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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

Intramuros, Manila
College of Engineering and Technology
Electrical Engineering Department

Binalbagan
Hydroelectric Power
Plant
Submitted by:
Alberto, Randy R.
Bago, Christopher B.
Cabato, Bruce Jason
Pelagio, Raymond Glenn

Submitted to:
Engr. Roel B. Calano

March 07 2015

Binalbagan Hydroelectric Power Plant

2015

Acknowledgement

Research is what Im doing when I dont know what Im doing


~Wernher Von Braun
This led the proponents to pursue them in this proposal study.
The proponents would like to express deep gratitude to God Almighty, for his
blessings, guidance and presence. Without him, wisdom would be useless. Thanks for
being as inspiration and good example for the proponents.
To our beloved parents Zita Alberto, Gloria and Remigio Cabato, Evelyn
Pelagio, and Susan Bago; who support us, morally and financially and for their
continuous guidance and advises. Because of them, the researchers were more
determined to finish their investigative project and to face lifes struggles.
To our instructor, Engr. Roel B. Calano, for his guidance, support, knowledge and
help. Without him, this proposal would be impossible.
To our friends, classmates and schoolmates who entertains us to ease pressures
and hardships. Thanks for the presence in times of necessity, thanks for boosting up
the researchers characters.
To our families, who encourages us when were down, who always pray for us
and who always cheer us up.

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To our beloved parents,


Friends and classmates,
To Engr. Roel B. Calano
And to our teachers
Above all,
To the Almighty God...

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Table of Contents
Chapter I
Research and its Settings
Introduction
Background of the Study
Significance of the Study
Statement of the Problem

4
5
6
7

Chapter II
Review of Related Literatures

Chapter III
Methodology
Powerplant Design
Powerplant Operation

17
19

Chapter IV
Data and Results
Components of the Project
Theoretical Power Generation
Generator Rating
Transformer Rating
Electrical Substation
Layout of Substation
Characteristics of Substation
Circuit Breakers
Power Transformer
Environmental Aspects
Powerplant Economics
Return of Investment
Visayas Grid Approximate Model

21
23
24
25
25
27
27
28
29
30
32
35

Chapter V
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendation

37
37
38

References

39

The Authors

40
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Chapter 1
Research and Its Settings
Introduction
Hydroelectric power is a form of energy and categorize as a renewable source of
energy. Hydroelectric power is the third largest power contributor in the Philippines.
Other renewable resources include geothermal, wave power, tidal power, wind power,
and solar power. Hydroelectric power plants do not use up resources to create
electricity nor do they pollute the air, land or water, as other power plants may.
Hydroelectric power has played an important part in the development of the countrys
power industry. Both small and large hydroelectric power developments were
instrumental in the early expansion of the electric power industry.
Hydroelectric power is important to the Philippines. Growing population and
modern technology require vast amounts of electricity for creating, building and
expanding.
It is an essential contributor in the national grid because of its ability to respond
quickly to rapidly varying loads or system disturbances, which base load plants with
steam systems powered by combustion or nuclear process cannot accommodate.
In nature, energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but its form can change. In
generating electricity, no new energy is created. Actually one form of energy is
converted to another form. To generate electricity, water must be in motion. This is
kinetic energy. When flowing water turns blades in turbine, the form is change to
mechanical energy. The turbine turns the generator rotor which then converts this
mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Facilities are called hydroelectric power plants, and hydropower is generated.
Some power plants are located on rivers, streams, and canals, but for a reliable water
supply, dams are needed. Dams store water for later release for such purposes as
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irrigation, domestic and industrial use, and power generation. The reservoir acts much
like a battery, storing water to be released as needed to generate power.
The dam creates a head or height from which water flows. A pipe (penstock)
carries the water from the reservoir to the turbine. The fast moving water pushes the
turbine blades. The water force on the turbine blades turns the rotor, the moving part
of the electric generator. When coils of wire on the rotor sweep past the generators
stationary coil (stator), electricity is produced.
The actual output of energy at dam is determined by the volume of water
released (discharged) and the vertical distance the water falls (head). The head and the
discharge at the power site and the desired rotational speed of the generator determine
the type of turbine to be used.
The two basic types of turbines are impulse and reaction turbine. The specific
type of turbine to be used in a power plant is not selected until all operational studies
and cost estimates are complete. The turbine selected depends largely on the site
condition.

Background of the Study


Hydroelectric power remains the most attractive renewable energy investment in
the Philippines as eight new mini hydro projects gain approval for construction last
year. Hydrotec Renewables, the developer of the eight hydro projects invested 53
million USD to 62 million USD on the combined 23-50 MW project. The project is
estimated to be completed by the year 2016. The projects are located in nearby
provinces outside Metro Manila, with three in Rodriguez City, one in San Mateo, two in
Marikina City and two in Antipolo City.

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The country is already one of the worlds leaders in renewable energy, with a
third of its primary energy source coming from renewable. The commission on climate
change aims to shift the countrys current fuel system to 100 % renewable energy
capacity in a decade.
Hydro plants are classified based on their capacities as follows: micro-hydro 1100 kW, mini-hydro 101 kW to 10 MW and large hydro more than 10 MW. The total
untapped hydropower resource potential of the country is estimated at 13,097 MW, of
which 85 % are considered large and small hydros (11,223 MW), 14% (1,847 MW) are
classified as mini-hydros while less than 1 % (27 MW) are considered as micro-hydros.

Significance of the Study

Hydropower is fuelled by water, so its a clean fuel source. Hydropower doesnt


pollute the air like power plants that burn fossil fuel, such as coal or natural gas. It uses
water sources as prime movers which do not emit harmful substances that can damage
our environment.
Hydropower is a domestic source of energy, produced in United States. This type
of power plant relies on water cycle driven by the sun, thus its a renewable power
source. Water being used in the process of generating electricity is maintained for the
purpose of recycling water for continuous operation of the hydropower plant.
Hydropower is generally available as needed; engineers can control the flow of
water through the turbines to produce electricity on demand. They can limit the
operation of the power plant to the demand required by the grid. Engineers have the
control over the operation proportional to the flexibility of the demand. These plants
provide benefits in addition to clean electricity.

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Impoundment hydropower creates reservoirs that offer a variety of recreational


opportunities, notably fishing, swimming, and boating. Most hydropower installations
are required to provide some public access to the reservoir to allow the public to take
advantage of these opportunities. Usually they provide additional tourist attractions
within the reservoir just like eco-parks and other wildlife sanctuaries.
Reservoir at most is used mainly as water storage for power generation and
water supply within the nearby community. In this case, they maximize the capability of
the dams which in return gives more benefits to mankind. Other benefits may include
flooding control.

Statement of the Problem

Although hydroelectric power plant has its advantages over all other power
plants, it also has its following disadvantages. Hydropower can impact water quality and
flow. Hydropower plants can cause low dissolved oxygen levels in the water, a problem
that is harmful to riverbank habitats and is addressed using various techniques which
oxygenate the water.
Maintaining minimum flows of water downstream of a hydropower installation is
also critical for survival of riverbank habitats. Usually, insufficient water is flowing down
the river affecting the livelihood near the river banks. It can greatly affect the people
living downstream where the hydropower plant is located.
Fish populations can be impacted if fish cannot migrate upstream past
impoundment dams to spawning fish passage grounds or if they cannot migrate
downstream to the ocean. Compensation techniques can be used to aid this problems
like upstream fish passage using fish ladders or elevators. On the other hand,
downstream fish passage can be aided by diverting fish from turbine intakes using
screens or racks or even underwater lights and sounds, and by maintaining a minimum
spill flow past the turbine.
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Hydropower plants can be impacted by drought. When water is not available, the
hydropower plants cant produce electricity. In this case, operation of the hydropower
plant is dependent on the presence of water. So when there is insufficient water on the
river or reservoir, there will be no production of electricity since a prime mover is not
present to run the turbine.
In the modern times, new hydropower facilities impact the local environment and
may compete with the other uses for land. Those alternatives uses may be more highly
valued than electricity generation such as irrigation, water supply and other applications
that water is needed. Humans and other living things will be affected and may lose their
natural habitat.
Local cultures and historical sites may impinge upon. Some older hydropower
facilities may have historic value, so renovations of these facilities must also be
sensitive to such preservation concerns and to impacts on plant and animal life.
Lastly, typhoon-prone countries like the Philippines usually experience intense
rainfalls when there is typhoon resulting to flooding and over spillage of dams. When
excess water is not escaped within the dam, it will cause severe damage and may result
to total destruction of the dam if not to do so. Flooding is one of the main problems of
this type of power plant.

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Chapter 2
Review of Related Literatures

The U.S. Geological Survey explains that the source of hydropower is mechanical
energy. Today, most hydropower comes from a dam that is constructed to create a
reservoir of water, and water turbines are built within the dam below the waters
surface. The turbines are driven by the force of the water flowing through them, which,
from the subsequent spinning of electromagnets. The rotation of the electromagnets
generates a current in stationary wire coils, which runs through transformer (U.S.
Geological Survey, 2006)
The water that fuels the power of hydroelectric plants is subject to the natural
process of the water cycle. Put simply by the U.S. Department of Energy. The sun
draws moisture up from the oceans and rivers, and the moisture then condenses into
clouds in the atmosphere. The moisture falls as rain or snow, replenishing the oceans
and rivers. Gravity drives the water, moving it from high ground to low ground
(Department of Energy, 2008).
The ability of the hydroelectric plant to generate power is determined by the
mechanical energy of the water, the flow of the river, and the efficiency of the dam,
which can be simplified by the following equation: Power = (Height of Dam) x (River
Flow) x (Efficiency). River flow vary and dam heights vary widely, but dam efficiencies
tend to range from 60% to 90%, depending on how well hydroelectric facilities are
maintained.
A plants hydroelectric energy from dam can be calculated by multiplying its
output in units power, by units of time: Power x Time = energy. To figure out how
many consumers energy needs can be served, one may simple divide the energy
output from the plant by the average energy consumption of the hydroelectric plants

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customer: (Plant Energy Output) / (Energy consumption per Consumer)(Wisconsin


Valley Improvement Company, 2006)
Any kind of renewable, ecological friendly produced electricity is an essential
contribution to the protection of our environment and nature for forthcoming
generations and it will stabilize or lower electricity prices (Hydrotec Renewables, Mueller
Hannes, 2014).

The major benefit of the hydro power is the average annual contribution of
hundreds of megawatt-hours of clean electricity to the Philippine grid, reduction of
brownouts, avoiding thousands of tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions and a significant
reduction of the import and dependence of crude oil and the operation of environment
polluting carbon and diesel plants (Mueller, 2014).
Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity
and supply more than 1 billion people with power. The world's hydropower plants
output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion
barrels of oil. There are more than 2,000 hydropower plants operating in the United
States, making hydropower the country's largest renewable energy source (National
Renewable Energy Laboratory).
The great variety in the size of hydropower plants gives the technology the
ability to meet both large centralized urban energy needs as well as decentralized rural
needs. Though the primary role of hydropower in the global energy supply today is in
providing electricity generation as part of centralized energy networks, hydropower
plants also operate in isolation and supply independent systems, often in rural and
remote areas of the world. Hydro energy can also be used to meet mechanical energy
needs, or to provide space heating and cooling. More recently hydroelectricity has also
been investigated for use in the electrolysis process for hydrogen fuel production,
provided there is abundance of hydropower in a region and a local goal to use
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hydrogen as fuel for transport (Andreassen et al., 2002; Yumurtacia and Bilgen, 2004;
Silva et al., 2005).
The great variety in the size of hydropower plants gives the technology the
ability to meet both large centralized urban energy needs as well as decentralized rural
needs. Though the primary role of hydropower in the global energy supply today is in
providing electricity generation as part of centralized energy networks, hydropower
plants also operate in isolation and supply independent systems, often in rural and
remote areas of the world. Hydro energy can also be used to meet mechanical energy
needs, or to provide space heating and cooling. More recently hydroelectricity has also
been investigated for use in the electrolysis process for hydrogen fuel production,
provided there is abundance of hydropower in a region and a local goal to use
hydrogen as fuel for transport (Andreassen et al., 2002; Yumurtacia and Bilgen, 2004;
Silva et al., 2005).
In Africa, the electricity supply in a number of states is largely based on
hydroelectric power. However, few available studies examine the impacts of climate
change on hydropower resource potential in Africa. Observations deducted from general
predictions for climate change and runoff point to a reduction in hydropower resource
potential with the exception of East Africa (Hamududu et al., 2010).
In major hydropower-generating Asian countries such as China, India, Iran,
Tajikistan etc., changes in runoff are found to potentially have a significant effect on
the power output. Increased risks of landslides and glacial lake outbursts, and impacts
of increased variability, are of particular concern to Himalayan countries (Agrawala et
al., 2003). The possibility of accommodating increased intensity of seasonal
precipitation by increasing storage capacities may become of particular importance
(Limi, 2007).
In Europe, by the 2070s, hydropower potential for the whole of Europe has been
estimated to potentially decline by 6%, translated into a 20 to 50% decrease around

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the Mediterranean, a 15 to 30% increase in northern and Eastern Europe, and a stable
hydropower pattern for western and central Europe (Lehner et al., 2005).
In New Zealand increased westerly wind speed is very likely to enhance wind
generation and spill over precipitation into major South Island watersheds, and to
increase winter rain in the Waikato catchment. Warming is virtually certain to increase
melting snow, the ratio of rainfall to snowfall, and to increase river flows in winter and
early spring. This is very likely to increase hydroelectric generation during the winter
peak demand period, and to reduce demand for storage.

In Latin America, hydropower is the main electrical energy source for most
countries, and the region vulnerable to large-scale and persistent rainfall anomalies due
to El Nino and La Nina, as observed in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay
and Venezuela. A combination of increased energy demand and droughts caused a
virtual breakdown of hydroelectricity in most of Brazil in 2001 and contributed to a
reduction in gross domestic product (GDP). Glacier retreat is also affecting hydropower
generation, as observed in the cities of La Paz and Lima.
In North America, hydropower production is known to be sensitive to total
runoff, to its timing, and to reservoir levels. During the 1990s, for example, Great Lakes
levels fell as a result of a lengthy drought, and in 1999, hydropower production was
down significantly both at Niagara and Sault St. Marie. For a 2 to 3 C warming in the
Columbia River Basin and BC Hydro service areas, the hydroelectric supply under worstcase water conditions for winter peak demand is likely to increase (high confidence).
Similarly, Colorado River hydropower yields are likely to decrease significantly, as Great
Lakes hydropower. Northern Quebec hydropower production would be likely to be
affected by lower water levels. Consequences of changes in the seasonal distribution of
flows and in timing of ice formation are uncertain.

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In a recent study (Hamadudu and Killingtveilt, 2010), the regional and global
changes in hydropower generation for the existing hydropower system were computed,
based on a global assessment of changes in river flow by 2050 (Milly et al., 2005, 2008)
for the SRES A1B scenario using 12 different climate models. The computation was
done at the country or political region (USA, Canada, Brazil, India, Australia) level and
summed up to regional and global values.
In general, the results are consistent with the (mostly qualitative) results given in
previous studies (IPCC, 2007b; Bates et al., 2008). For Europe, the computed reduction
(-0.2%) has the same sign, but is less than the -6% found by Lehner et al. (2005) give
changes by 2070, so a direct comparison is difficult.
It can be concluded that the overall impacts of climate change on the existing
global hydropower generation may be expected to be small, or even slightly positive.
However, results also indicated substantial variations in changes in energy production
across regions and even within countries (Hamadudu and Killingveit, 2010).
Insofar as a future expansion of the hydropower system will occur incrementally
in the same general areas/watersheds as the existing system, these results indicate that
climate change impacts globally and averaged across regions may also be small and
slightly positive.
Still, uncertainly about future impacts as well as increasing difficulty of future
systems operations may pose a challenge that must be addressed in the planning and
development of future HPP (Hamadudu et al., 2010)
Hydropower infrastructure development is closely linked to national, regional and
global development policies. Beyond its role in contributing to a secure energy supply
security and reducing a countrys dependence on fossil fuels, hydropower offers
opportunities for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Hydropower also can
contribute to regional cooperation, as good practice in managing water resources
requires a river basin approach regardless of national borders. In addition, multipurpose
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hydropower can strengthen a countrys ability to adapt to climate change- induced


hydrological variability (World Bank, 2009).
Many governments and international bodies have relied upon various distinctions
between small and large hydro, as defined by installed capacity (MW), in establishing
the eligibility of hydropower plants for certain programs. While it is well known that
large-scale HPPs can create conflicts and concerns (WCD, 2000), the environmental and
social impacts of HPP cannot be deduced by size in itself, even if increasing the physical
size may increase the overall impacts of a specific HPP (Egre and Milewski, 2002;
Sternberg, 2008). Despite their lack of robustness, these classifications have had
significant policy and financing consequences (Egre and Milewski, 2002).
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA, 2010c), 1.4 billion people
have no access to electricity. Small-scale hydropower (SHP) can sometimes be an
economically viable supply source in these circumstances, as SHP can provide a
decentralized electricity supply in those rural areas that have adequate hydropower
technical potential (Egre and Milewski, 2002). In fact, SHPs already play an important
role in the economic development of some remote rural areas. Small- scale
hydropower-based rural electrification in China has been on of the most successful
examples, where over 45,000 small hydropower plants totalling 55 GW have been built
that are producing 160 TWh (0.58 EJ) annually. Though many of these plants are used
in centralized electricity networks, SHPs constitute one-third of Chinas total hydropower
capacity and are providing services to over 300 million people (Liu and Hu, 2010). More
generally, SHP is found in isolated grids as well as in off-grid and central-grid settings.
As 75% of costs are site-specific, proper site selection is a key challenge. Additionally,
in isolated grid systems, natural seasonal flow variations might require that hydropower
plants be combined with other generation sources in order to ensure continuous supply
during dry period (World Bank, 2008) and may have excess production during wet
seasons; such factors need to be considered in the planning process (Sundqvist and
Warlind, 2006).

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In addition to providing energy and capacity to meet electrical demand,


hydropower generation often has several characteristics that enable it to provide other
services to reliably operate power systems. Because hydropower plants utilize gravity
instead of combustion to generate electricity, hydropower plants are often less
susceptible to the sudden loss of generation than is thermal generation. Hydropower
plants also offer operating flexibility in that they can start generating electricity with
very short notice and low start-up costs, provide rapid changes in generation, and have
a wide range of generation levels over which power can be generated efficiently (i.e.
high part-load efficiency)(Haldane and Blackstone, 1955; Altinbilek et al., 2007).

The ability to rapidly change output in response to system needs without


suffering large decreases in efficiency makes hydropower plants well suited to providing
the balancing services called regulation and load-following. RoR HPPa operated in
cascades in unison with storage hydropower in upstream reaches may similarly
contribute to the overall regulating and balancing ability of a fleet of HPPs. With the
right equipment and operating procedures, hydropower can also provide the ability to
restore a power station to operation without relying on the electric power transmission
network (i.e. black start capability)(Knight, 2001).
The International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) recently decided to focus
on better planning of existing and new (planned) hydropower dams. It is believed that
the annual worldwide investment in dams will be about $30 billion during the next
decade, and the cost can be reduced by 10 to 20% by more cost-effective solutions.
ICOLD also wants to promote multipurpose dams and better planning tools for
multipurpose water projects (Berga, 2008).
Once built and put in operation, hydropower plants usually require very little
maintenance and operation costs can be kept low, since hydropower plants do not
have recurring fuel costs Operating and maintenance costs are usually given as a

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percentage of investment cost per kW. The EREC/Greenpeace study (Teske et al,.
2010) and Krewitt et al,. (2009).
For hydropower, and in particular large hydropower, the largest cost
components are civil structures with very long lifetimes, like dams, tunnels, canals,
powerhouses etc. Electrical and mechanical equipment, with much shorter lifetimes,
usually contribute less to the cost. It is therefore common to use a longer lifetime for
hydropower than for other electricity generation sources (Krewitt et al. 2009)
Hydropower stations can be installed along with multiple purposes such as
irrigation, flood control, navigation, provision of road, drinking water supply, fish supply
and recreation. Many of the purposes cannot be served alone as they have consumptive
use of water and may have different priority of use. There are different methods of
allocating the cost to individual purposes, each of which has advantages and
drawbacks. The basic rules for allocation are that the allocated cost to any purpose will
carry its separable cost. Separable cost for any purposes is obtained by subtracting the
cost of a multipurpose project without that purpose from the total cost of the project
with the purpose included (Dzurik, 2003).
Historically, reservoirs were mostly funded and owned by the public sector,
thus project profitability was not the highest consideration or priority in the decision.
Today, the liberalization of the electricity market has set new economic standards for
the funding and management of dam-based projects. The investment decision is based
on an evaluation of viability and profitability over the full life cycle of the project. The
merging economic elements (energy and water selling prices) with social benefits (flood
protection, supplying water to farmers in case of lack of water) and the value of the
environment (to preserve a minimum environmental flow) are becoming tools for
consideration of cost sharing for multipurpose reservoirs (Skoulikaris, 2008)

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Chapter 3
Methodology
Power Plant Design
Moises Padilla is situated in central part of Negros Island. Along the east side
part of the town is the longest river in Negros Island, the Binalbagan river. The hydro
power plant is designed to produce approximately a total of 19.845 MW.

(Actual Representation) source: Google Earth

(Graphical Representation)
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The type of turbine to be used is a francis turbine. It is an inward-flow reaction turbine


that combines radial and axial flow concepts.

Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. They operate in a
water head from 40 m to 600 m and primarily used for electrical power production. It is
a type of reaction turbine in which the working fluid come to the turbine under
immense pressure and the energy is extracted by the turbine blades from the working
fluid.

The penstock is a sluice or gate or intake structure that controls water flow , or
an enclosed pipe that delivers water to hydro turbines.

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The power station or the power house is the industrial facility for the
generation of electric power. The power house in this project consists of three units of
francis turbines.
Power Plant Operation

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Flowing water is directed at a turbine. The flowing water causes the turbine to
rotate, converting the waters kinetic energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical
energy produced by the turbine is converted into electrical energy using a turbine
generator. Inside the generator, the shaft of the turbine spins a magnet inside coils of
copper wire.
The amount of electricity that can be generated by a hydropower plant
depends on two factors:
Flow rate the quantity of water flowing in a given time; and
Head the height from which the water flows, in the case of this project. The head is
the effective height from the forebay with respect to the powerhouse.

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Chapter 4
Data and Results
Components of the Project

Weir and Intake


Weir and intake elevation: 682 meters (above sea level)
The height of the weir and intake (from ground level): 10meters
Flood Discharge: 43.18 cu meter/ sec

Conveyance Tunnel
Type: Circular Section
Tunnel Length: 1500 meters
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Tunnel Diameter: 3 meters

Forebay
Water elevation: 852.15 meters (altitude above sea level)
Volume: 4000 cu meter (effective)
Length: 25 meters
Width: 20 meters
Height: 10 meters

Penstock
Penstock type: Steel pipe
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Penstock diameter: 2447 mm


Penstock thickness: 9~14 mm
Penstock Length: 375 meters
Powerhouse
Plant type: Surface
Width: 15 meters
Length: 30 meters
Tailrace Elevation level: 150 meters

Theoretical Power Generation of Binalbagan Hydroelectric Powerplant


=

Where:
(

(
(

)
)

Assuming an efficiency of 45%

=( .
=

( .
.

)( )

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Generator Rating
Generator Type:

SFWG7100-26/3260

Rated Capacity:

7.89/7.1 MVA/MW

Rated Voltage:

6.3kv

Rated Current:

417.5 A

Rated Power Factor:


Rated Speed:

0.9 cos

230.8 r/min

Transformer Rating
Transformer:

Power Transformer

Coil Number:

Three Phase Two Windings

Cooling Type:

ONAN / ONAF

Brand Name:

YUANGUANG

Phase:

Three phase

Power Transformer Type:


Standards:

25 MVA transformer

IEC, GB, ANSI

Rated Power Range:

6300 63000 kVA

Model Number:

SFZ11 66kv

Coil Structure:

Toroidal

Windings Material: Copper


High Voltage Range: 63 69kv

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Theoretically, the data shows the installed capacity of Binalbagan Hydroelectric


Powerplant consisting of three individual generators each producing a maximum
installed capacity of 19.845 MW in which we assume an efficiency of 45% for
hydroelectric powerplant. The annual generation of the powerplant would be 7.243
GW of electricity.

Transmission line route map with 41 transmission tower

Moises Padilla Electrical Substation


The first step in designing a power substation is to design an earth and
bonding system.
Earth and Bonding
The function of an earthing and bonding system is to provide an earthing
system connection to which transformer neutrals and earthing impedances may be
connected in order to pass the maximum fault current. The earthing system also
ensures that no thermal or mechanical damage occurs on the equipment within
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the power substation, thereby resulting in safety to operation and maintenance


personnel.
The earthing system also guarantees equipotential bonding such that there
are no dangerous potential gradients developed in the substation.
Earthing Materials
1. Conductors
Bare copper conductor is usually used for the substation earthing grid. The
copper bars themselves usually have a cross-sectional area of 95 square millimeters,
and they are laid at a shallow Depth of 0.25-0.5m, in 3-7m squares.
In addition to the buried potential earth grid, a separate above ground earthing ring is
usually provided, to which all metallic substation plant is bonded.
2. Connections:
Connections to the grid and other earthing joints should not be soldered
because the heat generated during fault conditions could cause a soldered joint to fail.
Joints are usually bolted and in this case, the face of the joints should be tinned.
3. Earthing Rods
The earthing grid must be supplemented by earthing rods to assist in the
dissipation of earth fault currents and further reduce the overall substation earthing
resistance. These rods are usually made of solid copper, or copper clad steel.
4. Switchyard Fence
Earthing: The switchyard fence earthing practices are possible and are used by
different utilities.

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Layout of Substation
The layout of the substation is very important since there should be a security
of supply.
In an ideal substation all circuits and equipment would be duplicated such that
following a fault, or during maintenance, a connection remains available. Practically this
is not feasible since the cost of implementing such a design is very high.

Single busbar substation layout


With this design, there is an ease of operation of the substation. This design
also places minimum reliance on signalling for satisfactory operation. Additionally there
is the facility to support the economical operation of future feeder bays.
Characteristic of the substation
1. Each circuit is protected by its own circuit breaker and hence plant outage does
not necessarily result in loss of supply.

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2. A fault on the feeder or transformer circuit breaker causes loss of the


transformer and feeder circuit, one of which may be restored after isolating the
faulty circuit breaker.
3. A fault on the bus section circuit breaker causes complete shutdown of the
substation. All circuits may be restored after isolating the faulty circuit breaker. A
busbar fault causes loss of one transformer and one feeder.
4. Maintenance of one busbar section or isolator will cause the temporary outage of
two circuits.
5. Maintenance of a feeder or transformer circuit breaker involves loss of the circuit.
6. Introduction of bypass isolators between busbar and circuit isolator allows circuit
breaker maintenance facilities without loss of that circuit.
Circuit Breakers
There are two forms of open circuit breakers:
1. Dead Tank circuit breaker compartment is at earth potential.
2. Live Tank circuit breaker compartment is at line potential.
The form of circuit breaker influences the way in which the circuit breaker is
accommodated. This may be one of four ways.
Ground Mounting and Plinth Mounting
The main advantages of this type of mounting are its simplicity, ease of
erection, ease of maintenance and elimination of support structures. An added
advantage is that in indoor substations, there is the reduction in the height of the
building. A disadvantage however is that to prevent danger to personnel, the circuit
breaker has to be surrounded by an earthed barrier, which increases the area required.

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Retractable Circuit Breakers


These have the advantage of being space saving due to the fact that isolators
can be accommodated in the same area of clearance that has to be allowed between
the retractable circuit breaker and the live fixed contacts. Another advantage is that
there is the ease and safety of maintenance. Additionally such a mounting is economical
since at least two insulators per phase are still needed to support the fixed circuit
breaker plug contacts.
Suspended Circuit Breakers
At higher voltages tension insulators are cheaper than post or pedestal
insulators. With this type of mounting the live tank circuit breaker is suspended by
tension insulators from overhead structures, and held in a stable position by similar
insulators tensioned to the ground. There is the claimed advantage of reduced costs
and simplified foundations, and the structures used to suspend the circuit breakers may
be used for other purposes.
Power Transformers
EHV power transformers are usually oil immersed with all three phases in one
tank. Auto transformers can offer advantage of smaller physical size and reduced
losses.
The different classes of power transformers are:
o.n.: Oil immersed, natural cooling
o.b.: Oil immersed, air blast cooling
o.f.n.: Oil immersed, oil circulation forced
o.f.b.: Oil immersed, oil circulation forced, air blast cooling
Power transformers are usually the largest single item in a substation. For economy
of service roads, transformers are located on one side of a substation, and the
connection to switchgear is by bare conductors. Because of the large quantity of oil, it
is essential to take precaution against the spread of fire.
Hence, the transformer is usually located around a sump used to collect the excess
oil. Transformers that are located and a cell should be enclosed in a blast proof room.
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Environmental Aspects
Negros Occidental has two pronounced seasons, the wet and dry. The dry
season is from late December to early parts of May for northern Negros and from
November to May for southern Negros Occidental. For the northern part of the
province, the rainy season starts June, reaches its peak in September and ends in
October. For southern Negros Occidental, the rainy season begins in June, attains it
peak in August and levels off towards the dry season. The northern monsoon prevails
during the dry season while it is the southwest monsoon that dominates during the
rainy season.

Graph 1. Shows number of rain/drizzle days in a month

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Graph 2 Shows the average precipitation amount in Negros Occidental


Floor elevation of the planned location of the run-of-river Binalbagan river. The
estimated terrain elevation is shown in the figure. The data below was gathered in the
Google Earth software.

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Power Plant Economics

The cost of constructing and operating different types of power plants is of


considerable interest to investors and to individuals in many disciplines including
engineers, planners, economist, and system managers.
Powerplant cost can be broadly classified into two categories: investment costs
and operation costs. Equivalently, economist employs the terms fixed costs and variable
costs. The fixed costs of powerplant are those expenditures which would need to be
incurred whether or not the powerplant was ever used to generate electricity. Fixed
costs include both the initial investment required to construct a powerplant and the
fixed operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Fixed O&M costs include all expenditures
necessary to maintain the powerplant for use and to keep it ready for operation. Labor
is an example of a fixed O&M cost.
The variable or operation costs of a powerplant are those costs which change
in relation to the generation level of the powerplant. Fuel costs are obviously a variable
cost since more fuel is required at higher output levels. Operation or variable O&M costs
also vary with output level and include expenditures for such things as cooling system
operations and lubrication.

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Table 3 Shows the cost estimation of Binalbagan Hydroelectric Powerplant


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Table 3.1 Shows the cost estimation of Binalbagan Hydroelectric Powerplant

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Return of Investment
Run of the river hydroelectric plants do not have any water storage. They
simply divert water from a stream, run it through the turbines and then return it to the
stream. For this reason, they are always base load plants. However, they may be forced
to shut down or reduce the amount of diverted water when the stream flow is
insufficient to provide habitat for aquatic organisms while providing water for electricity
generation.
Assuming that we consider the aquatic organisms affected by the area, we
projected that the Binalbagan Hydroelectric Powerplant would only use its water
resource to produce electricity for 12 hours per day. And also considering that the
powerplant would be maintained once every 5 years. The priec of electricity is 0.5 PHP
per kWh.
=
=
=

( .
,
,

,
,

)(

)(

= 17.08 or 17 years

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Visayas Grid Approximate Model


(source:Cano,Edwin B.)

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Chapter 5
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Summary
Hydroelectric power is important to the Philippines. Growing population and
modern technology require vast amounts of electricity for creating, building and
expanding.
It is an essential contributor in the national grid because of its ability to respond
quickly to rapidly varying loads or system disturbances, which base load plants with
steam systems powered by combustion or nuclear process cannot accommodate.
In nature, energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but its form can change. In
generating electricity, no new energy is created. Actually one form of energy is
converted to another form. To generate electricity, water must be in motion. This is
kinetic energy. When flowing water turns blades in turbine, the form is change to
mechanical energy. The turbine turns the generator rotor which then converts this
mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Conclusion
Once built and put in operation, hydropower plants usually require very little
maintenance and operation costs can be kept low, since hydropower plants do not
have recurring fuel costs Operating and maintenance costs are usually given as a
percentage of investment cost per kW.

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Recommendation
As the energy crisis in the Philippines continues to arise, one of the possible
solutions is to build sufficient power plants specifically promoting renewable energy
such as hydroelectric. Our country has an abundant renewable energy potential, it just
need proper study and exploration to harness our abundant renewable energy sources.
And for some reasons it could greatly contribute for the protection of our environment.

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References

1. http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/economics/reports/TMEC0603.pdf
2. http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/925/art%253A10.1007%252Fs13369013-05905.pdf?auth66=1424072411_1f4a979224e0d2d3020dfc480bca16b0&ext=.pdfl
3. Hydroelectric Power Generation | Economist - World News, Politics, Economics,
Business & Financewww.economist.com
4. http://www.hydro21.org/div_media/pdf/pdf_economie_en.pdf
5. Binalbagan River (stream) ph.geoview.info
6. http://ph.geoview.info/binalbagan_river,1725153#s
7. http://elevationmap.net/binalbagan-river-ph#menu2
8. http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/925/art%253A10.1007%252Fs13369013-05905.pdf?auth66=1424240821_f7181cca9d3b9eada4fceac00af72d74&ext=.pdf
9. Feasibility Assessment of Hydroelectric Power Plant in Ungauged River Basin: A
Case Study - Springer
10. February Climate History for San Carlos Negros Occidental | Local | Philippines
11. PAGASA | Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration
12. http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/designing-of-hv-power-substation-andlayout

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Researchers Profile

Randy R. Alberto
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
Class of 2015
dy4short@gmail.com

New Zealand Creamery Incorporated


Maintenance Division
Electrical Department
OJT

Small but exceptionally terrible in terms of the brain and the looks. He and his clan
gives unconditionally support in finishing this project. A very reliable boy-next-door
boy
person, hell do everything just to finish the project.

Raymon
Raymond Glenn D. Pelagio
an Electrical Engineering Student of Pamantasan ng
Lungsod ng Maynila, born with the zodiac sign of Pisces on
March 3, 1993. My father is Cecilio R. Pelagio a motive of
Naga City. He was gave birth by my grandmother on
February 02, 1958 and died at the age of 54. My mother is
Evelyn D. Pelagio a manila girl since birth. She was born on
September 27, 1957 and of course shes still with me up to
the present. Ive fun of playing guitar, playing basketball,
basketb
playing chess and badminton. Ive also attending church activities like choir service,
visitaiglesia, and pabasa especially in the Lenten season. I love eat and to eat and to
eat. Playing computer games is also my hobby.
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