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Forest City

25.1 Introduction
The Sri Lanka lowland tropical rainforests below 1,000 m (3,281 ft) in elevation in the
south-western part of the island. The year-around warm, wet climate together with
thousands years of isolation from mainland India have resulted in the evolution of
numerous plants and animal species that can only be found in rain forests in Sri Lanka.
The thick forest canopy is made up of over 150 species of trees, some of the emergent
layer reaching as high as 45 m (148 ft). The lowland rain forests accounts for 2.14
percent of Sri Lanka's land area. This Eco region is the home of the jungle shrew, a small
endemic mammal of Sri Lanka..
Forest is the most valuable natural resource for any living being in the world. The key of
controlling the eco systems is also forest. There are no any human beings without flora.
That means all planets where any human beings even live those depend on the forest.
Human and the fauna are using the resources of forest to do meaningful their lives.
Human uses the forest as building their shelters, as firewood, for herbal, for enjoy and
several tasks.

The natural forests will be allocated firstly for conservation, and secondly for regulated
multiple-use production forestry. For the management and protection of the natural
forests and forest plantations , the state will, where appropriate from partnerships with
local people, rural communities and other stakeholders and introduced appropriate
tenurial arrangements.
Planned conservation of forests into other land uses can take place only in accordance
with procedures defined in legislation and with accepted conservation and scientific
norms.
Natural Forest Cover Kalutara District -1999
Lowland Rain Forest
14021.2

Sparse Forest
4575.0

Total (ha)
18596.2

Copyright 2015 Forest Department - Sri Lanka

Human association of forest areas are, Collecting firewood or timber, Hunting or


collecting fauna parts, collect the medicine and drug production, Enjoy with visiting flora
and fauna, Find food and recourses, To feel the natural beauty and For researches.

25.1.1 The following ordinance, laws and acts are applicable in the forest area administrated
by WRMPA.
Ordinance, laws and acts
1

Forest Conservation Ordinance

Crown land ordinance(1947)

Land development ordinance

Description
the conservation, protection and sustainable
management of the forest resources and utilization of
forest produce; to provide for the regulation of the
transport of timber and forest produce and other
activities
provides for the declaration of crown(state)land as
reservations for the source , steam beds of rivers and
streams , springs , tanks , reservoirs , lakes , ponds ,
creeks , canals and foreshores , and this , in order to
prevent of vital water resources.
provides for the mapping out of state land for the
2

(1935)
4

Timber Ordinance

State Timber Corporation

Fauna and flora protection


Ordinance

Plant Protection Act - Act, No. 35


of 1999

State Lands Ordinance (1949)

National Environmental Act (1980,


as amended in 1988).

prevention of soil erosion and for the protection of


forests, catchments and ecological functions.
Rese timber of forest for timber production
Protection of natural forest above 5000 ft
Protection of forest and their products with in reserved
forest.
Protection of forests and their products within reserved
forests, primarily to provide controlled exploration of
timber.
The State Timber Corporation has established under
the State Industrial Corporation Act No. 47 of 1957 , by
Gazette No 14,796 dated on 04/04/1968
Protection of wild life in national reserves and
sanctuaries and out side such protected area. Fauna
and Flora Protection Act No. 02 of 1937 makes
provision to provide for the protection, conservation
and preservation of the fauna and flora of Sri Lanka
and for the prevention of the commercial exploitation
of such fauna and flora.
an act to make provision against introduction into sri
lanka and the spreading therein, of any organism
harmful to, or injurious to, or destructive of, plants and
for the sanitation of plants in sri lanka ; for the repeal
of the plant protection ordinance (chapter 447); and for
matters connected therewith or incidental thereto
provision for the grant and disposition of state
lands in Sri Lanka; for the management and control of
such lands and the foreshore; for the regulation of the
use of the water of lakes and public streams; and for
other matters incidental to or connected with the
matters aforesaid.
National Environmental Act No. 47 of 1980 was
enacted to establish the Central Environmental
Authority to make provision for the protection,
management and enhancement of the environment
and for the regulation, maintenance and control of the
quality of the environment. The statutory introduction
was made by an amendment to the National
Environmental Act (Act No. 56 of 1988). As required
by the Act, the projects that should undergo the
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process
contain in the Gazette Extra-Ordinary No. 772/22
dated 24th June 1993

25.1.2 The land in areas other than the actual forest area such as low lying , plantation
,agricultural and urban areas could be reclaimed or development to be used for building
purposes. The following enactments shall be applicable such areas.
Ordinance, laws and acts
1

(SLLR & DC)

Description
Sri Lanka Land Reclamation & Development Corporation

GSMB
Irrigation Department
Agrarian Development

(SLLR&DC) Act No. 27 of 1976, Act No. 52 of 1982 and Act. No.
35 of 2006.
Geo scientific information, and manage the mineral resources of
the country for economic development while ensuring
environmental sustainability..
Irrigation department will facilitate and enhance the development
and management of land and water resources towards the socioeconomic development of Sri Lanka.
Agrarian Development Act No. 46 of 2000 makes provision for the
protection of paddy lands. According to Section 33 of the Act,
filling of any extent of paddy land, removal of earth or
construction of buildings without written approval from the
Commissioner General of Agrarian Development is an offence.
Section 34 prohibits the use of any paddy land for any other use
other than for cultivation without a permit from the Commissioner
General of the Agrarian Development.

Urban Development Authority


Central Environment Authority (CEA)

25.1.3 Forest City


Forest city zone is bounded as shown in map of proposed Special structure plan 2030 in
WRMPP, the extent of which is about 1,050 sqkm within the Divisonal secretariat areas of
Agalawata,Madurawala, Walalawita, Mathugama, Dodangoda, Bulathsinhala, Baduraliya,
Ingiriya, Meegahathenna & Palawatha.
Forest City units
DS Division

Main Town

Agalawatta

Agalawatta

Bulathsinhala

GN
Divisions

Area (km2)

Density(/km
2)pp

34

88

414

Bulathsinhala

54

206

314

Dodangoda

Dodangoda

45

114

559

Ingiriya

Ingiriya

31

90

596

Madurawela

Madurawela

33

59

580

Matugama

Matugama

57

128

633

Palindanuwara

Baduraliya

43

286

183

Walallavita

Walallavita

60

209

260

25.2. the legal provision to protect certain areas in consideration mainly of environmental
factors. Under the available legal provisions, two types of protection can be identified:
State forest land classified class I and ii
Class I areas that are strictly protected where any development is prohibited. These forest
should be strictly conserve or preserved to protect bio diversity, soil , water, historical,
cultural, religious and aesthetic values.
Class ii areas where development is permitted subject to conditions. Non extractive uses
(such a scientific research, protection of watersheds and habitats of wildlife, and regulated
nature-based tourism) should be allowed, as well as controlled collection of NWFPs and
dead fuel wood by local people living adjacent to the forest.

25.3.1. Forest city Zoning plan

25.3.2Forest City Zoning Plan

Category

Description

Minimum land
extent

Accessibility (Access
road width)

Primary Forest

Conserve, preserve and


protect the existing Forest
areas

Sub division not


allowed

use existing roads

Forestry Management
Zone

Commercial uses of forest

5 acre

Public road 40 ft.


Private road 20ft
minimum width shall be applicable
in laying of new roads

Natural & Resource/


Protected area

Environmentally sensitive
areas( Wetland & water
bodies)

Forest and plantation zone

Forest with plantation

1 acre

agriculture Zone

Plantation with agricultural


activity

1 acre

20ft

Low Density Rural


Residential Zone

acre

20ft

Rural Residential Zone

acre

20ft

Agricultural Residential
Zone

acre

Public road 50 ft.


Private road 20ft

Rural City Centres

Urban centres

acre

Urban centres

acre

Residential Area

acre

Commercial Area

acre

Mixed Development area

acre

Green area

25.3.3 Uses in Primary Forest Zone


uses

Description

Remarks

Forest reserve

All conservation forests identified by the Forest


Department.

Conservation Forest

Degraded forest areas that will be restored for


ecological purpose.

Wild life reserve

All wild life reserves. Corridors will be


established wherever necessary to link these
reserves.

Other Sate Forests

Natural forest

Environmentally and hydro logically important


hilly area.

proposed Forest
reserves
Forest replanting
Forest research and
educational training
centres
Limited tourism
activities
Remains existing
activities and uses
Forest gates

Note : Forest research and educational training centres and Forest gates will allowed FAR .5
Coverage10

Plot

Height G+1

25.3.4 Uses in Forestry Management Zone


uses

Remarks

Description

Wood forest
plant for medicine
Herbaral gardens
Botanical Garden
Fuel wood
plantation
Tourism activities
Forest research and
educational training
centres

Note : Forest research and educational training centres and Forest gates will allowed FAR . 1 Plot Coverage
20%Height G+2
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25.3.5 Protected area


uses

Description

Remarks

All natural and man-made


water courses and water
bodies and their
reservations.

Natural Resources
Management Centre Irrigation
Department
Central Environmental Authority

Environmental Improvements
of the protected area

lands in areas of high rainfall


intensity with slopes of over
60% and highly erodible
soils.

Natural Resources
Management Centre

Areas where landslides are


to be expected.

National Building Research


Organization

Areas of archaeological and


historical value where
development activities are
not present

Archaeological sites located


within areas. Archaeology
Department

Sensitive areas in river


basins

CEA

Major ground water aquifers

Major ground water aquifers


that should not be over
exploited or polluted. Water
Resource Board

Stream bank reservations.

Irrigation Department

Flood protection areas

Irrigation Department

Environmental Improvements
of the protected area

25.3.6 Uses in Forest and plantation zone


uses

Description

Remarks

Forest plantation

Forest planting under the


guidance by the Forest
Department

Plantation Estates

Ministry of Agricultural

Degraded forest areas


restored by replanting
natural and economic
species.

Forest planting under the


guidance by the Forest
Department

Tea, Rubber and Other


cultivations/ Re planting

Department of Agricultural

Other cultivation -

Agro Forest - An area of land


used for the purpose of
education and participation
in an agricultural related
business operation
Tree Removal

Fuel wood plantation

Plantation related industries

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Plant nurseries

Timber enterprises

Timber depot

Organic agriculture

Fruit Cultivation

Horticulture

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Eco tourism

Tourist development areas


identified by the Tourist
Board.

Camp site, Dormitory,


Cabin

Research educational
Centers

25.3.7 Uses in Agriculture Zone


uses

Description

Farming

An area of land used for the


commercial production of
agricultural products such as
crops, dairy products,
livestock, and poultry.

Animal husbandry

Diary farming

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Non Polluting Agricultural


Product

Ayurvedhic production

Agro-Tourism

Rafting/rowing

Cottage industries

Handy crafts

Caravanning site

Camping sites

13

rustic log cabins

Cottage Resort
Development

nature Education

Field laboratory for School


children engaged in surveys,
documentation &
management

Information centers , nature


museums could be integrated
in the Landscape proposal

University
Pre- historic museum
research centre
Tropical forest research
centre and bio-diversity
protection centre
crafting villages

25.4. Design Guidelines


The Plantation Tropical theme is characterized by a blend of traditional Colonial architectural
elements influenced by the tropical climate of the area. These guidelines serve to encourage
quality construction and design compatible with the scale and character of the Citys
neighbourhoods.

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25.4.2 B. Building typology


The minimum extent, number of floors and road widths, the minimum width of plots and open
space around the building should be
Building
Category

Plot
Size

Heights

Plot
Coverage

Floor
Area
Ratio

Building
line or
Street
line

Back
yard/
Rear
Space

Side space
Buffering &
Landscaping

Parking
lots

A c4

40p

G+10

75%

2.5

50ft

5m

3m

500 p1

B c5

60p

G+7

75%

50ft

4m

3m

500 p1

C c6

80p

G+6

75%

1.5

40ft

4m

500 p1

D -mix

acre

G+4

60

1.2

30ft

4m

500 p1

E-R3

1 acre

G+2

60

1.1

20ft

3m

F-R4

1 acre

G+1

60

20ft

3m

material

colour

Note :development permit, Disable access facilities, Change of use .Displays of


Advertisement & bill board, fire precousence are refer to the general zoning guide lines.
25. 5 infrastructure facilities
25.5.1. Energy
Connect to national grid but consider local back up for power security and environmentally
friendly production(mini hydro power station/dendro power/solar power/bio mass)
25.5.2 Waste
Enhance possibilities to reduce, reuse and recycle solid waste. It can be contribute to local
energy production.
25.5.3 Storm Water
Use best practice for local solutions for effective drainage, rainwater harvesting for irrigation
and adequate purification.
25. 5.4.Water Supply
Use ground water to be encourage as much as possible and where necessary can be
connected community water supply network. All ground well shall be 30 m away from
soakage pit ,septic tank and waste water pit.

25.6.1 Non permissible activities in primary forest area


fells, cuts, saws or causes the felling, cutting or sawing of or alters, converts, collects,
removes or transports or marks, lops or girdle, any plant, tree or timber or collects, removes
or transports
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I.

Industries

II.

Forest extractive uses

III.

extractive indigenous species

IV.

Subdivision of existing forest or Plantation estates(fragmentation control)

V.

other constructions

VI.

The activities shown in sketches shall not be allowed in this area.

Prohibition Activity signs

VII.

Removing the non crumble materials with polythene when the visitors enter the core
protected zone

VIII.

Non suitable experiments which are done by the non government organizations should
be prohibited.

25.6.2 Non permissible activities in forest and plantation zone


1.Plantation of exotic forest like pines, eucalyptus, acacia or oak must stopped.
2. Highly water absorption invasive plants cultivation - farm oil

25.6.3 Forest conservation and management


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All forests will be brought under management by allowing for combinations of managers
,including state agencies, and managers out side the state sector such as local people, user
group rural communities, NGOs, the state sector, and local industries. How ever, natural
forest should be managed only by the state agencies together with the local people and
communities.
I.

Footpaths to hilly areas are kept on present status like natural trails.

II.

Developing rural infrastructure roads

III.

Enhancement of forest-based income opportunities for village communities

IV.

Forest inventory, Forest Management and Wildlife management practicals are


conducted

V.

Mitigated deforestation and landslide hazards

25.7 Detailed Land Use Plan and Zoning -summary

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Protect
ed area
- GI
Green
Zone GII

Other uses

Mixed use

Administrative activities

Utility services

Institutions

Commercial

Plantation/Agriculture
R Residential

Forest gates

Forest

Uses

Rear space

Road width

Height

FAR

Forestry Management
Zone

Forest and plantation


zone

Plantation & Agriculture


Zone

Agricultural Zone

1
0

1
0

1
5

2
0

Low Density Rural


Residential Zone

2
0

R-4

Medium Density
Residential Zone

3
0

R-3

Primary Residential
Area

3
0

c-6

Neighbourhood
Centres

4
0

c-4

Regional centres

5
0

c-5

Town centres

1
0
0

60

R-5

G+1

G+2

G+2

Natural & Resource/


Protected area

G+4

G+5

+10

1.5

50

50

1/2

80 p

40 p

1/2

Primary Forest

1/4

Green
Zone GIII

Limited tourism activities

Sub Zone

Forest plantation

Uses

Plot Coverage

Land Extend - acare

General
Zone

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