual
Hungarian halászlé is not always made with hot paprika, unlike the internationally-known soup.)
hussar
From huszár, a light cavalry soldier.
Itsy-bitsy
From ici-pici, meaning tiny
komondor
A big Hungarian breed of livestock guardian and dog, looking like big mop, always white.
kuvasz
A big Hungarian breed of shepherd dog, always white.
paprika
From papri a, a spice made out of ground hot or mild red peppers.
puli
A small Hungarian breed of shepherd dog, also loking like a mop, usually black or white.
tokaji or tokay
From to aji aszú, the name of the famous Hungarian wine from Tokaj, the centre of the local
wine-growing district Tokaj-Hegyalja.
sabre (UK) or saber (US)
From the Hungarian word szablya, backsword. The word made its way into English through
French (sabre, sable) and German (Säbel). The Hungarian verb szabni means to slice or to tailor.
shako or tsako
From csá  süveg, µpeaked cap¶, a stiff military hat with a high crown and plume.
verbunkos
a Hungarian men's folk dance and musical style (itself coming from German Werbung - meaning
"military recruitment" here).
vizsla or vizla
From vizsla, a Hungarian breed of hunting dog.

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘#ndnesian‘rigin‘

¢‘ Agar ¢‘ Lahar
¢‘ Amok from amuk ¢‘ Langsat
¢‘ Angklung Sundanese instrument ¢‘ Mangosteen from manggis (manggustan)
¢‘ Bamboo from bambu ¢‘ Meranti a kind of tropical tree
¢‘ Bantam ¢‘ Merbau a kind of tropical tree
¢‘ Banteng, a SE Asian forest ox ¢‘ Orang Utan
¢‘ Batik ¢‘ Paddy from padi / pari (Javanese)
¢‘ Catty ¢‘ Pandanus from pandan
¢‘ Canting ¢‘ Pangolin from pengguling (roller)
¢‘ Cassowary from kasuari (Papuan) ¢‘ Parang a Malayan machete
¢‘ Cempedak ¢‘ Proa (also 'prahu' or 'prau') from prahu or
¢‘ Cockatoo from kakatua perahu
¢‘ Compound from kampung (referring to ¢‘ Rambutan
residential area, not chemistry) ¢‘ Ramie from rami
¢‘ Dugong ¢‘ Rattan from rotan
¢‘ Durian ¢‘ Sago from sagu
¢‘ Gambier from gambir ¢‘ Salak, also known as Zalacca
¢‘ Gamelan ¢‘ Sarong
¢‘ Gecko ¢‘ Satay from sate (Javanese)
¢‘ Gingham ¢‘ Silat
¢‘ Gong ¢‘ Tokay
¢‘ Junk from jong ¢‘ Trepang
¢‘ Koteka
¢‘ Kris from kris or keris

O‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘#rish‘rigin‘

alannah
from Irish a leinbh, "Oh, Child" (OED).
banshee
from Irish bainsídhe, "female fairy", and/or bean sidhe (M-W), "woman of the fairies" (AHD) or
"...of a fairy mound" (RH). The Modern Irish word for woman is bean /bæn/ and síd(h) (or sí in
modern spelling) is an Irish term referring to a 'fairy mound'. (See Sidhe.)
bard
(from bárd meaning "poet") a poet (OED) (Related words in Irish, Welsh, and Scots Gaelic were
all used as alien words in English, but "bard" was first naturalised in Scotland, and hence from
Scots Gaelic).
Baltimore
town of the big house. From the Irish baile an tí mhor (pronounced "Baala on tee wore") baile
meaning town, an tí meaning the house and mor / mhor meaning big (pronounced "more / wore")
bog
(from bogach meaning "marsh/peatland") a wetland (OED).
boreen
(from bithrín meaning "small road") a narrow rural road.
brogues
(from brg meaning "shoe") a type of shoe (OED).
brogue
A strong regional accent, especially an Irish one. Presumably used originally with reference to the
footwear of speakers of the brogue (OED).
callow
A low-lying meadow by an Irish river, liable to be flooded; a water-meadow. Also in adjectival
use. This is the same as the English callow (originally, 'bald', or 'unfeathered', and now often
'inexperienced'), itself cognate with the Irish calbh (bald), and is a particularly Irish usage (OED).
colleen
(from cailín meaning "young woman") a girl (usually referring to an Irish girl) (OED).
craic
fun, used in Ireland for fun/enjoyment, often when mixed with alcohol and/or music. The word is
actually English in origin; it entered into Irish from the English "crack" via Ulster Scots. The
Gaelicised spelling craic was then reborrowed into English. The craic spelling, although preferred
by most of the Irish people, has garnered some criticism as a faux-Irish word.[1]
drum
(from drom/druim meaning "ridge") a ridge often separating two long narrow valleys; a long
narrow ridge of drift or diluvial formation (OED).
drumlin
(from drom/druim with a diminutive) a small rounded hill of glacial formation, often seen in series
(OED).
esker
(from eiscir) an elongated mound of post-glacial gravel, usually along a river valley (OED).
Fenian
(from Fianna meaning "semi-independent warrior band") a member of a 19th century Irish
nationalist group (OED).
fiacre
a small four-wheeled carriage for hire, a hackney-coach. This derives from the Old Irish given
name Fiacre (of uncertain meaning, perhaps 'battle king', perhaps 'little raven'). Saint Fiacre was a
seventh century Irish saint for whom an inn in Paris that hired carriages was named. (OED)
galore
(from go leor meaning "til plenty") a lot (OED).
gob
(literally bea ) mouth, though used in colloquial Irish more often to refer to a 'beaky' nose, i.e. a
sticky-beak. Perhaps from Irish. (OED)
keen
(from caoinim meaning "I wail") to lament, to wail mournfully (OED).
kibosh (alternately, kybosh)
'To put the kybosh on' is to do for something, finish it off, or simply to end it or terminate it. The
OED says the origin is obscure and possibly Yiddish. Other sources[2], suggest that it may be from
the Irish an chaip bháis, 'the cap of death' (a reference to the "black cap" worn by a judge passing
sentence of capital punishment, or perhaps to a the gruesome method of execution called
pitchcapping[3]); or else somehow connected with "bosh", from Turkish "boş" (empty).
leprechaun
elf, sprite (from leipreachán, from lu 'small' and corp 'body') (OED). An alternate source is leath
bhrogán, "half-shoer", as the creature is often said to be a shoemaker by profession.
loch, lough
(from loch meaning "lake/inlet") a lake, or arm of the sea; According to the OED, the spelling
"lough" was originally a separate word with a similar meaning but different pronunciation,
perhaps from Old Northumbrian: this word became obsolete, effectively from the 16th century,
but in Anglo-Irish its spelling was retained for the word newly borrowed from Irish.
poteen
(from póitín, 'small pit' - pit is the feeling of being high from a drug like alcohol or tobacco, or
even from eating too much candy) hooch, bootleg alcoholic drink (OED)
Puck, pook, pooka
possibly related to i Y spook (a poo a, a hobgoblin, a bogey, a sprite), poker, an evil demon, a
mischievous sprite or spirit; a hobgoblin; alternatively, the word has an obvious relationship to
pc billy-goat, as in the famous Puck Fair in Kerry.
shamrock
from seamrg meaning "trefoil") a clover, used as a symbol for Ireland (OED).
han‘ an‘ cht
from SeanKhean Khocht (a poor old woman), "Poor Old Woman", a literary name for Ireland in
the 18th and 19th centuries
shebeen
(from síbín meaning "a mugful") unlicensed house selling alcohol (OED).
shillelagh
(from sailéala meaning "a club") a wooden club or cudgel made from a stout knotty stick with a
large knob on the end.
Shanty
(from seán tí meaning "old house") an old house.
Sidhe
(pronounced 'she') the fairy folk of Ireland, from (aos) sídhe (OED). See banshee.
sleeveen
(also slieveen, sleiveen) an untrustworthy or cunning person, from the Irish slíbhín. Used in
Ireland and Newfoundland. (OED)
sle
(from sluagh meaning "a large number") a great amount (OED). NB: as in a slew of new products,
not as in slay.
slob
(from slab) mud (OED).
smithereens
small fragments, atoms. In phrases such as 'to explode into smithereens'. This is the word smithers
(of obscure origin) with the Irish diminutive ending. Whether it derives from the modern Irish
smidrín or is the source of this word is unclear (OED).
tilly
(from tuilleadh meaning "a supplement") used in Ireland and places of Irish settlement such as
Newfoundland to refer to an additional article or amount unpaid for by the purchaser, as a gift
from the vendor (OED).
Tory
originally an Irish outlaw, probably from the Irish verb tir, meaning "pursue" (OED).
whiskey
(from uisce beatha meaning "water of life") (OED).

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘#talian‘rigin‘

Albarello
from albarello
Amoretto, Cupid
from amoretto, diminutive of amore, from Latin amor = "love"
Arcade
from arcate = "arches"
Architrave
from architrave
Artisan
from artigiano
Bagnio
from bagno
Balcony
from balcone
Baldachin
from baldacchino
Baluster
from balaustra
Balustrade
from balaustrata
Belvedere, a kind of gazebo
from belvedere = "nice view"
Berlinetta
from berlinetta
Biennale
from biennale
Bronze
from bronzo
Cameo
from cammeo
Campanile
from campanile
Caricature
from caricatura
Carpet
from carpita
Carrozzeria
from carrozzeria
Cartoon
from cartone, ="cardboard", augmentative of carta, ="paper"
Chiaroscuro
from chiaro, ="light" and scuro, "dark"
Cognoscente
from conoscente
Colonnade
from colonnato, from colonna column
Conversazione
from conversazione
Cornice
from cornice
Corridor
from corridoio
Cupola
from cupola, ="little cask"
Curioso
from curioso
Dilettante
from dilettante
Dome
from duomo
Façade
from French façade, from Italian facciata, from faccia face, from (assumed) Vulgar Latin facia
Faience
from the city of Faenza
Fascia
from fascia, ="band or strip"
Fiasco
from Fiasco
Figurine
from figurina
Fresco
from fresco, ="fresh, cool". The Italian word for a painting on wet plaster is affresco
Fumetti
from fumetti
Gallery
from galleria, ="arcade"
Gesso
from gesso, ="chalk"
Graffiti
from graffiti, plural of graffito
Grotesque
from grottesca
Impasto
from impasto, ="dough, paste"
Indigo
from indaco
Intaglio
from intaglio, ="cutting, engraving"
Intarsia
from intarsio, ="inlaying, marquetry"
Loggia
from loggia
Madonna
from madonna, ="my lady"
Madonnari
from madonnari, plural of madonnaro
Magenta
from the town of Magenta, Italy
Majolica
from maiolica
Mandorla
from mandorla
Martello
from martello
Mascara
from maschera
masquerade
from maschera
Mask
from maschera
Medal
from medaglia
Mezzanine
from mezzanino
Mezzotint
from mezzo, ="half", and tinto, ="dyed, stained"
Millefiori
from millefiori
Miniature
from miniatura
Model
from modello
Monticello
from monticello, ="little mountain"
Morbidezza
from morbidezza
Mosaic
from mosaico
Muslin
from mussolina
Niello
from niello
Ovolo
from ovulo, diminutive of "uovo", "ovo" egg, from Latin "ovum"
Palazzo
from palazzo
Parapet
from parapetto
Pastel
from pastello
Pasticcio
from pasticcio, ="pastiche"
Pentimento
from pentimento
Pergola
from pergola
Piazza
from piazza, ="square, marketplace"
PietM
from pietà, ="pity"
Pietra dura
="hardstone
Pilaster
from pilastro
Porcelain
from porcellana
Portico
from portico
Predella
from predella
Putto
from putto
Quattrocento
from Quattrocento, ="1400s".
Relievo
from rilievo, see also alto-relievo, basso-relievo
Replica
from replica
Rotunda
from rotonda
Saloon
from salone
Scagliola
from scagliola, =literally, "little chip"
Sepia
from seppia, ="cuttlefish"
Seraglio
from serraglio
Sfumato
from sfumato, ="shaded, toned down"
Sgraffito
from sgraffito
Sienna
from the town of Siena, Italy
Sketch
from schizzo =literally, "splash"
Soffit
from soffitto, ="ceiling"
Studio
from studio, ="study"
Stucco
from stucco
Tazza
from tazza, a kind of cup
Tempera
from tempera
Terra-cotta
from terra cotta, =literally, "baked or cooked earth"
Terrazzo
from terrazzo, ="terrace"
Umber
from mbria, a region in Italy
Veduta
from veduta
Vedutista
from vedutista
Villa
from villa
Virtue
from virt
Virtuoso
from virtuoso

  575
:
 
See also: Italian cuisine
affogato
from affogato
al dente
from al (a preposition + il article) and dente, ="tooth" (al dente could be translated as "slightly
underdone"; it's used particularly to specify the clicking consistency of properly done pasta)
al fresco
from al and fresco, ="fresh, cool", hence ="in a cool place". In Italian al fresco is a slang term for
being in jail.
amaretto
from amaretto, diminutive of amaro bitter, from Latin amarus
antipasto
from antipasto
artichoke
from North Italian articiocco, from Arabic al--aršúf.
arugula
from the Neapolian dialect rugula
barista
from barista
biscotti
from plural of biscotto ="cooked twice, cookie"
bologna or baloney (boloney)
from Kologna
broccoli
from plural of broccolo, ="cabbage-sprout or top"
calamari
from calamari
candy
from Middle English sugre candy, part translation of Middle French sucre candi, part translation
of Italian zucchero candi, from zucchero sugar + Arabic qandI candied, from qand cane sugar
cappuccino
from cappuccino
carpaccio
from carpaccio
cauliflower
from cavolfiore
caviar
from caviale
Chicken Marengo
from the village of Marengo
ciabatta
from ciabatta
coffee
from caffè
confetti
from confetti, plural of confetto
cotechino
from cotechino
espresso
from espresso, which in turn (in the sense of µrapid¶, as applied to trains and drinks) derives from
the English word µexpress¶[1]
fettuccine
from fettuccine, plural of fettuccina
focaccia
from focaccia
gelato
from gelato
grappa
from grappa
gusto
from gusto
lasagna
from lasagne
latte
from latte, ="milk". Coffee with lots of milk is called caffellatte in Italy
linguine
from linguine, plural of linguina, ="diminutive of lingua tongue"
macaroni
from maccheroni, plural of maccherone
macchiato
from macchiato, = "stained" (with milk)
maraschino
from maraschino
marinara
from (alla) marinara ="literally, in sailor style"
panettone
from panettone
panini
from panini, plural of panino, ="bread roll"
parmesan
from dialect word parmesan ="from Parma", parmigiano in standard Italian
pasta
from pasta ="dough"
pepperoni
from peperoni, plural of peperone, augmentative of pepe pepper, from Latin piper
pesto
from pesto, ="crushed"
pignoli
from pinoli, plural of pinolo
pistachio
from pistacchio
pizza
from pizza
pizzeria
from pizzeria
polenta
from polenta
prosciutto
from prosciutto
provolone
from augmentative of provola
radicchio
from radicchio, ="chicory"
ravioli
from ravioli, plural of raviolo
salami
from salami, plural of salame
scampi
from scampi, plural of scampo
semolina
from semolino
soda
from soda
spaghetti
from spaghetti, plural of spaghetto, ="little string"
spumante
from spumante
spumoni
from spumone
sugar
from zucchero; ultimately from Arabic
tiramisu
from tiramis
tortellini
from tortellini, plural of tortellino ="little cake"
tortoni
from Tortoni 19th century Italian restaurateur in Paris
trattoria
from trattoria
tutti-frutti
from tutti frutti, ="all fruits"
vermicelli
from vermicelli, plural of vermicello ="little worm"
zabaglione
from zabaglione, zabaione (actual Italian form)
zucchini
from zucchini, plural of zucchina, ="small gourd"

  '585857
5

Beatrice
from Keatrice
canto, subdivision of a long poem
from canto ="song, singing"
lingua franca
from lingua franca
motto
from motto
novel
from novella, ="short story, tale".
pun
from puntiglio (originally meaning "a fine point"), diminutive of punto, "point", from the Latin
punctus, past participle of pungere, "to prick."
scenario
from scenario
sonnet
from sonetto
stanza
from stanza, ="room"
trill
from trillo

  ( 
See also: Musical terminology and Italian musical terms
alto
from alto
arpeggio
from arpeggio, ="harp-like"
attacca
from attacca
basso
from basso
bassoon
from bassone
bel canto
from bel canto
bravura
from bravura
cadenza
from cadenza
cantata
from cantata
canzone
from canzone
capo
short for capotasto, from Italian, literally, "top of fingerboard"
capriccio
from capriccio ="sudden start, motion, or freak"
castrato
from castrato
cavatina
from cavatina
cello
from violoncello
concert
from concerto
diva
from diva
divertimento
from divertimento
folio
from foglio, ="leaf"
fantasia
from fantasia, ="fancy"
forte, a musical direction for 'loud'
from forte ="strong, loud"
fugue
from fuga
harmonica
from armonica
intermedio
from intermedio
intermezzo
from intermezzo
libretto
from libretto
madrigal
from madrigale
maestro
from maestro
mandola
from mandola
mandolin
from mandolino
obbligato
from obbligare, ="to oblige"
oboe
from oboè, òboe (actual Italian form)
ocarina
from ocarina
opera
from opera, ="a work produced"
operetta
from operetta, ="little opera"
oratorio
from oratorio
orchestra
from orchestra
piano
from piano, ="soft"
pianoforte
from pianoforte, ="soft-strong"
piccolo
from piccolo, ="small"
presto
from presto
rondo
from rondo, ="rondeau"
scena
from scena, ="scene"
segue
from segue, ="it follows"
serenade
from serenata
sinfonia
from sinfonia, ="symphony"
solfege
from solfeggio
solo
from solo
sonata
from sonata
soprano
from soprano
sordino
from sordino
tempo
from tempo, ="time"
tessitura
from tessitura, ="texture"
timpani
from timpani, plural of timpano, ="kettledrum"
trill
from trillo
trombone
from trombone, ="large trumpet"
tuba
from tuba
viola
from viola
violin
from violino

   7 
ballot
from ballottaggio
bandit
from bandito
Camerlengo
from Camerlengo
camorra
from Camorra
doge
from doge
duce
from (Il) Duce, which derives from the Latin dux, ducis, meaning commander, leader
fascio
from fascio
fascism
from fascismo
generalissimo
from generalissimo
illuminati
Italian, from New Latin, from Latin, plural of illuminatus
imbroglio
from imbroglio, "an entangling, an enwrapping, a garboile";the Italian word imbroglio is itself a
borrowed word from Vèneto (Venetian) brolio meant a garden, politicians in Venice used to meet
in a garden to cement alliances, so to go 'in brolio' meant to cheat or deceive
incognito
from incognito (from Latin in + cognitus), ="unknown"
irredentism
from irredentismo
machiavellian
from Niccolò Machiavelli
manifesto
from manifesto, ="manifest"
partisan
from partigiano
PodestM
from Podestà
politico
from politico
propaganda
from propaganda, (from Latin 'propagare'= literally "extending forth")
razzia
from razzia
risorgimento
from risorgimento

  -5
algebra
from algebra
breccia
from breccia
caliber
from calibro
gabbro
from gabbro
granite
from granito ,derivative of grano, ="grain"
gonzo
from gonzo, ="fool(ish)"
influenza
from influenza
lagoon
from laguna,
lava
from lava
lazaretto
from lazzaretto, alteration of Nazaretto, quarantine station in Venice, from Santa Maria di
Nazareth, church on the island where it was located
malaria
from malaria, contraction of mala, ="bad" and aria, "air"
medico
from medico
neutrino
from neutrino, ="little neutron"
pellagra
from pellagra, contraction of pelle, ="skin" and agra, "acid, sour"
peperino
from peperino
pozzolana
from pozzolana
race
from razza
rocket
from rocchetto
scalpel
from scalpello, ="chisel"
torso
from torso, ="stalk, stump"
travertine
from travertino
tufa
from tufa
tuff
from tufo
volcano
from vulcano (from Latin vulcanus)

  *6

 
agio
from agio
alarm
from all'arme (allarme in modern standard Italian), =literally, "to the arms"
alert
from all'erta (allerta in modern standard Italian), =literally, "on the ascent"
amigo/amiga
from amico-male/amica-female, meaning friend
archipelago
from arcipelago
arsenal
from arsenale, Venetian origin: "Arsenal"
assassin
from assassino
attack
from attaccare
attitude
from attitudine
autostrada
from autostrada
ballerina
from ballerina
ballet
from balletto
balloon
from pallone
bambino
from bambino, ="child", "baby"
bank
from banco or banca, ="bench"
bankrupt
from banco or banca, ="bench" and rotto, ="broken"
Barbarossa
nickname given to the German emperor Friedrich I, from barba, ="beard" and rossa (feminine
form of rosso), ="red"
bella figura
from bella figura
ben trovato
from ben trovato
bersagliere
from bersagliere
bimbo
from bimbo, ="child", "baby"
biretta
from berretta
bizarre
from bizzarro
bocce
from bocce, plural form of boccia ="ball"
bomb
from bomba
bordello
from bordello, ="brothel"
brave
from bravo courageous, wild, probably from Latin barbarus barbarous
bravo
from bravo, ="skillful, good (at something), brave (not very common in current Italian)"
brigade
from brigata
brilliant
from French brillant, present participle of briller to shine, from Italian brillare
buffalo
from bufalo
buffoon
from buffone
bulletin
from bolletino
camauro
from camauro
Campo Santo
from campo santo
cannon
from cannone
capuchin
from cappuccino
carabiniere
from carabiniere
carat
from carato
caravan (disambiguation)
from caravana or carovana
caress
from carezza
carnival
from carnevale
carousel
from carosello
cartridge
from cartoccio
cascade
from cascata
cash
from modification of Middle French or Italian; Middle French casse money box, from Italian
cassa, from Latin capsa chest
casino
from casino, ="small house", diminutive of casa In current Italian, it means a lot of noise, a mess,
or a brothel.
catenaccio
from catenaccio
Cavalier
from cavaliere, ="chevalier"
ciao
from ciao
cicala
from cicala, ="cicada"
cicerone
from cicerone
colonel
from colonnello
condottiere
from condottiero
consigliere
from consigliere
corna
from corna
courtesan
from cortigiana
cozen
from cozzone
credit
from credito, ="credit, belief, or balance"
debit
from debito, ="debt"
disaster
from disastro
ditto
from ditto, now detto, said
donna
from donna
extravaganza
from stravaganza
festa
from festa, ="feast"
fiasco
from fare fiasco, ="to make a bottle"
fico
from fico, ="fig"
finale
from finale, ="final"
florin
from fiorino
fugazi
from fugazi =Italian-American slang term for something that is "forged/not authentic"
gambado
from gambale, from gamba leg
gazette
from gazzetta
ghetto
from ghetto
ghibli
from ghibli
giraffe
from giraffa
girandole
from girandola
giro
from giro
gondola
from gondola
gran turismo
from gran turismo, ="grand touring"
group
from gruppo
Harlequin
from Arlecchino
impresa
from impresa
impresario
from impresario
innamorato
from innamorato
inferno
from inferno, ="hell"
in Petto
from in petto, literally, "in the breast"
jeans
from blu di enova
literati
from obsolete Italian litterati, from Latin, plural of litteratus
lottery
from lotteria
lotto
from lotto
magazine
from magazzino
mafia
from mafia
mafioso
from mafioso
magnifico
from magnifico
Mamma Mia
from mamma mia
manage
from maneggiare
marina
from marina
monster
from mostro
morra
from morra
mozzetta
from mozzetta
musket
from moschetto
mustachio
from mustacchio, ="mustache"
nostalgia
from nostalgia
ogre
from orco, ="demon, monster"
omertM
from omertà
pants
from pantalone
paparazzo
from Paparazzo, the surname of a character in a movie by Fellini
parasol
from parasole
pedal
from pedale
pilot
from pilota
pistol
from the city of Pistoia, Tuscany
piston
from pistone
pococurante
from poco curante, ="caring little"
policy
from polizza
poltroon
from poltrone, ="lazy person, idler", from poltrona, armchair
pontoon
from pontone same meaning, originally augmentative of ponte, ="bridge"
portfolio
from portafoglio
previdential
from previdenza
punchinello
from Neapolitan language pucinella
regatta
from regata
risk
from rischio
riviera
from riviera
saltarello
from saltarello
sansevieria
from Raimondo di Sangro, prince of San Severo died 1774 Italian scholar
scaramouche
from scaramuccia, ="skirmish"
sedan
from sede, a southern Italian dialect derivative of "chair"
sequin
from zecchino
simpatico
from simpatico
sirocco
from scirocco
skirmish
from scaramuccia
squad
from squadra
squadron
from squadrone
stiletto
from stiletto, ="little dagger"
strappado
from strappata
taffeta
from taffettà
tariff
from tariffa
tarot
from tarocchi
tifoso
from tifoso, plural tifosi
tinge
from tingere, ="to dye or to colour"
tombola
from tombolare, ="to tumble, fall upside down"
tombolo
from tombolo
traffic
from Middle French trafique, from Old Italian traffico, from trafficare to traffic
trampoline
from trampolino
turban
from turbante
umbrella
from ombrello, diminutive of ombra, ="shade"
valuta
from valuta, ="currency"
vendetta
from vendetta, ="vengeance"
vista
from vista
viva
from viva
zany
from Zanni a dialectal form of iovanni, a Commedia dell'arte character
zero
from zero
zucchetto
from zucchetto

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘$apanese‘rigin‘

anime
listen (help·info), Japanese animation; refers to animation in general in Japanese (derived
from either the English "animation" or French "dessin animé")
bokeh
(from bo e), subjective aesthetic quality of out-of-focus areas of an image projected by a
camera lens
bonsai
listen (help·info), "tray gardening"; the art of tending miniature trees (see the unrelated
word "banzai" below)
bunraku[1]
, a form of traditional Japanese puppet theatre, performed by puppeteers, chanters, and
shamisen players
haiku
listen (help·info), a very short poem consisting of three lines of 5, 7, and 5 morae (not
syllables as commonly thought) each; see also tanka below
ikebana
, flower arrangement
imari[2]
, Japanese porcelain wares (made in the town of Arita and exported from the port of Imari,
particularly around the 17th century)
kabuki[3]
, a traditional form of Japanese theatre
kakemono[4]
, a vertical Japanese scroll, of ink-and-brush painting or calligraphy, that hangs in a recess on
a wall inside a room
kakiemon[5]
, Japanese porcelain wares featuring enamel decoration (made in Arita, using the style
developed in 17th century by Sa aida Ka iemon)
karaoke
listen (help·info), "empty orchestra"; entertainment where an amateur singer
accompanies recorded music
kirigami
, similar to origami, but involves cutting in addition to folding
koto[6]
, a traditional stringed musical instrument from Japan, resembling a zither with 13 strings
makimono[7]
, a horizontal Japanese hand scroll, of ink-and-brush painting or calligraphy
manga
or listen (help·info), Japanese comics; refers to comics in general in Japanese
netsuke[8]
, a toggle use to tie the sash of a kimono also to attach small items such as inro and kinchaku:
sometimes beautifully carved.
noh[9]
nō, a major form of classical Japanese music drama
origami
, artistic paper folding
otaku
or or , a geeky enthusiast, especially of anime and manga (note that the
Japanese usage has a much stronger negative connotation than the Western usage)
senryu (senryū)
, a form of short poetry similar to haiku
shamisen[10]
, a three-stringed musical instrument, played with a plectrum
sumi-e
, a general term for painting with a brush and black ink
tanka
, "short poetry"; an older form of Japanese poetry than haiku, of the form 5-7-5-7-7 morae (not
syllables; see also haik above)
ukiyo-e
, a type of woodblock print art or painting

  768
geta[11]
, a pair of Japanese raised wooden clogs worn with traditional Japanese garments, such as the
kimono
inro[12]
inrō, a case for holding small objects, often worn hanging from the obi; (traditional Japanese
wears didn't have pockets)
kimono
, a traditional full-length robe-like garment still worn by women, men and children
obi[13]
, a wide belt which is tied in the back to secure a kimono
zori[14]
zōri, sandals made from rice straw or lacquered wood, worn with a kimono for formal
occasions

  75
:
adzuki[15], azuki bean[16]
or listen (help·info), type of bean grown in eastern Asia and the Himalayas, used in
Chinese, Korean, and Japanese cuisines, usually served sweet
arame
, a type of edible seaweed
bento
bentō, a single-portion takeout meal, box lunch
daikon
, a kind of white radish
dashi
or , a simple soup stock considered fundamental to Japanese cooking
edamame
, soybeans boiled whole in the green pod and served with salt
enokitake, enoki mushroom
or , long, thin white mushrooms, used in Japanese, Korean and Chinese cuisines
fugu
or , the meat of the toxic pufferfish, must be prepared by specially trained chefs by law.
Also means pufferfish itself.
ginkgo
or ginnan, a gymnospermous tree (in go biloba) of eastern China that is widely
grown as an ornamental or shade tree and has fan-shaped leaves and yellow fruit (the word is
derived from 17th Century Japanese gin yō)
gyoza
or gyōza, Japanese name for Chinese dumplings, jia i (jiǎozi); may also be called
pt‘stickers in English if they are fried
hibachi
, a small, portable charcoal grill; used in North America to refer to a teppan or a small
shichirin-like aluminium or cast iron grill
hijiki
or , a type of edible seaweed commonly found on rocky coastlines
katsuo
, a skipjack tuna
katsuobushi
or , dried and smoked skipjack tuna ( atsuo), which is shaved and then used in dashi
koji
or ōji, a fungus which is the active agent in the fermentation processes, of producing miso
and soy sauce from soybeans, and of producing sake and shōchū from rice.
kombu
, dried kelp, which can be eaten or used as dashi
matsutake
, a type of edible mushroom, with a magnificently spicy aroma similar to cinnamon,
considered to be a great delicacy and the most coveted mushroom in Japan
mirin
, an essential condiment of the Japanese cuisine, a kind of rice wine similar to sake with a
slightly sweet taste
miso
, a thick paste made by fermenting soybeans with salt
mizuna
, an edible plant, with flavor akin to the mustard plant
nappa, napa cabbage
, Chinese cabbage, (in Japan, it is a generic term for leaf vegetables.)
nashi (pear)
, a species of pear native to eastern Asia, which are juicy, round and shaped like apples. Often
simply referred to as "asian pear(s)".
nori
, food products created from the seaweed laver by a shredding and rack-drying process that
resembles papermaking.
panko
, Japanese white bread flakes. Panko is made from bread without crusts, thus it has a crisper,
airier texture than most types of breading found in Western cuisine.
ramen
rāmen, the Japanese version of Chinese noodle soup, not limited to the instant variety
sake
listen (help·info), an alcoholic beverage, brewed from rice. In Japanese, the word can also
refer to alcoholic drinks in general
sashimi
, a Japanese delicacy primarily consisting of the freshest raw seafoods thinly sliced and served
with only a dipping sauce and wasabi.
satsuma
(from Satsuma, an ancient province of Japan), a type of mandarin orange (mi an) native to
Japan
shabu shabu
, a meal where each person cooks their own food in their own cooking pot from an
assortment of raw ingredients
shiitake mushroom
or listen (help·info), an edible mushroom typically cultivated on the shii tree
shoyu
or shōyu, Japanese soy sauce
soba
or , thin brown buckwheat noodles
soy
from shoyu
sukiyaki
or , a dish in the nabemono-style (one-pot), consisting of thinly sliced beef, tofu,
konnyaku noodles, negi, Chinese cabbage (bok choy), and enoki mushrooms among others
surimi
or , processed meat made from cheaper white-fleshed fish, to imitate the look of a
more expensive meat such as crab legs
sushi
or or , a dish consisting of vinegared rice combined with other ingredients such as raw
fish, raw or cooked shellfish, or vegetables
takoyaki
, , or , literally fried or baked octopus
tamari
, liquid obtained by pressing soybeans
tempura
or , classic Japanese deep fried batter-dipped seafood and vegetables
teppanyaki
, a type of Japanese cuisine that uses a hot iron griddle (teppan) to cook food
teriyaki
or , a cooking technique where fish or meat is being broiled/grilled in a sweet soy
sauce marinade
tofu
tōfu listen (help·info) bean curd. Although the word is originally Chinese, it entered English
via Japanese.
udo
or , an edible plant found on the slopes of wooded embankments, also known as the
Japanese Spikenard
udon
or , a type of thick wheat-based noodle
umami
or , the taste sensation produced by some condiments such as monosodium glutamate; a
basic flavor in sea weed ( kombu)
umeboshi
, pickled ume
wakame
or , a type of edible kelp, often used in miso soup (Japan), and salads
wasabi
or , a strongly flavoured green condiment commonly known as Japanese horseradish
yakitori
or , a type of chicken kebab

    
kanban[17]
, literally a "signal" or "sign" signals a cycle of replenishment for production and materials and
maintains an orderly and efficient flow of materials throughout the entire manufacturing process.
Part of Six Sigma
keiretsu
, a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings
OffJT
ofujētī, "off the job training", means "training outside the workplace"
tycoon
(from "taikun"), "great prince" or "high commander", later applied to wealthy business leaders
zaibatsu
, a "money clique" or conglomerate

   ;
57 
daimyo[18]
daimyō, "great names"; the most powerful Japanese feudal rulers from the 12th century to the
19th century
genro[19]
genrō, retired elder Japanese statesmen, who served as informal advisors to the emperor,
during the Meiji and Taisho eras
mikado[20]
, a dated term for "emperor"; specifically for the Emperor of Japan
shogun[21]
shōgun listen (help·info), the title of the practical ruler of Japan for most of the time from
1192 to the Meiji Era

  ,78
bonze[22]
(from bonsō), a Buddhist monk
koan[23]
ōan, a paradoxial story or statement used during meditation in Zen Buddhism
satori[24]
, enlightenment in Zen Buddhism
shinto[25]
shintō, the native religion of Japan
torii[26]
, traditional Japanese gates commonly found at the gateway to Shinto shrines
zen
, a branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism

  *6

akita
(from , akitainu or akitaken), the Akita Inu, a large breed of Japanese dog
domoic acid
(from doumoi in the Tokunoshima dialect of Japanese: a type of red algae)
geisha
, traditional Japanese artist-entertainers
hentai
listen (help·info), Western usage: pornographic cartoons, usually either Japanese in origin
or drawn in a Japanese style; Japanese usage: metamorphosis, transformation, abnormality, or
perversion
honcho[27]
hanchō, head, chief
katsura (tree)
, large deciduous trees, native to eastern Asia
koi
, Western usage: ornamental varieties of the common carp (but in Japan this just means "carp" --
the ornamental variety are called "nishikigoi" )
kudzu
(from or uzu) A climbing vine found in the south-eastern US, which is native to Japan and
south-eastern China
mxa
or mogusa, mugwort or cotton wool or other combustible material, burned on skin during
moxibustion
moxibustion
(from moxa + (com)bustion), an oriental medicine therapy which involves the burning of mxa
(see above)
rickshaw
(from jinri isha), a human-pulled wagon
sanara
or sayōnara the Japanese term for "goodbye" (note, though, that in Japanese, it
has formal and final connotations: one would not say it if one expects to meet again soon)
sensei
, the Japanese term for "master", "teacher" or "doctor". It can be used to refer to any authority
figure, such as a schoolteacher, professor, priest, or politician.
shiatsu
, a form of massage
shiba Inu
, the smallest of the six original and distinct Japanese breeds of dog
sksh[28]
A small amount, from or su oshi, meaning "a bit" or "a few"
sudoku
sūdo u listen (help·info), a number placement puzzle, also known as mber‘ lace in the
United States.
tanuki
, the Japanese name for the animal, Nyctereutes procyonoides, known as a raccoon dog in
English
tsunami
, literally "harbour wave"; Large wave caused by earthquakes or other underwater
disturbances.
urushiol
(from or urushi, a plant that gives a skin rash on contact) a chemical substance found in
poison-ivy, used to make "Japanned" lacquer ware

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘%rean‘rigin‘

Chaebol
from ( ), a family-controlled industrial conglomerate in South Korea.[1]
Hangul
from , the Korean alphabet.
Kimchi
from , a wide variety of pickled, fermented vegetables.
Kisaeng
from ( ), female Korean entertainers.[2]
Korea
from oryeo (alt. Koryo) ( , ), historic dynasty of Korea that unified the peninsula (see
Names of Korea).
Soju
from ( ), Korean liquor similar to shochu.[3]
Taekwondo
from ( ), a globally-popular sport and martial art.
Bibimbap
from , white rice mixed with vegetables, beef, and chili paste.
Chobo
from ( ), a novice, especially in Internet gaming.
Gosu
from ( ), a person with great skill, especially in Internet gaming.
Hantavirus
from ( ), the Hantan River.
Hwabyeong
from ( ), literally "anger illness" or "fire illness".
Janggi
from ( ), variant of Korean chess.
Kalbi
from , BBQ marinated beef ribs.
Kimbap
from , Korean rice roll.
Muk-chi-ba
from , a Korean variant of the game 'rock-paper-scissors'.

ë‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘


ala‘rigin‘

Agar (also 'agar-agar')


a gelatinous substance obtained from various kinds of red seaweed and used in biological culture
media and as a thickener in foods.
Amok (also 'amuck' or 'amock')
out of control, especially when armed and dangerous; in a frenzy of violence, or on a killing spree,
'berserk', as in 'to run amok'.
Babirusa (also 'babiroussa')
from French babiroussa, from Malay babi hog + rusa deer. A wild pig (Kabyrousa babyrussa) of
the East Indies with backward-curving tusks.
Balanda (also 'ballanda' or 'ballander')
from Makasar balanda, from Malay belanda, from Dutch Hollander meaning a white person, a
European.
Bamboo
from bambu
Banteng
from banteng, 'a SE Asian forest ox that resembles the domestic cow, domesticated in Bali [Bos
javanicus.]'
Binturong
from binturong, 'a large species of civet, Arctictis binturong, of SE Asia'.
Boondocks
from bundo , a Tagalog word meaning "mountains" or referencing a place off in the distance
Caddy (also 'caddie')
from ati (a measurement unit, whereby 1 kati = approximately 600 g).
Cassowary
from asuari/ esuari, 'a very large flightless bird related to the emu'.
Catty
from ati (a unit of measurement)
Camphor
see Kapur. From Old French camphore or Mediaeval Latin camphora, from Arabic 'kāfūr', from
Malay apur.
Cempedak (also Chempedak)
from Cempeda , a species of tree and its fruit in the family Moraceae.
Cockatoo
from a a tua, a parrot with an erectile crest.
Compound (enclosed group of buildings)
by folk etymology from ampung or 'village'
Cooties
from utu, 'lice'
Dammar
from damar, 'resin; resin obtained from various mainly Indo-Malaysian trees, used to make
varnish.'
Dugong
from duyung, 'mermaid'
Durian
from duri 'thorns', hence durian, 'thorny'
Gambier
from gambir(the name of the plant), an astringent extract of a tropical Asian plant, used in tanning'
Gecko
from ge o,ge o
Gingham
from ginggang
Gong
from gong, a metal disc with a turned rim that gives a resonant note when struck.
Gutta-percha
(a type of tree whose sap is used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber) from getah, 'rubber' and
perca, 'scrap/piece'; hence getah perca, 'a scrap/piece of rubber'
ikat
from i at, 'to bind', a style of weaving that uses a process similar to tie-dye to dye the threads.
Jackfruit
generally cited as deriving from the Malayalam cha a or ca ai via the Portuguese jaca, which
came from the Malay/Indonesian word nang a.
Junk (type of boat)
from jong
Kapok
from apu , 'a fine fibrous substance which grows around the seeds of a ceiba or silk-cotton tree,
used as stuffing for cushions'
Kapur
from apur a large tropical tree which yields light brown wood, edible fruit, and camphor [Genus
Dryobalanops.]
Komodo
from omodo
Kris (also archaic 'creese')
from eris, 'a Malay/Indonesian dagger with a wavy-edged blade'
Launch
from lancar (meaning 'swift', 'nimble'; and 'making something moves faster'; and 'doing or held
something like an action, attack etc.' ) and lancaran (meaning 'a kind of swift boat' - in old Malay
literatures) , 'a large motor boat.'
Langsat
from langsat, a species of fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Meliaceae [Lansium
domesticum]
Mangosteen
from manggustan, also known as Manggis
Meranti
from meranti, 'white, red, or yellow hardwood from a SE Asian tree (genus Shorea)'
Merbau
from merbau, 'the hardwood of a SE Asian tree (genus Intsia)'
Orangutan
from orang hutan or 'people of the jungle'
paddy
as in 'paddy-field' or 'rice paddy', from padi, referring to the rice plant Oryza sativa.
Pandanus
from pandan, 'a tropical tree or shrub with a twisted stem, long spiny leaves, and fibrous edible
fruit.[Genus Pandanus.]'
Pangolin
from pengguling, 'one that rolls/curls'
Pantoum
from pantun, 'a Malay poetic/verse form'.
Parang
from parang, 'a Malayan machete',
Picul
from pi ul (a unit of measurement)
Proa (also 'prahu' or 'prau')
from perahu, 'a Malaysian or Indonesian sailing boat, typically having a large triangular sail and
an outrigger'
Rambutan
from rambut 'hair', hence rambutan, 'hairy'
Ramie
from rami, 'the plant of the nettle family which yields this fibre, native to tropical Asia.
[Boehmeria nivea.]'
Rattan
from rotan
Sago
from sagu, '(sago palm) the palm from which most sago is obtained, growing in freshwater
swamps in SE Asia. [Metroxylon sagu.]; any of a number of other palms or cycads which yield a
similar starch.'
Salak
from sala , ' a species of palm tree (family Arecaceae) native to Indonesia and Malaysia [Salacca
zalacca]'
Sambal
from sambal, (in oriental cookery) relish made with vegetables or fruit and spices.
Sarong
from sarung, 'wrap/sheath'
Satay (also 'sate')
from Malay satai, Javanese/Indonesian "sate", 'an Indonesian and Malaysian dish consisting of
small pieces of meat grilled on a skewer and served with spiced sauce.'
Seladang
from seladang, a wild ox with a dark brown or black coat with white lower legs, native to India
and Malaysia. [Bos gaurus.] .
Siamang
from siamang, 'a large black gibbon native to Sumatra and Malaya [Hylobates syndactylus.]'
Silat
from silat, 'a Malay's martial art'
Tael
from tahil (a unit of measurement) meaning 'weight'
Tokay
from to e of Malay dialect, means 'a large grey SE Asian gecko with orange and blue spots.
[Gekko gecko.]
Trepang
from teripang/trepang

á‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘


&ri‘rigin‘

The accepted English common names of a number of species of animal and plant endemic to New Zealand
are simply their Māori names or a very close equivalent:

kauri
a large conifer in the Araucariaceae
kea
the alpine parrot
kiwi
the bird, a New Zealander, or sometimes (not in New Zealand) the kiwi fruit
mako
the shark considered a magnificent fighter by game-fisherman
moa
the extinct giant flightless bird
tuatara
rare lizard-like reptile, not closely related to any other species currently alive
aroha
love and compassion
haka
traditional Māori dance, not always a war-dance, often performed by New Zealand sports teams,
both local and international, to 'intimidate' opponents
hāngi
traditional feast prepared in earth-oven
hikoi
march or walk
hui
meeting
iwi
tribe
kai
meaning "food"; also "kai moana" meaning "sea food"
kia kaha
an expression of support, literally "be strong"
kia ora
a greeting, literally be healthy
koha
a gift or donation
mahinga maataitai/mataitai
traditional seafood gathering place
mana
very roughly, the regard in which someone is held; respect of their authority; reputation
mihi
literally meaning homage or respect, sometimes used in sense of internet board or forum message
moko
facial tattoo

a hill fort
Pākehā
New Zealander of non-Māori descent, usually European
Papakāinga
Land utilised for housing for an iwi/hapu or whanau group
Ngaire
silver fern
pounamu
Greenstone
puku
tummy
tāngata whenua
literally people of the land, an alternative name for Māori
tangi
funeral and/or wake
taonga
sacred treasure or gift
tauranga waka
landing places where waka were drawn out of the water
wai
water
utu
retribution
waahi tapu
sacred sites
waka
canoe
whānau
family

!‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘rm‘indigens‘langages‘‘the‘mericas‘

Apishamore ‚
From a word in an Algonquian language meaning "something to lie down upon"[6] (c.f. Ojibwe
apishimon).[2]
Atamasco lily ‚
Earlier "attamusca", from Powhatan.[7][8]
Babiche ‚
From Míkmaq ápapíj (from ápapi, "cord, thread", Proto-Algonquian *aÅ rapa·pyi, from *aÅ rapy-
, "net" + *-a·by-, "string".[9]
Caribou ‚
From Míkmaq qalipu, "snow-shoveler" (from qalipi, "shovel snow", Proto-Algonquian
*ma a·ripi-).[10]
Chinkapin ‚
From Powhatan <chechinquamins>,[11] reconstituted as */t Å i ht Å i nkwe mins/, the plural
form.[12]
Chipmunk ‚
Originally "chitmunk," from Odawa jidmoonh[13] /t Å Å tmő/ (c.f. Ojibwe ajidamoo(nh)),[2] "red
squirrel".
Cisco ‚
Originally "siscowet," from Ojibwe language bemidewis aawed "greasy-bodied [fish]".[14]
Eskimo ‚
From Old Montagnais <aiachkimeou> (/a jast Å ime w/) (modern ayassimēw), meaning
"snowshoe-netter" (often incorrectly claimed to be from an Ojibwe word meaning "eaters of raw
[meat]"), and originally used to refer to the Mikmaq.[15][16]
Hackmatack ‚
From an Algonquian language a emanta (c.f. Ojibwe aagimaandag), "snowshoe boughs".[citation
needed]

Hickory ‚
From Powhatan <pocohiquara>, "milky drink made with hickory nuts".[17][18]
Hominy ‚
From Powhatan <uskatahomen>/<usketchaumun>, literally "that which is treated", in this case
"that which is ground/beaten".[19]
Husky ‚
Ultimately from a variant form of the word "Eskimo" (see above).[20]
Kinkajou ‚
From an Algonquian word meaning "wolverine" (c.f. Algonquin wingwaage, Ojibwe
gwiingwa'aage),[2] through French quincajou.[21]
Kinnikinnick ‚
From Unami Delaware /kԥlԥk ԥ nik an/, "mixture" (c.f. Ojibwe giniginige "to mix together
something animate with something inanimate"),[2] from Proto-Algonquian * ere en-, "mix (it)
with something different by hand".[22]
Mackinaw ‚
From michilmac inac, from Menomini mishilimaq ināh w, "be large like a snapping turtle",[citation
needed]
or from Ojibwe mishi-ma inaa , "large snapping turtle" with French -ile-, "island".[citation
needed]

Moccasin ‚
From an Algonquian language, perhaps Powhatan <mockasin>,[23] reconstituted as
*/mahkesen/[24](c.f. Ojibwe ma izin,[2] Míkmaq mÅ usun[25], from Proto-Algonquian
*max eseni).[26]
Moose ‚
From Eastern Abenaki moz, reinforced by cognates from other Algonquian languages[27][28] (e.g.
Massachusett/Narragansett moos,[28] Ojibwe moo(n)z,[2] Delaware mos),[citation needed] from Proto-
Algonquian *mo·swa.[28]
Mugwump ‚
From "mugquomp", a shortening of Massachusett <muggumquomp>, "war chief" (Proto-
Algonquian *meme wa·pe·wa, from *meme w-, "swift" + *-a·pe·, "man").[29]
Muskellunge ‚
Ultimately from Ojibwe maash inoozhe,[2] "ugly pike" (c.f. ginoozhe, "pike").
Muskeg ‚
From Cree mas ē , "swamp"[30] (Proto-Algonquian *maš ye· wi).[31]
Muskrat ‚
A folk-etymologized reshaping of earlier "musquash", from Massachusett (c.f. Western Abenaki
mòs was), apparently from Proto-Algonquian *mo·š , "bob (at the surface of the water)" + *-
ex we·-, "head" + a derivational ending).[31]
Opossum ‚
From Powhatan <apasum>/<opussum>/<aposoum>, "white dog-like animal",[32] reconstituted as
*/a passem/[33] (c.f. Proto-Algonquian *wa·p-aÅ üemwa, "white dog").[34][35]
Papoose ‚
From Narragansett <papoòs>[36] or Massachusett <pappouse>, "baby".[37]
Pecan ‚
From Illinois pa ani (c.f. Ojibwe bagaan),[2] "nut", from Proto-Algonquian *pa a·ni.[38]
Pemmican ‚
From Cree pimih ān, from pimih ēw, "to make grease" (Proto-Algonquian *pemih e·wa, from
*pemy-, "grease" + -eh e·, "to make").[39]
Persimmon ‚
From Powhatan <pessemins>/<pushemins>, reconstituted as */pessi min/.[40] While the final
element reflects Proto-Algonquian *-min, "fruit, berry", the initial is unknown.[41]
Pipsissewa ‚
From Abenaki pips wáhsawe, "flower of the woods".[36][42]
Pokeweed ‚
Probably from "puccoon" (see below) + "weed".[36]
Pone ‚
From Powhatan <poan>/<appoans>, "something roasted" (reconstituted as */apo n/)[43] (c.f.
Ojibwe abwaan),[2] from Proto-Algonquian *apwa·n.[44]
Powwow ‚
From Narragansett powwaw, "shaman" (Proto-Algonquian *pawe·wa, "to dream, to have a
vision").[45]
Puccoon ‚
From Powhatan <poughkone>,[36] reconstituted as */pakkan/[46] (c.f. Unami Delaware
[pe kӁ n]).[47]
Pung
A low box-like sleigh designed for one horse. Shortened form of "tom-pung" (from the same
etymon as "toboggan") from an Algonquian language of Southern New England.[48]
Punkie ‚
Via Dutch, from Munsee [ponkwԥs] (Proto-Algonquian *pen wehsa, from *pen w-, "dust, ashes"
+ *-ehs, a diminutive suffix).[49]
Quahog ‚
From Narragansett <poquaûhock>.[50]
Quonset hut ‚
From an Algonquian language of southern New England, possibly meaning "small long place"
(with <qunni->, "long" + <-s->, diminutive + <-et>, locative).[51]
Raccoon ‚
From Powhatan <arahkun>/<aroughcun>,[52] tentatively reconstituted as */a re hkan/.[53]
Sachem ‚
From an Algonquian language of southern New England,[54] c.f. Narragansett <sâchim> (Proto-
Eastern Algonquian *sā imāw, "chief").[55]
Sagamore ‚
From Eastern Abenaki sa ma (c.f. Narragansett <sâchim>), "chief", from Proto-Eastern
Algonquian *sā imāw.[55]
Shoepac ‚
From Unami Delaware [t Å ipahk”] "shoes" (singular [t Å i p akw]), altered on analogy with
English "shoe".[56]
Skunk ‚
From Massachusett <squnck>[citation needed] (Proto-Algonquian *še a· wa, from *še -, "to urinate" +
*-a· w, "fox").[57]
Squash (fruit) ‚
From Narragansett <askútasquash>.[58]
Squaw ‚
From Massachusett <squa> (c.f. Cree is wē, Ojibwe i we),[2] "woman", from Proto-Algonquian
*eü we·wa.[58]
Succotash ‚
From Narragansett <msíckquatash>, "boiled whole kernels of corn" (Proto-Algonquian
*mesi·n wete·wari, singular *mesi·n wete·, from *mes-, "whole" + *-i·n w-, "eye [=kernel]" + -
ete·, "to cook").[59]
Terrapin ‚
Originally "torope," from an Eastern Algonquian language, perhaps Powhatan (reconstituted as
*/to repe w/)[60] (c.f. Munsee Delaware /to lpe w/),[61] from Proto-Eastern Algonquian
*tōrpēw.[62]
Toboggan ‚
From Míkmaq topaqan[63] or Maliseet-Passamaquoddy /tÅ a pakԥn/[64] (Proto-Algonquian
*weta·pye· ani, from *wet-, "to drag" + *-a·pye·-, "cordlike object" + *- an, "instrument for").[63]
Tomahawk ‚
From Powhatan <tamahaac> (Proto-Algonquian *temaha· ani, from *temah-, "to cut" + *-a· an,
"instrument for").[65]
Totem ‚
From Ojibwe nindoodem, "my totem" or odoodeman, "his totem," referring to a kin group.[66]
Tuckahoe ‚
From Powhatan <tockawhoughe>/<tockwhough>/<taccaho>, "root used for bread", reconstituted
as */takwahahk/[67] (perhaps from Proto-Algonquian *ta wah-, "pound (it)/reduce (it) to flour").[68]
Tullibee ‚
From Old Ojibwe */oto lipi /[69] (modern odoonibii).[2]
Wampum ‚
Earlier "wampumpeag", from Massachusett, and meaning "white strings [of beads]" (c.f. Maliseet:
wapapiyi ,[citation needed] Eastern Abenaki wápapya , Ojibwe waabaabiinyag),[2] from Proto-
Algonquian *wa·p-, "white" + *-a·py-, "string-like object" + *-a i, plural.[70][71]
Wanigan ‚
from Ojibwa waani aan, "storage pit"[72]
Wapiti (elk) ‚
From Shawnee waapiti, "white rump" (c.f. Ojibwe waabidiy),[2] from Proto-Algonquian
*wa·petwiya, from *wa·p-, "white" + *-etwiy, "rump".[73]
Wickiup ‚
From Fox wii iyaapi, from the same Proto-Algonquian etymon as "wigwam" (see below).[74]
Wigwam ‚
From Eastern Abenaki wì wam (c.f. Ojibwe wiigiwaam),[2] from Proto-Algonquian
*wi· iwa·Hmi.[75]
Woodchuck ‚
Reshaped on analogy with "wood" and "chuck", from an Algonquian language of southern New
England (c.f. Narragansett <ockqutchaun>, "woodchuck").[76]

#  0
 
)5657
Atlatl ‚
from ahtlatl
Avocado ‚
from āhuacatl, "avocado" or "testicle"
Axolotl ‚
āxōlōtl, from ā-, "water" + xōlōtl, "male servant"[77]
Cacao ‚ and cocoa ‚
from cacahuatl
Chayote ‚
from chayohtli
Chia ‚
from chiyan
Chicle ‚
from tzictli
Chili ‚
from chīlli
Chocolate ‚
Often said to be from Nahuatl xocolātl[36] or chocolātl,[78] which would be derived from xococ
"bitter" and ātl "water" (with an irregular change of x > ch).[79] However, the form xocolātl is not
directly attested, and chocolatl does not appear in Nahuatl until the mid-18th century. Some
researchers have recently proposed that the chocol- element was originally chicol-, and referred to
special wooden stick used to prepare chocolate.[80]
Copal ‚
from copalli[81]
Coyote ‚
from coyōtl
Epazote ‚
from epazōtl
Guacamole ‚
from āhuacamōlli, from āhuaca-, "avocado", and mōlli, "sauce"
Mesquite ‚
from mizquitl
Mezcal ‚
from mexcalli
Mole ‚
from mōlli, "sauce"
Nopal ‚
from nohpalli, "prickly pear cactus"
Ocelot ‚
from ocēlōtl
Peyote ‚
from peyōtl. Nahuatl probably borrowed the root peyō- from another language, but the source is
not known.[82]
Quetzal ‚
from quetzalli, "quetzal feather".[83]
Sapodilla ‚
from tzapocuahuitl
Sapota ‚
from tzapotl
Shack ‚
possibly from xacalli, "grass hut", by way of Mexican Spanish.[36][84]
Tamale ‚
from tamalli
Tule ‚
from tōllin, "reed, bulrush"
Tomato ‚
from tomatl

#  0
 
+65

Ayahuasca ‚
from aya "soul" or "spirit" and huasca "vine" , via Spanish ayahuasca
Coca ‚
from u a, via Spanish coca
Cocaine ‚
from u a (see above), probably via French cocaïne
Condor ‚
from untur, via Spanish cndor
Guanaco ‚
from wana u
Guano ‚
from wanu via Spanish guano
Inca ‚
from In a
Jerky ‚
from ch'ar i, via Spanish charquí
Lagniappe ‚
from yapay, "add, addition", via Spanish la ñapa (with the definite article la).
Lima ‚
from rimay, "speak" (from the name of the city, named for the Rimaq river ("Speaking River"))
Llama ‚
from llama, via Spanish
Pampa ‚
from pampa, "flat", via Spanish
Pisco ‚
from pisqu, "little bird" (not from [1])
Puma ‚
from puma, via Spanish
Quinine ‚
from ina ina, via Spanish quina
Quinoa ‚
from inwa
Soroche ‚
from suruqch'i, "mountain sickness"[85][86] (not from [2])
Vicuña ‚
from wi 'uña, via Spanish vicuña

#  0
 
 =1775858 
Anorak ‚
from Greenlandic Inuit annoraaq[87]
Igloo ‚
from Inuktitut iglu ([iÄlu])[88]
Inuksuk ‚
from Inuktitut inu su [88]
Kayak ‚
from Inuktitut qajaq[88]
Malamute ‚
from Inupiaq Malimiut, the name of an Inupiaq subgroup[89]
Mukluk ‚
from Yupik ma la ([makÅ ak]), "Bearded Seal"[88]
Nanook ‚
from Inuktitut Nanuq,[90] "polar bear", made famous in English due to a 1922 documentary
Nanook of the North, featuring a man with this name.
Umiaq ‚

#  0
 

55=575858 
Anole ‚
from an Arawakan language, or possibly Cariban, by way of French anolis.[91][92][93]
Barbecue ‚
from an Arawakan language of Haiti barba oa, "framework of sticks",[94] via Spanish
barbacoa.[95]
Cacique or cassique ‚
from Taino caci e or Arawak assequa "chieftain" [96]
Caiman ‚
from a Ta-Maipurean language, "water spirit" (c.f. Garifuna [aÅ aiumã]),[97][98] though possibly
ultimately of African origin.[99]
Canoe ‚
from Taino via Spanish canoa.[100]
Cassava ‚
from Taino caçabi, "manioc meal", via Spanish or Portuguese.[101]
Cay ‚
from Taino, by way of Spanish cayo.[102]
Guava ‚
from an Arawakan language, by way of Spanish guayaba.[103]
Hammock ‚
from Taino, via Spanish hamaca.[104]
Hurricane ‚
from Taino hura án, via Spanish.[105]
Iguana ‚
from an Arawakan language iwana.[106][107]
Maize ‚
from Taino mahís, by way of Spanish.[108][109]
Mangrove ‚
from Taino, via Spanish mangle or Portuguese mangue.[110]
Papaya ‚
from Taino.[111]
Potato ‚
from the Taino word for "sweet potato", via Spanish batata.[112]
Savanna ‚
from Taino zabana, via Spanish.[113]
Tobacco ‚
probably from an Arawakan language, via Spanish: tabaco.[63]
Yuca ‚
from Taino, via Spanish.[114]

#  0
 
.1 5
5>75858 
Agouti ‚
from Tupi-Guaraní a utí, via French and Spanish.[115][116][117]
Cashew ‚
from Tupí acaîu
Cayenne ‚
from Tupí yinha.[118]
Cougar ‚
ultimately corrupted from Guaraní guaçu ara.[119]
Jaguar ‚
from Tupinambá /ja war-/,[120] via Portuguese.[121]
Jaguarundi ‚
from Guaraní.
Maraca ‚
from Tupí mara a
Macaw ‚
Manioc ‚
from Tupinambá /mani Å ok-/.[120]
Petunia ‚
from Tupí petun 'smoke'
Piranha ‚
from Tupí.[122]
Tapioca ‚
from Tupinambá /tÅ pÅ Å Å ok-a/,[120] "juice squeezed out".[123]
Tapir ‚
from Tupinambá /tapi Å ir-/.[120]
Toucan ‚
from Tupinambá /tu kan-/,[120] via Portuguese and French.[124]

#  0
 
6
8 75858 6
5 
Abalone ‚
from Rumsen awlun, via Spanish.[125]
Alpaca ‚
from Aymara allpa a, via Spanish.[126]
Appaloosa ‚
Either named for the Palouse River, whose name comes from Sahaptin palú:s, "what is standing
up in the water"; or for Opelousas, Louisiana, which may come from Choctaw api losa, "black
body".[127]
Bayou ‚
from early Choctaw bayu , "creek, river", via French.[128]
Camas ‚
from Nez Perce qém es.[129]
Cannibal ‚
via Spanish, from a Cariban language, meaning "person, Indian",[130] (Proto-Cariban
* arípona),[131] based on the Spaniards' belief that the Caribs ate human flesh.[132]
Catalpa ‚
from Creek atałpa "head-wing", with (i) á, "head" + (i)táłpa, "wing".[133]
Cenote ‚
from Yucatec Maya.
Cheechako ‚
from Chinook Jargon chee + cha o, "new come". Chee comes from Lower Chinook čxi,
"straightaway", and for cha o c.f. Nuuchahnulth čo waa, "come!"[134]
Chinook ‚
from Lower Chehalis ts inúk, the name of a village,[135][136] via Chinook Trade Jargon.
Chuckwalla ‚
from Cahuilla čáxwal.[137]
Coho ‚
from Halkomelem Å xÅ ü ([kÅ Å ԥxÅ ԥș]).[36][138][139]
Coontie ‚
from Creek.
Coypu ‚
from Mapudungun.
Divi-divi ‚
from Cumanagoto.
Dory ‚
from Miskito.
Eulachon ‚
from a Cree adaptation of Chinook Trade Jargon ulâ ân,[140] itself a borrowing of Clatsap u-
tlalxw(n), "brook trout".[141]
Geoduck ‚
from Lushootseed (Nisqually) gÅ ídq.[142][143]
Guan ‚
from Kuna.
High muckamuck ‚
from Chinook Jargon [ m kԥm k], "eat, food, drink", of unknown origin.[144]
Hogan ‚
from Navajo hooghan.[145]
Hooch ‚
a shortening of "Hoochinoo", the name of a Tlingit village, from Tlingit xutsnuuwú, "brown bear
fort".[146][147]
Kachina ‚
from Hopi atsína, "spirit being".[148]
Kiva ‚
from Hopi íva (containing i-, "house").[149]
Kokanee ‚
perhaps from Twana.[150]
Manatee ‚
via Spanish manatí, from a word in a Cariban language meaning "(woman's) breast".[151][152][153]
Ohunka
from Lakota "false", "untrue".[154]
Piki ‚
from Hopi.
Pogonip ‚
from Shoshone /pakÅ nappÅ / ([pa ÄÅ napp ]), "fog".[155]
Poncho ‚
from Mapudungun pontho,[156] "woolen fabric", via Spanish.[157]
Potlatch ‚
from Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) pa7pač ([p atÅ p at Å ], reduplication of pa, "to make ceremonial
gifts in potlatch", with the iterative suffix -č) via Chinook Jargon.[158]
Salal ‚
from Chinook Trade Jargon [sԥ læl], from Lower Chinook salál.[159]
Saguaro ‚
via Spanish, from some indigenous language, possibly Opata.[160]
Sasquatch ‚
From Halkomelem [ sæsq ԥts].[161]
Sego ‚
from Ute-Southern Paiute /si kuÅ a/ ([si ÄuÅ a]).[162]
Sequoia ‚
from a Cherokee personal name, <Sikwayi>, with no further known etymology.[163]
Sockeye ‚
from Halkomelem / sșԥqԥÅ j/.[164]
Skookum ‚
from Chinook Jargon [ skukԥm], "powerful, supernaturally dangerous", from Lower Chehalis
s Å  Å m, "devil, anything evil, spirit monster".[165][166]
Tamarin ‚
from a Cariban language, via French.[167]
Tipi ‚
from Lakota thípi, "house".[61]
Tupelo ‚
Perhaps from Creek ¶topilwa, "swamp-tree", from íto, "tree" + opílwa, "swamp".[168]
Wapatoo ‚
from Chinook Jargon [ wapato], "arrowroot, wild potato", from Upper Chinook [wa]-, a noun
prefix + [pato], which comes from Kalapuyan [pdóÅ ], "wild potato".[169]
Yaupon ‚
from Catawba yąpą, from yą, "wood/tree" + pą, "leaf".[170]

O‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘regian‘rigin‘

ado
influenced by Norse "at" ("to", infinitive marker) which was used with English "do" in certain
English dialects
aloft

¢‘ á ("=in, on, to") + lopt ("=air, atmosphere, sky, heaven, upper floor, loft")
¢‘ English provenance = c 1200 CE

anger

¢‘ angr ("=trouble, affliction"); root ang (="strait, straitened, troubled"); related to anga, plural öngur
(="straits, anguish")
¢‘ English provenance = c 1250 CE

awe

¢‘ agi ("=terror")
¢‘ English provenance = c 1205 CE (as a-e, an early form of the word resulting from the influence of

Old Norse on an existing Anglo-Saxon form, e-e)

are
merger of Old English and Norse cognates
awkward
the first element is from Old Norse öfugr ("=turned-backward"), the '-ward' part is from Old
English weard
axle
öxl ("=ox tree")
bag
baggi
bairn
barn (="child")
bait
beita
bark
b-r r
bask
baðas reflex. of baða "bathe" (baðast, baða sig)
berserk
berser r, lit. 'bear-shirt', (alt. berr-serkr, 'bare-shirt') frenzied warriors
billow
bylgja
birth
byrðr
blunder
blundra (="shut one's eye")
both
bathir
bulk
bul i
bulk
bal r
bull
boli
bylaw
bylög ('by'=village; 'lög'=law; 'village-law')
call
alla (="cry loudly")
cast
asta (="to throw")
club
lubba (="cudgel")
crawl
rafla (="to claw")
die
deyja (="pass away")
dirt
drit (="feces")
dregs
dregg (="sediment")
egg
egg
flit
flytja
game
gaman, O.H.G. gaman "joy, glee",
garth
garðr (="garden")
gawk
from Middle English gawen, from Old Norse ga (="to heed")
get
geta, gat (> got), gittan (> gotten)
geyser
from Icelandic geysir, from Old Norse geysa (="to gush")
gift
gift (="dowry")
girth
gjörð
give
gefa
gosling
gæslingr" (="goose")
guest
gestr
gun
from Old Norse unnhildr (female name, both elements of the name, gunn and hildr, have the
meaning "war, battle").
gust
gustr
hack
höggva (="hew")
haggle
haggen (="to chop")
Hell
may be in part from Old Norse Hel, the daughter of Loki and ruler of the underworld in Norse
mythology
hit
hitta (="to find")
how
haugr (="barrow, small hill ") Usage preserved mainly in place names
husband
husbondi (="master of the house")
ill
illr (="bad")
knife
nifr
knot
nutr
lad
ladd (="young man")
lathe
hlaða (="to load")
law
lagu
leg
leggr
litmus
litmose (="lichen for dying", lita ="to stain")
loose
lauss (="loose/free")
low
lagr
mire
myrr (='bog')
mistake
mista a (="miscarry")
muck
my i (="cow dung")
mug
mugge
Monday
moon day
Norman, Normandy
from Old Norse through Old French, meaning "northman", due to Viking settlement in Normandy
region
oaf
alfr (="elf")
odd
oddi (="third number", "the casting vote")
plough & plow
plogr
Ragnarök
"Doom of the Gods" or "Destiny of the Gods", from Norse mythology & ON word of same
meaning, composed of words ragna, genitive of "the great powers"(regin), and r- (later rö )
"destiny, doom, fate, end". Often erroneously rendered "Twilight of the Gods" after Richard
Wagner's opera Götterdämmerung, based on the mythological event.
raft
raptr (="log")
raise
reisa
ransack
rannsa a (="to search thoroughly")
reindeer
hreindyri
rive
rifa
root
rot

%  -
saga
saga (="story, tale")
sale
sala
scare
s irra (="to frighten)
scarf
s arfr (="fastening joint") (interestingly, "scarf" and "scarves" have been reintroduced to modern
Swedish in their English forms)
scathe
s aða (="to hurt, injure")
score
s or (='notch'; 'twenty')
scrape
s rapa (="to scrape, erase")
scrap
s rap (="scraps, trifles") from s rapa
seem
soema (="conform")
scale
(for weighing) from s al (="bowl, drinking cup", or in plural "weighing scale" referring to the cup
or pan part of a balance) in early English used to mean "cup"
shirt
s yrta (="shirt") see also skirt
skate
s ata (="fish")
skid
probably from or related to Old Norse s ið (="stick of wood") and related to "ski" (="stick of
wood", or in this sense "snowshoe")
skill
s il (="distinction")
skin
s inn (="animal hide")
skip
s opa (="to skip, run)
skirt
s yrta (="shirt")
sky
s y (='cloud')
slaughter
slahtr (="butchering")
sleight
slœgð
sleuth
sloð (="trail")
snub
snubba (="to curse")
stagger
sta ra (="to push")
steak
stei , stei ja (="to fry")
Sunday
Zunne, Zun, Sun (="Sun day")

%  .
take
ta a
tarn
tjörn, tjarn
their
þierra
they
þeir
thorpe
þorp
thrall
þræll
Thursday
Thor's Day
thrift
þrift (="prosperity")
troll
troll (of disputed etymology)
Tuesday
Tew's Day

%  /
ugly
uggligr (="dreadful")

%   
Vanadium
from Old Norse Vanadis, another name for Freja

%  0
wand
vondr (="rod")
want
vanta (="to lack")
weak
vei r
whirl
hvirfla (="to go around")
whisk
vis a (="to plait")
wight
vigr (="able in battle") - The other wight meaning "man" is from Old English.
window
vindauga (="wind-eye") - Although gluggi was more commonly used in Old Norse.
wing
vængr

O ‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘ ersian‘rigin‘

A
Abbasi
A Persian coin or unit of weight; an Afghan coin. Etymology: Abbas plus Persian suffix i; literally, "of
Abbas", with reference to Abbas I (died 1628), shah of Persia.[1] Not to be confused with the Abbasi
family or the Abbasid dynasty.
Abkar
A wine manufacturer or seller, whose trade is subject to abkari tax. Etymology: Persian abkar, from ab
"water, liquid" (from Old Persian pi-) + kar, "worker" (from Middle Persian).[2]
Abkari
Etymology: "abkari." manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors or drugs.[3]
Absinthe
Etymology: Perhaps from Persian aspand. alcoholic liqueur distilled from wine mixed with wormwood.[4]
Achaemenid
Etymology: Hellenisation of Old Persian Hakhaamanesh. The Old Persian Achaemenid empire from 559
B.C. to 330 B.C.[5]
Achar
Etymology: Persian achar. a pickled article of food as prepared in India: a pickle or relish[6]
Afreet
Etymology: Arabic ifrit, probably from Persian afarida created being. a powerful evil jinni, demon, or
monstrous giant in Arabic mythology.[7]
Afghanistan
Afghan combined with Persian suffix stan.[8] Literally meaning "Land of Afghans" in Persian.
Ahriman
from Persian Ahriman. Zoroastrian conception of evil.
Ahu
Etymology: Persian ahu, from Middle Persian ahuk. the common gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) of central
Asia.[9]
ahung
Etymology: Chinese a-hong from Persian akhun. theologian, preacher.[10]
Ahura Mazda
from Old. Pers Auramazdâ. Zoroastrian conception of God literally meaning wise lord.[11]
Akhundzada
Etymology: Hindi akhundzada, from Persian, from akhund teacher + zada son. In India the son of a head
officer ± used as a title[12]
Algorithm
from the name of the Persian scientist Al-Khwarizmi.[13][14]
Alkenkengi
from Arabic al-kakanj the ground-cherry originally from Persian kakunaj.[15]
Amani
Etymology: Hindi & Persian aman, from Arabic amanah security. The aman+i (where the suffix i is
Persian).[16]
Angra Mainyu
older version of Ahriman.
Angaria
Etymology: Late Latin, from Greek angareia, from angaros royal (Persian) courier. In Roman and civil law:
a compulsory service exacted by the government, a lord, or the church[17]
Angel
Etymology: Middle English angel, from Old French angele, from Late Latin angelus, from Greek angelos,
literally, messenger, probably of Iranian origin; akin to the source of Greek angaros imperial Persian
courier; perhaps akin to Sanskrit angiras one of a group of luminous divine beings. a supernatural spirit
especially in Persian, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic theologies that is commonly depicted as being winged
and serving as God's messenger and divine intermediary and as special guardian of an individual or
nation.[18]
Apadana
Etymology: Old Persian apadana palace, from apa- away + dana container. the great hall in ancient Persian
palaces.[19]
Armenia
etymology not necessarily Persian although first mentioned in the Old Persian inscription of the
Achaemenids as Armina. Arman.[20][21][22]
arsenic
from zarnig.[23]; alternatively from Greek, arsenikon, yellow orpiment, from Greek arsen, male[24]
As
Etymology: Persian. a Persian card game similar to poker and by some thought to be its progenitor.[25]
Asafetida
Etymology: Persian aza (mastic) + Latin foetida. tTe fetid gum resin of various Persian and East Indian
plants of the genus Ferula occurring in the form of tears and dark-colored masses, having a strong odor and
taste, and formerly used in medicine as an antispasmodic[26]
Asmodeus
evil spirit, prince of demons, from L. Asmodaeus, from Gk. Asmodaios, from Talmudic Heb. Ashmeday,
from Avestan (Old-Iranian) Aesh-ma-dæva, lit. "Aeshma the deceitful."[27]
Assassin
Sometimes considered a Persian word; see Assassin and Hashshashin for discussion.
aubergine
from French, from Catalan albergínia, from Arabic ϥΎΠ˸ϧΫ˶ ΎΒϟ΍ (al-baðinjān), from Persian -------
Bâdinjân itself maybe originally from Sanskrit.[28]
Aumildar
Etymology: from Arabic 'amal work + Persian -dar (agent suffix). A revenue collector in India.[29]
Avesta
see next entry.
Avestan
Etymology: Avesta, sacred books of the ancient Zoroastrian religion (from Middle Persian Avastik) +
English -an. of or relating to the Avesta or to Avestan.[30]
Azadirachta
Etymology: New Latin, from Persian azad dirakht, literally, free or noble tree.[31]
Azedarach
Etymology: French azédarac, from Persian azad dirakht, literally, free or noble tree[32]
Azha
from Persian Ashiyana (------)
Azure (color)
from Medieval Latin azura, from Persian lājaward, lapis lazuli[33]
B
Babouche
Etymology: from Persian papoosh (-----), from pa "foot" + poosh "covering." a chiefly oriental
slipper made without heel or quarters.[34][35]
Babul
Etymology: Persian babul; akin to Sanskrit babbula, babbla (Acacia arabica). an acacia tree (Acacia
arabica) that is probably native to the Sudan but is widespread in northern Africa and across Asia through
much of India[36]
Badian
Etymology: French badiane, from Persian baadiaan anise.[37]
Baghdad
From Middle Persian Bhagadad "Gifted by God"
Bakhtiar
Etymology: Persian Bakhtyr, perhaps from bakhtyr fortunate, rich, from bakht fortune, prosperity. a
member of the Bakhtiari people.[38]
Baksheesh
from Persian bakhshesh (----), lit. "gift," from verb bakhshidan "to give.". a gift of money[39][40]
Balaghat
Etymology: probably from Hindi, from Persian baalaa above (from Middle Persian) + Hindi gaht pass.
tableland above mountain passes.[41]
Balcony
Etymology: balaakhana from Persian balaa = above + khana = house, upperhouse[42]
Baluchi
Etymology: Persian Baluch, Baluchi. an Indo-Iranian people blended from a mixture of the Veddoid type
isolated in the Hadhramaut and of the Irano-Afghan type and located in Baluchistan in the southwestern
part of Pakistan.[43]
Baluchistan
Etymology: from Baluchistan, country of western Asia, from Persian Baluchistaan. a rug in somber colors
(as mulberry and deep blue) woven by nomad tribes in Baluchistan and especially Seistan.[44]
Ban (title)
"governor of Croatia," from Serbo-Croat. ban "lord, master, ruler," from Persian baan (---) "prince,
lord, chief, governor"[45]
Barbican
possibly from Persian (khāneh "house").[46]
Barsom
Etymology: Persian barsam, from Middle Persian barsum, from Avestan barsman. a bundle of sacred twigs
or metal rods used by priests in Zoroastrian ceremonies.[47]
Bas
Etymology: Hindi bas, from Persian. The word means Enough, Stop.[48]
Bazaar
from Persian ----- bāzār (="market"), from Middle-Persian bahâ-zâr ("The Place of Prices").[49]
Bazigar
Etymology: Hindi bazigar, from Persian. literally means a player and it refers to a gypsylike nomadic
Muslim people in India.[50]
Bedeguar
Etymology: Middle French bedegard, from Persian baadaaward. gall like a moss produced on rosebushes
(as the sweetbrier or eglantine) by a gall wasp (Rhodites rosae or related species)[51]
Begar
Etymology: Hindi begaar, from Persian bi-kaar. Meaning without work, forced labor.[52]
Begari
Etymology: Hindi begaar, from Persian. Meaning a person without work, a forced laborer.[53]
Beige
Etymology: French, perhaps from Italian bambagia cotton, from Medieval Latin bambac-, bambax, from
Middle Greek bambak-, bambax, probably from a Turkish word represented now by Turkish pamuk cotton,
probably of Persian origin; akin to Persian pamba cotton. cloth (as dress goods) made of natural undyed
wool. a variable color averaging light grayish yellowish brown. a pale to grayish yellow.[54] "beige" /bazh/
may derive from "camBYSES" (Gk. "byssos" fine cloth, "bysses.byses" fine threads. Persian princes'
robe)<Persian "kamBUJIYA"<Babylonian "kamBUZI" title of kings of Babylon who wore the robe each
New Year.
Belleric
Etymology: French, from Arabic balilaj, from Persian balilah. the fruit of the bahera. compare to
MYROBALAN.[55]
Bellum
Etymology: modification of Persian balam. a Persian-gulf boat holding about eight persons and propelled
by paddles or poles.[56]
Benami
Etymology: Hindi benaam, from Persian banaam in the name of + i. made, held, done, or transacted in the
name of.[57]
Betruger
Deceiver. Etymology: German, possibly a combination of proto-germanic be- and proto iranian -drough
"lie".
Bezoar
from pād-zahr (------) antidote. Also used in the following words BEZOAR, ORIENTAL
BEZOAR, PHYTOBEZOAR, TRICHOBEZOAR, WESTERN BEZOAR. any of various concretions found
in the alimentary organs (especially of certain ruminants) formerly believed to possess magical properties
and used in the Orient as a medicine or pigment --[58][59]
Bheesty
Etymology: from Persian bihisht heavenly one. India: a water carrier especially of a household or a
regiment.[60]
Bhumidar
Etymology: Hindi bhumidar, from bhumi earth, land (from Sanskrit also Persian Bumi and Old Persian
Bum) + dar holder (from Persian). India: a landholder having full title to his land.[61]
Bibi
Etymology: Hindi bibi, from Persian.[62]
Bildar
Etymology: Hindi beldar, from Persian bildaar, from bil spade + -dar holder. Digger, Excavator.[63]
Biryani
Etymology: Hindi, or Urdu biryaan from Persian beryaan. roasted, grilled. Also an Indian dish containing
meat, fish, or vegetables and rice flavored with saffron or turmeric.[64][65]
Bobachee
Etymology: Hindi babarchi, from Persian baawarchi. India: a male cook[66]
Bombast
Etymology: modification of Middle French bombace, from Medieval Latin bombac-, bombax cotton,
alteration of Latin bombyc-, bombyx silkworm, silk, from Greek bombyk-, bombyx silkworm, silk
garment, probably of Persian origin; akin to Persian pamba cotton. 1) obsolete: cotton or any soft fibrous
material used as padding or stuffing 2) a pretentious inflated style of speech or writing.[67]
Borax
Etymology: from Persian burah. the best-known sodium borate Na2B4O7·10H2O[68][69]
Bostanji
Turkish bostanci, literally, gardener, from bostan garden, from Persian bustaan flower or herb garden, from
bo fragrance + -stan place. one of the imperial guards of Turkey whose duties include protecting the palace
and its grounds, rowing the sultan's barge, and acting as imperial gardeners[70]
Bronze
Etymology: Perhaps ultimately from Pers. birinj "copper.".[71]
Brinjal
Etymology: from Persian badingaan, probably from Sanskrit vaatingana. Eggplant.[72]
Buckshee
Etymology: Hindi bakhsis, from Persian bakhshish.[73]
Budmash
Etymology: Persian badma'sh immoral, from bad bad (from Middle Persian vat) + ma'sh (Arabic) living,
life. India: a bad character: a worthless person.[74]
Bukshi
Etymology: Persian bakhshi, literally, giver, from bakhshidan to give. India: a military paymaster.[75]
bulbul
Etymology: Persian originally borrowed from Arabic. a Persian songbird frequently mentioned in poetry
that is a nightingale. a maker or singer of sweet songs.[76]
Bund
Etymology: Hindi band, from Persian. An embankment used especially in India to control the flow of
water.[77]
Bunder Boat
Etymology: Hindi bandar harbor, landing-place, from Persian. a coastal and harbor boat in the Far East.[78]
Bundobust
Etymology: Hindi band-o-bast, literally, tying and binding, from Persian. India: arrangement or settlement
of details.[79]
Burka
Etymology: Russian, probably from buryi dark brown (of a horse), probably of Turkic origin; akin to
Turkish bur red like a fox; the Turkic word probably from Persian bur reddish brown;[80]
Burkundaz
Etymology: Hindi barqandz, from Persian, from barq lightning (from Arabic) + andz thrower. an armed
guard or policeman of 18th and 19th century India.[81]
Buzkashi
from Persian buz "goat" + kashi "dragging"[82]
C
Calabash
possibly from Persian kharabuz, Kharbuzeh (-----) melon.[83]
Calean
Etymology: Persian qalyaan. a Persian water pipe.[84]
Calender
Etymology: Persian qalandar, from Arabic, from Persian kalandar uncouth man. one of a Sufic order of
wandering mendicant dervishes.[85]
Camaca
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French camocas or Medieval Latin camoca, from Arabic &
Persian kamkha, kimkha. a medieval fabric prob. of silk and camel's hair used for draperies and
garments.[86]
Candy
from Arabic qandi "candied," derived from Persian qand, meaning "sugar."[87]
Carafe
from Arabic gharafa (-----), "to pour"; or from Persian qarabah, (-----) "a large flagon"[88]
Caravan
Etymology: Italian caravana, carovana, from Persian kārawān. a company of travelers, pilgrims, or
merchants on a long journey through desert or hostile regions: a train of pack animals.[89]
Caravansary
Etymology: modification of Persian kārwānsarā, from kārwān caravan + sarā palace, large house, inn; an
inn in eastern countries where caravans rest at night that is commonly a large bare building surrounding a
court.[90]
Carcass
Etymology: Etymology: Middle French carcasse, alteration of Old French carcois, perhaps from carquois,
carquais quiver, alteration of tarquais, from Medieval Latin tarcasius, from Arabic tarkash, from Persian
tirkash, from tir arrow (from Old Persian tigra pointed) + -kash bearing (from kashdan to pull, draw, from
Avestan karsh-);[91]
Carcoon
Etymology: Marathi kaarkun, from Persian kaarkon manager, from kaar work, business + -kon doer. India:
CLERK.[92]
Cash
Etymology: from Sanskrit karsa, a weight of gold or silver but akin to Old Persian karsha-, a weight. a unit
of value equivalent to one cash coin.[93]
Cassock
Etymology: Middle French casaque, from Persian kazhaghand padded jacket, from kazh, kaj raw silk +
aaghand stuffed. a long loose coat or gown formerly worn by men and women.[94][95]
Caviar
from Fr. caviar, from Pers. khaviyar (------), from khaya "egg"+ dar "bearing, holder".[96]
Ceterach
Medieval Latin ceterah, from Arabic shtaraj, from Persian shitarakh. A small genus of mainly Old World
ferns (family Polypodiaceae) typified by the scale fern[97]
Chador
Hindi caddar, from Persian chaddar. a large cloth used as a combination head covering, veil, and shawl
usually by women among Muslim and Hindu peoples especially in India and Iran.[98]
Chakar
Hindi chakor, from Persian chaker. India: a person in domestic service: SERVANT; also: a clerical
worker.[99]
Chakdar
From Panjabi chakdar, from chak tenure (from Sanskrit cakra) + Persian -dar having. a native land tenant of
India intermediate in position between the proprietor and cultivator.[100]
Chalaza
Old Slavic zledica frozen rain, Persian zhaala hail. Either of a pair of spiral bands of thickened albuminous
substance in the white of a bird's egg that extend out from opposite sides of the yolk to the ends of the egg
and are there attached to the lining membrane.[101]
Chappow
Persian Chapu pillage or Chapaul raid. Word is Mongolian in Origin. Pillage/Raid.[102]
Charka
Hindi carkha, from Persian charkha, charkh wheel, from Middle Persian chark; akin to Avestan chaxra-
wheel, Sanskrit cakra. Wheel. a domestic spinning wheel used in India chiefly for cotton.[103]
Charpoy
From Persian Char-pai. Literally meaning four-footed. a bed consisting of a frame strung with tapes or light
rope used especially in India.[104]
Chawbuck
Hindi cabuk, from Persian chabuk archaic, chiefly India: a large whip.[105]
Check(and Cheque)
check (cheque)(n.) from O.Fr. eschequier "a check at chess," from eschec, from V.L. *scaccus, from shah
"king," the principal piece in a chess game (see shah). 1st Sassanid Empire. When the king is in check a
player's choices are limited. Meaning widened from chess to general sense of "adverse event, sudden
stoppage" and by c.1700 to (from Persian 'chek' (--)"a token used to check against loss or theft"
(surviving in hat check) and "a check against forgery or alteration," which gave the modern financial use of
"bank check, money draft" (first recorded 1798), probably influenced by exchequeur. Check-up "careful
examination" is 1921, American English, on notion of a checklist of things to be examined.[106][107]
Checkmate
from Middle French eschec mat, from Persian shâh mât (="the King ("Shah") is dead")[108][109]
Chess
from Russian Shach, from Persian shah ("the King"), an abbreviation of Shâh-mât (Checkmate).[110]
Cheyney
Etymology: probably from Persian chini literally meaning Chinese. a woolen fabric in use during the 17th
and 18th centuries.[111]
Chick
Hindi ciq, from Persian chiq. a screen used in India and southeast Asia especially for a doorway and
constructed of bamboo slips loosely bound by vertical strings and often painted.[112]
Chillum
Etymology: Hindi cilam, from Persian chilam.[113]
Chilamchi
Etymology: Hindi cilamci, from Persian chilamchi. India: a metal wash basin.[114]
China
Modification (influenced by China, the country) of Persian chn(Chinese) porcelain.[115]
Chinar
Hindi chinar, from Persian chanar. A type of Oriental Tree.[116]
Chobdar
Hindi cobdar. From Persian chubar. from chub, chub staff, wood (from Middle Persian chup wood) + -dar
having.[117]
Cinnabar
probably from Persian zanjifrah[118]
Coomb
Middle English combe, from Old English cumb, a liquid measure; akin to Middle Low German kump bowl,
vessel, Middle High German kumpf bowl, Persian gumbed(Gonbad). an English unit of capacity equal to 4
imperial bushels or 4.13 United States bushels.[119]
Culgee; Etymology
Hindi kalg, from Persian kalgi jeweled plume. a jeweled plume worn in India on the turban.[120]
Cummerbund
from Hindi kamarband (------), from Persian, from kamar (="waist") + band (="band")[121]
Cushy
modification of Hindi khush pleasant, from Persian khush.[122]
D
Daeva
daeva, deva from Avestan daevo; dev from Persian deev. Zoroastrianism: a maleficent supernatural being:
an evil spirit.[123]
dafadar
From Persian Daf'adaar. from Arabic daf'ah time, turn + Persian -dar holder.[124]
Daftar
Hindi, record, office, from Persian Daftar, from Arabic daftar, diftar, from Greek diphthera prepared hide,
parchment, leather.[125]
Daftardar
Etymology: Hindi daftardar, from Persian, finance officer, from daftar + -dar holder.[126]
Dakhma
Etymology: Persian, from Middle Persian dakhmak, from Avestan daxma- funeral place.[127]
Daroga
Etymology: Hindi daroga, from Persian daaroga. India: a chief officer; especially: the head of a police,
customs, or excise station.[128]
Darvesh
Persian darvish.[129]
Darzi
Hindi darzi, from Persian Darzi. A tailor or an urban caste of tailors in Hindu society in India.[130]
Dastur
Hindi dastur custom, from Persian Dastur. customary fee.[131]
Dastur
From Persian Dastur. a Parsi high priest.[131]
Dasturi
Hindi Dasturi from Persian Dastur. Gratuity.[132]
Defterdar
Turkish, from Persian daftardar finance officer. a Turkish government officer of finance; specifically: the
accountant general of a province.[133]
Dehwar
Persian dehwar=Dih(land)+war (having possession of). : a member of the Dehwar racial type usually
having the status of a laborer or slave.[134]
‡del , delta heart, in Persian language
Dervish
from Persian Darvish Middle Persian Darweesh. a member of any Muslim religious fraternity of monks or
mendicants noted for its forms of devotional exercises[135][136]
Dewan
Etymology: Hindi diwan, from Persian, account book.[137]
Demitasse
from Fr., lit. "half-cup," from demi- + tasse, an O.Fr. borrowing from Arabic tassah, from Pers. tasht "cup,
saucer".
Div
See the Entry Daeva above.[138]
Divan
from Persian dēvān (="place of assembly", "roster"), from Old Persian dipi (="writing, document") +
vahanam (="house")[139][140]
Doab
Etymology: Persian doab, from do two (from Middle Persian) + -ab water. a tract of land between two
rivers: INTERFLUVE.[141]
Dogana
Etymology: from Persian, account book. an Italian customhouse.[142]
Douane
Etymology: from Persian Divan. CUSTOMHOUSE.[143]
Dubber
Etymology: from Persian Dabba. a large globular leather bottle used in India to hold ghee, oil, or other
liquid.[144]
Duftery
Etymology: from Dafter (Record)+i. A servant in an office whose duty is to dust and bind records, rule
paper, make envelopes. An office boy.[145]
Dumba
Etymology: Persian, from dumb tail. a fat-tailed sheep of Bokhara and the Kirghiz steppe that furnishes
astrakhan.[146]
Durbar
Etymology: Persian, from dar door + baar door, admission, audience. admission, audience of the
King.[147]
Durwan
Etymology: Persian darwan, from dar door (from Middle Persian, from Old Persian duvar-) + Persian -wan
keeping, guarding.[148]
Dustuck
Etymology: Hindi dastak, from Persian Dastak (handle, related to hand).[149]
E
Emblic
New Latin emblica, from Arabic amlaj, from Persian aamlah. an East Indian tree (Phyllanthus emblica)
used with other myrobalans for tanning.[150]
Enamdar
Hindi in'aamdaar, from Persian, from ina'm (originally Arabic meaning Gift) + -dar holder. the holder of an
enam (Gifts).[151]
Euphrates
From OLd Persian Ufratu "Good to cross over"
F
Farsakh
Arabic Farsakh from Persian Farsang - ----- -. a Persian metric unit equal to 10 kilometers or 6.21
miles.[152]
Farsi
- ----- - the name for Persian in Arabic. Standard Arabic lacks the /p/ phoneme, as a result, the
Arabs who invaded Persia slowly began to refer to the language and the people as "Farsi", rather than
"Parsi".[153][154]
Faujdar
Hindi Fawjdaar from Persian, from Arabic Fawj Host (troops) + Persian daar (holder). petty officer (as one
in charge of police).[155]
Faujdari
from Persian, from fawjdar. a criminal court in India.[156]
Ferghan
from Persian Ferghana. a region in Central Asia. a usually small heavy Persian rug chiefly of cotton having
usually a web and a fringed end, a deep blue or rose field with an all over herati sometimes guli hinnai
design and a main border with a turtle design, and being highly prized if antique.[157]
Feringhee
from Persian 'Farangi'- ----- -: from the word Frankish: a person from Europe. The first encounter
with Western Europe was during Charlemagne who was King of Franks. From that time the word Farangi
means European, especially Western European. Also after the first Crusade this word appeared frequently
in Persian and Arabic literature. (in Arabic as 'Faranji' because they could not pronounce /g/) . The Ottoman
Turks pronounced it as Feringhee.[158]
Fers
Middle English, from Middle French fierce, from Arabic farzan, from Persian farzin. Coming from "Fares"
a name given by muslims to the sassanid era cavalry.[159]
Fida'i
Arabic fida (sacrifice) plus Persian suffix 'i'. ----- - a member of an Ismaili order of assassins
known for their willingness to offer up their lives in order to carry out delegated assignments of murdering
appointed victims.[160]
Firman
from Persian ferman, - ----- - from Old Persian framaanaa. a decree or mandate, order, license, or
grant issued by the ruler of an Oriental country.[161][162]
G
Gatch
from Persian -- (Gach), a plaster used especially in Persian architectural ornamentation.[163]
Ghee
from Hindi (ghi), possibly originally from Persian grdan, or to mix
Galingale
from Persian ------ khalanjan, a plant.[164]
Ghorkhar
from Persian ---- -- (Gureh Khar). a wild ass of northwestern India believed to be identical with
the onager.[165]
Giaour
from Pers. gaur, variant of gabr "fire-worshipper"[166][167]
Gigerium
from Latin gigeria, plural, entrails of fowl, perhaps of Iranian origin; akin to Persian jigar liver.[168]
Gizzard
earlier gysard, alteration of gysar, from Middle English giser, gyser, from Old North French guisier liver
(especially of a fowl), gizzard, modification of Latin gigeria (neuter plural) cooked entrails of poultry,
perhaps of Iranian origin; akin to Persian jigar liver;[169]
Gul
Etymology: Persian Gol/Gul --. Rose.[170]
Gulhinnai
Etymology: Persian guli hinna, from Persian gul flower, rose + Arabic hinna/henna. a Persian rug design
consisting of a plant with central stem and attached star flowers.[171]
Gulmohar
Etymology: Hindi gulmohur, from Persian gul rose, flower + muhr seal, gold coin.[172]
Gunge
Etymology: Hindi gãj, of Iranian origin; akin to Persian ganj treasure.[173]
Gymkhana
Etymology: probably modification (influenced by English gymnasium) of Hindi gend-khana racket court,
from Persian khana house. a meet or festival featuring sports contests or athletic skills: as a: a horseback-
riding meet featuring games and novelty contests (as musical chairs, potato spearing, bareback
jumping).[174]
H
Halalcor
Hindi halalkhor, from Persian, from Arabic halal + Persian khor eating. a person in Iran and India to whom
any food is lawful.[175]
Havildar
Hindi hawaldar, from Arabic 'hawala' charge + Persian 'dar' having. a noncommissioned officer in the
Indian army corresponding to a sergeant.[176]
Hyleg
modification of Persian hailaj 'material body'. The astrological position of the planets at the time of
birth[177]
Hindi
Hind India, from Persian. literary language of northern India usually written in the Devanagari alphabet and
one of the official languages of the Republic of India.[178]
Hindu
from medieval Persian word Hindu (mod. Hendi), from ancient Avestan hendava ultimately from Sanskrit
saindhava. "Indian"[179][180]
Hindustan
Hindi Hindustan, from Persian Hindustan (mod. Hendustan) India.[181]
Hircarrah
Persian harkara, from har every, all (from Old Persian haruva-) + kaar work, deed, from Middle Persian,
from Old Persian kar- to do, make.[182]
Homa
hom from Persian hom, from Avestan haoma. a stylized tree pattern originating in Mesopotamia as a
symbol of the tree of life and used especially in Persian textiles.[183]
I
India
from Persian Hind, from Sanskrit Sindu, a river, in particular, the river Indus.[184]
Iran
from Middle Persian Ir (Ary) + an (plural suffix)[185]
Ispaghol
literally, horse's ear, from asp horse (from Middle Persian) + ghol ear. an Old World plantain (Plantago
ovata) with mucilaginous seeds that are used in preparing a beverage.[186]
J
Jackal
from Persian shaghāl, ultimately from Sanskrit s-gāla-. Any of several doglike mammals of the genus
Canis of Africa and southern Asia that are mainly foragers feeding on plants, small animals, and
occasionally carrion.[187][188]
Jagir
from Persian Ja (place) + gir (keeping, holding). a grant of the public revenues of a district in northern India
or Pakistan to a person with power to collect and enjoy them and to administer the government in the
district;[189]
Jama
from Persian Jama (garment). a long-sleeved cotton coat of at least knee length worn by men in northern
India and Pakistan. Also used as suffix in the word Pajama.[190]
Jasmine
from yasmin, the name of a climbing plant with fragrant flowers.[191][192]
Jemadar
Hindi jama'dar, jam'dar (influenced in meaning by Persian jam'at body of troops), from Arabic jam'
collections, assemblage + Persian dar having. an officer in the army of India having a rank corresponding to
that of lieutenant in the English army. any of several police or other officials of the government of
India.[193]
Jezail
Persian jaza'il. a long heavy Afghan rifle.[194]
Jujube
Greek zizyphon, Persian zayzafun, an Asiatic tree with datelike fruit.[195]
Julep
from gulab (rose(gul)-water(ab)).[196][197]
K
Kabob
or kebab, possibly from Persian kabab ----, or from identical forms in Arabic and Urdu[198]
Kabuli
: Persian kabuli, of or belonging to Kabul, Afghanistan.[199]
Kaftan
from Persian ----- khaftân.[200]
Kajawah
from Persian ----- (Kajavah/Kajawah). a pannier used in pairs on camels and mules especially in
India.[201]
Kala-Azar
from Hindi kala (black) + Persian āzār (disease, pain). a severe infectious disease chiefly of eastern and
southern Asia that is marked by fever, progressive anemia, leukopenia, and enlargement of the spleen and
liver and is caused by a flagellate (Leishmania donovani) which is transmitted by the bite of sand flies
(genus Phlebotomus) and which proliferates in reticuloendothelial cells ± called also visceral
leishmaniasis.[202]
Kamboh
Etymology: Unabridged Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines Kamboh as "a member of a low caste in the
Punjab engaged chiefly in agriculture".[203] This definition of Webster for Kamboh is based on a Persian
proverb, reportedly of modern origin, according to which, the Afghans, the Kambohs and the Kashmiris are
all rogues. This proverb, though very popular, also has several versions, across the length and breadth of
the north-west region, some of which name the Sindis and/or the Jatts in place of Kambohs.[204]
According to H. Blochman, this proverb is of recent origin since it was indeed a matter of honour to belong
to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors like Akbar and Jahangir etc.[205][206][207]
According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the Sayyids and the Kambohs, from among the Indians, were
specially favored for high civil and military positions during muslim rule in India.[208]
The Kambohs are modern representatives of ancient Kambojas (q.v.),[209] a famous Kshatriya (warrior)
clan of Indo-Iranian affinities[210] who find numerous references in ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts as well
as in many ancient inscriptions, including those of king Ashoka.
Numerous Indologists have connected name Kamboja to royal name Cambyses or Kambujiya (q.v.) of the
Old Persian Inscriptions.[211]
The Manusmriti,[212] and Indian epic Mahabharata[213] etc. attest that the Kambojas, Sakas, Pahlavas etc
were originally noble Kshatriyas, but on account of their defiance of Brahmanical authority and their
refusal to follow Hindu rituals & codes of conduct, these foreign conquerors were socially punished by the
wrathful Brahmananical clergy who assigned them to a degenerate Kshatriya status (i.e. vrishaltam) in the
Brahmanical caste system of India.[214][215] Brahmanical text Harivamsa[216] and numerous
Puranas[217] also attest that the Kambojas, Yavanas, Sakas, Pahlavas etc were originally high-class
Kshatriyas, but it was Vedic king Sagara, the ruler of Kosala, who had forbidden these invaders from
performing "Svadhyayas" and "Vasatkaras" (Vedic rituals) and thereby, divested them off their noble
Kshatriya status, because these Kshatriyas had wrested Kosala kingdom from his father, king Bahu.[218]
Harivamsa rather, describes these Kshatriya invaders as Kshatriya pungavas i, e foremost among the
Kshatriyas. Bhishama Parava of Mahabharata delineates the Kamboja lineage as a very high lineage.[219]
Bombay Gazetteer maintains that the Kambojas etc lost their original high Kshatriya status because of their
famed staunchness to Buddhism over Brahmanism.[220] Dr Romila Thapar maintains that the Kamboj etc
clans lost their noble Kshatriya status because of their switching to republican constitution.[221]
A section of Kambojas or Kambohs ruled in Saurashtra, Bengal, and also colonised Sri Lanka & Cambodia.
See: Kamboja Colonists of Sri Lanka & Kambojas and Kambodia.
Karez
Etymology: kârez an underground irrigation tunnel bored horizontally into rock slopes in Baluchistan. a
system of irrigation by underground tunnels.[222]
Kemancha
Etymology: from Persian Kamancheh. a violin popular in Middle East, Caucus and Central Asia. It has
usually a single string and a gourd resonator and is held vertically when played.[223]
Kerana
Etymology: modification of Persian karranâi -----, from nâi, reed, reed pipe. a long Persian
trumpet.[224]
Kenaf
Etymology: Persian. a valuable fiber plant (Hibiscus cannabinus) of the East Indies now widespread in
cultivation.[225]
Khaki
from khaki (="made from soil", "dusty" or "of the colour of soil"), from khak (= "soil")[226]
Khakhsar
Etymology: Hindi khâksâr, from Persian khâkâsr ------ humble, probably from khâk dust + -sâr
like. a member of a militant Muslim nationalist movement of India.[227]
Khan
Arabic khân, from Persian. (not to be confused by the Altaic Khan). a caravansary or rest house in some
Asian countries.[228]
Khankah
Etymology: Hindi khânaqâh, from Persian khâna house + gâh place.[229]
Khidmatgar
from Arabic khidmah service + Persian -gar (suffix denoting possession or agency). In India: a male
waiter[230]
Khoja
Etymology: originally from Persian khâwja -----. used as a title of respect.[231]
Khuskhus
Etymology: Persian & Hindi khaskhas. an aromatic grass (Andropogon zizamoides) whose especially
fragrant roots yield an oil used in perfumery and are also made into mats in tropical India ± called also
vetiver.[232]
Kincob
Etymology: Hindi kimkhab, kamkhwab, from Persian. an Indian brocade usually of gold or silver or
both.[233]
Kiosk
from kushk (="palace, portico, pavilion") or Middle Persian gōšak "corner"[234][235]
Koftgari
Hindi koftgar, from Persian koftgari, from koft blow, beating + -gar doing. Indian damascene work in
which steel is inlaid with gold.[236]
Koh-i-noor
from Pers. koh --- "mountain" + Arabic Noor (light)." famous diamond that became part of the British
crown jewels after the annexation of Punjab by Great Britain in 1849, from Persian Kh-i-nr, literally,
mountain of light[237][238]
Kotwal
Hindi kotwal, from Persian. a chief police officer or town magistrate in India.[239]
Kotwalee
Hindi kotwal, from Persian, from kotwalee. a police station in India.[240]
Kran
Persian qran. the basic monetary unit of Persia from 1826 to 1932. a silver coin representing one kran.[241]
Kurta
Hindi & Urdu kurta, from Persian kurtâ. a loose-fitting collarless shirt.[242]
Kusti
Persian kusti, kushti, from kusht waist, side, from Middle Persian kust, kustak. the sacred cord or girdle
worn by Parsis as a mark of their faith ± compare.[243]
L
Lac
Persian lak and Hindi lakh. Resinous substance secreted by the lac insect and used chiefly in the form of
shellac. Any of various plant or animal substances that yield hard coatings resembling lac and shellac.[244]
Lamasery
French lamaserie, from lama + -serie (from Persian sarāi palace, large house).[245]
Larin

Etymology: Persian lār . a piece of silver wire doubled over and sometimes twisted into the form of a
fishhook that was formerly used as money in parts of Asia.[246]
Lascar

Urdu lashkar < Pers, equiv. to lashkar army + - suffix of appurtenance]. an East Indian sailor. Anglo-
Indian. an artilleryman.[247]
Lasque
Etymology: perhaps from Persian lashk bit, piece. a flat thin diamond usually cut from an inferior stone and
used especially in Hindu work.[248]
Leucothoe
legendary Persian princess supposed to have been changed by Apollo into a sweet-scented shrub. a large
genus of American and Asiatic shrubs of the family Ericaceae with herbage that contains a poisonous
substance similar to that found in shrubs of the genus Kalmia and with flowers in terminal and axillary one-
sided racemes.[249]
Lemon

Origin: 1350±1400; 1905±10 for def. 4; < ML lemōnium; r. ME lymon < ML l mō, (s. l mōn-) < Pers l mū,

l mun. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.[250] the
yellowish, acid fruit of a subtropical citrus tree, Citrus limon. According to www.dictionary.com: Although
we know neither where the lemon was first grown nor when it first came to Europe, we know from its name
that it came to us from the Middle East because we can trace its etymological path. One of the earliest
occurrences of our word is found in a Middle English customs document of 1420-1421. The Middle
English word limon goes back to Old French limon, showing that yet another delicacy passed into England
through France. The Old French word probably came from Italian limone, another step on the route that

leads back to the Arabic word laymūn or l mūn, which comes from the Persian word l mūn.
Lilac
from Pers. lilak, variant of nilak "bluish," from nil "indigo"[251]

Lung

Hindi lung , from Persian. a usually cotton cloth used especially in India, Pakistan, and Burma for articles
of clothing (as sarongs, skirts, and turbans).[252]
Laari
Etymology: probably from Divehi (Indo-Aryan language of the Maldive Islands), from Persian lr piece of

silver wire used as currency, from Lār , town in S Persia where the currency was first minted. a Maldivian
monetary unit equal to 1/100 rufiyaa. a coin representing one laari.[253]
M
Magic
Middle English magik, from Middle French magique, from Latin magicus, from Greek magikos, from
magos magus, wizard, sorcerer (of Iranian origin; akin to Old Persian magush sorcerer). of or relating to the
occult: supposedly having supernatural properties or powers.[254]
Magus, magi
from magus, from Old Persian maguš "mighty one", Priest of Zoroastrianism. A member of the Zoroastrian
priestly caste of the Medes and Persians. Magus In the New Testament, one of the wise men from the East,
traditionally held to be three, who traveled to Bethlehem to pay homage to the infant Jesus.[255][254]
Malguzar
Hindi malguzar, from Arabic mal property, rent + Persian guzar payer. Equivalent to Malik in India.[256]
Manichean
Latin Manichaeus member of the Manichean sect (from Late Greek Manichaios, from Manichaios Manes
died ab276A.D. Persian sage who founded the sect) + English -an. of or relating to Manichaeism or the
Manichaeans. characterized by or reflecting belief in Manichaeism. Manicheanism was founded by
Mani.[257]
Manticore
from O. Pers. word for "man eater," cf. martiya- "man" + root of khvar- "to eat". a legendary animal having
the head of a man often with horns, the body of a lion, and the tail of a dragon or scorpion.[258][259]
Markhor
Persian mār(snake)+khōr(eating), consuming (from khōrdan to eat, consume). a wild goat (Capra
falconieri) of mountainous regions from Afghanistan to India.[260]
Mazdak
Name of Persian reformer of Zoroastrian Faith.
Mazdakite
from Mazdak (of belonging to Mazda), 5th century A.D. Persian religious reformer + English ite. a member
of the sect of Mazdak.[261]
Mazdoor
Hindi mazdur, from Persian muzdur. an Indian laborer.[262]
Mehmandar
Persian mihmāndār, from mihmān guest (from Middle Persian mehmān) + -dār holder. an official in India,
Persia, or Afghanistan appointed to escort an ambassador or traveler.[263]
Mehtar
Persian mihtar prince, greater, elder, from mih great (from Middle Persian meh, mas) + -tar, comparative
suffix (from Middle Persian, from Old Persian -tara-). A groom[264]
Mesua
New Latin, from Johannes Mesuë (Arabic Yuhanna ibn-Masawayah) died 857 Persian Christian physician
Masawayah in the service of the Caliph. a genus of tropical Asiatic trees (family Guttiferae) having large
solitary flowers with a 2-celled ovary.[265]
Mezereon
Middle English mizerion, from Medieval Latin mezereon, from Arabic mazariyun, from Persian. a small
European shrub (Daphne mezereum) with fragrant lilac purple flowers that appear before the leaves, an
acrid bark used in medicine, and a scarlet fruit sometimes used as an adulterant of black pepper.[266]
Mirza
Persian mirza, literally, son of a lord. a common title of honor in Persia prefixed to the surname of a person
of distinction.[267]
Mithra
from the name of the Persian God Mithra.[268]
Mithraeum
from Persian Mithra[268][269]
Mithraism
from Persian Mithra[268][270]
Mobed
a Parsi priest. The word is cognate with Magian and Magus.[271]
Mogul
from mughul (="Mongolian")[272]
Mohur
Hindi muhur, muhr gold coin, seal, from Persian muhr; an old gold coin of the Moguls that circulated in
India from the 16th century. any one of several gold coins formerly issued by Indian states (as Bikaner,
Gwalior, Hyderabad) and by Nepal and Tibet.[273]
Mummy
Middle English mummie, from Middle French momie, from Medieval Latin mumia, from Arabic mumiyah
mummy, bitumen, from Persian mum wax. a concoction formerly used as a medicament or drug containing
powdered parts of a human or animal body.[274]
Murra
Etymology: Latin, probably of Iranian origin like Greek morrhia murra; akin to Persian mori, muri little
glass ball. a material thought to be of semiprecious stone or porcelain used to make costly vessels in ancient
Rome.[275]
Musk
ultimately from Middle Persian musk, from Sanskrit muska (="testicle") from diminutive of mus
(="mouse"). a substance that has a penetrating
persistent odor, that is obtained from a sac situated under the skin of the abdomen of the male musk deer,
that when fresh in the pods is brown and unctuous and when dried is a grainy powder, that varies in quality
according to the season and age of the animal, and that is used chiefly in the form of a tincture as a fixative
in perfumes[276][277]

Musth
Hindi mast intoxicated, ruttish, from Persian mast; akin to Sanskrit madati he rejoices, is drunk. a periodic
state of murderous frenzy of the bull elephant usually connected with the rutting season and marked by the
exudation of a dark brown odorous ichor from tiny holes above the eyes- on must also in must: in a state of
belligerent fury ± used of the bull elephant.[278]
Mussulman
from Persinan musulman (adj.), from Arabic Muslim (q.v.) + Persian adj. suffix -an.[279]
N
Nakhuda
Etymology: Persian nākhudā, from nāv boat (from Old Persian) + khudā master, from Middle Persian
khutāi. a master of a native vessel.[280]
Namaz
Etymology: Persian namāz. akin to Sanskrit namas obeisance. Islamic worship or prayer.[281]
Naphtha
Latin, from Greek, of Iranian origin; akin to Avestan napta moist, Persian neft naphtha; from Persian naft
"naphtha". perhaps akin to Greek nephos cloud, mist. petroleum especially when occurring in any of its
more volatile varieties.[282]
Nargil

Origin: 1830±40; < Turk nargile < Pers nārg leh, deriv. of nārg l coconut, from which the bowl was
formerly made.[283][284]
Nauruz
Persian nauruz. literally, new day, from nau new + ruz. the Persian New Year's Day celebrated at the vernal
equinox as a day of great festivity.[285]
Navy
From Persian 'Naav', meaning ship, boat or vessel.
Nay
Etymology: Arabic nay, from Persian. a vertical end-blown flute of ancient origin used in Muslim
lands.[286]
Neftgil
Etymology: German, from Persian naftdagil naphtha clay[287]
Numdah
Etymology: Hindi namda, from Persian namad, from Middle Persian namat; akin to Avestan namata. a
thick felted rug of India and Persia usually made of pounded goat's hair and embroidered with bird or floral
designs in colored wool yarn [288]
Naan
Etymology: Hindi + Urdu + Persian nan bread; Hindi + Urdu nan, from Persian nan; akin to Baluchi nayan
bread, Sogdian nyny. a round or oblong flat leavened bread especially of the Indian subcontinent.[289]
Nuristani
Etymology: Persian nuristan (Arabic Nur+Persian Istan(Place)), from Nuristan, region of northeastern
Afghanistan.[284][290]
O
orange
from Milanese narans, from Arabic nāranj, from Persian nārang, from Sanskrit nāra-ga, from some
Dravidian language, possibly Tamil or Malayalam[291]
P
Padishah
Origin: 1605±15; < Pers (poetical form), equiv. to pādi- (earlier pati) lord + shāh. More on Etymology:
Persian pādishah, from Middle Persian pātakhshah, from Old Persian pati + xshay- to rule; akin to Avestan
xshayeti. great king; emperor (a title applied esp. formerly to the shah of Iran, the sultan of Turkey, and to
the British sovereign as emperor in India).[292][293]
Pagoda
via Portuguese pagode, from a corruption of Pers. butkada, from but "idol" + kada "dwelling."[284]
Pahlavi
Etymology: Middle Persian Pahlavi. The Middle Persian language of Sassanid Persia. a script used for
writing Pahlavi and other Middle Iranian languages.[294]
Pajama
from Urdu/Hindi paajaama, from Persian pāë (pāÿ) jāmah, from pAy (="leg") + jAma (="garment"). of,
pertaining to, or resembling pajamas: a pajama top; a lounging outfit with pajama pants[250][295][296]
Pakistan
The persian word of "Land of the Pure"
Paneer
Hindi & Urdu panir, from Persian (Cheese). a soft uncured Indian cheese.[297]
Papoosh
earlier papouch, from French, from Persian pāpush. BABOUCHE.[298]
Para
Etymology: Turkish, from Persian pārah. a Turkish monetary unit equal in modern Turkey to 1/4000 of a
lira. any one of several units of value formerly used in countries at one time under the Turkish
Empire.[299]
Paradise
from Greek paradeisos (=enclosed park"), from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is
a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek ʌİȡȓ peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of
the English dough. An associated word is the Sanskrit word paradesha which literally means supreme
country.[300][301]
Parasang
Latin parasanga, from Greek parasanges, of Iranian origin; akin to Persian farsung parasang
any of various Persian units of distance; especially: an ancient unit of about four miles (six
kilometers)[296][302][303]
Pargana
Etymology: Hindi pargana, from Persian. a group of towns in India constituting an administrative
subdivision of the zillah.[304]
Parsee
Etymology: from O.Pers. parsi "Persian." In M.E., Parsees from Pârsi. Meaning Persian. Also Zoroastrian
of India descended from Persian refugees fleeing Islam in the 7th century and settling principally at
Bombay[305][306]
Parthia
from Latin< Old Persian parthava-, variant form of the stem Parsa-, from which Persia derives[307]
Parthian
see Parthia
Parthian shot
originally a reference to the Parthian tactic of firing arrows at the enemy even when retreating. It has come
to mean a verbal salvo given by the person leaving the area.
Pasar
: Malay, from Persian bāzār. See bazar. an Indonesian public market.[308]
Pasha
Turkish paşa possibly from Persian pādshāh; see Padishah.[296]
Pashm
Etymology: pashm, pashim from Persian pashm wool; pashmina from Persian pashmn woolen, from
pashm. the under fleece of upland goats of Kashmir and the Punjab that was formerly used locally for the
production of rugs and shawls but is now largely exported.[309]
Pashmina
from Pashmineh, made from pashm; pashm (= "wool"). the fine woolly underhair of goats raised in
northern India.[310]
Pashto
Persian pashtu, from Afghan. According to Morgenstein the word is akin to Parthava, Persian, Pahlav. The
Iranian language of Pathan people and the chief vernacular of eastern Afghanistan, North-West Frontier
Province of Pakistan, and northern Baluchistan[311]
Peach
a corruption of the Latin word "Persicum." Peaches are called in Latin malum Persicum (Persian apple)
prunum persicum (Persian plum), or simply persicum (pl. persici). This should not be confused with the
more modern Linnaean classification Prunus persica, a neologism describing the peach tree itself (from the
Latin prunus, -i which signifies "plum tree").[312][313]
Percale
Persian pargālah. a firm smooth cotton cloth closely woven in plain weave and variously finished for
clothing, sheeting, and industrial uses.[314]
Percaline
French, from percale (from Persian pargālah) + -ine. a lightweight cotton fabric made in plain weave, given
various finishes (as glazing, moiré), and used especially for clothing and linings; especially: a glossy fabric
usually of one color used for bookbindings.[315]
Peri
Persian --- (peri) or fairy, genius, from Middle Persian parik. Persian folklore: a male or female
supernatural being like an elf or fairy but formed of fire, descended from fallen angels and excluded from
paradise until penance is accomplished, and originally regarded as evil but later as benevolent and
beautiful. Also a beautiful and graceful girl or woman.[316]
Persepolis
from Pârsa+ Greek polis.
Persia
from Old Persian Pârsa
Persis
from Old Persian Pârsa
Peshwa
Hindi & Marathi pesva, from Persian peshwa leader, guide, from pesh before. the chief minister of a
Maratha prince.[317]
Pilaf Origin
1925±30; < Turk pilâv < Pers pilāw. a Middle Eastern dish consisting of sautéed, seasoned rice steamed in
bouillon, sometimes with poultry, meat or shellfish.[250]
Pir
Etymology: Persian Pir (Old Man). a religious instructor, esp. in mystical sects.[318][319]
Pistachio
from Latin pistācium, from Greek ʌȚıIJȐțȚȠȞ, from Persian pistah. small tree (Pistacia vera) of southern
Europe and Asia Minor having leaves with 3 to 5 broad leaflets, greenish brown paniculate flowers, and a
large fruit. the edible green seed of the pistachio tree.[320]
Posteen
Persian pustin of leather, from pust skin, from Middle Persian. an Afghan pelisse made of leather with the
fleece on.[321]
Popinjay
from O.Fr. papegai (12c.), from Sp. papagayo, from Ar. babagha', from Pers. babgha "parrot,"
Prophet Flower
translation of Persian guli paighmbar flower of the Prophet (Muhammad died A.D.632 Arabian prophet and
founder of Islam). an East Indian perennial herb (Arnebia echioides) having yellow flowers marked with
five spots that fade after a few hours; also: a related annual[322]
Punjab
via Hindi Panjab, from Pers. panj "five" + ab "water.". of or relating to the Punjab or its inhabitants.[323]
Purwannah
Hindi parwana, from Persian. a written pass or permit.[324]
Pyke
Hindi pāyik, pāyak messenger, from Persian dialect England: a civilian at whose expense a soldier is
treated or entertained.[325]
Pyjama
Urdu/Hindi pajama from Persian: ------ (pajama, literally, feet-garments). These are loose
lightweight trousers formerly much worn in the Near East, a loose usually two-piece lightweight suit
designed especially for sleeping or lounging.[326]
R
rank
from Persian rang meaning "color", as the Sassanid army was ranked and dressed by color[327]
roc
from Persian rukh (name of a legendary bird)
rook
from Middle English rok, from Middle French roc, from Arabic rukh, from Persian -- rukh (=chess
piece)[328]
rose
from Latin rosa, probably from ancient Greek rhodon, possibly ult. from Pers. *varda-.[329][330]
roxanne
fem. proper name, from Fr., from L. Roxane, from Gk. Rhoxane, of Pers. origin (cf. Avestan raoxšna-
"shining, bright").[331]
S
Sabzi
Etymology: Hindi sabz, literally, greenness, from Persian. a green vegetable[332]
Saffian
Etymology: Russian saf'yan, from Turkish sahtiyan, from Persian sakhtiyn goatskin, from sakht hard,
strong. a leather made of goatskins or sheepskins tanned with sumac and dyed with bright colors.[333]
Samosa
Etymology: Hindi samosa from Persian sambusa. a small triangular pastry filled with spiced meat or
vegetables and fried in ghee or oil[334]
Sandal
Etymology: Arabic sandal, from Persian sandal skiff.[335]
Saoshyat
Etymology: Avestan, savior. one of three deliverers of later Zoroastrian eschatology appearing at thousand
year intervals and each inaugurating a new order of things and a special period of human progress.[336]
Sapindales
from Persian Spand (-----)
Sarangousty
Etymology: Persian sar-angushti thin paste for painting the tips of fingers, from sari angusht fingertip,
fromsar head + angusht finger, toe. stucco made waterproof for protection against dampness.[337]
Sard from Persian --- Zard.
Sarod
Etymology: Hindi sarod, from Persian.[338]
Sarwan
Etymology: Persian saarbaan. a camel driver.[339]
Satrap
governor of a province of ancient Persia, from Latin satrapes, from Greek satrapes, from Old Persian
kshathrapavan-, lit. "guardian of the realm,"[340]
scarlet
from Pers. saqalat "a type of red cloth". a rich cloth of bright color. a vivid red that is yellower and slightly
paler than apple red[341]
Scimitar
Etymology: Middle French cimeterre, from Old Italian scimitarra, perhaps from Persian shamshir. a type of
blade.[342]
Sebesten
Etymology: Middle English, from Arabic sibistn, from Persian segpistan. an East Indian tree (Cordia myxa)
with white flowers in loose terminal panicles.[343]
Seer
Etymology: Hindi ser; perhaps akin to Persian seer. a unit of weight.[344]
Seerpaw
Etymology: Sar(head)+paa(feet). head to foot.[345]
Seersucker
Pers. shir o shakkar "striped cloth," lit. "milk and sugar".[346] Also from Sanskrit
(kshirsharkara), or milk-sugar." [347]
Sepoy
Etymology: modification of Portuguese sipai, sipaio, from Hindi sipah, from Persian, horseman, soldier of
the cavalry, from sipah army. a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power;
especially: one serving in the British army.[348]
Serai
Etymology: from Persian saraay, palace, mansion, inn.[349]
Seraglio
from sarây "inn"[350]
Serang
Etymology: Persian sarhang commander, boatswain, from sar chief + hang authority. boatswain. the
skipper of a small boat.[351]
Serdab
Persian sardab ice cellar, from sard cold + ab water. a living room in the basement of a house in the Near
East that provides coolness during the summer months[352]
Serendipity
from the Persian fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip -- -------- -------, from
Persian Sarandip -------(="Sri Lanka"),
Sesban
Etymology: French, from Arabic saisabaan, from Persian sisabaan. Either of two East Indian plants of the
genus Sesbania (S. aculeata and S. aegyptiaca).[353]
Setwall
Etymology: from Persian zaadwar.[354]
Shabundar/Shabandar
Etymology: From Persian shahbandar, from shah King + bandar city, harbor.[355]
Shah
Etymology: from shāh, from Old Persian Ȥšāyaþiya (="king"), from an Old Persian verb meaning "to
rule"[356]
Shahi
Etymology: Persian shahi. a former Persian unit of value equal to 1/20 silver kran; also: a corresponding
coin of silver or copper or nickel[357]
Shahidi
Etymology: Arabic Shahid (one who bears witness) + Persian suffix i.[358]
Shahin
Etymology: Persiah Shahin (Falcon). an Indian falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator) having the
underparts of a plain unbarred ferruginous color, being related to the peregrine falcon, and used in
falconry[359]
Shahzada
Etymology: Hindi shah-zada, from Persian, from shah king + zada son. The son of a Shah.[360]
Shame
from Persian --- (sharm).[361]
Shamiana
Etymology: Hindi shamiyana, from Persian shamyanah. a cloth canopy[362]
Shawl
Etymology: from Persian shāl.[363]
Sherristar
Etymology: from Hindi sarrishtadr, from Persian sarrishta(sarreshteh) record office + daar having.
Registrar.[364]
Sherry
According to one theory, it is from Jerez in Spain, which itself comes from Pers Shiraz during the time of
Rustamid empire in Spain.[365] The theory is also mentioned by Professor. T.B. Irving in one of his book
reviews[366]
Sherryvallies
Etymology: modification of Polish szarawary, from Russian sharavary, from Greek sarabara loose trousers,
probably of Iranian origin; akin to Persian shalwar, shulwar loose trousers. overalls or protective leggings
of thick cloth or leather formerly worn for riding on horseback[367]
Shikar
Etymology: Hindi sikar, from Persian shikaar, Middle Persian shkaar. The word means hunting.[368]
Shikargah
Etymology: Hindi sikaargaah, from Persian shikrgaah, from shikaar hunting + -gah place. A grame
preserve.[369]
Shikari
Etymology: From Persian Shikar+Persian suffix (i) denoting possession. a big game hunter.[370]
Shikasta
Etymology: Persian shikasta broken, from shikastan ----- to break, from Middle Persian
shikastan.[371]
Shikra
Etymology: from Persian shikara bird trained to hunt. a small Indian hawk (Accipiter badius) sometimes
used in falconry.[372]
Simurgh
Etymology: from Pers. simurgh, from Pahlavi sin "eagle" + murgh "bird." Cf. Avestan saeno merego
"eagle," Skt. syenah "eagle," Arm. cin "kite.". a supernatural bird, rational and ancient, in Pers.
mythology.[373]
Sipahis
See Spahi and Sepoy.
Sircar
Etymology: Hindi sarkaar, from Persian sarkaar. a district or province in India under the Mogul empire. the
supreme authority. used also as a title of respect. in Bengal a domestic servant having the functions of a
steward.[374]
Sitar
Etymology: via Hindi sitar, from Pers. sitar "three-stringed," from sih/seh "three" (O.Pers. thri-) + Persian.
tar "string". an Indo-Iranian lute with a long broad neck and a varying number of strings whose various
forms are used in Iran, Afghanistana and the Indian subcontinent.[375]
Softa
Etymology: Turkish, from Persian sukhtah burnt, kindled (with love of knowledge).[376]
Sogdian
Etymology: Latin sogdianus, from Old Persian Sughuda. of, relating to, or characteristic of ancient
Sogdiana.[377]
Soorki
: Etymology: Hindi surkh, from Persian surkh, literally, redness, from surkh red, from Middle Persian
sukhr; akin to Avestan suXra- bright, Sanskrit sukra[378]
Sowar
Etymology: Persian suwar rider, from Middle Persian asbar, aspwar, from Old Persian asabra- horseman,
from asa- horse + -bra- carried by, rider. a mounted orderly. Lancer.[379]
Spahi
Etymology: Middle French spahi, from Turkish sipahi, from Persian ---- from Pahlavi spāh, from
Old Persian taxma spāda, from Avestan spādha, meaning army, military. one of a corps of Algerian native
cavalry in the French army normally serving in Africa. one of a corps of largely irregular Turkish cavalry
disbanded after the suppression of the Janissaries in 1826.[380][381]
Spinach
Etymology: Middle French espinache, espinage, from Old Spanish espinaca, from Arabic isbnakh,
isfinaakh, from Persian aspanakh.[382]
-Stan
meaning "land" or "country", source of place names such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, etc., from
Pers. -stan "country," from Indo-Iranian *stanam "place," lit. "where one stands,"[383]
Subahdar
Etymology: Persian subadar, from suba province + -dar having, holding, from Old Persian dar- to hold. the
chief native officer of a native company in the former British Indian army having a position about
equivalent to that of captain[384]
Sugar
Etymology: The word is Sanskrit which is an Indo-Iranian language of the Indo-Aryan branch but Persian
played a role in transmitting it. Middle English sugre, sucre, from Anglo-French sucre, from Medieval
Latin saccharum, from Old Italian zucchero, from Arabic sukkar, from Pahlavi shakar, ultimately from
Sanskrit sarkara[381][385]
Suclat
Etymology: Hindi suqlaa, from Persian saqalaat a rich cloth. In India any of various woolens; specifically
European broadcloth.[386]
Surma
Etymology: Persian Surma. native antimony sulfide used in India to darken the eyelids.[387]
Surnay
Etymology: Persian Surnaay. a Middle Eastern and Central Asian oboe.[388]
syagush
Persian siyah-gush, literally, black ear. Caracal.[389]
Samosa
Etymology: Hindi samos & Urdu samosa, sambsa, from Persian sambusa.[390]
T
Tabasheer
Etymology: Hindi tabshr, from Persian. a siliceous concretion in the joints of the bamboo valued in the East
Indies as a medicine.[391]
Tabor
Etymology: Middle English tabur, from Old French, alteration of tambur. See tambour.[392]
Taffeta
Etymology: from Persian taftah meaning woven.[393]
Tahsildar
Etymology: Hindi tahsildar, from Persian, from Arabic tahsil + Persian -dar. a revenue officer in
India.[394]
Taj
Etymology: Arabic taj, from Persian taj, crown, crest, cap. a cap worn in Muslim countries; especially: a
tall cone-shaped cap worn by dervishes.[395]
Taj Mahal
from Pers., lit. "the best of buildings;" or "the Crown's Place".
Tajikistan
Tajik combined with Persian suffix -stan.[8] Literally meaning "Land of Tajiks" in Persian.
Talc
from Pers. talk "talc."
Tambour
Etymology: French, drum, from Middle French, from Arabic tanbur, modification (influenced by tunbur, a
lute) of Persian tabir.[396]
Tambourine
See above.
Tanbur
Etymology: Persian Tambur.[397]
Tangi
Etymology: Persian Tangi. a narrow gorge[398]
Tandoori
from tannur "oven, portable furnace,"+Persian suffix i.
Tapestry
probably from an Iranian source (cf. Pers. taftan, tabidan "to turn, twist").[399]
Tar
Etymology: Persian. An oriental lute.[400]
Tarazet
from (Shahin-e Tarazu) ----- -----
Tass
Etymology: Middle French tasse, from Arabic tass, tassah, from Persian tast. a drinking cup or bowl.[401]
Tebbad
Etymology: perhaps from Persian tab fever + bad wind, from Middle Persian vat; akin to Avestan vata-
wind, Sanskrit vata.[402]
Temacha
Etymology: Persian tamakhra joke, humor. a Persian comic or farcical interlude performed by traveling
players.[403]
Thanadar
Etymology: Hindi thandar, from than + Persian -dar having. the chief officer of a thana.[404]
Tiara
via Latin tiara from Persian ---- tara
Timar
Etymology: Turkish timar attendance, care, timar, from Persian tmr sorrow, care. a Turkish fief formerly
held under condition of military service.[405]
Tiger
via Greek tigris from an Iranian source
Tigris
From Middle Persian Tigr "arrow", originally from Old Persian Tigra "pointed" or "sharp"
Toque
from O. Pers. taq "veil, shawl."
Tranky
Etymology: Persian dialect tranki. an undecked bark used in the Persian gulf.[406]
Trehala
Etymology: probably from French tréhala, from Turkish tgala, from Persian tighal.[407]
Tulip
Etymology: any of various plants belonging to the genus Tulipa. from French tulipe, from Persian
dulband.[408]
Turan
from Persian -----
Turanian
Etymology: Persian Turan Turkistan, the region north of the Oxus + English -ian. A member of any of the
peoples of Ural-Altaic stock.[409]
Turanite
Etymology: from Persian Turan + Russian -it' -ite. a basic vanadate of copper prob.
Cu5(VO4)2(OH)4.[410]
Turanose
Etymology: German turanos, from Persian Turan + German -os -ose; obtained by the partial hydrolysis of
melezitose; 3-Į-glucosyl-fructose[411]
Turban
from Persian dulband Band = To close, To tie.[412]
Turkmenistan
Turkmen combined with Persian suffix -stan.[8] Literally meaning "Land of Turkmens" in Persian.
Typhoon
Etymology: from Persian word Toofaan ( ----- )
U
Uzbekistan
Uzbek combined with Persian suffix -stan.[8] Literally meaning "Land of Uzbeks" in Persian.
V
Vispered
Avestan vispa ratavo meaning all the lords. one of the supplementary ritual texts included in the Avestan
sacred writings.[413]
vizier
---- etymology disputed; general references often derive it from Arabic wazir, "viceroy", lit. "one
who bears (the burden of office)", lit. "porter, carrier", from Arabic wazara, "he carried". However, Jared S.
Klein derives it from Middle Persian vichir, from Avestan vicira, "arbitrator, judge".
X
Xerxes
Gk. form of O. Pers. Kshayarshan-, lit. "male (i.e. 'hero') among kings," from Kshaya- "king" (cf. shah) +
arshan "male, man."
Y
Yarak
Etymology: From Persian yaraki power, strength. good flying condition: FETTLE ± used of a hawk or
other bird used in hunting eagles ... are difficult to get into yarak ± Douglas Carruthers.[414]
Yasht
Modern Persian --- from Avesta. Avestan yashtay adoration. one of the hymns to angels or lesser
divinities forming part of the Avesta[415]
.

Yuft
Etymology: Russian yuft', yukht', perhaps from Persian juft pair.[416]
Z
Zamindar
Etymology: zamindar, from Persian, from zamin land + -dar holder meaning "Possessor of real estate" in
Persian. A collector of revenues from the cultivators of the land of a specified district for the government of
India during the period of Muslim rule[417]
Zamindari
Etymology: from Persian, from zamindar.[418]
Zanza
Etymology: Arabic sanj castanets, cymbals, from Persian sanj. an African musical instrument consisting of
graduated sets of tongues of wood or metal inserted into and resonated by a wooden box and sounded by
plucking with the fingers or thumbs.[419]
Zarathushtra or Zarathustra
the Persian prophet
Zedoary
Etymology: Middle English zeduarie, from Medieval Latin zeduria, from Arabic zadwr, from Persian. an
East Indian drug consisting of the rhizome of either of two species of curcuma, Curcuma zedoaria or C.
aromatica, used as a stimulant.[420]
Zenana
Etymology: From Persian zan woman. The literal meaning is Women-related. The part of a dwelling in
which the women of a family are secluded in India and Persian.[421]
Zena
feminine given name from Persian Zan (woman).
Zerda
Etymology: Arabic zerdaw, probably of Persian origin. Fennec.[422]
Zircon
from Persian zargun -----, "gold-colored"[423]
Zirconate
zircon + the suffix -ate, from Latin -atus
Zirconia
zircon + the New Latin -ia suffix
Zirconium
zircon + the New Latin suffix -ium
Zoroaster
from Persian Zarathushtra
Zoroastrianism
The religion brought forth by Zoroaster.
Zumbooruk
from Persian zanburah.[424]

O‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘ lish‘rigin‘


rd‘
eaning‘ tmlg‘

A leavened coffee or rum


cake flavored with orange Polish and Ukrainian bab a, a yeast cake ĸ
Babka, baba
rind, rum, almonds, and diminutive of baba, "old woman"
raisins

A Polish stew made with Polish bigos ĸ possibly German begossen,


Bigos
meat and cabbage "doused"

Britzka, A type of horse-drawn Polish brycz a ĸ diminutive of bry a,


britska carriage "wagon"

Polish iełbasa, "sausage" ĸ East and West


Slavic *kŭlbasa ĸ East Turkic ül bassï,
A spicy smoked Polish
Kielbasa "grilled cutlet" ĸ Turkic ül bastï: ül, "coals,
sausage
ashes" + bastï, "pressed (meat)" (from basmaq,
"to press")

Konik A horse breed Polish oni ĸ diminutive of oń, "horse"

Ogonek A hook-shaped diacritic Polish ogone ĸ diminutive of ogon, "tail"

Polish pącz i, plural of pącze ĸ diminutive of


Paczki A Polish jelly doughnut
pą , "bud"

A semicircular dumpling
Pierogi of unleavened dough with Polish pierogi, plural of pierg, "dumpling"
any of various fillings

A dark, grayish-brown
soil that develops under
Rendzina Polish rędzina ĸ rzędzić, "to chat"
grass on limestone and
chalk

Sejm Polish diet or parliament Polish sejm, "diet" or "assembly"


Zloty Polish currency Polish złoty, "golden"

rd‘
eaning‘ tmlg‘

Ukrainian ɝɟɬɶɦɚɧ, get'man ĸ Polish hetman


Historically, a Polish,
ĸ Czech hejtman ĸ German Hauptmann ĸ
Hetman Czech or Cossak military
Middle High German houbet, "head/high" +
leader
man, "man"

Middle French horde ĸ German Horde ĸ


Polish horda ĸ Russian ɨɪɞɚ (ordá) ĸ Greek
A nomadic tribe; a crowd
Horde (Byzantine) hȠȡįȒ (hordé) ĸ Mongol or
or swarm
North-West Turkic ordï, "camp" or "residence"
ĸ Mongol orda, ordu, "court, camp, horde".

Dutch gur en, plural of gur , "cucumber" ĸ


East Frisian augur ĸ possibly Polish ogre
Gherkin A small cucumber
ĸ possibly Medieval Greek ĮȖȖȠȪȡȚȠȞ,
angourion ĸ possibly Persian angārah

Yiddish ʥʥˋʹʨʹ, shtshav, "sorrel" ĸ Polish


Schav, Schaf A sorrel soup
szczaw

A clumsy, stupid or Yiddish zhlob or zhlub, "yokel", "boor" ĸ


Schlub, shlub
unattractive person Polish żłb, "manger"

Schmatte,
A rag Yiddish shmate ĸ Polish szmata
shmatte

Schmuck, A clumsy or stupid Yiddish shmo , vulgar for "penis" ĸ Polish


shmuck person smo , "dragon"

German hlan ĸ Polish ułan ĸ Turkish


Uhlan, ulan A cavalryman
oğlan, "boy" or "servant"
  
;
88
565 56: 

rd‘
eaning‘ tmlg‘

Like a polonaise (in Italian alla polacca, "in the Polish manner,
Alla polacca
musical notation) Polish style"

A flat, round baked roll


Yiddish bialy ĸ short for bialysto er, "of
Bialy or bagel topped with
Białystok", a town in north-eastern Poland
onion flakes

A mathematical symbol
Polish ra owian ĸ Kraków, a city in southern
Cracovian used in cracovian
Poland, former capital
calculus

French (danse) cracovienne, "Kraków


Cracovienne,
A lively Polish folk dance (dance)", feminine of cracovien, "of Kraków";
krakowiak
Polish ra owia , "inhabitant of Kraków"

Crackowe,
A long, pointed shoe
cracowe, Middle English cra owe ĸ Cracow, the
popular in the 14th-15th
crakow, English name of Kraków
centuries
crakowe,

Of or related to the Czech Polish Czech, "a Czech or Bohemian man" ĸ


Czech
Republic or its people Czech Čech

Russian ɦɚɡɭɪɤɚ, mazur a ĸ Polish (tańczyć)


mazur a, "(to dance) the mazurka", accusative
A Polish dance or a piece
Mazurka of mazure ĸ diminutive of Mazur, "inhabitant
of music for such a dance
of Masovia or Masuria", regions in north-
eastern Poland

A Pole; formerly a
Polack neutral term, now Polish Pola , "Pole"
considered offensive

A stately, marchlike
French (danse) polonaise, "Polish (dance)",
Polonaise Polish dance or a piece of
feminine of polonais, "Polish"
music for such a dance
A woman's overdress
French (robe à la) polonaise, "Polish (style
Polonaise popular in the 18th
dress)", feminine of polonais, "Polish"
century

Sprinkled with browned


butter and bread crumbs French polonaise, feminine of polonais,
Polonaise
(of food, mostly "Polish"
vegetables)

Chemical element with


Polonium Medieval Latin Polonia, "Poland"
atomic number 84

A Scandinavian folk
Polska dance or a piece of music Swedish pols a ĸ feminine of pols , "Polish"
for such a dance

(The pointed toe of) a Middle French (soulier à la) poulaine, "Polish
Poulaine
crackowe (style shoe)" ĸ feminine of poulain, "Polish"

An extinct genus of Medieval Latin Silesia ĸ Polish Śląs , a region


Silesaurus dinosauriform reptiles in south-western Poland + Classical Greek
from the Late Triassic saura, "lizard"

Spanish varsoviana ĸ feminine of varsoviano;


French varsovienne ĸ feminine of varsovien;
Varsoviana, A graceful dance similar
both from Medieval Latin varsovianus, "of
varsovienne to a mazurka
Warsaw" (Polish: Warszawa), the capital city
of Poland

OO‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘ rtgese‘rigin‘

Albacore
from albacor from Arabic al-bu r (="the young camels")
Albino
from albino, with the same meaning, from Latin albus
Albatross
an alteration of albatroz, under influence of the Latin word albus ("white");
Alcatraz
(="gannet") from Arabic al-ġa ās ("the diver")
Amah
from Portuguese ama, nurse, housemaid, from Medieval Latin amma, mother
Anil
from anil
Auto-da-fé, a judicial µact¶ or sentence of the Inquisition
from auto da fé (= "act/sentence of faith")
Banana
from Spanish or Portuguese (more probably from Portuguese, as the most widespread Spanish
word is plátano); Spanish, from Portuguese, of African origin; akin to Wolof banäna banana
Baroque
from barroco (adj. = "unshapely")
Breeze
(= "from Portuguese word brisa")
Bossa nova
(= "new trend" or "new wave")
Buccaneer
from Tupi mukém
Cachalot
from Portuguese cachalote (same meaning), probably via Spanish or French. The Portuguese word
comes from cachola ("head" or "big head").
Carambola
Portuguese, perhaps from Marathi karambal
Caramel
from caramelo, caramel, from Late Latin calamellus
Caravel
from caravela
Carioca
from Tupi "carioca" (cari = white men, oca = house; house of the white men), via Portuguese
carioca (native of Rio de Janeiro)
Carnauba
from carnaúba
Caste
from casta
Cashew
from caju (a tropical fruit)
China
from china (country), porcelain
Cobra
from cobra (snake)
Coconut
from côco (boogeyman head, grinning skull, goblin, coconut)
Commando
from comando
Cougar
from French couguar, from Portuguese suçuarana, perhaps from Tupian or Guaraní.
Cow-tree
a tree abundant in a milk-like juice : from árvore, palo de vaca (="tree of cow")
Creole
French créole, from Castilian Spanish criollo, person native to a locality, from Portuguese crioulo,
diminutive of cria, (³µperson raised in one¶s house with no blood relation, a servant¶´), <
Portuguese criar (³µto rear, to bring up¶´) , from Latin creare, to beget; < Latin creo (³µto create¶´),
which came into English via French between 1595 and 1605. [same root as creature]
Dodo
According to Encarta Dictionary and Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, "dodo" comes from
Portuguese doudo (currently, more often, doido) meaning "fool" or "crazy". The present
Portuguese word dodô ("dodo") is of English origin. The Portuguese word doudo or doido may
itself be a loanword from Old English (cp. English "dolt").
Embarass
from Portuguese embaraçar (same meaning), from em + baraço (archaic for "rope")[1]
Emu
from ema (="rhea")

  1)
Fetish
from French fétiche, from Portuguese feitiço ("charm", "sorcery", "spell"), from Latin factitius or
feticius ("artificial")
Flamingo
from Portuguese flamingo, from Spanish flamenco
Grouper
from garoupa
Guarana
from Portuguese guaraná, from Tupi warana
Jaguar
from Tupi or Guaraní via Portuguese
Junk
from junco, from Javanese djong (Malay adjong).
Lambada
from lambada (="beating, lashing")
Macaque
from macaco, through French
Macaw
from macau
Mandarin
from mandarim, from the Portuguese verb mandar and the Malay mantri, from Hindi matri, from
Sanskrit mantrin (="counsellor")
Mango
from manga, via Malay mangga, ultimately from Tamil mān āy
Mangrove
probably from Portuguese mangue mangrove (from Spanish mangle, probably from Taino) +
English grove
Manioc
from mandioca from Tupi
Maraca
from maracá from Tupi
Marimba
from Portuguese, of Bantu origin; akin to Kimbundu ma-rimba : ma-, pl. n. pref. + rimba,
xylophone, hand piano
Marmalade
from marmelada, a preserve made from marmelo (="quince")
Molasses
from melaço
Monsoon
from monção
Mosquito
from Mosquito meaning 'little fly'
Mulatto
from mulato
Negro
Negro means "black" in Spanish and Portuguese, being from the Latin word niger (Dative nigro,
Accusative nigrum) of the same meaning. It came to English through the Portuguese and Spanish
slave trade. Prior to the 1970s, it was the dominant term for Black people of African origin; in
most English language contexts (except its inclusion in the names of some organizations founded
when the term had currency, e.g. the United Negro College Fund), it is now considered either
archaic or a slur in most contexts.
   14
Pagoda
from pagode
Palaver
a chat, from palavra (="word"), Portuguese palavra (word), parabola (parable), speech (current
fala, discurso), chat (current bate-papo, papo ÿpronunc. : buatchy papoo}, palavrinha, conversa
and also Eng. chat) alteration of Late Latin parabola, speech, parable.
Palmyra
from palmeira
Pickaninny
from pequenina or pequeninha
Piranha
from piranha, from Tupi pirá ("fish") + ánha ("cut")
Sablefish
from sável
Samba
from samba, ultimately of Angolan origin
Sargasso
from sargaço
Savvy
from sabe he knows, from saber to know
Tank
from tanque
Tapioca
from tapioca
Teak
from teca
Verandah
from varanda (="balcony" or "railing"), from Hindi varanda or Bengali baranda
Yam
from inhame from West African nyama (="eat")
Zebra
from zebra (same meaning), which started as the feminine form of zebro (a kind of deer), from
vulgar Latin eciferus, classical Latin EQIFERVS.
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

O‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘cts‘rigin‘

Blackmail
A form of extortion carried out by the Border Reivers, borrowed into English with less violent
connotations.
blatant
Bonspiel
caddie or caddy
canny
Also Northern English. From English can in older sense of "to know how."
clan
Borrowed from Gaelic clann (family, stock, off-spring).
convene
Borrowed from French convenir, from Latin convenire.
cosy
firth
Derived from Old Icelandic fj-rdic (see fjord)
glamour
Meaning magic, enchantment, spell. From English grammar and Scottish gramarye (occult
learning or scholarship).
gloaming
Middle English (Scots) gloming, from Old English glomung "twilight", from OE glom
golf
glengarry
(or Glengarry bonnet) a brimless Scottish cap with a crease running down the crown, often with
ribbons at the back. Named after the town of the clan chief Alasdair Ranaldson MacDonell of
Glengarry (1771-1828), who invented it.
gumption
Common sense or shrewdness.
haver
to babble or talk nonsense, or to dither. Scottish & North English dialect.
laddie
A boy.
lassie
A girl.
links
Sandy, rolling ground, from Old English hlinc (ridge).
pernickety
From pernic y.
minging
From Scots "mingin". revolting, stinking, putrid, rancid etc
plaid
From Gaelic plaide or simply a development of ply, to fold, giving plied then plaid after the Scots
pronunciation.
pony
Borrowed from obsolete French poulenet (little foal) from Latin pullāmen.
raid
rampage
scone
Probably from Dutch schoon.
tweed
cloth being woven in a twilled rather than a plain pattern. from tweel
wee
small, tiny, minute.
wraith

O‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘cttish‘Gaelic‘rigin‘

Word of Gaelic origin


Airt[1]
Point of the compass, from Mird, Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: [a rÅ tÅ ], a point.
Bard[1]
From bMrd [pa rÅ t ], a low ranking poet.
Ben[1]
From beinn [peiÅ ], mountain.
Bog[1]
From bog [pok], soft (related to boglach swamp), from Old Irish bocc.[2] 14th century.[3]
Bothy[4]
A hut, from bothan [p”han], a hut. Norse Norse būð cf. Eng. booth
Bunny[1]
From bun [pun], a now obsolete word for a rabbit warren.
Caird[1]
A tinker, from ceaird [kÅ Å rÅ tÅ ], the plural of ceMrd, tinkers.
Caber[1]
From cabar [kÅ apԥÅ ], pole.
Cailleach[1]
From cailleach [kÅ aԥx], old woman.
Cairn[1]
From cMirn [kÅ Å rÅ n], the plural of cMrn.
Cairngorm[1]
From An CMrn Gorm [ԥ kÅ a rÅ n k”Å ”m], after Cairn Gorm, a mountain in the area where these stones
are found.
Caman[1]
From caman [kÅ aman], shinty stick. Also in use in Scotland the derived camanachd, shinty.
Capercaillie[1]
From capall-coille [kÅ aÅ pԥl kÅ Å ԥ].
Cateran[1]
From ceatharn [kÅ Å hԥrÅ n], fighting troop.
Ceilidh[1]
From céilidh [kÅ Å e lÅ ], a social gathering.
Clachan[1]
From clachan [kÅ l axan], a small settlement.
Clan[1]
From the compound form clann pronounced [kÅ l an Å ], from clann, children or family. Old Irish
cland.[2]
Clarsach[1]
A harp, from clMrsach [kÅ l a rÅ s ԥx], a harp.
Claymore[1]
A large broadsword, from claidheamh mór [kÅ l ajԥv mo Å ], great sword.
Corrie[1]
From coire [kÅ Å Å Å ԥ], kettle.
Dig
see Twig.
Craig[1]
From creag [kÅ Å Å Å ekÅ ], a cliff.
Doch-an-doris[1]
Stirrup cup, from deoch an dorais [tÅ ”x ԥn Å t ”Å ԥÅ ], drink of the door.
Drambuie[1]
A scotch whisky liqueur, from drama buidheach [t Å amԥ pujԥx], drink that satisfies.
Fillibeg[1]
A kilt, from féileadh beag [fe lԥÄ pek], small kilt.
Galore[1]
From gu leor, enough.
Ghillie[1]
a type of servant, from gille [kÅ iԥ], boy or servant.
Glayva[1]
A type of liqueur, from glé mhath [kle vãh], very good
Glen[1]
From gleann [klãÿn ], a valley.
Glengarry bonnet[1]
From Gleanna Garadh [kl n Å ԥ kaÅ ԥÄ], Glengarry.
Gob[1]
From gob, beak or bill.
Ingle[1]
From aingeal [ai Å Å Å ԥl ], a now obsolete word for fire.
Jessie
Soft insult, as in "you big jessie", from deasach, a person from the south. Like Jennie, a familiar form of the
female name Jean.
Kyle[1]
From caol [kÅ Å l ], narrow.
Loch[1]
From loch [l ”x].
Lochaber axe
From Loch Abar [l ”x apԥÅ ], Lochaber + axe.
Lochan[1]
From lochan [l ”xan], a small loch.
Machair[1]
From machair [maxԥÅ Å ], the fertile land behind dunes.
Mackintosh[1]
After Charles Macintosh who invented it. From Mac an Tòisich [maxk ԥn Å t Å ”Å Å Å ç], son of the
chieftain.
Mod[1]
A Gaelic festival, from mòd [m”Å t ], assembly, court.
Pibroch[1]
From pìobaireachd [pÅ i pԥÅ Å ԥxk], piping.
Pillion[1]
From pillean [pÅ ian], pack-saddle, cushion.
Plaid[1]
From plaide [pÅ l atÅ ԥ], blanket. Alternatively a Lowland Scots loanword [1], from the past participle
of ply, to fold, giving plied then plaid after the Scots pronunciation.
Ptarmigan[1]
From tMrmachan [tÅ a Å mԥxan]. 16th Century.
Quaich[1]
From cuach [kÅ uԥx], a cup.
Skean[5]
From sgian [s kÅ ian], a knife.
Slogan[1]
From sluagh-ghairm [s l uԥÄÅ Å Å Å m], battle-cry
Slughorn
Also from sluagh-ghairm, but erroneously believed by Thomas Chatterton and Robert Browning to refer
(apparently) to some kind of trumpet.[6]
Sporran[1]
From sporan [s pӁ an], purse.
Spunk[1]
From spong [s p” Å ], tinder and also sponge. From Early Irish sponge, from Latin spongia, from Greek
ıʌȠȖȖȚȐ, a sponge.[2]
Strontium[1]
from Sròn an t-Sìthein [s t Å ”Å n ԥÅ tÅ Å i . Å ], name of a mountain, near which the element was
discovered.
Tinker
from Tinceard, a Tin Smith, usually applied to a travelling craftsman.
Trousers[1]
from triubhas [t Å Å u.ԥs ], via "trews".
Twig[1]
to understand, catch on, from tuig [t kÅ ], understand.
Whisky[1]
Short form of whiskybae, from uisge-beatha [Å kÅ ԥ p hԥ], water of life.
Words of Gaelic or Irish origin
The following words are of Goidelic origin but it cannot be ascertained whether the source language was
Old Irish or one of the modern Goidelic languages.

Brat[1]
A disagreeable or spoiled child, Irish, or Scottish Gaelic brat [b Å aÅ d ], mantle, from Old Irish
bratt[2], cloth.
Brogue[1]
An accent, Irish, or Scottish Gaelic bròg [pÅ ”Å k], shoe (of a particular kind worn by Irish and Gaelic
peasants), Early Irish bróc, from Norse brókr[2]
Hubbub[1][3]
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic ubub [upup], an exclamation of disapproval.
Inch[1]
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic innis [ iÅ Å Å ], an island.
Och[4]
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic och [”x], exclamation of regret.
Oe[4]
Grandchild, Irish, or Scottish Gaelic ogha [o.ԥ], grandchild.
Pet[3]
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic peata [pÅ Å tԥ], a spoilt child.
Samhain
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic Samhain [s ãÿ. Å ], November and related to Oidhche Shamhna, Halloween.
Shennachie[4]
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic seannachaidh [Å n Å ԥxÅ ], storyteller.
Sassenach[1]
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic Sassanach [s as ԥn Å ԥx], a Saxon.
Smidgen
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic smidean [s mitÅ an], a very small bit (connected to Irish smidirín, smithereen),
from smid, syllable or a small bit.[citation needed]
Strath[1]
Irish, or Scottish Gaelic srath [s t Å ah], a wide valley.
Words popularly believed to be Gaelic
Smashin(g)
From 's math sin [s ma Å in], "that is good". Alternatively an extension of English smash.[citation needed]
Snazzy
Possibly from snasail [s n Å as al], elegant or neat. Perhaps a U.S. colloquial blend of snappy and
jazzy.[1]
Words mostly used in Lowland Scots
Because of the wide overlap of Scottish English and Lowland Scots, it can be difficult to ascertain if a word
should be considered Lowland Scots or Scottish English. These words tend to be more closely associated
with Lowland Scots but can occur in Scottish English too.

Abthen (or Abthan[4])


jurisdiction and territory of pre-Benedictine Scottish monastery , from ‚abdhaine [ apÄԥÅ ԥ], abbacy.
Airie[4]
shieling, from Miridh [ a Å Å Å ], shieling.
Aiten[4]
juniper, from aiteann [ aÅ tÅ ԥn Å ], juniper.
Bourach[4]
A mess, from bùrach [ pu Å ԥx], a mess.
Car, ker[4]
Left-handed, from cearr [kÅ Å a rÅ ], wrong, left.
Crine[4]
To shrink, from crìon [kÅ Å Å iԥn], to shrink.
Crottle[4]
A type of lichen used as a dye, from crìon [kÅ Å ”Å t ԥl ], lichen.
Golack[4]
An insect, from gobhlag [ ko l ak], an earwig.
Keelie[4]
A tough urban male, from gille [ kÅ i lÅ ԥ], a lad, a young man.
Ketach[4]
The left hand, from ciotach [ kÅ Å iÅ t ԥx], left-handed.
Sonse[4]
From sonas [s ”nԥs ], happiness, good fortune. Also the related sonsy.
Spleuchan[4]
A pouch, from spliùchan [ s plju xan], a pouch, purse.
Toshach[4]
Head of a clan, from toiseach [ t Å ”Å ԥx], beginning, front.
Place-name terminology
There are numerous additional place-name elements in Scotland which are derived from Gaelic, but the
majority of these has not entered the English or Scots language as productive nouns and often remain
opaque to the average Scot. A few examples of such elements are:

‡a(u)ch- from Gaelic achadh, a field; hence Auchentoshan, Auchinleck


‡ard- from Gaelic Mird, a height or promontory; hence Ardnamurchan, etc.
‡bal- from Gaelic baile, a town; hence Balgowan, Balgay etc.
‡dal- from Gaelic dail, a meadow (not to be confused with "dale", from the Norse dalr meaning a valley);
hence Dalry
‡drum- from Gaelic druim, a ridge; hence Drumchapel, Drumnadrochit etc.
‡dun- from Gaelic dun, a fort; hence Dundee, Dumbarton
‡inver- from Gaelic inbhir, a river mouth or confluence; hence Inverclyde, Inverleith
‡kil- from Gaelic cill, a churchyard; hence Kilmarnock, Kilbride etc.
‡kin- from Gaelic ceann, a head; hence Kinlochleven, Kinloss etc.

O‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘erb!ratian‘rigin‘

cravat
from Hrvat = Croat
paprika
from papri a / a pÿɤa = capsicum, or papar / a ap = "black pepper"
rakia
from ra ija / ɪɚɤÿɚ
slivovitz
from šljivovica / ÿÿɚ = "plum rakia"
tamburitza
from tamburica / ɬɚɦÿɭɪÿɚ = "little tambura"
tesla
after Nikola Tesla
uvala
from uvala / ɭɚ ɚ = "a large elongate compound sinkhole" (in geography and geology)[1][2]
vampire
from vampir / ɚɦ ÿɪ

Oë‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘panish‘rigin‘

abaca
via Mexico from Tagalog aba á
abalone
from Spanish abuln, from Ohlone
adiós
from Spanish "goodbye"
alidade
via French and Spanish from Arabic al-idada, "the revolving radius"
alligator
from el lagarto, "the lizard"
alpaca
from Spanish, from Aymara allpa a
aludel
from Old French alutel, via Spanish from Arabic al-utal, "the sublimation vessel"
amigo
from Spanish and/or Portuguese amigo, "friend"
amole
Mexican Spanish
amontillado
from the village of Montilla, Province of Córdoba, Spain
ancho
from Europe Spanish (chile) ancho, "wide (chili)"
anchovy
from Spanish anchoa or more probably Portuguese anchova
Angeleno
from Africa Spanish
Apache
from Mexican Spanish
armada
from the Spanish navy, La armada española
armadillo
from armadillo, "little armored one"
arroyo
from arroyo, "stream"
avocado
alteration of Spanish aguacate, from Nahuatl ahuacatl
ayahuasca
banana
from Spanish or Portuguese banana, probably from a Wolof word - Arabic "ba' nana" fingers
bandolier
from Spanish bandolera, = "band (for a weapon or other) that crosses from one shoulder to the
opposite hip" and bandolero, ="he who wears a bandolier"
barbecue
from the Chibcha word barbacoa
barracuda
from barracuda
barranca
from Spanish barranca or barranco, ="ravine"
barriada
from Spanish barrio, "neighborhood", from Arabic barri
barrio
from Spanish barrio, "neighborhood", from Arabic barri
bastinado
from bastonada, from Spanish bastn, cane
bodega
from Spanish and/or Portuguese bodega, ="cellar"
bolase
from Spanish bolas, =balls
bolero
from Spanish bolero
bonanza
from bonanza
bonito
from Spanish bonito, ="beautiful"
bobby
from Spanish bobo ="silly"
breeze
from brisa or from Frisian briesen - to blow (wind)[citation needed]
bronco or broncho
from bronco
buckaroo
from vaquero, ="cowboy"
burrito
from burrito, = a dish originally from Northern Mexico, literally "little donkey"
burro
from burro, ="donkey"

  
caballero
from Spanish caballero="knight/gentleman", from caballo, ="horse"
cabana
from Spanish cabaña or Portuguese cabana
cacique
from Spanish, from Taino, a chief
cafeteria
from cafetería, "coffee store"
calaboose
from Louisiana French calabouse, from Spanish calabozo
caldera (used in geology)
from Spanish caldera, "=cauldron"
California
place name first seen in print in 1510 Spanish novel 'Las sergas de Esplandián' by Garci Rodríguez
de Montalvo
camarilla
from camarilla ="small room"
camino
from camino a path or road, from caminar to walk
cannibal
from Spanish caníbal, alteration of caríbal, from Caribe
canoe
from Spanish canoa, from Haitian canaoua
canyon
from cañn
carabao
from Spanish from Visayan language, from Malay language.
caramba
from Spanish; expression of dread, displeasure, or disapproval, euphemism for carajo ="penis"
carbonado
from carbonada, from carbn ="coal"
cargo
from cargo, carga ="load"
Caribbean
from Spanish Caribe, from name of Carib Indians of the region.
cassava
from cazabe, from Taino caçábi
caudillo
from caudillo
cedilla
from cedilla, archaic spelling zedilla (little z)
chaparral
from Spanish, chaparro = small evergreen oak, from Basque "txapar"
chaps
from Mexican Spanish chaparreras, leg protectors for riding through chaparral
chayote
from Spanish, from Nahuatl chayotl
chicha
from Spanish chicha, from Colombia native American language chichab, ="maize"
chicle
from chicle, from Nahuatl tzictli
chile
from Spanish chile, from Nahuatl chilli
chipotle
from Spanish, smoked jalapeño, from Nahuatl chilpoctli
chocolate
from Spanish chocolate, from Nahuatl xocolatl
chorizo
from chorizo
churro
from churro
cigar
from Spanish cigarro, from Mayan sicar, sic (="tobacco")
cigarette
from French cigarette, diminutive of French cigare, from Spanish cigarro
cilantro
from Spanish cilantro, "coriander"
coca
from Spanish, coca, from Quechua ú a
cockroach
from Spanish cucaracha
cocoa or cacao
from Spanish cacao, from Nahuatl cacáhuatl
cojones
from Spanish cojones, to denote courage
Colorado
from Spanish colorado, red or colored
comrade
from French camarade, from Spanish camarada
condor
from Spanish, from Quechua cuntur
conquistador
from conquistador, from conquista="conquest"
coquina
from coquina, dim. form of "concha" = seashell; a sedimentary rock of NE Florida
cordillera
from cordillera
corral
from corral
corrida
a bullfight
coyote
from Spanish coyote, from Nahuatl coyotl
creole
from French créole, from Spanish criollo, from Portuguese crioulo, raised in the house
crimson
from Old Spanish cremesín, from Arabic qirmizI, from qirmiz kermes
crusade
blend of Middle French croisade and Spanish cruzada; both ultimately from Latin cruc-, crux
cross
cumbia
from Spanish cumbia, a popular dance (for couples) originating in Colombia, Panama and
Argentina

  
daiquiri
from Daiquiri, a port city in eastern Cuba
dengue
from Spanish dengue, from Swahili dinga, = "seizure"
desperado
from Spanish desesperado, desperate

  
El Dorado
from El Dorado, literally, "the golden one"
El Niño
from El Niño de la Navidad, literally, "the Christmas child" due to the warming of Pacific waters
seemed to warm around Christmas
Embarcadero
from embarcadero a boat dock
embargo
from Spanish embargar ="to bar"
escabeche
from escabeche

  
Florida
from La Florida, the flowery or plant-filled place

   
guerrilla
from Spanish "small war"

  "
habanero
from the Spanish for the name of the Cuban city of La Habana, which is known as Havana in
English. Although it is not the place of origin, it was frequently traded there.
hacienda
from Old Spanish facienda
hackamore
from Spanish jaquima
hombre
from Spanish "hombre" same as man and he-man: macho or very strong, tough, and masculine
man.
hoosegow
from Spanish juzgado, courthouse, from juzgar, to judge
hurricane
from Spanish huracán, from Taino hurá an; akin to Arawak kulakani, thunder

  $
Inca
from Spanish inca, from Quechua
incommunicado
from incomunicado
iguana
from Spanish iguana from Arawak

 ! &
jade
from Spanish piedra de ijada
jaguar
from Spanish jaguar from Guaraní yaguar
jalapeño
from Spanish, a type of spicy chilli named after Jalapa de Enríquez, a town in Mexico, and the
capital of the state of Veracruz
jerky
from Spanish charqui, from Quechua ch'ar i, ="dried flesh"
junta or junto
from Spanish junta, a group of leaders, usually military officers in a coup d'état. As an adjective, it
means "together".

 # <
key
from Spanish cayo, from Taino (this is English 'key'/'cay'/'quay' as in an island, reef or a linked
series of them, not the 'key' with which you lock/unlock)

 % '
lariat
from la reata, = the strap, rein, or rope
lasso
from Spanish lazo
llama
from Spanish llama, from Quechua llama
loco
from loco, =mad, crazy
Lolita
from the diminutive for Lola, short for Dolores

  (
macho
from macho, brave, the property of being overtly masculine. In Spanish is masculinity
mesa
from mesa, table. The corresponding Spanish word to a flat top mountain is meseta
mescal
from Spanish mezcal, from Nahuatl mexcalli
mesquite
from Mexican Spanish mezquite, from Nahuatl mizquitl
mestizo
from mestizo
mojito
dim. formed from "mojado" = dipped, or wet, probably referring to the mint in the drink
mole
from Spanish, from Nahuatl molli (="sauce")
Montana
from montaña, a mountain
mosquito
from mosquito, literally "little fly"
mulatto
from Spanish or Portuguese mulato
mustang
from mestengo or mesteño, ="without known master or owner" (archaic)
mustee
from mestizo

  )
nacho
from Nacho, a nickname for the given name Ignacio, inventor of the snack
nada
from "Nada", introduced by E. Hemingway, slang, ="nothing".
negro
from Spanish or Portuguese negro, ="black"
Nevada
from Nevada literally "snowy"

  *
olé
an interjection, an expression of approval or triumph, similar to the Italian bravo, used by
spectators of bull fights or football (soccer) matches
oregano
from orégano

   
pachuco
from pachuco
paella
from Spanish paella, from Catalan paella (saucepan)
palmetto
from palmito, diminutive form of the word for palm.
pampa
from Spanish, from Quechua pampa, =plain
papaya
from japaya, akin to Arawak papáia
patio
from patio, inner courtyard, ="an open paved area adjacent to a home"
peccadillo
from pecadillo, ="small sin"
peccary
from Spanish pecarí, from Guaraní
peon
from Spanish pen (="laborer")
peyote
from Spanish, from Nahuatl peyotl (="caterpillar")
Philippines
from Latin ="islands of king Philip II of Spain", in Spanish Filipinas
piccadill
from picadillo
pimento or pimiento
from pimiento
piña colada
from Spanish piña = pineapple and colada, which means strained, from the Spanish verb colar (to
strain)
piñata
from piñata
pinta
from pinta
Piragua
from the combination of Spanish words Pirámide = "pyramid" and Agua = "water"[1]
pisco
from pisco
placer mining
from placer, ="sand bank"
platinum
from platina, ="little silver" (now "Platino")
playa
from playa
plaza
from plaza, ="public square, spot or place"
poncho
from poncho, from Araucanian
posada
from posada
potato
from European Spanish patata, itself from batata, = "sweet potato", from Taino and papa,
"potato" from Quechua
pronto
from Spanish "immediately"
pronunciamento
from pronunciamiento proclamation, ="military coup d'état", usually establishing a military
dictatorship (often a junta)
puma
from Spanish, from Quechua
puna
from puna, from Quechua

  +
quadroon
from cuartern
quechua
from Spanish, from Quechua qishwa, valley of temperate weather
quesadilla
from quesadilla, diminutive of "queso" = cheese.
Quetzal
from Spanish, from Nahuatl "quetzalli": a group of colourful birds of the trogon family found in
tropical regions of the Americas. It also may refer to Guatemalan quetzal, the currency of
Guatemala.
quinoa
from Spanish quinua, from Quechua inua
Quinceañera
a girl's fifteenth birthday celebration similar to a sweet sixteen; popular celebrations include trips
to Disneyland, barbecues with the family and soccer matches at the park. A crucial ritual.
quirt
from Spanish cuarta = a short horseman's whip, from "one fourth" (of a vara)

  ,
ranch
from rancho, a really small rural community, smaller than a town.
reconquista
from reconquista ="reconquest"
remuda
from Mexican Spanish remudar, to exchange (horses)
renegade
from renegado
robalo
from Spanish rbalo, a tropical marine game and fish food
roble
from Spanish roble= a California oak tree
rodeo
from rodeo and verb rodear (to round up)
rumba
from rumba

  -
saguaro
from saguaro, from Piman
salsa
from salsa, ="sauce"
sapodilla
from zapotillo
sarabande
from French sarabande in turn from Spanish zarabanda
savanna
from sabana, from Taino zabana
savvy
from Spanish or Portuguese sabe, "knows"
shack
perhaps from Mexican Spanish jacal, from Nahuatl xacalli
sherry
from Old Spanish Xerés [Å e'Å es], modern Spanish Jerez [xe'Å eș]
sierra
from sierra, a saw
siesta
from siesta, ="nap", maybe lusism, from Latin Sexta [hora]
silo
from silo
sombrero
from sombrero (literally, shade maker), ="hat"
stampede
from estampida
stockade
from a French derivation of the Spanish estocada

 ! .
taco
from taco
tamale
from Spanish tamales, pl. of tamal, from Nahuatl tamalli, dumpling made from corn flour
tango
from Spanish tango.
tapioca
from tapioca
ten-gallon hat
from Spanish tan galán = how gallant (looking); alternate theory is the gallon of Texas English
here is a misunderstanding of galn = braid
tequila
from tequila
telenovela, or telenovella: from telenovela
tilde
from tilde
tobacco
from Spanish tabaco
tomatillo
from Spanish tomatillo, ="small tomate" (see Physalis philadelphica)
tomato
from Spanish tomate, from Nahuatl xitomatl
toreador
from toreador
torero
from torero, from toro ="bull"
tornado
from Spanish tornado
tortilla
from tortilla, "little torta" = cake. Currently means "omelet" in Spain; in Spanish America = small
cake of either corn meal or wheat flour
tuna
from Spanish atún, from Arabic tun, from Latin thunnus, from Greek șȪȞȞȠȢ, thynnos (=tuna fish)
turista
from turista ="tourist"

 #  
vamoose
from vamos, meaning "let us go"
vanilla
from Spanish vainilla, diminutive of vaina,="pod"
vicuña
from Spanish, from Quechua wi unna
vigilante
from Spanish vigilante, meaning watchman

 % 0
wrangler
shortened from Spanish caballerango, a groom neigh[citation needed]

  4
Zorro
from Portuguese/Spanish zorro, a fox, originally "smart"

Oᑠist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘edish‘rigin‘

¢‘ mngström, (after the Swedish scientist Anders Jonas ÿngström)


¢‘ fartlek "speed-play", technique used in running[1]
¢‘ glögg, (Swedish term for mulled wine)
¢‘ gravlax literally meaning "grave salmon", salmon preserved originally underground.
¢‘ lek, (from the Swedish "leka", "to play")[2]
¢‘ lingonberry, from lingon
¢‘ moped
¢‘ ombudsman[3]
¢‘ orienteering[4]
¢‘ smorgasbord (from the Swedish smörgåsbord, literally "sandwich table"), which in Swedish only
refers to a buffet with very specific types of food
¢‘ surströmming
¢‘ trapp basalts, stair-shaped rock formations (from the Swedish trappor, "stairs")
¢‘ tungsten literally "heavy stone", refers in Swedish to a mineral containing tungsten and not the
metal itself

O!‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘agalg‘rigin‘

¢‘ abaca - a species of banana native to the Philippines. The plant is of major economical
importance, being harvested for its fibre, called Manila hemp.
¢‘ bndcks - a remote, usually brushy rural area, the sticks, from the Tagalog bundo , which
means "mountain" or the word bunduk (Bisayan Bukid) meaning "hinterland", i.e., land area
inland, away from the shore.
¢‘ capi - decoration material, made of mother-of-pearl shells that have the same name.
¢‘ cgn - type of grass, used for thatching, from the Tagalog word ugon
¢‘ cties from the common Austronesian and Tagalog uto which literally means "head lice."
¢‘ manila (hemp) - a type of fiber obtained from the leaves of the abacá (Musa textilis), a relative of
the banana.
¢‘ lang!lang - type of flower known for its fragrance.
¢‘ ! - the toy.

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘rkic‘rigin‘

A
Afshar
from Turkic Afshar, "a Turkic tribe living majorly in Kerman province of Iran". A Shiraz rug of coarse
weave. [2][3][4]
Aga or Agha
from Turkish a a, a title of rank, especially in Turkey. [5][6]
Aga Khan
from Turkic agha and khan, the divinely ordained head of the Ismaili branch of Shiism. [7]
Airan
from Turkish ayran [8][9][10]
Akbash
from Turkish akbaş, literally "a whitehead" [11]
Akche
from Turkish akçe, also asper, an Ottoman monetary unit consisted of small silver coins. [12][13]
Akhissar
from Turkish Akhisar, a town in Manisa, Turkey near zmir. A kind of heavy modern carpet made at
Akhisar, Turkey. [14]
Altai
from Altay Mountains, range in Central Asia, which is from Turkic-Mongolian altan, meaning "golden". 1.
An Asiatic breed of small shaggy sturdy horses. 2. An animal of the Altai breed. [15][16]
Altilik
from Turkish altl k. A coin, originally of silver and equivalent to 6 piasters, formerly used in Turkey [17]
Araba
from Russian arba, which is from Turkish araba. A carriage used in Turkey and neighboring countries. [18]
Arnaut
from Turkish arnavut, "an Albanian". An inhabitant of Albania and neighboring mountainous regions,
especially an Albanian serving in the Turkish army. [19]
Astrakhan
from Astrakhan, Russia, which is from Tatar or Kazakh hadÿitarkhan, or As-tarxan (tarkhan of As or
Alans) Karakul of Russian origin or a cloth with a pile resembling karakul. [20][21]
Atabeg
from Turkic atabeg, from ata, "a father" + beg "a prince". [22][23]
Atabek
from Turkic, an alternative form of Atabeg.
Ataghan
from Turkish yata an, an alternative form of Yataghan. [24]
Ataman
from Russian, from South Turkic ataman, "leader of an armed band" : ata, "father" + -man, augmentative
suffix. [25]
Aul
from Russian, from Kazan Tatar & Kirghiz. [26]
B

Pieces of baklava.Bahadur
from Hindi bahādur "brave, brave person", from Persian, probably from Mongolian, cf. Classical
Mongolian baȖatur, which is from Turkic, perhaps originally a Turkic personal name. [27]
Bairam
from Turkish bayram, literally "a festival" [28][29]
Baklava
from Turkish baklava [30]
Balaclava
from Balaklava, village in the Crimea, which is from Turkish bal klava. A hoodlike knitted cap covering
the head, neck, and part of the shoulders and worn especially by soldiers and mountaineers. [31][32]
Balalaika
from Russian balalaika, of Turkic origin. [33][34]
Balkan
from Turkish balkan "a mountain chain", relating to the states of the Balkan Peninsula, or their peoples,
languages, or cultures. [35]
Bamia
from Turkish bamya. [36]
Ban
from Romanian, from Serbo-Croatian ban, "lord", which is from Turkic bayan, "very rich person" : bay,
"rich" + -an, intensive suff. [37]
Barbotte
from Canadian French barbotte, which is from Turkish barbut. A dice game [38]
Barkhan
from Russian, which is from Kirghiz barkhan. A moving sand dune shaped like a crescent and found in
several very dry regions of the world [39]
Bashaw
from Turkish başa, a variant of pasha [40]
Bashi-bazouk
from Turkish baş bozuk [41]
Bashlyk
from Turkish başl k, "a hood", from baş, "a head" [42]
Batman
from Turkish batman. Any of various old Persian or Turkish units of weight [43]
Beetewk
from Russian bityug, bityuk, which is from Turkic bitük, akin to Chagatai bitü, Uzbek bitäü. A Russian
breed of heavy draft horses. [44][45]
Beg
from Turkic beg, an alternative form of bey [46]
Beglerbeg
from Turkish beylerbeyi, a variant of beylerbey [47]
Begum
from Hindi & Urdu begam, which is from East Turkic begüm [48]
Behcet
from the name of Turkish scientist Hulusi Behçet, a multisystem, chronic recurrent disease. [49]
Bektashi
from Turkish bektaşi [50]
Bergamot
from French bergamote, from Italian bergamotta, ultimately from Turkish bey armudu, literally, "the bey's
pear" [51]
Bey
from Turkish bey [52]
Beylerbey
from Turkish beylerbeyi [53]
Beylik
from Turkish beylik [54][55][56]
Binbashi
from Turkish binbaş, "chief of a thousand", bin "thousand" + bash "head". (Mil.) A major in the Turkish
army. [57]
Bogatyr
from Russian bogatyr "hero, athlete, warrior", from Old Russian bogatyri, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish
batur "brave" [58]
Borunduk
from Russian burunduk, which is from Mari uromdok or from Turkic burunduk. A Siberian ground
squirrel. [59][60][61]
Bosa, also Boza
from Turkish boza, a fermented drink [62][63]
Bosh
from Turkish boş, which means "nonsense, empty" [64] (Bosh on wiktionary)
Bostanji
from Turkish bostanc , literally "a gardener" [65]
Bouzouki
from modern Greek mpouzoúki, which is from Turkish bozuk "broken, ruined, depraved" or büzük
"constricted, puckered". [66]
Boyar
from Russian boyarin, from Old Russian boljarin, from Turkic baylar, plural of bay, "rich"; akin to Turkish
bay, "rich, gentleman". [67]
Bridge game
the word came into English from the Russian word, biritch, which in turn originates from a Turkic word for
"bugler" (in modern Turkish: borucu, borazanc ) or might have come from a Turkish term bir, üç, or "one,
three" [68]
Bugger
from Middle English bougre, "heretic", from Old French boulgre, from Medieval Latin Bulgarus, from
Greek Boulgaros, probably ultimately from Turkic bulghar, "of mixed origin, promiscuous" or "rebels",
from bulgamaq, "to mix, stir, stir up". [69][70][71][72]
Bulgar
from Bolgar, Bolghar, former kingdom on the Volga river around Kazan (see bugger). A Russian leather
originally from Bolgar. [70][73]
Bulgur
from Turkish bulgur, which means "pounded wheat" [74]
Buran
from Russian buran, of Turkic origin, probably from Tatar buran [75][76]
Burka
from Russian, probably from buryi "dark brown (of a horse)", probably of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish
bur "red like a fox"; the Turkic word probably from Persian bor "reddish brown"; akin to Sanskrit babhru
"reddish brown". [77]
C
Dervishes wearing calpacks.Cafeneh
from Turkish kahvane, kahvehane "a coffee shop, café", from kahve "coffee" + hane "house" [78][79]
Caïque
from Turkish kay k [80]
Caiquejee
alteration (influenced by caique) of earlier caikjee, from Turkish kay kç , "a boatman" [81]
Calpack
from Turkish kalpak [82]
Caracal
from Turkish karakulak, which means "black ear" [83]
Caraco
from French, perhaps from Turkish kerrake "alpaca coat". A woman's short coat or jacket usually about
waist length. [84]
Caracul
from Uzbek karakul, an alteration of karakul [85]
Caragana
from New Latin, of Turkic origin; akin to Kirghiz karaghan "Siberian pea tree". [86]
Caramoussal
from Turkish karamürsel, karamusal, perhaps from kara "black" + mürsel "envoy, apostle" [87]
Casaba
from a town called Kasaba (now Turgutlu) in Turkey [88]
Cassock
from Middle French casaque "long coat", probably ultimately from Turkic quzzak "nomad, adventurer"
(the source of Cossack), an allusion to their typical riding coat. Or perhaps from Arabic kazagand, from
Persian kazhagand "padded coat". [89]
Cathay
Cathay "China", from Medieval Latin Cataya, "Kitai", of Turkic origin; akin to Kazan Tatar Kytai "China",
Old Turkic Qytan "Khitan" [90][91]
Cham
from French, which is from Turkish khan, "lord, prince" [92]
Chekmak
from Turkish, a Turkish fabric of silk and cotton, with gold thread interwoven. [93]
Chiaus
from Turkish çavuş. [94]
Chibouk
from Turkish çubuk. [95]
Choga
from Sindhi, of Altaic origin; akin to Turkish çuha "cloth". A long-sleeved long-skirted cloak for men worn
mainly in India and Pakistan. [96]
Chouse
perhaps from Turkish çavuş "a doorkeeper, messenger" [97]
Corsac
from Russian korsak, from Kirghiz karsak, "a small yellowish brown bushy-tailed fox" [98]
Cosaque
from French, literally, "Cossack", from Russian Kazak & Ukrainian kozak, which is from Turkic Kazak. A
cracker. [99]
Cossack
from Turkic quzzaq which means "adventurer, guerilla, nomad" [100] (Cossack on wiktionary)
D

Registration of boys for the devshirmeh.Desemer


from German, from Low German, alteration of Middle Low German bisemer, besemer, of Baltic origin;
akin to Lithuanian bezmnas, of Slavic origin; akin to Old Russian bezmenu "desemer, small weight", Polish
bezmian, przezmian "balance without pans", perhaps of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish batman "small
weight". An ancient balance. [101]
Devshirmeh
from Turkish devşirme, which means "gathering" [102][103]
Dey
from Turkish day , literally "a maternal uncle" [104]
Dolma
from Turkish dolma, which means "filled" or "stuffed" [105]
Dolman
ultimately from Turkish dolaman, a robe, from dolamak "to wind" [106][107]
Dolmus, also Dolmush
from Turkish dolmuş, a share taxi [108]
Domra
from Kazakh dombra, a musical instrument [109][110]
Doner kebab
(Canadian: donair) from Turkish döner kebap [111][112]
Donmeh
from Turkish dönme, which literally means "a convert" [113][114]
Donum
from Turkish dönüm, an alternative form of dunam [115][116]
Doodle
from German dudeln "to play (the bagpipe)", from dudel "a bagpipe", from Czech or Polish dudy "a
bagpipe", from Turkish düdük "a flute". [117]
Dunam
from Turkish dönüm, from dönmek "go round" [118][119]
E
Elchee or elchi
from Turkish elçi, which means "an ambassador". [120]
Eleme figs
from Turkish eleme "selected, sifted". Smyrna figs of superior quality packed flat. [121]
F
G
Galiongee
from Turkish kalyonçi, kalyoncu, "a Turkish sailor", from kalyon, Italian galeone + çi or cu, the Turkish
suffix. [122]
Ganch
modification of Turkish kancalamak "to put on a hook", from Turkish kanca "large hook", modification of
Greek gampsos "curved" + Turkish suffix -lamak. [123]
Gilet
from French, from Spanish gileco, jaleco, chaleco, from Arabic jalikah, "a garment worn by slaves in
Algeria", from Turkish yelek "waistcoat, vest" [124]
H
Haremlik
from Turkish haremlik, from harem (from Arabic harim & Arabic haram) + the Turkish suffix -lik "a place"
[125]
Horde
from Turkic ordu or orda ("khan's residence") [126][127] (Horde on wiktionary)
Hun
from Medieval Latin Hunni, apparently ultimately from Turkic Hun-yü, the name of a tribe. [128]
I
Imam bayildi
from Turkish imambay ld , "the imam fainted", an eggplant dish prepared with olive oil. [129]
Imbat
from Turkish imbat, a cooling etesian wind in the Levant (as in Cyprus). [130]
J
Janissary
from Turkish yeniçeri, which means "a new soldier" [131] (janissary on wiktionary)
Jelick
from Turkish yelek, the bodice or vest of a Turkish woman's dress. [132]
Jettru
from Turkic, a union of seven Turkic peoples of Central Asia formed at the end of the 17th or beginning of
the 18th century under one khan. [133]
K

A konak in Safranbolu, Karabük.Kaftan


from Turkish kaftan (also in Persian) [134]
Kaique
from Turkish kay k, an alternative form of caïque. [135]
Kangal
from Turkish kangal or sivas kangal köpe i [136][137]
Karabagh
from Azeri Karabagh, a region in Azerbaijan. A small Caucasian rug. [138]
Karabash
from Turkish karabaş, literally "a blackhead" [139][140]
Karadagh
from Azeri Karadagh, a mountain range in Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran. a Persian rug having a
bold design and rich coloring. [141]
Karagane
from Russian karagan, which is from Turkic karagan. A species of gray fox found in Russia. [142][143]
Karakul
from Uzbek karakul, literally a village in Uzbekistan [144]
Karakurt
from Russian, of Turkic origin, karakurt, "a venomous spider". [145]
Kasseri
from New Greek kaseri, from Turkish kaşer, kaşar [146]
Kavass
from Turkish kavas [147][148]
Kazak
from Kazak, a town in Azerbaijan, an Oriental rug in bold colors with geometric designs or stylized plant
and animal forms. [149]
Kefir
from Russian, probably ultimately from Old Turkic köpür, "milk, froth, foam", from köpürmäk, "to froth,
foam". [150][151]
Kelek
from Turkish kelek, a raft or float supported on inflated animal skins. [152]
Kendyr
from Russian kendyr, from Turkish kendir. A strong bast fiber that resembles Indian hemp and is used in
Asia as cordage and as a substitute for cotton and hemp. [153][154]
Ketch
probably from Middle English cacchen "to capture", or perhaps from Turkish kay k "a boat, skiff".
[155][156]
Khagan
from Turkic kaghan, an alternative form of khan [157]
Khan
from Turkic khan, akin to Turkish han (title meaning "ruler") [158]
Khanum
from Turkic khanum, akin to Turkish hanm, "a female derivation of Khan" [159]
Khatun
from Turkic khatūn, perhaps from Old Turkic or from Sogdian kwat'yn, "a queen" [160][161]
Kibitka
from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Kazan Tatar kibit "booth, stall, tent", Uyghur käbit. [162]
Kibosh
looks Yiddish, but origin in early 19c. English slang seems to argue against this. One candidate is Irish caip
bháis, caipín báis "cap of death". Or it may somehow be connected with Turkish bosh. [163]
Kielbasa
from Polish kiełbasa, from East and West Slavic *kŭlbasa, from East Turkic kül bassï, "grilled cutlet", from
Turkic kül bastï : kül, "coals, ashes" + bastï, "pressed (meat)" (from basmaq, to press) [164]
Kilij
from Turkish kl ç, a Turkish saber with a crescent-shaped blade. [165]
Kiosk
from Turkish köşk, an open summerhouse or pavilion [166]
Kipchak
from Russian, which is from Chagatai. 1. One of the ancient Turkic peoples of the Golden Horde related to
the Uyghurs and Kyrgyz. 2. The Turkic language of the Kipchaks. [167]
Kis Kilim
from Turkish kzkilim, a kind of carpet. [168]
Kizilbash
from Turkish kzlbaş, literally "a red head" [169][170]
Knish
from Yiddish, from Ukrainian knysh, probably of Turkic origin. [171]
Kok-saghyz
from Russian kok-sagyz, from Turkic kök-sag z, from kök "root" + sagz "rubber, gum" [172]
Komitadji
from Turkish komitac , a rebel, member of a secret revolutionary society. [173]
Konak
from Turkish konak, a large house in Turkey. [174]
Krym-saghyz
from Russian krym-sagyz, of Turkic origin, from Krym "Crimea" [175], + sagz "rubber, gum". [176]
Kulah
from Turkish Kula, a town in western Turkey. A Turkish rug that is often a prayer rug and that uses the
Ghiordes knot. [177]
Kulak
from Russian kulak "a fist", of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish kol "arm". [178][179]
Kulan
from Kirghiz kulan, "the wild ass of the Kirghiz steppe". [180]
Kumiss
from Turkic kumyz or kumis [181] (kumiss on wiktionary)
Kurbash
from Turkish krbaç [182][183]
Kurgan
from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish kurgan "fortress, castle" [184]
Kurus
from Turkish kuruş, a Turkish piaster equal to 1/100 lira. [185]
L
Lackey
from French laquais, from Spanish lacayo, ultimately from Turkish ulak, which means "runner" or
"courier". [186]
Ladik
from Turkish Ladik, a village in Turkey. A rug of fine texture woven in and near Ladik in central Anatolia.
[187]
Latten
from Middle English latoun, laton, from Middle French laton, leton, from Old Provençal, from Arabic
latun, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish altn "gold" [188]
Lavash
from Armenian, which is from Turkish lavash. [189]
Lokshen
from Yiddish, plural of loksh "noodle", from Russian dial. loksha, of Turkic origin; akin to Uyghur &
Kazan Tatar lakca "noodles", Chuvash läskä. [190]
M
Mammoth
from Russian mamot, mamont, mamant, perhaps from a Yakut word derived from Yakut mamma "earth";
from the belief that the mammoths burrowed in the earth like moles. [191]
Martagon
from Middle English, from Old French, from Old Spanish, from Ottoman Turkish martagan, "a kind of
turban". [192]
N
Nagaika
from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Kirghiz nogai [193]
O

Odalisque with a slave, 1842.Oda


from Turkish oda, literally "a room, chamber". A room in a harem. [194]
Odalisque
from French, which is from Turkish odal k, from oda, "a room" [195]
Oghuz or Ghuz
from Turkic oghuz. A descendant of certain early Turkic invaders of Persia. [196]
Osmanli
from Turkish osmanl , from Osman, founder of the Ottoman Empire + l "of or pertaining to" [197]
Ottoman
from French, adjective & noun, probably from Italian ottomano, from Turkish osmani, from Osman,
Othman died 1326, founder of the Ottoman Empire [198]
P
Paklava
modification of Turkish baklava [199]
Parandja
from Uzbek, a heavy black horsehair veil worn by women of Central Asia. [200]
Pasha
from Turkish paşa, earlier basha, from bash "head, chief" which equates to "Sir" [201][202]
Pashalic
from Turkish paşalk, "title or rank of pasha", from paşa: the jurisdiction of a pasha or the territory
governed by him [203][204]
Pastrami
from Yiddish pastrame, from Romanian pastrama, ultimately from Turkish pastrma [205]
Petcheneg
from Russian pecheneg, which is from Turkic. Member of a Turkic people invading the South Russian,
Danubian, and Moldavian steppes during the early Middle Ages. [206][207]
Pirogi
from Yiddish, from Russian, plural of pirog (pie), perhaps borrowed from Kazan Tatar, (cf. Turk. borek)
[208]
Pul
from Persian pul, which is from Turkish pul. A unit of value of Afghanistan equal to 1/100 Afghani. [209]
Q
Qajar or Kajar
from Persian Qajar, of Turkish origin. A people of northern Iran holding political supremacy through the
dynasty ruling Persia from 1794 to 1925. [210]
Quiver
from Anglo-French quiveir, from Old French quivre, probably ultimately from the Hunnic language.[211]
R
Rumelian
from Turkish rumeli, of, relating to, or characteristic of Rumelia [212]
S
Sarma, a kind of dolma, is a classic of Turkish cuisine.Sabot
from Old French çabot, alteration of savate "old shoe", probably of Turkish or Arabic origin. [213]
Saic
from French saïque, from Turkish shaika. [214]
Saiga
from Russian sa gá(k), from Turkic; cf. Chagatai say ak [215][216]
Saker
through Old French from Arabic saqr, probably from Turkic sonqur, which means "a falcon". [217]
Samiel
from Turkish samyeli, sam, "poisonous" + yel, "wind". [218]
Sanjak
from Turkish sancak, which means "a banner" [219][220]
Sarma
from Turkish sarma, which means "wrapping" [221][222]
Saxaul
from Russian saksaul, which is from Kazakh seksevil. A leafless xerophytic shrub or tree of the family
Chenopodiaceae of Asia that has green or greenish branches and is used for stabilization of desert soils.
[223][224]
Selamlik
from Turkish Selaml k. [225]
Seljuk
from Turkish Selçuk, "eponymous ancestor of the dynasties". Of or relating to any of several Turkic
dynasties that ruled over a great part of western Asia in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. [226]
Seraskier
from Turkish serasker, from Persian ser "head, chief" + Arabic asker "an army". [227]
Sevruga
through Russian sevryuga ultimately from Tatar söirök. [228]
Shabrack
from French schabraque, from German schabracke, from Hungarian csáprág, from Turkish çaprak [229]
Shagreen
from Turkish sa r , which means "the back of a horse" [230]
Shashlik
from Russian ɚ ɤ, which is from Crimean Tatar ş şl k, which means "shish kebab" [231]
Shawarma
ultimately from Turkish çevirme, which literally means "turning" [232]
Shish
from Turkish şiş, which literally means "a skewer" [233][234]
Shish kebab
from Turkish şiş kebab [235]
Shor
from Russian, of Altaic origin; akin to Kalmyk & Mongolian sor "salt", Turkish sure "brackish soil". A salt
lake in Turkestan, a salina. [236]
Som
from Kirghiz, "crude iron casting, ruble" [237]
T

Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent.Taiga


from Russian taiga, of Turkic origin; akin to Teleut taiga "rocky, mountainous terrain", Turkish da
"mountain"; Mongolian origin is also possible. [238][239]
Taramasalata
from modern Greek taramas "preserved roe", from Turkish tarama "preparation of soft roe or red caviar" +
salata "salad". [240]
Taranchi
from Chagatai Taranci, literally "a farmer". [241]
Tarantass
from Russian tarantas, which is from Kazan Tatar tarntas. [242]
Tarbagan
from Russian, which is from Teleut. A pale or reddish gregarious bobac inhabiting the grassy steppes of
Central Asia. [243]
Tarbush
from Arabic tarbūsh, from Ottoman Turkish terposh, probably from Persian sarposh "headdress"
(equivalent to sar "head" + pūsh "covering"), by association with Turkish ter "sweat". A tasseled cap of
cloth or felt, usually red, that is worn by Muslim men either by itself or as the inner part of the turban. [244]
Tarkhan
from Old Turkic tarkan, a privileged class. [245]
Tarpan
from Russian, which is from Kirghiz or Kazakh tarpan. [246][247]
Tartar
from Persian Tatar, of Turkic origin. A ferocious or violent person. [248]
Tau-saghyz
from Russian tau-sagyz, from Turkic tau-sagz, from tau "mountain" + sagz "gum, rubber". [249]
Tavla
from Turkish tavla, a version of the board game backgammon. [250]
Tekke
from Turkish tekke, a dervish monastery. [251]
Tenge
from Kazakh te ge "coin, ruble". [252]
Tepe
from Turkish tepe, literally "a hill, summit". An artificial mound. [253][254][255]
Terek
from Terek, river of southeast Russia, which is from Balkar Terk. A sandpiper of the Old World breeding
in the far north of eastern Europe and Asia and migrating to southern Africa and Australia and frequenting
rivers. [256][257]
Theorbo
from Italian tiorba, which is from Turkish torba "a bag". [258][259]
Toman
from Persian -----, which is from Turkic tümen, "a unit of ten thousand". [260]
Tovarich
from Russian tovarishch, from Old Russian tovarishch, sing. of tovarishchi, "business associates", which is
from Old Turkic tavar ishchi, "businessman, merchant" : tavar, "wealth, trade" + ishchi, "one who works"
(from ish, "work, business"). [261]
Tughra
from Turkish tu ra, an elaborate monogram formed of the Sultan's name and titles. [262][263]
Tungus
from Russian, from East Turkic tunguz, "wild pig, boar", from Old Turkic tonguz. [264]
Turk
from Turkish türk, which has several meanings in English. [265]
Turki
from Persian turki, from Turk, "Turk", from Turkish Türk. [266]
Turquoise
from Middle English Turkeys, from Anglo-French turkeise, from feminine of turkeis Turkish, from Turc
Turkish. [267]
Tuzla
from Turkish tuzla, from the name of Lake Tuz in Turkey. A central Anatolian rug. [268]
Tzatziki
from modern Greek tsatsiki, which is from Turkish cac k. [269]
U
Polish uhlans.Ugrian
from Old Russian Ugre, which means "Hungarians", of Turkic origin. [270]
Uhlan
from Turkish o lan "a boy, servant". [271]
Urdu
from Hindustani Urdu "camp", which is from Turkic ordu (source of horde). [272]
Urman
from Russian, which is from Kazan Tatar urman, "a forest", synonymous with taiga. [273]
Ushak
from Ushak, Turkish Uşak, manufacturing town of western Turkey. A heavy woolen oriental rug tied in
Ghiordes knots and characterized by bright primary colors and an elaborate medallion pattern. [274]
V
Vampire
from French vampire or German Vampir, from Hungarian vámpír, from O.C.S. opiri (cf. Serb. vampir,
Bulg. vÿpir, Ukr. uper, Pol. upior), said by Slavic linguist Franc Miklošič to be ultimately from Kazan Tatar
ubyr "witch". [275] Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary, though, considers such etymology doubtful and
traces its most likely origin to Old Slavic.[276]
W
X
Y

Cac k, a Turkish cold soup yoghurt variety.Yaourt


from Turkish yo urt, a fermented drink, or milk beer, made by the Turks. [277]
Yardang
from Turkic yardang, ablative of yar "steep bank, precipice". [278][279]
Yarmulka
of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish ya murluk which means "rainwear". [280]
Yashmak or yashmac
from Turkish yaşmak. [281]
Yataghan
from Turkish yata an. [282]
Yoghurt
from Turkish yo urt. [283] (yoghurt on wiktionary)
Yurt
from Turkic yurt, which means "a dwelling place". [284]
Yuruk
from Turkish yürük, "a nomad". 1. One of a nomadic shepherd people of the mountains of southeastern
Anatolia. 2. A Turkish rug from the Konya and Karaman regions, southeastern Anatolia. [285]
Z
Zill
from Turkish zil "bell, cymbals", of onomatopoeic origin. [286][287]

 ‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘'krainian‘rigin‘

¢‘ Kaba, grandmother or old woman


¢‘ Kab a, sweet Easter bread (related to French baba au rhum)
¢‘ Kandura, a stringed instrument
¢‘ Korscht (Ukrainian borshch), beet soup, also the expression "cheap like borscht"
¢‘ Cossac (Ukrainian Koza ), a freedom-loving horseman of the steppes
¢‘ otch, gotchies, or gitch, underwear. Also gaunch, gaunchies in Alberta
¢‘ ley (Ukrainian hley), a sticky blue-grey waterlogged soil type, poor in oxygen
¢‘ Hetman, a Cossack military leader
¢‘ Holubtsi, plural (Western Canadian English, Ukrainian singular holubets), cabbage rolls
¢‘ Hopa , a lively traditional dance
¢‘ Kasha, porridge
¢‘ Kubasa, olbassa (Canadian English, from Ukrainian ovbasa), garlic sausage. Also ubie, ubie
burger
¢‘ Pas a (Canadian English), a decorated Easter bread, also pas ha or pash a, a rich dessert with
curd cheese and dried fruit
¢‘ Perogy, plural perogies (North American, Ukrainian singular pyrih, plural pyrohy), stuffed
dumplings or pastry. This comes from western Ukraine, where it is a synonym for vareny y
¢‘ Pysan a, a decorated Easter egg
¢‘ Steppe, a flat, treeless plain
¢‘ Tachan a, a horse-drawn machine gun platform
¢‘ Vareny y, boiled dumplings with potato or meat inside

‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘elsh‘rigin‘

  0
 65
;
07 6
bard
from Welsh bardd, or possibly Goidelic origin
balderdash
possibly from baldorddu, which was a sweet food mixture made from flour, milk, gelatin and eggs
- now known as flummery
brock
in dialect meaning a badger, from Old British "brokkos" meaning a badger
car, cart
both Welsh words; originally from Old Celtic arrom, arros. They came to English via Latin
carrum, carrus, and hence the words carry, carrier and carriage.
crag, from craig
coracle
from corwgl
corgi
From cor, "dwarf" + gi (soft mutation of ci), "dog".
druid
'derwydd', possibly derived from 'derw' meaning 'oak'.
flannel
The Oxford English Dictionary states that the etymology of this word is "uncertain", but that it is
likely to have come from the Welsh gwlanen, "flannel". Another suggested source is Old French
flaine, "blanket".
flummery
llymru [1]
freckle
frych, as in Merfyn Frych
kistvaen
from the Welsh cist (chest) and maen (stone).
mither
Late 17th century, unknown origin, possibly Welsh moedrodd to worry or bother. Possible
alternative from the Welsh meidda (³µto beg for whey¶´) or perhaps meiddio (³µto dare or
venture¶´). The "dd" in Welsh corresponds in sound to the "th" in mither, and English also has
moider and moither.
penguin
Possibly from pen gwyn, "white head", and originally applied to the Great Auk. A derivation from
"pin-wing", in reference to the bird's atrophied wings, is sometimes suggested, but according to
the OED this is unsupported. It may also be derived from Breton, which is closely related.
quim
a slang term for vagina, may possibly derive from the Welsh word "cwm" meaning "valley."
wrasse, a kind of sea fish.
piebald or skewbald, from ceffyl bal (horse with a white streak on its face)
  0
 65
;

 6
bludgeon
from Cornish blugon, "mallet".
brill
from Cornish brilli, "mackerel".
dolmen
from Cornish and/or Breton taolvaen, taol, "table" and maen, "stone".
menhir
from Cornish men stone and "hir" long, i.e. a "long stone".
fogou
from Cornish underground structure which is found in many Iron Age settlements in Cornwall.
The purpose of a fogou is no longer known, and there is little evidence to suggest what it might
have been.
quoit, from Cornish see dolmen
vug, vgg, vgh
from Cornish vooga, "cave".

  0
 6

  77= 

¢‘ mbe, meaning "valley", is usually linked with the Welsh cwm, also meaning "valley".
However, the OED traces both words back to an earlier Celtic word, * umbos. It suggests a direct
Old English derivation for "coombe".

¢‘ Old Welsh origins for the topographical terms Tor (OW tŵr) and Crag (OW carreg or craig) are
among a number of available Celtic derivations for the Old English antecedents to the modern
terms. However, the existence of similar cognates in both the Goidelic and the remainder of the
Brythonic families makes isolation of a precise origin difficult.

¢‘ It has been suggested that crcker might derive from the Welsh crochan, as well as the Manx
crocan and Gaelic crogan, meaning "pot". The OED states that this view is "undetermined". It
suggests that the word derives from Old English croc, via the Icelandic ru a, meaning "an
earthenware pot or pitcher".

¢‘ Another word that is commonly thought to derive from Welsh is ad, meaning "father". It is
considered to come from the Welsh tad, which becomes dad under soft mutation. However,
according to the OED, this word derives from the infantile forms dada and tata, which occur
independently in many languages. It states that the Welsh tad "is itself merely a word of the same
class". The OED may be incorrect, however, as notwithstanding its alleged occurrence
independently it does not seem to occur in Dutch or German both languages closely related to
English nor is it found in Anglo-Saxon. A possible support for the OED position occurs in the
Jewish-Germanic dialect called Yiddish, which uses "Tate" for father, instead of the German
word.

  07 6
  87 6

English words lifted direct from Welsh, and used with original spelling (largely used either in Wales or
with reference to Wales):

¢‘ awdl
¢‘ bach (literally "small", a term of affection)
¢‘ cromlech
¢‘ cwm (geology, a corrie)
¢‘ crwth, originally meaning "swelling" or "pregnant"
¢‘ cynghanedd (a poetic form)
¢‘ Eisteddfod
¢‘ Urdd Eisteddfod (properly "Eisteddfod Yr Urdd"), the youth equivalent
¢‘ englyn
¢‘ gorsedd
¢‘ hiraeth (distant longing, homesick)
¢‘ hwyl
¢‘ iechyd da (cheers, or literally "good health")

O‘ ist‘‘ nglish‘rds‘‘(iddish‘rigin‘

¢‘ bagel: a ring-shaped bread roll made by boiling then baking the dough (from ʬʢ ʡ beygl) (OED,
MW)
¢‘ blint : a sweet cheese-filled crepe (Yiddish ʲʶʰʩʬʡ blintse from russian "ÿ ÿɧ" bliny) (AHD)
¢‘ bris: the circumcision of a male child. (from Hebrew brith 'covenant') (OED, MW)
¢‘ bchick: boy, young man. (English boy + Eastern Yiddish -chi , diminutive suffix (from Slavic))
(AHD)
¢‘ bbkes (also spelled "bupkis"): emphatically nothing, as in He isn't worth bub es (literally 'goat
droppings', possibly of Slavic origin; cf. Polish bob i 'animal droppings') (MW)
¢‘ cht pah: nerve, guts, daring, audacity, effrontery (Yiddish ʤÿʶʥʧ hutspe, from Hebrew) (AHD)
¢‘ dreck: (vulgar) worthless material, especially merchandise; literally: "crap" or "shit" (Yiddish
ʷʲʸʣ dre cf. German Drec ) (OED, MW)
¢‘ dbbk: the malevolent spirit of a dead person which enters and controls a living body until
exorcised (from Hebrew ʷʥʡʩʣ dibbu , that which clings) (AHD)
¢‘ leishig: made with meat (Yiddish ʷʩʹʩʩʬ fleyshi 'meaty', from fleysh 'meat', cf. German fleischig
'meaty') (MW)
¢‘ gane or gni: thief, scoundrel, rascal (Yiddish ÿʰʢ ganev or ganef 'thief', from Hebrew gannav).
(AHD)
¢‘ gelt: money; chocolate coins eaten on Hanukkah (ʨʬʲʢ gelt 'money', cf. German eld) (AHD)
¢‘ glitch: a minor malfunction (possibly from Yiddish glitsh, from glitshn 'slide', cf. German
glitschen 'slither') (AHD)
¢‘ glem: a man-made humanoid; an android, Frankenstein monster (from Hebrew ʭʬʥ ʢ gōlem, but
influenced in pronunciation by Yiddish goylem) (OED, MW)
¢‘ g: a Gentile, someone not of the Jewish faith or people (Yiddish ʩʥʢ, plural ʭʩʩʥʢ or ʭʩʥʢ goyim;
from Hebrew ʭʩʩʥʢ or ʭʩʥʢ goyim meaning 'nations [usually other than Israel]', plural of ʩʥʢ goy
'nation') (AHD)
¢‘ haimish (also heimish): home-like, friendly, folksy (Yiddish ʹʩʮʩʩʤ heymish, cf. German
heimisch) (AHD)
¢‘ hck; sometimes "hock", "huk", "hak". etc.: to bother incessantly, to break, or nag; from ha n a
tshayni (brea a china teapot). Frequently used by characters intended to represent residents of
New York City, even if not Jewish, in movies and television shows such as Law & Order.[2]
¢‘ kibit : to offer unwanted advice, e.g. to someone playing cards; to converse idly, hence a
ibbitzer, gossip (Yiddish ʯ ʶʲʡʩ ʷ ibetsn; cf. German iebitzen, related to Kiebitz 'lapwing') (OED,
MW)
¢‘ klt : clumsy person (from Yiddish ʵ ʬʷ lots 'wooden beam', cf. German Klotz) (OED, MW)
¢‘ ksher: conforming to Jewish dietary laws; (slang) appropriate, legitimate (originally from
Hebrew ʸʹÿ ašer) (AHD)
¢‘ kvell: to feel delighted and proud to the point of tears (Yiddish ʯ ʬ ʲ ʷ veln, from an old Germanic
word akin to German quellen 'well up') (OED, MW)
¢‘ kvetch: to complain habitually, gripe; as a noun, a person who always complains (from Yiddish
ʯ ʹʨʲ ʷ vetshn 'press, squeeze', cf. German quetschen 'squeeze') (OED, MW)
¢‘ latke: potato pancake, especially during Hanukkah (from Yiddishʲʷʨˋʬ , from either Ukrainian or
Russian) (AHD)
¢‘ itvak: a Lithuanian Jew (OED)
¢‘ lx: smoked salmon (from Yiddish ʱʷˋʬ la s 'salmon'; cf. German Lachs) (OED, MW)
¢‘ macher: big shot, important person (Yiddish ʸʲʫˋʮ ma her, literally 'maker' from ʯʫˋʮ ma hn
'make', cf. German Macher) (OED)
¢‘ mam er: bastard (from Yiddish or Hebrew ʸʦ ʮʮ) (OED)
¢‘ maven: expert; when used in a negative sense: a know-it-all (from Yiddish ʯʩÿʮ meyvn, from
Hebrew mevin 'one who understands') (OED, MW)
¢‘ ma el: luck (Yiddish ʬʦʮ mazl, from Hebrew ʬʦʮ mazzāl 'luck, planet') (OED)
¢‘
a al‘v: congratulations! (Yiddish ÿʥʨÿʬʦʮ mazl-tov, from Hebrew mazzāl -ōv: mazzāl
'fortune' or 'sign of the Zodiac (constellation)' + -ōv 'good') (OED, MW:Hebrew)
¢‘ megillah: a tediously detailed discourse (from Yiddish ʤʬʩʢʮ megile 'lengthy document, scroll
[esp. the Book of Esther]', from Hebrew ʤʬʩʢʮ mgillā 'scroll') (OED, MW)
¢‘ mensch: an upright man; a decent human being (from Yiddish ʹʨʰʲʮ mentsh 'person', cf. German
Mensch) (OED, MW)
¢‘ meshga, also meshgge, meshgah, meshggah: crazy (Yiddish ʲʢ ʥʹʮ meshuge, from Hebrew
mšuggaµ) (OED, MW)
¢‘ meshgas: madness, nonsense, irrational idiosyncrasy (Yiddish ʺʲ ʢʥʹʮ meshugas, from Hebrew
mšuggaµath, a form of the above) (OED)
¢‘ meshggener: a crazy person (Yiddish ʸʲ ʰʲʢ ʥʹʮ meshugener, a derivative of the above ʲʢ ʥʹʮ
meshuge) (OED)
¢‘ milchig: made with milk (Yiddish mil hi milky, from mil h milk, cf. German milchig) (MW)
¢‘ minan: the quorum of ten male adult (i.e., 13 or older) Jews that is necessary for the holding of a
public worship service (Yiddish ʯ ʩʰʮ minyen, from Hebrew ʯ ʩʰʮ minyān) (OED, MW:Hebrew)
¢‘ mishpcha: extended family (Yiddish ʤʧÿʹʮ mishpo he, from Hebrew ʤʧÿʹʮ mišpā-ā) (OED)
¢‘ naches: feeling of pride in 1: the achievements of one's children; 2. one's own doing good by
helping someone or some organization (Yiddish ʺʧʰ na hes, from Hebrew ʺʧʰ na-ath
'contentment') (OED)
¢‘ narrischkeit: foolishness, nonsense (Yiddish ʨʩʩʷʹʩʸˋʰ, from nar 'fool', cf. German närrisch
'foolish') (OED)
¢‘ nebbish: an insignificant, pitiful person; a nonentity (from Yiddish interjection nebe h 'poor
thing!', from Czech nebohý) (OED, MW)
¢‘ ndge, also nd h: to pester, nag, whine; as a noun, a pest or whiner (from Yiddish ʯʲʩ ʣʥ ʰ
nudyen, from Polish or Russian) (OED)
¢‘ nsh: snack (noun or verb) (Yiddish ʯʹˋʰ nashn, cf. German naschen) (OED, MW)
¢‘ n: multipurpose interjection often analogous to "well?" or "so?" (Yiddish ʥʰ nu, perhaps akin to
Russian "ɧɭ" (nu) or German na='well'; probably not related to German dialect expression nu
[short for nun=now], which might be used in the same way) (OED)
¢‘ ndnik: a pest, "pain in the neck"; a bore (Yiddish ʷʩʰ ʣʥʰ nudni , from the above ʯʲʩ ʣʥ ʰ nudyen; cf.
Polish nudne, 'boring') (OED, MW)
¢‘  or ‘ve: interjection of grief, pain, or horror (Yiddish ʩ ʩʥʥ ʩʥʠoy vey 'oh, pain!' or "oh, woe";
cf. German oh weh) (OED)
¢‘ pareve: containing neither meat nor dairy products (from Yiddish (ʥʲʸˋÿʲ(ʥ parev(e)) (OED, MW)
¢‘ pisher: a nobody, an inexperienced person (Yiddish ʸʲʹʩÿ pisher, from ʯʹʩÿ pishn 'piss', cf.
German pissen or dialectal German pischen) (OED)
¢‘ ptch: spank, slap, smack (Yiddish ʯʹʨʠÿ patshn; cf. German patschen 'slap') (OED)
¢‘ plt : to burst, as from strong emotion (from Yiddish ʯʶˋʬÿ platsn 'crack', cf. German platzen)
(OED)
¢‘ pt : an idiot, a jerk; a penis (from Yiddish ʵ ÿ pots) (AHD)
¢‘ schlemiel: an inept clumsy person; a bungler; a dolt (Yiddish shlemil) (OED, MW)
¢‘ schlep: to drag or haul (an object); to make a tedious journey (from Yiddish ʯÿʲʬʹ shlepn; cf.
German schleppen) (OED, MW)
¢‘ schlima el: a chronically unlucky person (ʬ ʦ ʮʩ ʬʹ shlimazl, from Middle High German slim
'crooked' and Hebrew ʬʦʮ mazzāl 'luck') (OED).[3] In June 2004, Yiddish shlimazl was one of the
ten non-English words that were voted hardest to translate by a British translation company.[4]
¢‘ schlck: something cheap, shoddy, or inferior (perhaps from Yiddish shla 'a stroke', cf. German
Schlag) (OED, MW)
¢‘ schlng: (vulgar) penis (from Yiddish ʢʰˋʬʹ shlang 'snake'; cf. German Schlange) (OED)
¢‘ schlb: a clumsy, stupid, or unattractive person (Yiddish ʡ ʬʹʦ zhlob 'hick', perhaps from Polish
żłb) (OED, MW)
¢‘ schmalt : melted chicken fat; excessive sentimentality (from Yiddish ʵʬˋʮʹ shmalts or German
Schmalz) (OED, MW)
¢‘ schmatta: a rag (from Yiddish ʲʨˋʮʹ shmate, from Polish szmata) (OED); also means junk or
low-quality merchandise: "Don't buy from Silverman; all he sells is schmatta."
¢‘ schmeer also schmear: noun or verb: spread (e.g., cream cheese on a bagel); bribe (from Yiddish
ʸ ʩ ʮʹ shmir 'smear'; cf. German schmieren) (OED, MW)
¢‘ schm: a stupid person. (an alteration of schmuc ; see below) (OED)
¢‘ schm e: to converse informally, make small talk or chat (from Yiddish ʯ ʱʲʥ ʮʹshmuesn
'converse', from Hebrew shmū ōth 'reports, gossip') (OED, MW)
¢‘ schmck: a contemptible or foolish person; a jerk; literally means 'penis' (from Yiddish ʷ ʮʹ
shmo 'penis', maybe from Polish smo 'dragon') (AHD)
¢‘ schmtter: clothing; rubbish (from Yiddish ʲʨˋʮʹ shmate 'rag', as above) (OED)
¢‘ schmt - dirt (from Yiddish ʵ ʥ ʮʹ shmuts or German Schmutz 'dirt') (OED)
¢‘ schnk: an easily imposed-upon or cheated person, a pitifully meek person, a particularly
gullible person, a cute or mischievous person or child (perhaps from Yiddish ʷ ʥʰʹ shnu 'snout'; cf.
Northern German Schnuc e 'sheep') (OED)
¢‘ schnrrer: beggar (Yiddish ʸʲʸ ʰʹ shnorer, cf. German schnorren 'to beg or steal (usu. a small
item of a consumable good) of a friend'[5]) (OED, MW)
¢‘ schn or schn also schn le: a nose, especially a large nose (perhaps from Yiddish ʵ ʩʥʰʹ
shnoyts 'snout', cf. German Schnauze) (OED, MW)
¢‘ schvart e: term used to denote black people; can be used derogatorily. (from Yiddish ʵʸˋʥʥʹ
shvarts 'black'; cf. German schwarz). (OED)
¢‘ habbs or habbes: Shabbat (Yiddish Shabes, from Hebrew Šabbāth) (AHD)
¢‘ shammes or shamash: the caretaker of a synagogue; also, the 9th candle of the Hanukkah
menorah, used to light the others (Yiddish shames, from Hebrew ʹʮʹ šammāš 'attendant') (OED,
MW)
¢‘ shams: a detective (possibly from shammes, or possibly from the Irish name Seamus) (OED,
Macquarie)
¢‘ sheget : (derogatory) a young non-Jewish male (Yiddish ʵ ʢʹ or ʵ ʲʢ ʹ sheygets, from Hebrew
šeqe- 'blemish') (AHD)
¢‘ shem le (slang) quarrel, brawl (perhaps related to schlimazel, q.v.) (OED). This word is
commonly used in Ireland to describe confused situations during the Irish sport of hurling, e.g.
'There was a shemozzle near the goalmouth'. In particular, it was a favourite phrase of t.v.
commentator Miceal O'Hehir who commentated on hurling from the 1940s to the 1980s.
¢‘ shicker or shickered: drunk (adjective or noun) (Yiddish shi er 'drunk', from Hebrew ši ōr)
(OED)
¢‘ shiksa or shikse: (often derogatory) a young non-Jewish woman (Yiddish ʲ ʱʷʩ ʹ shi se, a
derivative of the above ʵ ʲʢ ʹ sheygets) (AHD)
¢‘ shmendrik: a foolish or contemptible person (from a character in an operetta by Abraham
Goldfaden) (OED)
¢‘ shtetl: a small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Eastern Europe (Yiddish
ʬ ʨʲʨʹ shtetl 'town', diminutive of ʨ ʨʹ shtot 'city'; cf. German Städtl, South German / Austrian
colloquial diminutive of Stadt, city) (AHD)
¢‘ shtick: comic theme; a defining habit or distinguishing feature (from Yiddish ʷ ʩ ʨʹ shti 'piece'; cf.
German Stüc 'piece') (AHD)
¢‘ shtp: vulgar slang, to have intercourse (from Yiddish ÿʥʨʹ "shtoop" 'push,' 'poke,' or
'intercourse') (OED)
¢‘ spiel or shpiel: a sales pitch or speech intended to persuade (from Yiddish ʬʩÿʹ shpil 'play' or
German Spiel 'play') (AHD)
¢‘ tchtchke: knickknack, trinket, curio (from Yiddish ʲʷʶˋʶ tsats e, ʲʷʹʨˋʹʨ tshatsh e, from
obsolete Polish czacz o) (OED, MW)
¢‘ tre or tra or trai: not kosher (Yiddish treyf, from Hebrew -rēfā 'carrion') (AHD)
¢‘ t immes: a sweet stew of vegetables and fruit; a fuss, a confused affair, a to-do (Yiddish ʱʲʮʩ ʶ
tsimes) (OED, MW)
¢‘ tsris: troubles (from Yiddish ʺʥ ʸʶ tsores, from Hebrew ʺʥ ʸʶ tsarot 'troubles') (AHD)
¢‘ tkhs: buttocks, bottom, rear end (from Yiddish ʺʧ to hes, from Hebrew ʺʧʺ ta-ath
'underneath') (OED)
¢‘ tmmler: an entertainer or master of ceremonies, especially one who encourages audience
interaction (from Yiddish tumler, from tumlen 'make a racket'; cf. German (sich) tummeln 'go
among people, cavort') (OED, MW)
¢‘ tsh (also tsh): buttocks, bottom, rear end (from tu hus) (OED, MW)
¢‘ vigrish (also contraction vig): that portion of the gambling winnings held by the bookmaker as
payment for services (probably from Yiddish, from Russian vyigrysh, winnings) (OED)
¢‘ verklempt: choked with emotion (German verklemmt = emotionally inhibited in a convulsive
way; stuck)
¢‘ armlke: round cloth skullcap worn by observant Jews (from Yiddish ʲʷʬʮʸˋʩ yarml e, from
Polish jarmuł a, ultimate etymology unclear, possibly Turkish) (OED, MW, AHD)
¢‘ (ekke: (mildly derogatory) a German Jew (Yiddish ʲʷʲʩ Ye e) (OED)
¢‘ enta: a talkative woman; a gossip; a scold (from Yiddish ʲʨʰʲʩ yente, from a given name) (OED,
MW)
¢‘ (iddish: the Yiddish language (from Yiddish ʹʩʣʑʩʩ yidish 'Jewish', cf. German jüdisch) (AHD)
¢‘ nte also m‘tv: a Jewish holiday on which work is forbidden, eg. Rosh Hashanah, Yom
Kippur, Pesach (from Yiddish ʥʩʭ- ÿʥʨ yontef 'holiday', from Hebrew ʡʥʨ ʭʥʩ yōm -ōv 'good day')
(OED)
¢‘ t : a stupid, clueless person ([1] [2])
¢‘ atig: plump, chubby, full-figured, as a woman (from Yiddish ʷʩʨ ˋʦ zafti 'juicy'; cf. German
saftig 'juicy') (OED, MW)

‘ ‘hbrid‘rd‘‘

¢‘ qaphbia ± from Latin aqua "water" and Greek ijȠȕȓĮ "fear"; this term is distinguished from
the non-hybrid word hdrphbia, which can refer to symptoms of rabies.
¢‘ tmbile ± a wheeled passenger vehicle, from Greek ĮȣIJȩ~ (auto) "self-" and Latin mobilis
"moveable"
¢‘ Kiathln ± from the Latin bis and the Greek ĮșȜȠȢ (athlos) meaning contest
¢‘ Kigam ± from the Latin bis meaning "twice" and the Greek ȖĮȝȠȢ (gamos) meaning wedloc .
¢‘ Kilminescence ² from the Greek ȕȚȠȢ (bios) "living" and the Latin lumen "light"
¢‘ snctin ± from the Greek įȣı- (dys-) meaning "bad" and the Latin functio
¢‘ lectrctin ² a portmanteau of electricity, from the Greek ȜİțIJȡȠȞ (ēle tron), "amber", and
execution, from the Latin exsequere, "follow out"
¢‘ scialit ± from the Greek İȣ (eu)meaning good and the Latin socialitas
¢‘ "exadecimal ± from the Greek (hex) meaning "six" and the Latin decimus meaning "tenth"
¢‘ "msexal ± from the Greek ȝȩȢ (homos) meaning "same" and the Latin sexus meaning
"gender" (This example is remarked on in Tom Stoppard's The Invention of Love, with A. E.
Housman's character saying "Homosexuality? What barbarity! It's half Greek and half Latin!".)
¢‘ "peractive ² from the Greek ʌȑȡ (hyper) meaning "over" and the Latin activus
¢‘ "percmplex ± from the Greek (hyper) and the Latin complexus meaning an Embrace.
¢‘ "percrrectin ² from the Greek (hyper) meaning "over" and the Latin correctio
¢‘ "perextensin ² from the Greek (hyper) meaning "over" and the Latin extensio meaning
"stretching out"
¢‘ "pervisr ² from the Greek (hyper) meaning "over" and the Latin visor meaning "seer"; the
non-hybrid word is spervisr
¢‘ ipsctin ² from the Greek ȜȚʌȠȢ (lipos) meaning "fat" and the Latin suctio meaning
"sucking"
¢‘
acrinstrctin ² from the Greek ȝĮțȡȠȢ (ma ros) meaning "long" and the Latin instructio
¢‘
ega!annm ² from the Greek ȝȑȖĮȢ (megas), meaning "large", and the Latin annum, "year"
¢‘
etadata ² from the Greek (meta) and the Latin data meaning "given"
¢‘
icrvitm ² from the Greek ȝȚțȡȠȢ (mi ros) meaning "small" and the pseudo-Latin vitum
¢‘
inneaplis ² from Dakota mni meaning "water" and Greek ʌȩȜȚȢ meaning "city"
¢‘
ncltre ² from the Greek ȝȩȞȠȢ (monos) meaning ³one, single´ and the Latin cultura
¢‘
nlingal ² from the Greek ȝȩȞʌ (monos) meaning "one" and the Latin lingua meaning
"tongue"; the non-hybrid word is nilingal
¢‘
rmn ² It was alleged by Joseph Smith[citation needed] that Mormon comes from the
English "more" and the Reformed Egyptian mon meaning "good".
¢‘ enate ² from the Greek ȞȑȠȢ (neos), "new", and the Latin natus, "birth"
¢‘ erscience ² from the Greek ȞȑȣȡȠȞ neuron, meaning "sinew," and the Latin "sciens,"
meaning "having knowledge."
¢‘ ertransmitter ² from the Greek neuron, meaning "sinew," and the Latin, trans meaning
"across" and mittere meaning "to send."
¢‘ nagn ² from the Latin nonus meaning "ninth" and the Greek ȖȦȞȠȞ (gonon) meaning
"angle"; the non-hybrid word is enneagn
¢‘ andeism ² from the Greek ʌȐȞ (pan) meaning "all" and Latin deus meaning "God"; the non-
hybrid word is pantheism
¢‘ eriglacial ² from the Greek ʌȑȡȚ (peri) and the Latin glacialis
¢‘ lamr ² from the Greek ʌȠȜȪȢ (polys) meaning "many" and the Latin amor meaning "love"
¢‘ ldeism ² from the Greek ʌȠȜȪȢ (polys) meaning "many" and the Latin deus meaning "God";
the non-hybrid word is pltheism
¢‘ ßadraphnic ² from the Latin quattuor meaning four and the Greek ÿȠȞȑ (phone) meaning
sound; the non-hybrid word is tetraphnic
¢‘ ßadriplegia ² from the Latin quattuor meaning four and the Greek ʌȜȒııİȚȞ(plegien) meaning
To Stri e""; the non-hybrid word is  YiÄhY
¢‘ cilg ² from the Latin socius, "comrade", and the Greek ȜȩȖȠȢ (logos) meaning "word",
"reason", "discourse"
¢‘ cipath ² from the Latin socius from sociare meaning "to associate with," and the Greek (-
pathes) meaning "sufferer" from pathos meaning "incident", "suffering," or "experience."
¢‘ elevisin ² from the Greek IJ Ȝİ (tēle) meaning "far" and the Latin visio from videre meaning
"to see"
¢‘ nsillectm ² from the Latin tonsillae "to branch" and the Greek İțIJȑȝİȚȞ (ektemnein, ³to cut
out´)
Modern Hebrew abounds with non-Semitic derivational affixes, which are applied to words of both Semitic
and non-Semitic descent. The following hybrid words consist of a Hebrew-descent word and a non-Semitic
descent suffix:[1]
¢‘ khamúda!le µcutie (feminine singular)¶, from hamuda µcute (feminine singular) + -le,
endearment diminutive of Yiddish descent
¢‘ mil)m!nik µreservist, reserve soldier¶, from miluím µreserve¶ (literally µfill-ins¶) + -ni , a most
productive agent suffix of Yiddish and Russian descent
¢‘ bitkhn!)st µone who evaluates everything from the perspective of national security¶, from
bita hn µsecurity¶ + the productive internationalism -ist
¢‘ kis!lóga µthe art of finding a political seat (especially in the Israeli Parliament)¶, from isé µseat¶
+ the productive internationalism -lgya µ-logy¶
¢‘ maarav!i átsa µwesternization¶, from maaráv µwest¶ + the productive internationalism -izátsya
µ-ization¶ (itself a hybrid of Greek -Țȗ- -iz- and Latin -atio)
Examples of Modern Hebrew hybrid words which include an international prefix are as following:
¢‘ pst!milkhamt) µpostwar¶
¢‘ pr!arav) µpro-Arab¶
¢‘ anti!hitnatkút µanti-disengagement¶
‘ Greek‘and‘atin‘rts‘in‘ nglish‘

  

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abnormal, abrasion,
ab!, a!, abs! away Latin ab "away"
abstract, aversion

acutus past participle of


ac!, ac! sharp or pointed Latin acuere "to sharpen", acid, acupunture
from acus "needle"

acrophobia, acrobat,
Greek -țȡȠȢ á ros
acr!, acr! height, summit, tip Greek acronym,
"high", "extreme"
acromegalia

ad!, a!, ac!,


a!, ag!, al!, movement to or toward; in adapt, afect,
Latin ad "to", "toward"
ap!, ar!, as!, addition to ascend, accept
at!

adip! fat Latin adeps, adipis "fat" adipose

aer!, aer! air, atmosphere Greek aer "air" aeronautics, aerosol

aisthēti os "of sense


perception" from
aesth!et feeling, sensation Greek Į-üȐȞݝüĮȚ aesthetics
aisthanesthai "to
perceive"

from Greek -ȖȡȩȢ


Greek and
agr!, agri! field agros and Latin ager, agriculture, pilgrim
Latin
agr- "field"

amor "love" from


amat!, amr! love, loved Latin amateur, amorous
amāre "to love"
ambi "on both sides",
ambidextrous,
ambi! both, on both sides Latin from Greek -ȝijȓ
ambivalent
amphi, "on both sides"

amic!, !imic! friend Latin amicus amicable, inimical

around, about, both, on both amphibian,


amphi! Greek amphi "on both sides"
sides of, both kinds amphibolic

ampl! ample Latin amplus amplification

an!, a! not, without Greek Greek -Ȟ-/-- "not" anhydrous, atypical

from Greek prefix ana- anabaptist,


ana!, an! again, against, back, up Greek
"again", "against" anaphylaxis, anode

anima! breath Latin anima "breath" animal, animation

anniversary, annual,
ann!, !enn! year, yearly Latin annus "year"
millennium

against, opposed to,


ant!, anti! Greek -ȞIJȓ anti "against" antibiotic, antipodes
preventive

antediluvian,
Latin ante "before",
ante!, anti! before, in front of, prior to Latin antebellum,
"against"
anticipate

anth!, anth! flower Greek -ȞüȠȢ anthos "flower" anther, anthology

anthrp!, anthropology,
human Greek anthropos "man"
anthr! anthropomorphic

aquamarine,
aq! water Latin aqua
aquarium, aqueduct
ar! plow, till Latin arare arable

arere, "be dry or


ar! be dry Latin arid
parched"

arche "rule" (in


arche!,‘archi! ruler Greek compounds: -ȡȤİ-, archangel, archetype
-ȡȤȚ-)

-ȡȤĮ-ȠȢ ar haios
archae!, archaeology or
ancient Greek "ancient" from ar hē
arche! archeology, archaic
"beginning"

Relating to the North Pole or


the region near it; relating to
arct!, arct! cold; used as the scientific Greek ar tos "bear" Arctic Ocean
name of some bear species,
e.g. rsus arctos horribilis

argent! silver Latin argentum "silver" argent, Argentina

arthr!,
joint Greek arthron "joint" arthritis, arthropod
arthr!

astr!, astr! star, star-shaped Greek astron "star" astronomy

-üȜȠȢ athlos "contest,


athl! prize Greek athlete
feat"

ad!, adi! hearing, listening, sound Latin audire "to hear" auditorium, auditory

ag!, act! grow, increase Latin augēre "to increase" augmentation

relating to gold, or gold-


ar! Latin aurum "gold" aureole, aure
colored
ari! Relating to the ear Latin auris "ear" auricle

Į-IJȩȢ (autos) "self", automobile,


at! , at! self; directed from within Greek
"same" autonomy

avi! bird Latin avis "bird" aviary, aviation

axi! axis Latin axis "axis" axisymmetry

Greek -öȚȠȢ (axios)


axi! merit Greek axiology
"worth"

  

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bac! rod-shaped Latin from baculum "rod" bacilla, bacteria

barometer, barograph,
bar! weight, pressure Greek >ĮȡȪȢ (barus)
baroreceptor

from >ĮȓȞȦ, I wal ,


basi! at the bottom Greek basic, basis
march, >ȐıȚȢ "step"

bath!, ȕĮüȪȢ (bathús, bathýs)


deep, depth Greek batholith
bath! "deep"

be!, beat! bless Latin beare, beatus beatification

antebellum, bellicose,
belli! war Latin bellum, belli
belligerent

ben! good, well Latin bene (adverb) benefit, benignity


bis, "twice"; bini, "in binoculars, bigamy,
bi! two Latin
twos" biscotti

bib! drink Latin bibere, bibitus imbibe

bibl! book Greek ȕȚȕȜȓȠȞ (biblíon) "book" bibliography, bible

biology, biologist,
bi! life Greek ȕȓȠȢ (bíos) "life"
biosphere

blennophobia,
blenn! slime Greek >ȜȑȞȞȠȢ (blennos)
blennosperma

germ, embryo, bud, ȕȜĮIJĮȓȞȦ, "I put forth


blast! Greek sideroblast
cell with nucleus shoots"

bni! good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary

Greek / Latin Greek ȕȠȡȡ-Ȣ (borras)


br! north borealis
(boreas) "the north wind"

>ȠIJȐȞȘ, >ȩIJĮȞȠȞ (botanē,


btan! plant Greek botany
botanon)

bv! cow, ox Latin bos, bovis bovine

ȕȡĮȤȓȦȞ (brakhíōn) brachial artery,


brachi! arm Greek
"arm" brachiosaurus

ȕȡĮȤȪȢ (brakhús,
brach! short Greek brachydactyly
brakhýs) "short"

brad! slow Greek ȕȡĮįȪȢ (bradús, bradýs) bradycardia


ȕȡȐȖȤȚȠȞ (brágkhion,
branch! gill Greek branchiopod
bránkhion) "gill"

brevi! brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviation, brevity

bri ! nod Greek >ȡȓȗȦ (brizō)

ȕȡȩȝȠȢ, ȕȡȩȝȘ (brómos,


brm! oats Greek Bromus ramosus
bróme) "oats"

ȕȡȩȝȠȢ (brómos) "stench,


brm! oats Greek bromide
clangor"

ȕȡȩȖȤȠȢ (brógkhos,
brnch! windpipe Greek bronchitis
brónkhos)

brnt! thunder Greek ȕȡȠȞIJȒ (brontē) Krontosaurus

buccal, buccinator
bcc! cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca
muscle

blb! bulbous Latin bulbus bulbous, bulbule

bll! bubble, flask Latin bulla, "bubble" ebullient, ebullism

brs! pouch, purse Latin bursarius bursary, disburse

  


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cac! bad Greek țĮțȠȢ (kakos) cacophony


accident, cadence,
cad!, !cid!, cas! fall Latin cadere, casus
case

caed!, !cid!,
cut Latin caedere, caesus caesura, incisor
caes!, !cis!

from Latin calx "lime", and


Latin and calculus, calcite,
calc! stone from Greek ȤȐȜȚö ( halix)
Greek calcium
"pebble" "limestone"

calli! beautiful Greek from Greek allos "beauty" calligraphy

calr! heat Latin calor "heat" calorie

calp! cover Greek (kaluptein) apocalypse

camer! vault Latin camera bicameral, camera

camp! field Latin campus "field", "level ground" champion, campaign

cani! dog Latin canis "dog" canine, Canis Major

can!, !cin!,
sing Latin canere "sing" cantata, canto, cantor
cant!

candid, incandescent,
cand! glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten"
candle, candela

capere, captus "take or hold"


cap!, !cip!, capture, captive,
hold, take Latin (note the vowel change from a
capt!, !cept! conception, recipient
to i in compounds)

capital, chief, chef,


capit!, !cipit! head Latin caput, capitis "head"
decapitate
capr! goat Latin caper, capri Capricorn, caprine

caps! box, case Latin capsa capsule

carb! coal Latin carbo, carbonis carbon

carcer! jail Latin carcer, carcerare incarceration

Latin from Latin from Greek ar inos


carci! cancer (disease) carcinoma
Greek "crab"

relating to the cardiology,


cardi! Greek ardia "heart"
heart cardiograph

cardin! hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal

carn! flesh Latin caro, carnis carnival, carnivore

carp! relating to fruit Greek from Greek arpos "fruit" carpology

relating to the carpal, carpal tunnel


carp! Greek from Greek arpos "wrist"
wrist syndrome

cata! down Greek ata "down" catastrophe, catatonia

caten! chain Latin catena concatenation

cathar! pure Greek țĮșĮȡȩȢ (katharos) catharsis

cad! tail Latin cauda caudal

cav! hollow Latin cavus "hollow"


cave, cavity,
excavation

ced!, cess! go Latin cedere, cessus procession, recede

celer! quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity

cen! new Greek țĮȚȞȩȢ (kainos) Cenozoic

cen! empty Greek (kenos) cenotaph

cen! common Greek (koinos) cenobite, cenospecies

cens! Latin censere "to estimate" census

cent, centennial,
cent! hundred Latin centum "hundred"
centurion

centen! hundred each Latin centeni centenary

centesimal,
centesim! hundredth Latin centesimus
centesimation

țȑȞIJȡȠȞ (kéntron) "needle",


centr! center Greek eccentric
"spur"

cephalopod,
cephal! head Greek ephale "head"
encephalogram

ceram! clay Greek (keramos) ceramic

cerat! horn Greek (keras, keratos) "horn" ceratin

cern! Latin cernere discern


relating to the
cervic! neck, relating to Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
the cervix

ceter! other Latin ceterus et cetera

of the hand or chiroptera,


chir! Greek Ȥİȓȡ heir "hand"
hands chiropractic

cheln! relating to a turtle Greek ȤİȜȫȞȘ helone "tortoise" chelonia

from Greek ȤȜȦȡȩȢ hlōros


chlr! green Greek chlorine, chlorophyll
"green"

from Greek horeia "dancing in


chre! relating to dance Greek unison" from ȤȠȡȩȢ khoros choreography
"chorus"

chrd! cord Latin chorda "rope" chordata

chromosome,
chrm! color Greek Ȥȡ-ȝĮ hrōma "color"
chromium

chrs! gold Greek ȤȡȣȩȢ hrusos "gold" chrysolite

cili! eyelash Latin cilium cilia

cine! motion Greek (kine-) cinema

ciner! ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration

cing!, cinct! gird Latin cingere, cinctus succinct


circ! circle Latin circus circus

circm! around Latin circum "around" circumference

cirr! orange Greek țȚȡȡȩȢ ( irros) cirrhosis

cirr! curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus

civ! citizen Latin civis civility

clad! branch Greek țȜȐįȠȢ ( lados)

clar! clear Latin clarus, clarare clarity, declaration

clast! broken Greek țȜĮıIJȩȢ ( lastos) iconoclast

clad!, !cld!, clause, exclusion,


close Latin claudere, clausus
clas!, !cls! include

from Greek leis "key" from


clav! key Greek conclave
țȜİȓİȚȞ, leiein "to close"

cleist! closed Greek

cleithr! bar, key Greek

clement! mild Latin clemens, clementis clemency, inclement

clin! bed, lean, recline Latin -clinare declination, inclined

cchl! shell Greek țȩȤȜȠȢ ( ochlos) cochlea


cel! hollow Greek țȠ-ȜȠȢ ( oilos)

cognitive, cognizant,
cgn! know Latin cognoscere
recognize

cl! strain Latin colare, colum colander

cll! neck Latin collum collar

clr! color Latin color coloration

cn!, c!, cl!, connect, collide,


with, together Latin cum
cm!, cr! compress

cndi! season Latin condire condiment

cn! cone Greek ț-ȞȠȢ ( onos) conic, conical

cntra! against Latin contra contrast

coprolite,
cpr! dung Greek țȩʌȡȠȢ (kopros) coprophagia,
coprophilia

țȩȡĮȟ, țȩȡĮțȠȢ (korax,


crac! raven Greek coracoid
korakos)

crd! heart Latin cor, cordis accord, cordial

cornea, cornucopia,
crn! horn Latin cornu
unicorn

crn! crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation


crpr! body Latin corpus, corporis corporation, corpse

crtic! bark Latin cortex, corticis

csm! universe Greek țȩıȝȠȢ (kosmos) cosmonaut

cosmetics,
csmet! Greek (kosmet-)
cosmetology

cst! rib Latin costa costal

ctl! cup Greek țȠIJȪȜȘ (kotulē) cotyledon

crani! skull Greek (kranion) cranium

crass! thick Latin crassus crassitude

cre! make Latin creare, creatus creation, creature

țȡȘʌȓȢ, țȡȘʌȓįȠȢ (krēpis,


crep! boot, shoe Greek
krēpidos)

cribr! sieve Latin cribrum "a sieve" cribble, cribrate

cric! ring Greek țȡȓțȠȢ (krikos)

cris!, crit! judge Greek țȡȓıȚȢ (crisis) crisis, critic

crisp! curled Latin crispus crispate

crist! crest Latin crista cristate


crss! fringe, tassel Greek țȡȠııȩȢ (krossos)

crucial, crucifix,
crci! cross Latin crux, crucis
crucify

crri! leg, shank Latin crus, cruris crural

crpt! hidden Greek (kruptos) cryptic, cryptography

cten! comb Greek țIJİȓȢ, țIJİȞȩȢ (kteis, ktenos) ctenophore

cb! cube Greek țȪ>ȠȢ (kubos) cubic, cuboid

cb! lie Latin cubare incubation, succuba

clin! kitchen Latin culina culinary

clp! blame, fault Latin culpa culpable, exculpate

cne! wedge Latin cuneus cuneiform

crr!, crs! run Latin currere, cursus concurrent, recursion

crv! bent Latin curvus curvature

cspid! lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid

cti! skin Latin cutis cuticle

can! blue Greek țȣĮȞȩȢ (kuanos) cyanide


bicycle, cycle,
ccl! circular Greek țȪțȜȠȢ (kuklos)
cyclone

clind! roll Greek țȪȜȚȞįȡȠȢ (kulindros) cylinder

cn! dog Greek țȪȦȞ, țȣȞȩȢ (kuōn, kunos) cynosure

cst! capsule Greek țȪıIJȚȢ (kustis) cystic

ct! cell Greek țȪIJȠȢ (kutos) cytoplasm

  

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dactl! finger Greek įȐțIJȣȜȠȢ (daktulos) dactylology, pterodactyl
damn!, !demn! Latin damnāre condemn, damnation
from, away from,
de! Latin dē delete, demented
removing
deb! owe Latin debere, debitus debit
decimus, tenth; from
deci! tenth part Latin decibel, decimate
decem, ten
deca!, dec!,
ten Greek de a, ten decagram, decahedron
deka!, dek!
delt! Greek (delta) deltoid
dem! people Greek į-ȝȠȢ demos, people demagogue, democracy
den! ten each Latin deni denarius, denary
dendr!, įȑȞįȡȠȞ (dendron): akin to
resembling a tree Greek dendrite
dendr! įȡȪȢ, drys, "tree"
dens! thick Latin densus condense, density
dent! tooth Latin dens, dentis dental, dentures
derm! skin Greek įȑȡȝĮ (derma) skin hypodermic
deter! second Greek įİȪIJİȡȠȢ (deuteros) Deuteronomy
dexter! right Latin dexter dexterity
dextr! right Greek įİȟ-, right
di! two Greek dicot, dipole
dia! apart, through Greek įȚȐ (dia) diameter
dict! say, speak Latin dicere, dictus contradict, dictation
digit! finger Latin digitus digital
terrible, fearfully
din! Greek įİȚȞȩȢ (deinos) dinosaur
great
dipl! Greek diploid, diplosis
dc!, dct! teach Latin docere, doctus docile, doctor
ddec! twelve Greek įȫįİțĮ (dodeka) dodecasyllabic
dg!, dox- opinion, teaching Greek dogmatic
dm! Latin domus dome
drm! sleep Latin dormire dormant, dormitory
drs! back Latin dorsum dorsal
d! two Latin duo dual
db! doubtful Latin dubious
abduction, conductor,
dc!, dct! lead Latin dux
introduce
dlc! sweet Latin dulcis
durable, duration, duress,
dr! hard Latin durus
endure, obdurate
d! two Greek (duo) dyad
ds! badly, ill Greek įȣı- dysentery

  

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ec! out Greek (ek) eccentric

ecology, economics,
ec! house Greek (oikos)
ecumenism

ect! outside Greek (ektos) ectoderm

ed!, es! eat Latin edere, esus edible

eg! self, I (first person) Latin, Greek ego, -Ȗȫ egocentric

eg!, eg! goat Greek Į-ȟ (aix) egophony

em!, empt! buy Latin emere, emptus exemption, redeem

eme! vomit Greek (emetos) emetic


striving to equal,
eml! Latin aemulus, aemulare emulation
rivaling

en!, em! in Greek (en) emphasis

end! inside Greek (endo) endocrine

eng! narrow Greek

ennea! nine Greek (ennea) ennead, enneagon

ens! sword Latin ensis

e!, es!,
dawn, east Greek Eocene
es!

epi!, ep! upon Greek (epi) epicenter, epoch

knowledge or
epistem! Greek epistemic
science

eq!, !iq! even, level Latin aequus equal

eq! horse Latin equus Equestrian

erg! work Greek (ergon) ergonomics

err! stray Latin errare aberration, errant

erthr! red Greek İȡȣüȡȠȢ (eruthros) erythrocyte

es! within Greek (esō) esoteric


eth!, eth!,
custom, habit Greek -üȠȢ (ethos) ethology
ethi!

ethm! sieve Greek ethmoid

people, race, tribe,


ethn! Greek (ethnos) ethnic, ethnarch
nation

etm! true Greek (etumos) etymology

e! well Greek (eu) euphoria

er! wide Greek (eurus) Europe

ex!, e!, e! from, out of Latin ex exclude, extrude, extend

ex! outside Greek exothermic

exter!, extra! outer Latin exterior

extrem! outermost, utmost Latin extremus extremity, extremophile

  


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!, at! say, speak Latin fari, fatus fate, infant, preface

ab! bean Latin faba faba bean

ac!, !ic!, act, !


make Latin facere, factus defect, factory, manufacture
ect!
alc! sickle Latin falx, falcis falciform

all!, !ell!, als! deceive Latin fallere, falsus falsity, infallibility

allac! false Latin fallax, fallacis fallacy

amili! Latin familiarity

ant! to show Greek fantasy

asc! bundle Latin fascis fasciculation

at! foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuation

eder! Latin foedus, foederis confederation, federal

el! cat Latin feles, felis Felinae, feline

elic! happy, merry Latin felix, felicis felicity

ell! suck Latin fellare fellation

emin! women, female Latin femina femininity

emr! thigh Latin femur, femoris femoral

end!, ens! Latin fendere, -fensus defend, offense

enestr! window Latin fenestra fenestration


er! carry Latin ferre reference, transfer

erc! fierce Latin ferox, ferocis ferocity

err! iron Latin ferrum ferrous

et! stink Latin fetere fetid, fetor

ic! fig Latin ficus Ficus

id!, is! faith, trust Latin fides, fidere, fisus confidence, fidelity

il! thread Latin filum filament

ili! Latin filius affiliation

in! end Latin finis finish, final

ind!, iss! split Latin findere, fissus fission

irm! fix, settle Latin firmus, firmare confirmation, firmament

istl! hollow, tube Latin fistula

l! blow Latin flare, flatus flatulence, inflation

lacc! flabby Latin flaccus, flaccere flaccid

lav! yellow Latin flavus flavonoid


lect!, lex! bend Latin flectere, flexus flexor, inflection

lig!, lict! strike Latin fligere, flictus conflict, inflict

lr! flower Latin flos, floris floral, florid

l!, lx! flow Latin fluere, fluxus effluent, fluency, influx

c! hearth Latin focus focal

d!, ss! dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil

en! hay Latin faenum

li! leaf Latin folium defoliant

nt! spring Latin fons, fontis

r! bore Latin forare, foratus perforation

conformity, deformity,
rm! shape Latin forma
formation

rnic! vault Latin fornix, fornicis fornication

rt! strong Latin fortis fortification

shallow round
ve! Latin fovea fovea
depression

rang!, !ring!, fracture, fragment,


break Latin frangere, fractus
ract!, rag! frangible, infringe
rater!, ratr! brother Latin frater fraternity

ric!, rict! rub Latin fricare, frictus dentifrice, friction

rig! cold Latin frigere frigid, frigorific

rnt! forehead Latin frons, frontis confront, frontal

rct!, rg! fruit Latin frux, fructis fructose

g!, git! flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugitive, refuge

m! smoke Latin fumus fume, fumigation

nd! bottom Latin fundus, fundare fundamentalism, profundity

nd!, s! pour Latin fundere, fusus effusion, profusion

ng!, nct! do Latin fungi, functus function, fungibility

r!, rt! steal Latin furare furtive

rc! fork Latin furca bifurcation

sc! dark Latin fuscus obfuscation

   


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galact! milk Greek (gala, galaktos) galactic

gastric,
gastr! stomach Greek (gaster)
gastroenterologist

ge! earth Greek ȖȘ (gē), ȖİȦ- (geō) geology

gel! icy cold Latin gelum gelid

gen! race, kind Greek ȖȑȞȠȢ genocide

ger!, gest! bear, carry Latin gerere, gestus digest, gestation

germin! sprout Latin germen, germinis germination

glabr! hairless Latin glaber glabrous

glaci! ice Latin glacies glacier

gladi! sword Latin gladius gladiator

glb! sphere Latin globus global, globule

glri! glory Latin gloria glorify

gltin! glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutination

grad!, !gred!, gradus, gradere,


walk, step, go Latin grade, regress
gress! gressus

gramm! letter Greek ȖȡĮȝȝĮ (gramma) grammatic


gran! grain Latin granum granary, granule

grand! grand Latin grandis grandiloquous

graph! draw, write Greek (graphē) graphic, graphology

grat! thank, please Latin gratus gratitude

grav! heavy Latin gravis gravity

greg! flock Latin grex, gregis gregarious, segregation

gbern! govern, pilot Latin gubernare gubernatorial

gst! taste Latin gustus gusto

gttr! throat Latin guttur guttural

gmn! nude Greek (gymnos) gymnasium

 ! "


eaning‘in‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘
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hab!, !hib!,
have Latin habere, habitus habit, prohibition
habit!, !hibit!

haem! blood Greek Į-ȝĮ (haima) haemophilia

hal! salt Greek (hals, halos) halogen


hal!, !hel! breathe Latin halare, halatus anhelation, inhale

-ʌȜȠ-Ȣ
hapl! simple Greek haploid
(haplous)

haurire,
har!, hast! draw Latin exhaust
haustus

heli! sun Greek -ȜȚȠȢ helium, heliotrope

-ȝȚıȣȢ
hemi! half Greek hemisphere
(hemisus)

hen! one Greek -Ȟ (hen) henad, hyphen

-ȞįİțĮ
hendec! eleven Greek hendecagon
(hendeka)

hept! seven Greek (hepta) heptagon, heptathlon

her!, hes! cling Latin haerere, haesus adhesive, coherent

herb! grass Latin herba herbicide

hered! heir Latin heres, heredis heredity

herp! creep Greek herpetology

different, -IJİȡȠȢ
heter! Greek heterodox
other (heteros)

her! find Greek İ-ȡȓıțȦ heuristic


hex! six Greek -ȟ (hex) hexagon

hibern! wintry Latin hibernus hibernation

hiem! winter Latin hiems hiemal

-ʌʌȠȢ
hipp! horse Greek hippodrome
(hippos)

hirst! hairy Latin hirtus, hirsutus hirsute

hispid! bristly Latin hispidus hispidity

histri! actor Latin histrionic

hd! way Greek -įȩȢ (hodos) cathode, hodometer

hl! whole Greek (holos) holistic

hm! same Greek (homos) homosexual

hme! like Greek (homoios) homeostasis

hmin! human Latin homo, hominis hominid

hmal! even, flat Greek (homalos) anomalous

hnr! esteem Latin honos, honoris honorable

that which
hrm! Greek hormone
excites
hrti! garden Latin hortus, horti horticulture

hspit! host Latin hospes, hospitis hospitality

hst! enemy Latin hostis hostile

hm! ground Latin humus, humare exhumation, inhume

-ĮȜȠȢ
hal! glass Greek hyaline, hyaloid
(hualos)

hydrology, hydrologist, Hydrogen, Hydrate,


hdr! water Greek -įȦȡ dehydrate, Hydrophobia, hydroponic,
hydraulic, Hydrolysis, hydrous, hydrophilic

hgr! wet Greek (hugros) hygrometer

h! U-shaped Greek

hp! under Greek -ʌȩ (hupo) hypothermia

hper! above, over Greek -ʌȑȡ (huper)

-ʌȞȠȢ
hpn! sleep Greek hypnosis
(hupnos)

-ıIJİȡȠȢ
hster! later Greek hysteresis
(husteros)

 # $


eaning‘#n‘ rigin‘
t‘ tmlg‘t‘rigin‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘
ichth! fish Greek (ichthus) ichthyology

ics! twenty Greek (eikosi) icosagon, icosahedron

id! shape Greek (eidos) idol

ide! idea Greek (idea) ideology, ideogram

idi! personal Greek (idios) idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot

ign! fire Latin ignis igneous, ignition

in! (1), im! in, on Latin in invite, incur, intend

in! (2), il!, in, un- illicit, impossible, inimical,


Latin in-
im!, ir! (negation) irrational

inra! under Latin infra infrastructure

insl! island Latin insula insular, insulation

inter (preposition) ± intermission, intercollegiate,


inter! among, between Latin
among, between intercourse

intra! within Latin intra intracollegiate

irasc!, irat! be angry Latin irasci irascible, irate

isomorphic, isometric,
is! equal, the same Greek (isos)
isoceles

!itat! Latin quality, liberty


property of,
quality of

iter! again Latin iterum iteration

iter, itinis ± march,


itin! route, way Latin itinerary
journey

 % &


eaning‘#n‘ rigin‘
t‘ tmlg‘t‘rigin‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘

jac! lie Latin jacēre "to be thrown" adjacent

jac! (originally iacio, iacere, ieci, iectus ± "to eject, interject,


cast, throw Latin
IAC), !ject! throw" (and cognates thereof) ejaculate, trajectory

jan! door Latin janua janitor

jc! joke Latin jocus jocularity

jg! yoke Latin jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate

jng!, jnct! join Latin jungere, junctus conjunction, juncture

jnir! younger Latin junior juniority

js!,‘jr,‘jdic ius, iuris; iudex, iudicis; iusticia,


law, justice Latin justice, jury, judge
(originally IVS) iusticiae, etc.

jv!, jt! help Latin juvare, jutus adjutant

jven! young, youth Latin juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate


jxta! beside, near Latin juxta juxtaposition

  <


eaning‘#n‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘ rigin‘

kil! thousand Greek chilioi kilogram, kilometer, kilobyte

telekinesis, kinetic energy,


kine! movement, motion Greek
kinesthetic

klept! steal Greek (kleptēs) kleptomania

kd! glory Greek (kudos) kudos

  '


eaning‘#n‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘ rigin‘

lab!, laps! slide, slip Latin labi, lapsus elapse, relapse

labi! lip Latin labia, labiae bilabial, labial

labr! toil Latin labor collaboration, elaboration

lacer! tear Latin lacer laceration

lacrim! cry, tears Latin lacrima "tear" lacrimal, lacrimous

lact! milk Latin lac, lactis, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose


lamin! layer, slice Latin lamina laminate, lamination

lamp! shine Greek lampas "torch" lamp

lapid! stone Latin lapis, lapidis lapidary

larg! large Latin largus enlargement

larv! ghost, mask Latin larva larva, larvae, larval

lati! broad, wide Latin latus latitude

later! side Latin latus, lateris bilateral

lad!, las! praise Latin laudere laud

lav! wash Latin lavare lavatory

lax! not tense Latin laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation

led!, les! hurt Latin laedere, laesus lesion

leg! law Latin lex, legis, legare legal, legislative

lei! smooth Greek leios leiomyoma

leni! gentle Latin lenis, lenire leniency

len! lion Latin leo, leonis "lion" Leo, leonine, Leopold


lep! flake, scale Greek lepis Lepidoptera

leps! grasp, seize Greek lepsis epilepsy

lec!,
white Greek leu os leucocyte
lek!

levis "light" (in


lev! lift, light Latin elevator, levitation
weight), levare

liber! free Latin liber, liberare liberation

libr! book Latin liber, libri library

lig! bind Latin ligare, ligatus ligament, ligature

lin! line Latin linea linearity, line

language, lingua tongue,


ling! Latin bilingual, linguistic
tongue language

linq!, lict! leave Latin linquere, lictus relict, relinquish

lip! fat Greek lipos lipolysis

alliteration, illiterate, literacy,


liter! letter Latin littera
literal, obliterate

lithosphere, megalith, monolith,


lith! stone Greek lithos "stone"
Neolithic Era

lc! place Latin locus local, location


lg! thought, word Greek logos "word" logic, monologue, morphological

lng! long Latin longus elongate, longitude

lq!, lct! speak Latin loqui allocution, eloquence

lc! bright, light Latin lux, lucis light Lucifer (bearer of light)

ld!, ls! play Latin ludere, lusus allude, illusion

lmin! light Latin lumen, luminis illumination, luminous

ln! moon Latin luna lunar, lunatic

  (

eaning‘#n‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘ rigin‘
macr! long Greek ȝĮțȡȩȢ (makros) macron
magn! great, large Latin magnus magnanimous, magnificent
maj! greater Latin major, majus majesty, majority, majuscule
bad, wretched, malfeasance, malicious, malignancy,
mal! Latin malus
evil malodorous
mamm! breast Latin mamma mammal, mammary gland
man! flow Latin manare emanationism, immanant
man! stay Latin manēre, mansus immanence, permanent, remanence
mand! hand Latin mandāre, mandatus mandate, remand
mania crazy Greek ȝĮȞȓĮ kleptomania, maniac
man! hand Latin manus manual, manuscript
mar! sea Latin mare, maris marine, maritime
mater!,
mother Latin mater, matris matriarch, matrix
matr!
maxim! greatest Latin maximus maximal
medi!, !
middle Latin medius, mediare median, medieval
midi!
meg! great, large Greek (megas) megaphone
mei! less Greek (meiōn) meiosis
melan! black, dark Greek ȝȑȜĮȢ (melas) Melanesia, melanoma
melir! better Latin melior amelioration
mell! honey Latin mel, mellis mellifluous
memr! remember Latin memor memorial
mening! membrane Greek (meninx) meningitis
men! moon Greek ȝȒȞ (men) menstruation, menopause
ment! mind Latin mens, mentis demented, mentality
mer! part Greek (meros) polymer
merc! Latin merx, mercis mercantile, merchant
merg!,
dip, plunge Latin mergere emerge, immersion
mers!
mes! middle Greek (mesos) mesolithic, mesozoic
meter!,
measure Greek (metron) metric, thermometer
metr!
above, among,
meta! Greek ȝİIJȐ (meta) metaphor, metaphysics
beyond
mic! grain Latin mica micelle
micr! small Greek ȝȚțȡȩȢ (mikros) microphone, microscope
migr! wander Latin migrare emigrant, migrate
milit! soldier Latin miles, militis military, militia
mill! thousand Latin mille millennium, million
millen! thousand each Latin milleni millenary
mim! repeat Greek (mimos) mime, mimic
min! jut Latin minere prominent
min! less, smaller Latin minor, minus minority, minuscule
wonder, miror, mirari,
mir! Latin admire, miracle, mirror
amazement miratus sum
mis! hate Greek ȝ-ıȠȢ (misos) misandry, misogyny
misce!,
mix Latin miscere, mixtus miscellaneous, mixture
mixt!
mit! thread Greek ȝȓIJȠȢ (mitos) mitochondrion
mitt!, miss! send Latin mittere, missus intermittent, missionary, transmission
mne! memory Greek ȝȞȒȝȘ (mnēmē) mnemonic
mola, molere,
ml! grind Latin molar
molitus
mll! soft Latin mollis emollient, mollify
mn! one Greek (monos) monolith, monotone, monism
mnil! string of beads Latin monile Moniliformida
mnt! mountain Latin mons, montis Montana
anthropomorphism, morpheme,
mrph! form, shape Greek (morphe)
morphology
mrt! death Latin mors, mortis immortal, mortality, mortuary
moveo, movere,
mv!, mt! move, motion Latin mobile, momentum, motor, move
motus
mlg!,
milk Latin mulgere emulsion
mls!
mlti! many, much Latin multus multitude, multiple, multiplex
mr! wall Latin murus, muri immured, mural
ms! thief Latin mus, muris mouse
msc! fly Latin musca, muscae Muscicapidae, Muscidae
mt! change Latin mutare mutation
m! mouse Greek (mus)
countless, ten
mri! Greek (murios) myriad
thousand
mth! story Greek (muthos) mythic, mythology
mx! slime Greek (muxa)
m ! suck Greek

  )


eaning‘in‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘ rigin‘

nar! nostril Latin naris

narc! numb Greek (narkē) narcosis, narcotic

narr! tell Latin narrare narrative

nas! nose Latin nasus nasal

nasc!, nat! born Latin nascere, natus nascent, native

nat! ship Greek (naus) astronaut

nav! ship Latin navis naval

ne! new Greek (neos) neologism

necr! dead Greek (nekros) necrophobia

nect!, nex! join, tie Latin nectere, nexus connection


nect!,
swimming Greek ne tos nectopod
nect!

neg! say no Latin negare negative

nema! hair Greek

nemr! grove, woods Latin nemus, nemoris nemoral

nephr! kidney Greek nephritis

nes! island Greek (nesos) Polynesia

neurology,
ner! nerve Greek (neuron)
neurosurgeon

nict! wink Latin nictari nictation

nigr! black Latin niger denigrate

nihil! nothing Latin nihilum annihilation

nct! night Latin nox, noctis nocturnal

nd! knot Latin nodus node, nodule

nm! arrangement, law Greek (nomos)

nmad! Greek (nomas, nomados) nomadic

nmin! name Latin nomen, nominis nomination


nn! not Latin non

nn! ninth Latin nonus nonary

nnagen! ninety each Latin nonageni nonagenary

nnagesim! ninetieth Latin nonagesimus nonagesimal

nt! letter, note, paper Latin notare notaphily

nth! spurious

nt! back, south Greek (notos)

nv! nine Latin novem novennial

nv! new Latin novus innovation, nova

nven! nine each Latin noveni novenary

nvendec! nineteen Latin novendecim

nx!,‘nc! harmful Latin noxa noxious

n! nod Latin nuere innuendo

nb! Latin nubes, nubis nubile

nc! nut Latin nux, nucis nucleus


nch! back of neck Latin nucha nuchal cord

nd! naked Latin nudus denude, nudity

nlli! none Latin nullus nullify

nmer! number Latin numerus numeral

!nnci! announce Latin nuntius pronunciation

npti! Latin nuptial

ntri! nourish Latin nutrient

  *


eaning‘in‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘ rigin‘

b!, !, c!, obstinate, ostentatious,


against Latin ob
s! obstreperous

ct! eight Greek (oktō) octagon, octahedron

ct! eight Latin octō octangular, octennial, octovir

ctav! eighth Latin octāvus octaval

ctgen! eighty each Latin octogeni octogenary

ctgesim! eightieth Latin octogesimus octogesimal


ctn! eight each Latin octoni octonary

cl! eye Latin oculus, oculare ocular, oculus

d! path, way Greek (hodos) anode, odometer

d! hate Latin odium odious

dnt! tooth Greek (odous, odontos) odontology

dr! fragrant

ecis! house of Greek (oikos)

ed! swollen Greek (oidēma) oedema

en! wine Greek (oinos) oenology

esph! gullet Greek (oisophagos) oesophagus

gd! eighth Greek (ogdoos)

!id like Greek (-oeidēs)

le! oily Latin

Latin from
lecran! skull of elbow (ōlekranon) olecranon
Greek

lig! few Greek (oligos) oligarchy


liv! olive Latin oliva

!ma cancer Greek

mas! paunch Latin omasum omasum

ment! fat skin Latin omentum

min! Latin omen, ominis ominous

mm! eye Greek -ȝȝĮ (omma) ommatidium

mni! all Latin omnis omnipotence, omnivore

m! shoulder Latin

mphal! navel Greek (omphalos) omphalectomy

ner! burden Latin onus, oneris onerous

nm! name Greek ȩȞȠȝĮ (onoma) onomatopoeia

nt! existing Greek (ontos) ontogeny, ontology

!nm name Greek (onuma) pseudonym

! egg Greek (oion) oocyte

pac! shady Latin opacus opacity


per! work Latin opus, operis opera

percl! little cover Latin operculum

phi! snake Greek (ophis)

phthalm! eye Greek (ophthalmos) ophthalmology

pisth! behind Greek (opisthen) opisthosoma, opsimath

pter! either Greek -ʌȩIJİȡȠȢ (hopoteros)

pt! eye Greek optos optical

pt! choose Latin optare adopt, optional

ptim! best Latin optimus optimum

r! mouth Latin os, oris oral, orator

rb! circle Latin orbis orbit

rch! testicle Greek (orchis)

rdin! order Latin ōrdō, ordinis ordinal, ordinary

rgan! Greek (organon) organism

ri!, rt! eastern Latin oriri, ortus orient


rn! Latin ōrnāre adorn, ornament, ornate

rnith! bird Greek -ȡȞȚȢ (ornis, ornithos) ornithology

rth! straight Greek -ȡșȩȢ (orthos) orthodoxy, orthosis

scill! swing Latin oscillum oscillation

ssi! bone Latin os, ossis

ste! bone Greek -ıIJȠ-Ȟ (ostoun) osteoporosis

sti! entrance Latin ostium ostiole

strac! shell Greek (ostrakon) ostracism

t! ear Greek Ƞ-Ȣ (ous, ōtos) otology

v! egg Latin ovum oval, ovule

vi! sheep Latin ovis ovine

x! sharp, pointed Greek (oxus) oxymoron

   

rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘
eaning‘in‘ nglish‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
angage‘ rigin‘

pac! peace Latin pax, pacis pacifism


pach! thick Greek ʌĮȤȪȢ (pachus) pachydermata

ʌĮ-Ȣ, ʌĮȚįȩȢ (pais,


paed! child Greek paediatric
paidos)

pagin! page Latin pagina pagination

pal! stake Latin palus impale

palae!, pale! ancient, old Greek ʌĮȜĮȚȩȢ (palaios) paleontology

palin! back Greek ʌĮȜȚȞ (palin) palindrome

pall! pale Latin pallere pallid, pallor

palli! mantle Latin pallium pallium

palm! palm Latin palma palmate

palstri! in marshes Latin paluster palustral

ʌ-Ȣ, ʌĮȞIJȩȢ (pas,


pan!, pam! all Greek pandemic
pantos)

pand!, pans! spread Latin pandere, pansus expand, expansion

para! beside, near Greek ʌĮȡȐ (para) parallel, parameter

pariet! wall Latin paries, parietis parietal

parti! part Latin pars, partis partition


parthen! maiden Greek ʌĮȡșȑȞȠȢ (parthenos) parthenogenesis

parv! little Latin parvus

pasc!, past! feed Latin pascere, pastus pasture, repast

pass! pace, step Latin passus

passer! sparrow Latin passer passeriform, passerine

pat! be open Latin patere patent

path! to feel, hurt Greek ʌȐșȠȢ (pathos) pathetic, pathology

suffer; feel; endure;


pati!, pass! Latin pati, passus passive, patient
permit

patri! father Latin pater, patris patrilocal, patriarch

pac! Latin paucus paucity

pav! Latin pavement

pecc! sin Latin peccare impeccable

pect! fixed Greek ʌȘțIJȩȢ (pēktos) pectic, pectin

pectr! chest Latin pectus, pectoris pectoral

pecn! money Latin pecunia pecuniary


ʌĮ-Ȣ, ʌĮȚįȩȢ (pais,
ped! child Greek pedagogy
paidos)

ped! foot Latin pes, pedis pedal

pejr! worse Latin pejor pejorative

pel!, pls! drive Latin pellere propellent, propulsion

peninsula, penultimate,
pen! almost Latin paene
penumbra

pend!, pens! hang Latin pendere suspend

penia! deficiency Greek ʌİȞȓĮ (penia)

penn!, pinn! feather Latin penna pennate

pent! five Greek ʌȑȞIJİ (pente) pentagon

pentecst! fiftieth Greek (pentekostos) pentecostalism

ʌȑııİȚȞ, ʌİʌIJȩȢ (pessein,


pept! Greek peptic
peptos)

per! thoroughly, through Latin per perfect, persistent

peran! across, beyond Greek

peri! around Greek ʌİȡȓ perimeter, periscope

persic! peach Greek ʌİȡıȚțȩȢ (persikos)


pessim! worst Latin pessimus pessimal

pet! Latin petere appetite, competition

petr! rock Greek ʌȑIJȡĮ (petra) petroglyph

phae! dark Greek ijĮȚȩȢ (phaios)

phag! eat Greek ijĮȖİ-Ȟ (phagein) sarcophagus

close formation of ijȐȜĮȖȟ, ijȐȜĮȖȖȠȢ


phalang! Greek phalange(s)
troops, finger bones (phalanx, phalangos)

having a patch of
phalar! Greek ijȐȜĮȡȠȢ (phalāros)[1]
white

phaner! visible Greek ijĮȞİȡȩȢ

pher! bear, carry Greek ijȑȡȦ pheromone

philia! love, friendship Greek ijȚȜȚĮ

phleg! Greek

phle! tree bark Greek ijȜȠȚȩȢ(phloios)

phbia! fear Greek ijȩ>ȠȢ () hydrophobia

microphone,
phn! sound Greek ijȦȞȒ (phone)
phonograph

phr! carry Greek (phoros) metaphor


phs!, pht! light Greek ij-Ȣ photograph

phragm! fence Greek (phragma) diaphragm

ijȡȒȞ, ijȡİȞȩȢ (phrēn,


phren! diaphragm, mind Greek schizophrenia
phrenos)

phrn! toad, toad-like Greek (phrunē)

phl! tribe Greek (phulon) phylum

phll! leaf Greek (phullon) chlorophyll

phsa! bladder Greek (phusa)

phs! nature Greek physics

pht! plant Greek (phuton) neophyte

pic! pitch Latin pix, picis

pil! hair Latin

pin! pine Latin

ping!, pict! paint Latin pingere picture

pin! drink Greek (pinein) pinocytosis

pir! pear Latin


pisc! fish Latin piscis Pisces

pis! pea Greek (pisos)

plac! plate, tablet Greek (plax, plakos)

plac! calm Latin placare, placatus placate

plac!, !plic! please Latin placēre, placitus placid

plagi! oblique Greek (plagios)

plan! flat Latin planus explanation, planar

plang! Latin plangere plangent

plas! mould Greek plasma, plastic

plat! flat, broad Greek (platus) platypus

plad!, plas! clap Latin plaudere, plausus applaud

ple!, plet! fill Latin plere complete, suppletive

pleb! people Latin plebs, plebis plebian

plect!, plex! plait Latin plectere, plexus perplex

plec! interwoven Greek ʌȜȑțȦ (pleko) Plectics


plen! full Latin plenus plenary

plesi! near Greek ʌȜȘıȓȠȢ (plēsios)

pleth! full Greek ʌȜ-șȠȢ (plēthos) plethora

pler! side Greek ʌȜİȣȡȐ pleura

plic! fold, braid Latin plicare, plicatus duplication, replicate

plinth! brick Greek ʌȜȓȞșȠȢ (plinthos)

plr! Latin plorare implore

pl! rain Latin pluere

plm! feather Latin pluma plumage, plumate

plmb! lead Latin plumbum

plr! more Latin pluris plural

plrim! most Latin plurimus

pls! more Latin plus

plvi! rain Latin pluvia pluvial

pne! air, lung Greek ʌȞİ-ȝĮ pneumatic


ʌȠȪȢ, ʌȠįȩȢ (pous,
pd! foot Greek podiatry, tripod
podos)

ʌȫȖȦȞ, ʌȫȖȦȞȠȢ (pōgōn,


pgn! beard Greek pogonotrophy
pōgōnos)

pie! make Greek ʌȠȚȑȦ poiesis

ple!,‘pli! city Greek ʌȩȜȚȢ (polis) metropolis, politics

pl! pole Greek ʌȩȜȠȢ (polos) dipole, polar

pl! stake, pale Latin palus pole-vault

plem! war Greek ʌȩȜİȝȠȢ (polemos) polemic

pli! grey Greek ʌȠȜȚȩȢ (polios)

pllic! thumb Latin pollex, pollicis

pllin! Latin pollen, pollinis pollination

pl! many Greek ʌȠȜȪȢ (polus) polygon

component, position,
pn!, psit! put Latin ponere, positus
postpone

pnder! weight Latin pondus, ponderis ponderable

pnt! bridge Latin pons, pontis pontoon

ppl! people Latin populus population


pr! passage Greek ʌȩȡȠȢ (poros) pore

prc! pig Latin porcus porcine, pork

prphr! purple Greek ʌȠȡijȪȡĮ (porphura) porphyrin

prt! gate Latin porta portal

prt! carry Latin portare, portatus export, transportation

pst! after, behind Latin post posterior, postscript

pt! drink Latin potare potable

Mesopotamia,
ptam! river Greek ʌȠIJĮȝȩȢ (potamos)
hippopotamus

prasin! leek-green Greek ʌȡȐȚȞȠȢ (prasinos) prasinous

prat! meadow Latin pratum

prav! crooked Latin pravus depravity

pre! before Latin prae previous

prec! pray Latin prex, precare deprecation

pred! Latin praedari predator

prehend!,
grasp Latin prehendere comprehend
prend!
prem!, !prim!,
press Latin premere, pressus pressure
press!

presb! old Greek ʌȡȑȕȣȢ (presbus) Presbyterianism

preter! past Latin praeter preterite, pretermission

preti! price Latin pretium

primary, primeval,
prim! first Latin primus
primitive

prir! former Latin prior priority

priv! separate Latin privare, privatus deprivation

pr! before, in front of Greek ʌȡȩ (pro)

pr! for, forward Latin pro propulsion

prb! try Latin probare probation

prct! anus Greek ʌȡȦțIJȩȢ (proktos) proctology

prpri! Latin proprius appropriate

prs! forward Greek ʌȡȩȢ (pros)

prt! first Greek ʌȡ-IJȠȢ (prōtos) protoplasm

prxim! nearest Latin proximus proximity


prn! plum Latin prunus prune

psamma! sand Greek ±ȐȝȝȠȢ (psammos)

psed! false Greek ȥİ-įȠȢ (pseudos) pseudonym

psil! bare Greek ȥȚȜȩȢ (psilos) epsilon

psch! mind Greek ȥȣȤȘ (psychē) psycho

pschr! cold Greek ȥȣȤȡȠȢ (psuchros)

pter! wing, fern Greek (pteron) helicopter

pt! fall Greek ptosis

ptal! saliva Greek ʌIJȪȠȞ (ptyon)

ptch! fold, layer Greek ʌIJȣȤȒ (ptuchē) triptych

pbi! sexually mature Latin pubic, pubescent

pblic! Latin publicus publication

pde! Latin pudere impudent

pgn! fight Latin pugnare pugnacious, repugnant

plchr! beautiful Latin pulcher, pulchri pulchritude


plmn! lung Latin pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary

plver! dust Latin pulvis, pulveris pulverize

png!, pnct! prick Latin pungere puncture, pungent

pni! punish Latin punire punitive

pp! doll Latin pupa pupa, puppet

pr! pure Latin purus impure, purity

prg! Latin purgare expurgate, purgatory

prpr! purple Latin purpura

pt! think Latin putare compute, putative

pg! rump Greek (pugē)

pl! gate Greek ʌȣȜȫȞ, ʌȣȜ-ȞȠȢ (pulōn) pylon

pr! heat, fire Greek ʌȪȡ, ʌȣȡȩȢ (pur, puros) pyrolysis

  +


eaning‘#n‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘ rigin‘

quadrangle,
qadr! four Latin quattuor
quadrillion
qadragen! forty each Latin quadrageni quadragenary

qadragesim! fortieth Latin quadragesimus quadragesimal

qart! fourth Latin quartus quartary, quartile

qasi! as if Latin quasi

quaternary,
qatern! four each Latin quaterni
quaternion

qati!, qass! shake Latin quatere

qer!, !qir!, qesit!, !


search, seek Latin quaerere Inquisition, query
qisit!

qi! rest Latin quies quiet

qin! five each Latin quini quinary

qindecim! fifteenth Latin quindecimus quindecimal

qinden! fifteen each Latin quindeni quindenary

qinqe! five Latin quinque quinquennium

qint! fifth Latin quintus quintary, quintile

how many, how


qt! Latin quota, quotient
great
 ! ,

rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘
eaning‘#n‘ nglish‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
angage‘ rigin‘

rad!, ras! scrape, shave Latin radere, rasus abrade, abrasion

radi! beam, spoke Latin radius, radiare radiation

radic! root Latin radix, radicis eradicate, radical

ram! branch Latin ramus ramification, ramose

ran! frog Latin rana Rana

rancidness, grudge,
ranc! Latin rancere rancid, rancor
bitterness

rap! turnip Latin rapum

raph! seam Greek

rar! Latin rarus rarity

rac! harsh, hoarse Latin raucus raucous

re!, red! again, back Latin re- recede, redact

reg!, !rig!, dirigible, erect, erection,


straight Latin regere, rectus
rect! rectum

rem! oar Latin remus bireme, trireme


ren! kidney Latin renes renal

rep!, rept! crawl, creep Latin repere, reptus reptile

ret! net Latin rete reticle, retina

retr! backward, behind Latin retro retrograde, retrospective

rhabd! rod Greek -Ȑ>įȠȢ (rhabdos) rhabdoid, rhabdom

-ȐȤȚȢ, -ȐȤİȦȢ
rhach!, rach! spine Greek rhachiodont
(rhachis)

rhag! tear, rent Greek -ĮȖȓȗȦ rhagades

rhe! flow Greek -İ-Ȟ (rhein) rheostat

rhig! chill Greek --ȖȠȢ (rhigos) rhigosaurus

-ȓȢ, -ȚȞȩȢ (rhis,


rhin! nose, snout Greek rhinoplasty
rhinos)

rhi ! root Greek -ȓȗĮ (rhiza) rhizome

rhd! rose Greek -ȩįȠȞ (rhodon) rhododendron

rhmb! Greek -ȩȝ>ȠȢ (rhombos) rhombus

rhnch! snout Greek -ȪȖȤȠȢ Rhynchobatus

rid!, ris! laugh Latin ridere, risus derision, ridicule


rbr! oak, strength Latin robur, roboris corroboration

rd!, rs! gnaw Latin rodere, rosus corrode, erosion, rodent

rg! ask Latin rogare interrogation

rstr! beak, prow Latin rostrum rostrum

rt! wheel Latin rota, rotare rotation

rber! red Latin ruber ruby

rg! wrinkle Latin ruga, rugare corrugation

rmin! throat Latin rumen, ruminis rumination

rmp!, rpt! break Latin rumpere, ruptus eruption, rupture

rr! country Latin rus, ruris rural

 # -


eaning‘in‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘ rigin‘

sacchar! sugar Greek ıȐțȤĮȡȠȞ (sakcharon) saccharin

sacr!, secr! sacred Latin sacer, sacrare consecrate, sacrament

sagac! Wise Latin sagax, sagacis sagacity


sagitt! arrow Latin sagitta sagittal plane, Sagittaria

sal! salt Latin sal, salis, salere salinity

sali!, !sili!, salt! jump Latin salire, saltus resilient, salient, saltus

salic! willow Latin salix, salicis salicin

salv! save Latin salvare salvation

san! Latin sanus insane, sanity

sanct! holy Latin sancire sanctify, sanctuary

sangin! blood Latin sanguis, sanguinis sanguine

sapi!, !sipi! Latin sapere sapient

sapn! soap Latin sapo, saponis saponification

sarc! flesh Greek ıȐȡȟ (sarx, sarkos) sarcophagus

sativ! cultivated Latin sativus

sar! lizard, reptile Greek ıĮ-ȡȠȢ (sauros) dinosaur

saxm rock Latin saxum

scab! scratch Latin scabere scabies


scal! ladder, stairs Latin scala scale

scalen! uneven Greek s alenos scalene

scand!, !scend!,
climb Latin scandere ascend
scans!, !scens!

anything hollow,
scaph! Greek
bowl, ship

schem! plan Greek ıȤ-ȝĮ (schema) schematic

schis! split Greek ıȤȓıȝĮ (schisma) schism

sci! know Latin scire prescient, science

scind!, sciss! split Latin scindere scissors

scler! hard Greek (skler-) scleroderma

scli! crooked Greek ıțȠȜȚȩȢ (skolios) scoliosis

look at, examine,


scp!, scopy, scept- Greek ıțȠʌȩȢ (skopos) kaleidoscope, stethoscope
view, observe

scrib!, script! write Latin scribere inscribe, scripture

sclp! carve Latin sculpere sculpture

sct! shield Latin scutum

scph! cup Greek


se!, sed! apart Latin secede, sedition

seba! tallow, wax Latin Sebum, sebaceous

sec!, sect!, seg! cut Latin secare secant, section, segment

sed! settle, calm Latin sedare sedative

reside, sediment, session,


sed!, !sid!, sess! sit Latin sedere
supersede

sedec! sixteen Latin sedecim sedecimal

seget! in cornfields Latin segetum

sei! shake Greek ıİȚıȝȩȢ (seismos) seismograph

selen! moon Greek ıİȜȒȞȘ (selene)

sella! saddle, seat Latin sella

sema! Greek ı-ȝĮ (sema) semantics, semaphore

semi! half Latin semis semi-final

semin! seed Latin semen, seminis insemination

sen! old man Latin senex, senis senator, senility

sen! six each Latin seni senary


senti!, sens! feel Latin sentire, sensus consensus

sept! Latin saeptum

sept! seven Latin septem septennium

septen! seven each Latin septeni septenary

septim! seventh Latin septimus

septagen! seventy each Latin septuageni septuagenary

septagesim! seventieth Latin septuagesimus septuagesimal

septagint! seventy Latin septuaginta Septuagint

seq!, sect! follow Latin sequere consecutive, sequence

ser! any body fluid Latin serum

sert! late Latin serus

serp! crawl Latin serpere serpent

serr! saw, saw-toothed Latin serra, serrare serration

save, protect,
serv! Latin servare conservation
serve

sesqi! Latin sesqui


set! hair Latin seta

sever! severe Latin severus severity

semester, sexangle,
sex!, se! six Latin sex
sexennium

sexagen! sixty each Latin sexageni sexagenary

sexagesim! sixtieth Latin sexagesimus sexagesimal

sext! sixth Latin sextus sextant

sibil! hiss Latin sibilus, sibilare sibilance

sicc! dry Latin siccus desiccation

sider! star Latin sidus, sideris sidereal

sign! sign Latin signum design, designate, signal

sil! Latin silere silence

silv! forest Latin silva silviculture

simi! ape, monkey Latin simia simian

likeness, trust,
simil! Latin similis assimilate, similarity
group

siml! Latin simulare simulation


singl! one each Latin singuli singular

sinistr! left Latin sinister, sinistri sinistral

sin! (to draw) a line Latin sinuare insinuate

sins! hollow, bay Latin sinus

siph! tube Greek siphon

sist! cause to stand Latin sistere consist

sit! food, grain, wheat Greek ȓIJȠȢ (sitos) sitology

sci! group Latin socius, sociare associate, social

sl! sun Latin sol solar

sl! warmth Latin solare consolation

slen! pipe, channel Greek ıȦȜȒȞ (solen) solenoid

slv!, slt! loosen, set free Latin solvere solution

sma! body Greek ı-ȝĮ (soma) somatic

smn! sleep Latin somnus insomnia

smni! dream Latin somnium


sn! sound Latin sonus resonance

sph! Wise Greek ȠijȩȢ (sophos) sophist

srb!, srpt! suck Latin sorbere absorb, absorption

srd! dirt Latin sordes, sordere sordid

srr! sister Latin soror sorority

spati! space Latin spatium spatial

conspicuous, inspection,
spec!, !spic!, spect! look Latin specere
specimen

spect! watch, look at Latin spectare spectator

specl! Latin speculari speculation

sper! hope Latin spes, sperare desperation, esperance

sperm! seed Greek ıʌȑȡȝĮ (sperma)

sphen! wedge Greek ıijȒȞ (sphen)

spher! ball Greek ıijĮ-ȡĮ (sphaira) spheroid, sphere

sphinct! closing Greek

spic! spike Latin spica


spin! thorn Latin spina spine

spir! breathe Latin spirare respiration

spnd!, spns! Latin spondere, sponsus

spndl! vertebra

sp!, spt! spew, spit Latin spuere sputum

sqal! Latin squalere squalid, squalor

sqam! scale Latin squama

sqarrs! spreading at tips Latin

stable, station, status,


st! stand Latin stare, status
statistic, statue, establish

pool of standing
stagn! Latin stagnare stagnant
water

stalact! Greek (stalaktites) stalactite

stalagm! Greek (stalagmos) stalagmite

stann! tin Latin stannum stannous

stat!, !stit! stand Latin statuere institution, statute

stea! fat, tallow Greek (stear, steatos) stearic acid


steg! covering Greek steganography

stell! star Latin stella constellation, stellar

sten! narrow Greek ıIJİȞȩȢ (stenos) stenography

stere! solid Greek ıIJİȡİȩȢ (stereos)

stern!, strat! spread, strew Latin sternere, stratus stratify

stern! breastbone Greek ıIJȑȡȞȠȞ (sternon) sternum

stich! line, row Greek ıIJȓȤȠȢ (stichos)

stig! Greek ıIJȓȖȝĮ stigma

still! drip Latin stilla, stillare distillation

stiml! goad, rouse, excite stimulate

sting!, stinct! Latin stinguere distinction, distinguish

stch! aim Greek ıIJȩȤȠȢ

stm! mouth Greek ıIJȩȝĮ

strept! twisted Greek ıIJȡİʌIJȩȢ (streptos)

strig! Latin strix, strigis strigogyps


string!, strict! upright, stiff Latin stringere, strictus stringent

having stiff
strigs! Latin
bristles

stroph- turning Greek ıIJȡȠijȒ (strophe)

str!, strct! Latin struere construction, construe

std! Latin studere student

stp! wonder Latin stupere stupor

stl! column, pillar Greek ıIJ-ȜȠȢ (stulos) stylus

s!, st! sew Latin suere suture

si! self suicide

sad!, sas! Latin suadere, suasus persuasion

sav! sweet Latin suavis suave

sb!, s!, ss! below Latin sub submerge

sbter! Latin subter subterfuge

scr! sugar Latin sucrose

sd! sweat Latin sudare


slc! furrow Latin sulcus

sm!, smpt! take Latin sumere assumption, consume

sper! above, over Latin super supersede

spin! lying back Latin supinus

spra! above, over Latin spra

srd! deaf Latin surdus absurdity

srg! rise Latin surgere resurgent

symbol, system, synonym,


sn!, s!, sl!, sm! with Greek ıȪȞ (sun)
symmetry

ıȪȡȚȖȟ, ıȪȡȚȖȖȠȢ
sring! pipe Greek
(syrinx, syringos)

 % .


eaning‘in‘ rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
nglish‘ angage‘ rigin‘

tac!, !tic! be silent Latin tacere, tacitus reticent, tacit

tach! swift Greek IJĮȤȣȢ (tachus) tachometer

taenia! ribbon Greek (tainia)

tal! ankle Latin talus


tang!, !ting!, tact!,
touch Latin tangere, tactus contact, tangent
tag!

tapet! carpet Latin tapete, tapetis

tard! slow Latin tardus retard, tardy

IJĮȡıȩȢ (tarsos, a flat


tars! ankle Greek tarsal
basket)

tar! bull Greek IJĮ-ȡȠȢ (tauros) Minotaur

tar! bull Latin taurus Taurus

arrangement,
tax! Greek (taxis) taxonomy
order

techn! Greek IJȑȤȞȘ (techne) technology

teg!, tect! cover Latin tegere, tectus protection

telephone, telescope,
tele! far, end Greek IJ-Ȝİ-
telegram

tele! complete Greek IJȑȜȠȢ teleology

temn! cut Greek IJȑȝȞȦ

tempr! time Latin tempus, temporis temporary, temporal.

ten!, !tin!, tent! hold Latin tenere, tentus continent, tenacious


tend!, tens! stretch Latin tendere, tensus extend, extension

ten! slender, thin Latin tenuis attenuate, tenuous

tep! be warm Latin tepere tepid

ter!, trit! rub Latin terere, tritus attrition, contrite

teret! rounded Latin teres, teretis

terg!, ters! wipe Latin tergere, tersus detergent

termin! Latin terminus determine, termination

tern! three each Latin terni ternary, ternion

terr! dry land Latin terra terrace, terrain, terracotta

terti! third Latin tertius tertian, tertiary

test! witness Latin testis testimony

tetr! four Greek (tetra-) tetrahedron

tex!, text! weave Latin texere, textus texture

thalam! chamber, bed Greek șȐȜĮȝȠȢ (thalamos)

thalass! sea Greek șȐȜĮııĮ (thalassa) Panthalassa


than! death Greek șȐȞĮIJȠȢ (thanatos) euthanasia

the! put Greek IJȓșȘȝȚ (tithemi) theme, thesis thesaurus

!theca case Greek șȒț

thel! nipple, female Greek șȘȜȒ

the!, ths! god Greek șİȩȢ (theos) theology, enthusiasm

theri! Greek șİȦȡȓĮ theorem, theory

therm! heat Greek șİȡȝȩȢ (thermos) thermometer

ther! beast, animal Greek șȒȡ, șȘȡȩȢ

thre! large shield Greek șȣȡİȩȢ thyroid

tim! be afraid Latin timere timid

ting!, tinct! moisten Latin tingere, tinctus tincture

IJȠȝȒ (tome), IJȩȝȠȢ


tm! cut Greek ectomy, atom, tome
(tomos)

tn! stretch Greek IJȩȞȠȢ (tonos)

tp! place Greek IJȩʌȠȢ (topos) topic, topography

Latin from tornare < IJȩȡȞȠȢ


trn! cut
Greek (tornos)
trpe! numb Latin torpere torpor

trq!, trt! twist Latin torquere, tortus extortion, torque, torture

tt! all, whole Latin totus total

tx! arrow, bow Greek IJȩȟȠȞ (toxon)

trab! beam Latin trabs, trabis

trach! rough Greek (trachus)

trag! goat Greek (tragos) tragus

trah!, tract! pull Latin trahere, tractus subtrahend, tractor

tradition, transcend,
trans!, tra!, tran! across Latin trans
transportation

trape ! four-sided, table Greek (trapeza) trapezoid

tram! wound Greek (trauma) trauma, traumatic

trecent! three hundred Latin trecenti trecentennial

tredec! thirteen Latin tredecim

treiskaidek! thirteen Greek IJȡİȚıțĮȓįİțĮ triskaidekaphobia

trem! tremble Latin tremere tremor


trema! hole Greek IJȡ-ȝĮ (trēma)

IJȡİ-Ȣ, IJȡȓĮ (treis,


tri! three Greek triad, trigon, tripod
tria)

tri! three Latin tres triangle, trivia, triumvirate

tricen! thirty each Latin triceni tricenary

tricesim!,
thirtieth Latin tricesimus trigesimal
trigesim!

șȡȓȟ, IJȡȚȤȩȢ (thrix,


trich! hair Greek trichopathophobia
trichos)

trin! three each Latin trini trinity

trch! wheel Greek IJȡȠȤȩȢ

trp! turning Greek IJȡȩʌȠȢ (tropos) tropic

trph! feed, grow Greek IJȡȠijȩȢ pogonotrophy

trd!, trs! thrust Latin trudere, trusus extrusion, intrude

tss! cough Latin tussis, tussire pertussis

tmpan! drum Greek IJȪȝʌĮȞȠȞ (tumpanon) tympani

  /

t‘
eaning‘in‘ nglish‘ rigin‘angage‘ tmlg‘t‘rigin‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
ber! udder Latin uber, uberare exuberant

lig! in marshes Latin

l! wooly Greek

ltim! farthest Latin ultimus ultimate

ltra! beyond Latin ultra ultrasonic

mbilic! navel Latin umbilicus umbilical

mbr! shade, shadow Latin umbra penumbra, umbrella

n!, ni! one Latin unus, unius unary, union

nc! hooked Latin uncus uncinate

nci! ounce, twelfth Latin uncia uncial

nd! wave Latin unda abundant, undulate

ndecim! eleventh Latin undecimus undecimal

nden! eleven each Latin undeni undenary

ngi! claw, nail Latin unguis

ngl! claw, hoof Latin ungula ungulate


r!, r! tail Greek Ƞ-ȡȐ (oura) uroid, uroborus

r!, r! urine Greek Ƞ-ȡȠȞ (ouron) urology

rb! city Latin urbs, urbis urban

rg! work Latin urgere urgent

rs! bear Latin ursus Ursa Major, ursine

t!, s! use Latin uti, usus usual, utility

v! grape Latin uva uvea

xr! wife Latin uxor uxoricide

   

rigin‘ tmlg‘t‘
t‘
eaning‘in‘ nglish‘ nglish‘ xamples‘
angage‘ rigin‘

vac! empty Latin vacare vacancy, vacation, vacuum

vad!, vas! go Latin vadere evade, pervasive

vag! wander Latin vagus, vagare vague, vagabond

van! Latin vanus vanity

vap! lack (of) Latin evaporation, vapid


veh!, vect! carry Latin vehere, vectus vehicle, vector

vel! veil Latin velum revelation, velate

vell!, vls! pull Latin vellere, vulsus convulsion

velc! quick Latin velox, velocis velocity

ven! vein Latin vena venosity

ven! hunt Latin venari venison

ven!, vent! come Latin venire advent, convention

vend! sell Latin vendere vendor, vending

vener! respectful Latin venus veneration, venereal

vent! wind Latin ventus ventilation

ventr! belly Latin venter ventral

ver! true Latin verus verify, verity

verb! word Latin verbum verbal, verbatim, verbosity

verber! whip Latin verber reverberation

verm! worm Latin vermis vermiform


vern! spring Latin ver, vernus vernal

convert, inversion, invert,


vert!, vers! turn Latin vertere, versus
vertical

vesic! bladder Latin vesica vesical

vesper! evening, western Latin vespera vesperal

vest! clothe, garment Latin vestis divest, vest

vestig! follow, track Latin vestigium investigate

vet! forbid Latin vetare veto

veter! old Latin vetus, veteris inveterate, veteran

vi! way Latin via deviate, obvious, via

vic! change Latin vicis vice versa, vicissitude

vicen!, vigen! twenty Latin viceni vicenary

vicesim!,
twentieth Latin vecesimus vicesimary, vigesimal
vigesim!

vid!, vis! see Latin videre, visus video, vision

vil! cheap Latin vilis vile, vilify

vill! shaggy hair, velvet Latin villus villiform


vin! wine Latin vinum vinous

vinc!, vict! conquer Latin vincere, victus invincible, victory

vir! man Latin vir virility

vir! green Latin virere virid, viridian

visc! thick Latin viscum viscosity

organs of the body


viscer! Latin viscus, visceris visceral
cavity

vit! life Latin vita vital

vitell! yolk Latin vitellus

viti! fault Latin vitium vice, vitiate

vitr! glass Latin vitrum vitreous

viv! live Latin vivere revive, survive, vivid

vocal, vocation,
vc! voice Latin vox, vocis
provocative

vl! fly Latin volare volatility

vl! wish Latin velle volition

vlv!, vlt! roll Latin volvere, volutus convolution, revolve


vm! discharge Latin vomere vomit

vr!, vrac! swallow Latin vorare, vorax devour, voracious

vv!, vt! vow Latin vovere, votus votive

vlg! common, crowd Latin vulgus divulge, vulgarity, vulgate

vlner! wound Latin vulnus, vulneris vulnerable

vlp! fox Latin vulpes, vulpis vulpine

  2

t‘
eaning‘in‘ nglish‘ rigin‘angage‘ tmlg‘t‘rigin‘ nglish‘ xamples‘

xanth! yellow Greek (xanthos) xanthogenic

xen! foreign Greek ȟİȞȠȢ (xenos) xenophobia

xer! dry Greek (xēros) xerography

xiph! sword Greek (xiphos) xiphoid

xl! wood Greek (xulon) xylophone

  4

t‘
eaning‘#n‘ nglish‘ rigin‘angage‘ tmlg‘t‘rigin‘ nglish‘ xamples‘

! ! animal, living being Greek ȗ-ȠȞ (zōion) protozoa, zoo, zoology


n! belt, girdle Greek ȗȦȞȘ (zōnē) zone

g! yoke Greek ȗȣȖȠȞ (zugon) heterozygous, zygote

m! ferment Greek ȗȣȝȘ (zumē) enzyme, lysozyme

 