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US 20150033741A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2015/0033741 A1
Iwasaki et al.
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

TURBINE FACILITY AND WATER


TREATMENT METHOD FOR HEATER
DRAINAGE WATER

Feb. 5, 2015

Publication Classi?cation

(51)

Int- Cl
F01K 7/38
(52) U-s- Cl

(71) Applicant: KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES


LTD Nakanwku Tokyo (Jp)

(2006.01)

CPC ...................................... .. F01K 7/38 (2013.01)


USPC

(72) Inventors: Mamoru Iwasaki, Nakano-ku (JP);

............................................. .. 60/646; 60/657

(57)

ABSTRACT

NObllald Nagaof NalfanQ'ku (JP);

Provided are a turbine facility, in Which iron oxide particle

semehl TSUbaklzakl> Mlnato'ku (JP);


Masahalll Takada, Mlnato'ku (JP)

scale that adheres to inner surfaces of boiler tubes and


impedes heat transfer can be e?iciently removed from heater
drainage water; and a water treatment method for heater

(21) Appl. No.:

14/376,759

drainage water in the turbine facility. The turbine facility

(22)

PCT Filed;

Feb 19, 2013

includes a boiler 9, steam turbines 12 and 16, a condenser 1,


feedwater heaters 5 and 8 Which are interposed in water

(86)

PCT NO _

PCT/JP2013/053923

condenser 1 to the boiler 9, and in Which part of steam sup

supply lines 4 and 6 that supply condensate condensed by the


"

plied from the steam turbine 12 to a repeater is extracted as

371 (0X1),
(2) Date:

(30)

extraction steam, and the feedwater is heatedusing the extrac


tion steam, and a ?ltration device 19 in Which heater drainage
water discharged from the low-pressure feedwater heater 5 is

Aug 5, 2014

Foreign Application Priority Data

?ltered and supplied to the water supply system for recovery.


The ?ltration device 19 includes a ?lter having a pore size of

Feb. 29, 2012

(JP) ............................... .. 2012-043802

1 to 5 pm.

15
STEAM

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DEVICE

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MAKEUP

CONDENSER hwm-ER

Patent Application Publication

Feb. 5, 2015 Sheet 1 0f2

US 2015/0033741 A1

NEH;

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Patent Application Publication

Feb. 5, 2015 Sheet 2 0f 2

US 2015/0033741 A1

Fig.2
120

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- 10 53

CUMULATIVE CONTENT

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CONTENT BY PARTICLE SIZE

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PARTICLE SIZE [Hm]

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Feb. 5, 2015

US 2015/0033741A1

TURBINE FACILITY AND WATER


TREATMENT METHOD FOR HEATER
DRAINAGE WATER
FIELD OF INVENTION

[0006] As the thickness of the magnetite layer increases


excessively, the heat-transfer coef?cient decreases. Further
more, magnetite forrns a wavelike oxide layer on the boiler
tube surface and increases the water ?ow resistance of boiler
water, resulting in a decrease in comprehensive energy con

version e?iciency. Therefore, in power generation facilities,


[0001] The present invention relates to a turbine facility,
and more particularly relates to a turbine facility equipped
with a mechanism that ?lters heater drainage water and recov
ers water to a feed pipe. Furthermore, the present invention
relates to a water treatment method for heater drainage water

in the turbine facility.


BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

[0002]

In thermal and nuclear power plants and the like,

generated high-temperature, high-pressure steam is supplied


to a turbine, and the turbine is driven by the steam to generate
power. The steam which has driven the turbine is cooled and
converted to the form of water by a condenser, and then the
water is heated again and supplied to a boiler, nuclear reactor,
or steam generator for reuse.

[0003] In large-scale power generation facilities, high


pressure and low-pressure straight multi-stage steam turbines
are used in many cases. The turbine is rotated by high-tem
perature, high-pressure steam generated in a boiler or steam
generator, and thus a power generator is rotated. As steam

expands, its enthalpy decreases and the steam becomes wet


steam. In the state of wet steam, the energy conversion ef?

ciency in the turbine decreases, and therefore, partial of wet

once in three to four years, chemical cleaning is performed

during the periodic maintenance so that excessive growth of


magnetite oxide layers can be controlled and corrosion pre
vention of boiler tubes and decreases in resistance of heat
transfer and water ?ow resistance can be achieved.

[0007] For about 20 years, a boiler water quality manage


ment technique referred to as CWT (Combined Water Treat

ment) has been prevalent mainly in Europe and North


America. In this method, feedwater including both conden
sate and makeup water is treated with a deaerator, in which
oxygen, inert gases, and the like are removed, and then by
adding pure oxygen, the oxygen concentration in the feedwa
ter is controlled to about 5 ppb. In the initial phase of transi

tion to CWT, combined treatment using ammonia together


with oxygen was mainly carried out. In recent years, oxygen

treatment in which oxygen only is added has become the


mainstream. By the oxygen treatment, a layer of hematite
(Fe203), which is more oxidized than magnetite, is formed on
the boiler tube surface. The hematite layer is very dense, the
surface thereof is smoother than that of the magnetite layer,
and therefore, the hematite layer does not increase water ?ow

resistance. Furthermore, the hematite layer is also chemically


stable and has a high anti-corrosion effect. Therefore, CWT
less frequently requires chemical cleaning than AVT. For

steam is performed at a predetermined stage of the turbine.


The extraction steam has a large amount of energy including

these reasons, the number of boilers to which CWT treatment

latent heat of vaporization. Accordingly, for the purpose of


heat recovery, the bleed of steam from the predetermined

plants in Japan.

stage of the turbine is led to a heat exchanger and subjected to


indirect heat exchange with condensate, thus heating the con

is heated by a feedwater heater which uses the extraction

densate. A heat exchanger which heats the condensate using


the extraction steam from a high-pressure turbine is referred
to as a high-pressure heater, and a heat exchanger which
heats the condensate using the extraction steam from a low
pressure turbine is referred to as a low-pressure heater.

[0004] The extraction steam from the low-pressure turbine


is low in temperature and pressure compared with the extrac
tion steam from the high-pressure turbine. Therefore, the
condensate discharged from a condenser passes through a
low-pressure heater ?rst, then passes through a deaerator, a

is applied has been increasing in large-scale thermal power


[0008]

As described above, the condensate from the turbine

steam as a heat source. The drainage from the feedwater

heater joins the condensate and recycled as feedwater.


[0009] In the turbine facility in which CWT treatment was
carried out, when the total iron concentration in the conden
sate, the high-pressure heater drainage, and the low-pres sure
heater drainage was measured, the iron concentration in the

low-pressure heater drainage was markedly higher than that


of other water. Thus, it became evident that the cause for
increasing the iron concentration in the boiler feedwater was

the low-pressure heater drainage.

high-pressure heater, and an economizer, and circulated again

[0010]

as feedwater to the boiler. Furthermore, high-pressure heater

When the low-pressure heater drainage in the tur

drainage generated by condensation in the high-pressure

bine facility, in which CWT treatment was carried out, was


made to ?ow through a ?lter unit in which membrane ?lters

heater and low-pressure heater drainage generated by con

with effective ?lter pore sizes of 3, l, 0.45, 0.2, and 0.1 pm

densation in the low-pressure heater are led to a condensate

were arranged in series, it was found that 90% or more of iron


oxide scale were retained by the membrane ?lter with an

main pipe, and recycled as boiler feedwater.

[0005]

In boilers, water quality management of feedwater

is important in order to prevent damage on heat transmission


tubes due to corrosion. Hitherto, for the purpose of maintain
ing the pH of boiler feedwater on the alkali side, volatile
amines and nitrogen compounds, such as hydrazine and

ammonia, have been used. Furthermore, these pH adjustors


also act as reducing agents and form a black oxide layer of

magnetite (Fe3O4) on the boiler tube surface, thus exhibiting


anti-corrosion behavior. Such a boiler water treatment

method is referred to as AVT (All Volatile Treatment) and


has long been considered as the standard for boiler water

quality management.

effective ?lter pore size of 3 pm. In the present invention, the


pore size of the ?lter (which may be described as the effective

?lter pore size) is indicated by the absolute ?lter pore size that
allows particles with a target particle size to be removed at a
probability of 99% or more.

[0011] When the iron oxide ?ne particles were observed


with an electron microscope, they were found to be acicular

crystals having a very high ratio of length to cross-sectional


diameter of the particle (shape ratio). The iron oxide ?ne
particles were separated, and form identi?cation was per

formed by Mossbauer spectrometric analysis. As a result, it


was found that composite oxides, such as (x-Fe203, y-Fe203,

Feb. 5, 2015

US 2015/0033741A1

and (x-FeOOH were present in 80% or more, which con?rmed

[0018]

the formation of acicular crystals.


[0012] In the CWT treatment, the oxygen dissolved in feed
water is consumed for oxide layer formation when being
passed through boiler tubes, and the dissolved oxygen con

2000-218110A

Patent Literature 2: Japanese Patent Publication

[0019]

Patent Literature 3: Japanese Patent Publication

2008-25922A

centration gradually decreases. High-temperature, high-pres

OBJECT AND SUMMARY OF INVENTION

sure steam generated in the boiler decreases in temperature


and pressure as being expanded in the turbine. In the low
pressure heater, the saturation temperature becomes 1300 C.
or lower. In the low-pressure heater, since the extraction

[0020] It is an object of the present invention to provide a


turbine facility in which iron oxide particle scale that adheres

steam from the low-pressure turbine is condensed, developed


turbulent ?ow occurs in the heater. Therefore, it is believed
that a situation arises where a stable hematite layer is dif?cult
to form on the heating surface of the low-pressure heater.

Furthermore, since the temperature of the low-pres sure heater


is lower than that of the boiler tubes, the oxidation reaction
rate of the base material the heat transmission tube decreases,
and the formation of the hematite oxide layer further becomes
dif?cult. As described above, on the heating surface of the

low-pressure heater, there is a situation where, physically and


chemically, formation of the hematite layer is unlikely to
suf?ciently proceed. Accordingly, it is believed that dissolu
tion of iron from the base material (corrosion) proceeds. Such
a form of corrosion is known as FAC (Flow Accelerated

Corrosion).
[0013]

Iron oxide ?ne particles in the low-pressure drain

age are believed to be formed because the dissolved iron is

subjected to oxidation in the drain bulk and precipitated as


hematite or geothite (FeOOH) particles which have a low
solubility and which are chemically stable.
[0014] Techniques for the purpose of removing iron oxide
?ne particles in boiler feedwater have been proposed (Patent
Literatures l to 3).
[0015] Patent Literature 1 describes that condensate is ?l
tered with a membrane having a pore size of 0.01 to 0.3 pm.
Patent Literature 2 describes that condensate is ?ltered with a

to inner surfaces of boiler tubes and impedes heat transfer can

be ef?ciently removed from heater drainage water, and a


water treatment method for heater drainage water in a turbine

facility.
[0021]

A turbine facility according to the present invention

includes a boiler in which steam is generated by heat from a


heat source, a steam turbine which is driven by the steam of
the boiler, a condenser which condenses steam from the steam

turbine, a water supply system which supplies condensate


condensed by the condenser as feedwater to the boiler side, a

feedwater heater which is interposed in the water supply


system and in which part of steam supplied from the steam
turbine to a reheater is extracted as extraction steam, and the

feedwater is heated using the extraction steam, and a ?ltration


device in which heater drainage water discharged from the
feedwater heater is ?ltered and supplied to the water supply
system for recovery, in which the ?ltration device includes a
?lter having a pore size of l to 5 pm.
[0022] A water treatment method for heater drainage water

in a turbine facility according to the present invention

includes vaporizing and superheating feedwater in a boiler by


heat from a heat source, driving a steam turbine by means of

generated steam, condensing steam discharged from the


steam turbine with a condenser to form feedwater, supplying
the feedwater to the boiler side, heating the feedwater in a
feedwater heater using extraction steam extracted from part
of steam supplied from the steam turbine to a reheater, and

?ltering heater drainage water which is generated by cooling

membrane having a pore size of 1 pm. However, Patent Lit


eratures l and 2 do not describe ?ltration treatment of low

the extraction steam in the feedwater heater so as to be recov

pressure heater drainage.

water is ?ltered with a ?lter having a pore size of l to 5 pm.

[0016]

Patent Literature 3 describes a turbine facility con

?gured to ?lter low-pressure heater drainage and supply

ered to a water supply system, in which the heater drainage

[0023]

In the present invention, preferably, the total amount

of heater drainage water is ?ltered and supplied to the water

water to a water supply system and a water treatment method

supply system. The feedwater heater for ?ltering drainage

of heater drainage water in the turbine facility. In Patent


Literature 3, when the iron concentration of drainage water
exceeds a predetermined concentration, the drainage water is
discharged out of the system. Only when the iron concentra
tion is low, iron is removed with a ?lter and the ?ltrate is used

water is preferably a low-pressure feedwater heater.

as part of boiler feedwater. The reason for this is that, since

drainage water basically contains ?ne iron particles that can


not be ?ltered, except for the case where the iron concentra

tion is equal to or less than the predetermined concentration,


the iron content exceeds the allowable limit for boiler feed
water even if ?ltration treatment is performed. In such a

con?guration of Patent Literature 3, in addition to the prob


lem that large-scale equipment is required, there are other
problems in that the water recovery rate from heater drainage
water decreases because drainage water having a high iron
content is discharged out of the system, and the amount of

discharge water increases.


LIST OF LITERATURES

ADVANTAGEOUS EFFECTS OF INVENTION

[0024] In the present invention, since iron oxide ?ne par


ticles are ef?ciently removed from heater drainage water by
?ltering the heater drainage water using a ?lter having a pore
size of l to 5 pm, adhesion of iron oxide ?ne particles to inner
surfaces of boiler tubes can be prevented.
[0025] In the present invention, there is no need for a
mechanism to measure the iron concentration in heater drain
age water and accordingly change the destination to which

heater drainage water is supplied.


[0026] In the present invention, the total amount of heater
drainage water can be ?ltered and supplied to the water sup

ply system, and thus the water recovery rate is high.


[0027] Most of the iron oxide ?ne particles introduced into
boiler feedwater are attributed to low-pressure heater drain
age. In general, a ?lter has an appropriate ?ow velocity for

use. When low-pressure heater drainage is subjected to ?ltra

[0017]

Patent Literature 1: Japanese Patent Publication

9-206567A

tion treatment, the amount of treated water is about one tenth


compared with the case where the total amount of condensate

Feb. 5, 2015

US 2015/0033741A1

is subjected to ?ltration treatment. Consequently, it is pos

used preferably has a three-layer structure in which a non


woven fabric is sandwiched at both surfaces between spun

sible to provide a compact ?ltration device which has a small


number of ?lters installed.

bonded sheets having a mechanical strength, and these layers

[0028]

are integrated by embossing.

Many of the iron oxide ?ne particles generated in the

low-pressure heater are acicular crystals that can be retained


by a membrane with an effective ?lter pore size of 3 pm.
Therefore, by using a ?lter with an effective ?lter pore size of
1 to 5 pm, the particles can be retained su?iciently. Since the
?lter pore size is large at 1 to 5 pm and the shape of ?ne

particles is acicular, the ?ow pressure loss is unlikely to


increase even when continuously used.

[0037] According to this embodiment, since iron oxide ?ne


particles are su?iciently removed from low-temperature
heater drainage water, adhesion of iron oxide ?ne particles to
inner surfaces of boiler tubes can be prevented (which also
includes suppression). Since the total amount of low-pres sure
heater drainage water is ?ltered, the water recovery rate is
high, and the con?guration of supplying water to the ?ltration
device 19 is simple and low cost.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0029]

EXAMPLES

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a turbine facility

according to an embodiment.

[0030]

Experimental Example 1

FIG. 2 is a graph showing experimental results.

[0038]
DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0031] The present invention will be described in more


detail below with reference to the drawings.
[0032] FIG. 1 shows a turbine facility according to an
embodiment. Water (condensate and makeup water) in a con
denser 1 is supplied through an electromagnetic ?lter 2 and a
deionizer 3 including ion exchange resins, via a line 4, to
low-pressure feedwater heaters 5, and heated. The heated
water is supplied via line 6 to a deaerator 7, subjected to
deaeration treatment, then heated by hi gh-pres sure feedwater
heaters 8, and supplied to a boiler 9. Steam generated in the

Low-pressure heater drainage in a turbine facility of

a thermal power plant, in which CWT treatment was carried


out, was made to ?ow through a ?lter unit, in which ?rst to

?fth membrane ?lters with effective ?lter pore sizes of 3, 1,


0.45, 0.2, and 0.1 pm were arranged in series, from the 3-um
membrane side at a ?ow linear velocity (LV) of 2.3 cm/min
for 4 Hr. The distribution of the amount of iron oxide retained
by the ?lters with the respective pore sizes was measured. The
result thereof is shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1

Weight percentage

boiler 9 is superheated by a superheater 10, and then supplied

Filter

of total iron

via a steam line 11 to a high-pressure turbine 12.

(effective ?lter pore size)

retained (%)

[0033]

First membrane ?lter (3 pm)


Second membrane ?lter (1 pm)
Third membrane ?lter (0.45 pm)
Fourth membrane ?lter (0.2 pm)
Filth membrane ?lter (0.1 pm)

Steam ?owing out of the high-pressure turbine 12 is

sent via a steam line 13 to a reheater 14, reheated, and then


supplied via a steam line 15 to a low-pressure turbine 16. The
e?luent steam therefrom is returned to the condenser 1.

[0034] An extraction steam line 17 branches off from the


steam line 13. Part of steam is separated from the line 11,
supplied to the heat source side of the low-pressure feedwater
heater 5, and heat-exchanged with water to form drainage

water (low -pressure heater drainage water). The low-pres sure


heater drainage water is supplied via a line 18 to a ?ltration

device 19, and after being ?ltered, supplied via a return line
20 to the water side of the low-pressure feedwater heater 5.
The return line 20 may be connected to the line 4 on the in?ow
side of the low-pressure feedwater heater 5 or the line 6 on the
out?ow side.
[0035] The ?lter used in the ?ltration device 19 has a pore
size (effective ?lter pore size) of 1 to 5 pm, preferably 1 to 4
pm, more preferably 2 to 4 pm, and still more preferably 2 to
3 pm. When the pore size of the ?lter is less than 1 pm, the
?ow pressure loss increases. When the pore size is more than
5 pm, retention of iron oxide ?ne particles becomes insu?i
cient. The LV of the ?ltration device 19 is 0.2 to 1.2 m/Hr, and

particularly preferably about 0.3 to 1.0 m/ Hr.


[0036] The material for the ?lter is not particularly limited.
However, since the temperature of low-pres sure heater drain
age water is 80 C. to 130 C., the material is preferably
endurable for use in this temperature range for a minimum of
one year. Speci?cally, a nonwoven fabric composed of

polyphenylene sul?de ?bers or ?uororesin ?bers is suitably


used. When a nonwoven fabric ?lter alone is used, deposition
of the ?lter cake and ?ow of ?lter ?uid may cause distortion

of the ?ber layer, and the predetermined ?ltration e?iciency


may not be obtained in some cases. Therefore, the ?lter to be

95.3
1.64
0.82
1.31
0.95

[0039] The sum total of the amount of iron oxide retained


by the ?rst to ?fth membrane ?lters was divided by the inte
grated ?ow rate and converted into the amount of Fe (iron).
The calculation result was 25 ug-Fe/L. The total iron concen

tration in the ?ltrate passed through all of the ?rst to ?fth


membrane ?lters was 1.4 ug-Fe/L.

Experimental Example 2
[0040]

Boiler drainage at 125 C. (pressure 0.25 MPa (G))

was made to ?ow at 580 mL/min through a pleated ?lter


(effective ?lter pore size: 2 pm) with a diameter of 70 mm and
an effective length of the ?lter surface of 25 mm, which was

produced by folding three SMS sheets, each being obtained


by sandwiching a nonwoven fabric composed of polyphe
nylene sul?de thin ?laments spun by a melt blow method

between spunbonded sheets, followed by embossing. The


total iron concentration of the in?uent water was 48 ug-Fe/L,
and the total iron concentration in the ?ltrate at the outlet of

the pleated ?lter was 2.0 ug-Fe/L.


[0041] The particle size distribution of the ?lter cake
obtained by continuously passing water was measured by an
ultrasonic particle size analyzer. As a result, as shown in FIG.
2, the 50% by weight average particle size was 7 to 8 pm. The
cumulative content of particles having a particle size of 1 pm
or less was about 5% by weight, and the cumulative content of
particles having a particle size of 5 pm or less was about 40%
by weight. This shows that even when a ?lter with an effective

Feb. 5, 2015

US 2015/0033741A1

?lter pore size of less than 1 pm is used, the particle retention


rate is not improved, and that When a ?lter With an effective

?lter pore size of more than 5 pm is used, the particle retention


rate decreases.

[0042]

Furthermore, it has become evident that, in this

state, even if water passing is continued for 120 days, the


differential pressure is about 5 kPa, and even When drainage
having a concentration of about 20 ug-Fe/L is made to pass
through the ?lter for one year, the differential pressure does
not increase to such an extent that passing of water is

impeded.
[0043]

Although the present invention have been described

in detail on the basis of speci?c embodiments, it Will be


apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and
modi?cations may be made therein Without departing from
the spirit and scope of the invention.

[0044] This application claims the bene?t of Japanese


Patent Application No. 2012-043802, ?led Feb. 29, 2012,
Which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its

entirety.
1. A turbine facility comprising:
a boiler in Which steam is generated by heat from a heat
source;

a steam turbine Which is driven by the steam of the boiler;


a condenser Which condenses steam from the steam tur

bine;
a water supply system Which supplies condensate con
densed by the condenser as feedwater to the boiler side;
a feedwater heater Which is interposed in the water supply

system and in Which part of steam supplied from the


steam turbine to a reheater is extracted as extraction

steam, and the feedwater is heated using the extraction


steam; and
a ?ltration device in Which heater drainage water dis

charged from the feedwater heater is ?ltered and sup


plied to the water supply system for recovery,

characterized in that the ?ltration device includes a ?lter


having a pore size of 1 to 5 pm.

2. The turbine facility according to claim 1, characterized


in that, in the ?ltration device, the total amount of the heater
drainage water is ?ltered and supplied to the water supply

system.
3. The turbine facility according to claim 1, characterized
in that the heater drainage water is low-pressure heater drain
age water.
4. A water treatment method for heater drainage water in a

turbine facility comprising:


vaporizing and superheating feedwater in a boiler by heat
from a heat source;

driving a steam turbine by means of generated steam;


condensing steam discharged from the steam turbine With
a condenser to form feedwater;

supplying the feedwater to the boiler side;


heating the feedwater in a feedwater heater using extrac
tion steam extracted from part of steam supplied from
the steam turbine to a reheater; and

?ltering heater drainage water Which is generated by cool


ing the extraction steam in the feedwater heater so as to
be recovered to a water supply system,
characterized in that the heater drainage water is ?ltered
With a ?lter having a pore size of 1 to 5 pm.
5. The water treatment method for heater drainage water in

a turbine facility according to claim 4, characterized in that


the total amount of the heater drainage water is ?ltered With
the ?lter and recovered to the water supply system.
6. The water treatment method for heater drainage water in
a turbine facility according to claim 4, characterized in that

the heater drainage water is low-pressure heater drainage


water.