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Design of combined Foundation for bridge

B
Z
1.25

2.5

1.25

1.25

1798

C.G.

4.5

906
1.25

Z
Foundation Length In X-dir

Lx

3.750 m

Foundation Length In Z-dir

Lz

7.000 m

Plan Area of Raft

26.25 m2

Section Modulus of Raft about X axis

Zx

30.625 m3

Section Modulus of Raft about Z axis

Zz

16.406 m3

Net Safe Bearing Capacity Considered

SBC

Column1 to 6 size parallel to X axis

Cx

0.80

Column1 to 6size parallel to Z axis

Cz

0.80

Depth of Foundation

Df

2.85

Thickness of Raft

75.00 kN/mm2

0.45

Unit Weight of soil

18

kN/m3

Unit Weight of Concrete

25

kN/m3

Grade of Concrete

fck

30

N/mm2

Grade of Steel

fy

500

N/mm2

50

mm

Clear cover to main reinf. of FDN slab


Dia of Main Reinforcement at bottom in Z dir

16

mm

Dia of Main Reinforcement at Top in X dir

16

mm

Forces at Foundation level :Refer Staad File


Joint No.:

1798

Joint No.:

906

Load

Fy

Mx

Mz

Load

Fy

Mx

Mz

Case

kN

kN - m

kN - m

Case

kN

kN - m

kN - m

200

194.782

95.195

-27.462

200

231.901

94.19

-17.457

201

166.937

-12.781

204.418

201

214.565

-13.803

225.216

202

123.273

-332.304

-11.82

202

294.008

203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210

-333.327

17.193

187.349

1.988

-202.432

203

231.013

321.511

13.807

204

275.769

0.988

-229.57

196.325

320.511

-21.546

169.865

-2.078

157.156

205

125.948

-339.825

31.88

206

222.916

-3.107

155.74

294.841

-340.853

-5.828

184.621

-8.96

-158.19

207

226.265

316.979

-30.796

208

267.949

-9.954

-164.169

197.335

315.985

2.322

185.432

77.732

103.16

209

150.298

-192.466

2.939

210

216.754

76.71

111.932

274.293

-193.486

-17.322

211

197.236

72.226

-149.118

211

252.78

71.233

-143.995

212

230.552

332.978

-47.202

212

196.289

331.984

-10.802

213

183.089

69.169

140.969

213

210.073

68.154

167.514

214

148.158

-186.449

-32.022

214

273.627

-187.465

1.095

215

199.419

80.984

-184.511

215

259.036

79.987

-196.315

216

234.35

336.603

-11.52

216

195.481

335.605

-29.897

Final Design Forces


Where
Fy

Algebric Sum of Vertical loads for all Columns

Mx

Algebric Sum of moments for all Columns about XX axis

Mz

Algebric Sum of moments for all Columns about ZZ axis

Mxx

Moment about XX at the C.G. of the raft (Vetical load of each colum x distance from c.g)

Mzz

Moment about ZZ at the C.G. of the raft (Vetical load of each colum x distance from c.g)

Fy

MX

Mx + Mxx

MZ

Mz + Mzz

Load Case

Fy

Mx

Mz

Mxx

Mzz

MX

MZ

kN

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

kN

kN-m

kN-m

200

426.68

189.39

-44.92

83.52

0.00

426.68

272.90

-44.92

201

381.50

-26.58

429.63

107.16

1.00

381.50

80.58

430.63

202

417.28

-665.63

5.37

384.15

2.00

417.28

-281.48

7.37

203

463.12

2.98

-432.00

198.95

3.00

463.12

201.92

-429.00

204

427.34

642.02

-7.74

-78.05

4.00

427.34

563.97

-3.74

205

392.78

-5.19

312.90

119.36

5.00

392.78

114.18

317.90

206

420.79

-680.68

26.05

380.01

6.00

420.79

-300.67

32.05

207

452.57

-18.91

-322.36

187.49

7.00

452.57

168.57

-315.36

208

423.60

632.96

-28.47

-65.09

8.00

423.60

567.87

-20.47

209

402.19

154.44

215.09

70.47

9.00

402.19

224.92

224.09

210

424.59

-385.95

-14.38

278.99

10.00

424.59

-106.96

-4.38

211

450.02

143.46

-293.11

124.97

11.00

450.02

268.43

-282.11

212

426.84

664.96

-58.00

-77.09

12.00

426.84

587.87

-46.00

213

393.16

137.32

308.48

60.71

13.00

393.16

198.04

321.48

214

421.79

-373.91

-30.93

282.31

14.00

421.79

-91.61

-16.93

215

458.46

160.97

-380.83

134.14

15.00

458.46

295.11

-365.83

216

429.83

672.21

-41.42

-87.46

16.00

429.83

584.75

-25.42

Calculation of Pressures
Where

P1

P/A + MX /Zxx + MZ/ Zzz

P2

P/A + MX /Zxx - MZ/ Zzz

P3

P/A - MX /Zxx + MZ/ Zzz

P4

P/A - MX /Zxx - MZ/ Zzz

Pmax

Max(P1,P2,P3,P4)
P1

Pmin
P3

P4

Min(P1,P2,P3,P4)

Pmax

Pmin

SBC

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m2

Remarks

4.61

10.08

27.90

4.61

75.00

Safe

-9.08

38.15

-14.35

43.41

-14.35

93.75

Safe

6.26

25.54

24.64

25.54

6.26

93.75

Safe

-1.91

50.38

-15.10

37.20

50.38

-15.10

93.75

Safe

34.47

34.92

-2.36

-1.91

34.92

-2.36

93.75

Safe

38.07

-0.69

30.61

-8.14

38.07

-8.14

93.75

Safe

8.17

4.26

27.80

23.89

27.80

4.26

93.75

Safe

207

3.52

41.97

-7.49

30.96

41.97

-7.49

93.75

Safe

208

33.43

35.93

-3.65

-1.16

35.93

-3.65

93.75

Safe

209

36.32

9.01

21.64

-5.68

36.32

-5.68

93.75

Safe

210

12.42

12.95

19.40

19.93

19.93

12.42

93.75

Safe

211

8.71

43.10

-8.82

25.57

43.10

-8.82

93.75

Safe

212

32.65

38.26

-5.74

-0.13

38.26

-5.74

93.75

Safe

213

41.04

1.85

28.11

-11.08

41.04

-11.08

93.75

Safe

214

12.04

14.11

18.03

20.09

20.09

12.04

93.75

Safe

215

4.8

49.40

-14.47

30.13

49.40

-14.47

93.75

Safe

216

33.92

37.02

-4.27

-1.17

37.02

-4.27

93.75

Safe

Load Case

P2

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

200

22.43

27.90

201

43.41

202

7.15

203
204
205
206

50.38

-15.10

Check for Negative Pressure:


Self Weight of footing:
Self Weight of Slab

= 0.45x25

Self Weight of Soil

=(2.85-0.45)x18

Total down ward Pressure =

11.25 + 43.2

Negative Pressure from base pressure analysis

Pdes

Load
Factor

kN/m2

200

1.5

41.85

201

1.5

65.12

202

1.5

38.31

203

1.5

75.57

204

1.5

52.38

205

1.5

57.11

206

1.5

41.70

207

1.5

62.96

208

1.5

53.90

209

1.2

43.58

210

1.2

23.92

211

1.2

51.72

Load Case

11.25

KN/m2

43.2

KN/m2

P down

54.45

KN/m2

P min

-15.10

KN/m2

P min + P down =
Calculation of Maximum Design Pressure

>0

Safe

212

1.2

45.91

213

1.2

49.25

214

1.2

24.11

215

1.2

59.28

216

1.2

44.42
=

75.57

Maximum Design Pressure

Wu

kN/m2

Assumed Overall Depth of foundation slab

450

mm

Effective Depth of foundation slab

d1

384

mm

C/c distance b/w columns along X -direction

lx

1.25

Maximum Bending moment =Wu lx /10

Mux

11.81

kN-m

Required Depth of Foundation d req =(Mu / 0.133 Fck b)0.5

d req

54.40

mm

Calculation of Reinforcement along X Direction

Safe
Mu/(bd2)

0.08

N/mm2

Pt required as per SP-16-Table-3

Pt req

0.019

Minimum Percentage of Steel

Pt min

0.12

Area of Reinforcement Required

Ast.(r)

460.8

mm2

436.33

mm c/c

250

mm c/c

Required spacing for 16 dia bars

S req

Provide spacing for 16 dia bars

S pro

1000/[Ast/(.1 /4)]
2

Provide16 @ 250 mm c/c along longer direction @ top and bottom


Calculation of Reinforcement along Z Direction at top
C/c distance b/w columns along Z -direction

lz

4.50

Maximum Bending moment =Wu lz2 /10

Muz

153.03

kN-m

Required Depth of Foundation d req =(Mu / 0.133 Fck b)0.5

d req

195.84

mm

Safe
Mu/(bd2)

1.04

N/mm2
%

Pt required as per SP-16-Table-3

Pt req

0.25

Minimum Percentage of Steel

Pt min

0.12

Area of Reinforcement Required

Ast.(r)

960

209.44

mm c/c

150

mm c/c

Required spacing for 16 dia bars

S req

Provide spacing for 16 dia bars

S pro

1000/[Ast/(.12/4)]

mm2

Provide16 @ 150 mm c/c along longer direction @ top


Calculation of Reinforcement along Z Direction at bottom
C/c distance b/w columns along Z -direction

lz

4.50

Maximum Bending moment =Wu lz2 /12

Muz

127.52

kN-m

Required Depth of Foundation d req =(Mu / 0.133 Fck b)0.5

d req

178.77

mm

Safe
Mu/(bd2)

0.86

N/mm2

0.21

Pt required as per SP-16-Table-3

Pt req

Minimum Percentage of Steel

Pt min

0.12

Area of Reinforcement Required

Ast.(r)

791.04

mm2

254.17

mm c/c

200.00

mm c/c

Required spacing for dia bars

S req

Provide spacing for dia bars

S pro

Provide16 @ 200 mm c/c along longer direction @ bottom

1000/[Ast/(.12/4)]

Check for Punching


Critical Section is at a distance d/2 from face of Column
Maximum Shear Force

d/2

=
V

192 mm

294.841 kN

Load Factor

1.5

Periphery of the Ctical Section is b0 =2 x ((a+d)+(b+d))

4736 mm

Maximum Shear Stressv =V. / b0 .d

0.24 N/mm2

Permissable Shear Stress c per = 0.25 (Fck) 0.5

1.37 N/mm2

Design of combined Foundation for bridge

B
Z
1.25

2.5

1.25

1.25

1725

C.G.

4.5

1775
1.25

Z
Foundation Length In X-dir

Lx

3.750 m

Foundation Length In Z-dir

Lz

7.000 m

Plan Area of Raft

26.25 m2

Section Modulus of Raft about X axis

Zx

30.625 m3

Section Modulus of Raft about Z axis

Zz

16.406 m3

Net Safe Bearing Capacity Considered

SBC

Column1 to 6 size parallel to X axis

Cx

0.80

Column1 to 6size parallel to Z axis

Cz

0.80

Depth of Foundation

Df

2.85

Thickness of Raft

75.00 kN/mm2

0.45

Unit Weight of soil

18

kN/m3

Unit Weight of Concrete

25

kN/m3

Grade of Concrete

fck

30

N/mm2

Grade of Steel

fy

500

N/mm2

50

mm

Clear cover to main reinf. of FDN slab


Dia of Main Reinforcement at bottom in Z dir

16

mm

Dia of Main Reinforcement at Top in X dir

16

mm

Forces at Foundation level :Refer Staad File


Joint No.:

1725

Joint No.:

1775

Load

Fy

Mx

Mz

Load

Fy

Mx

Mz

Case

kN

kN - m

kN - m

Case

kN

kN - m

kN - m

200

175.803

155.529

-13.83

200

224.795

156.212

-23.869

201

219.282

-10.444

228.817

201

226.366

-9.491

208.046

202

225.262

-243.782

21.242

202

180.503

203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210

-242.769

-8.702

172.042

-23.79

-225.625

203

166.063

209.548

-18.05

204

194.906

-22.792

-199.077

240.768

210.486

17.672

212.213

-26.446

159.298

205

244.959

-507.567

-1.632

206

222.311

-25.28

160.709

166.073

-505.943

35.09

178.583

-7.502

-160.161

207

147.198

467.34

5.679

208

198.757

-6.72

-154.738

254.32

467.665

-27.037

193.015

113.537

115.417

209

219.212

-271.361

-13.327

210

231.304

114.431

106.781

186.313

-270.099

6.286

211

166.111

128.692

-140.151

211

212.46

129.279

-145.576

212

141.003

508.565

-7.479

212

256.911

508.787

-43.415

213

198.671

126.338

171.032

213

234.547

127.062

144.651

214

203.455

-60.332

4.971

214

197.857

-59.561

-28.748

215

160.879

115.661

-192.522

215

209.379

116.421

-181.047

216

156.095

302.331

-26.462

216

246.069

303.044

-7.649

Final Design Forces


Where
Fy

Algebric Sum of Vertical loads for all Columns

Mx

Algebric Sum of moments for all Columns about XX axis

Mz

Algebric Sum of moments for all Columns about ZZ axis

Mxx

Moment about XX at the C.G. of the raft (Vetical load of each colum x distance from c.g)

Mzz

Moment about ZZ at the C.G. of the raft (Vetical load of each colum x distance from c.g)

Fy

MX

Mx + Mxx

MZ

Mz + Mzz

Load Case

Fy

Mx

Mz

Mxx

Mzz

MX

MZ

kN

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

kN

kN-m

kN-m

200

400.60

311.74

-37.70

110.23

0.00

400.60

421.97

-37.70

201

445.65

-19.94

436.86

15.94

1.00

445.65

-4.00

437.86

202

405.77

-486.55

12.54

-100.71

2.00

405.77

-587.26

14.54

203

366.95

-46.58

-424.70

51.44

3.00

366.95

4.86

-421.70

204

406.83

420.03

-0.38

168.09

4.00

406.83

588.12

3.62

205

434.52

-51.73

320.01

22.72

5.00

434.52

-29.01

325.01

206

411.03

-1013.51

33.46

-177.49

6.00

411.03

-1191.00

39.46

207

377.34

-14.22

-314.90

45.39

7.00

377.34

31.17

-307.90

208

401.52

935.01

-21.36

241.02

8.00

401.52

1176.03

-13.36

209

424.32

227.97

222.20

86.15

9.00

424.32

314.12

231.20

210

405.53

-541.46

-7.04

-74.02

10.00

405.53

-615.48

2.96

211

378.57

257.97

-285.73

104.29

11.00

378.57

362.26

-274.73

212

397.91

1017.35

-50.89

260.79

12.00

397.91

1278.15

-38.89

213

433.22

253.40

315.68

80.72

13.00

433.22

334.12

328.68

214

401.31

-119.89

-23.78

-12.60

14.00

401.31

-132.49

-9.78

215

370.26

232.08

-373.57

109.13

15.00

370.26

341.21

-358.57

216

402.16

605.38

-34.11

202.44

16.00

402.16

807.82

-18.11

Calculation of Pressures
Where

P1

P/A + MX /Zxx + MZ/ Zzz

P2

P/A + MX /Zxx - MZ/ Zzz

P3

P/A - MX /Zxx + MZ/ Zzz

P4

P/A - MX /Zxx - MZ/ Zzz

Pmax

Max(P1,P2,P3,P4)
P1

Load Case

Pmin

P2

P3

P4

Min(P1,P2,P3,P4)

Pmax

Pmin

SBC

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m2

Remarks

3.78

31.34

-0.82

75.00

Safe

43.80

-9.58

43.80

-9.84

93.75

Safe

35.52

33.75

35.52

-4.60

93.75

Safe

39.84

-11.88

39.52

39.84

-11.88

93.75

Safe

34.48

-3.48

-3.93

34.92

-3.93

93.75

Safe

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

200

26.74

31.34

-0.82

201

43.54

-9.84

202

-2.83

-4.60

203

-11.57

204

34.92

205

35.42

-4.20

37.31

-2.31

37.31

-4.20

93.75

Safe

206

-20.83

-25.64

56.95

52.14

56.95

-25.64

93.75

Safe

207

-3.37

34.16

-5.41

32.12

34.16

-5.41

93.75

Safe

208

52.88

54.51

-23.92

-22.29

54.51

-23.92

93.75

Safe

209

40.51

12.33

20.00

-8.18

40.51

-8.18

93.75

Safe

210

-4.47

-4.83

35.73

35.37

35.73

-4.83

93.75

Safe

211

9.51

43.00

-14.15

19.34

43.00

-14.15

93.75

Safe

212

54.52

59.26

-28.95

-24.21

59.26

-28.95

93.75

Safe

213

47.45

7.38

25.63

-14.44

47.45

-14.44

93.75

Safe

214

10.37

11.56

19.02

20.21

20.21

10.37

93.75

Safe

215

3.39

47.10

-18.89

24.82

47.10

-18.89

93.75

Safe

216

40.59

42.80

-12.16

-9.95

42.80

-12.16

93.75

Safe

59.26

-28.95

Check for Negative Pressure:


Self Weight of footing:
Self Weight of Slab

= 0.45x25

Self Weight of Soil

=(2.85-0.45)x18

Total down ward Pressure =

11.25 + 43.2

Negative Pressure from base pressure analysis

Pdes

Load
Factor

kN/m2

200

1.5

47.01

201

1.5

65.70

202

1.5

53.28

203

1.5

59.76

204

1.5

52.38

205

1.5

55.97

206

1.5

85.43

207

1.5

51.24

208

1.5

81.77

209

1.2

48.61

210

1.2

42.88

211

1.2

51.60

Load Case

11.25

KN/m2

43.2

KN/m2

P down

54.45

KN/m2

P min

-28.95

KN/m2

P min + P down =
Calculation of Maximum Design Pressure

>0

Safe

212

1.2

71.11

213

1.2

56.94

214

1.2

24.25

215

1.2

56.52

216

1.2

51.36
=

85.43

Maximum Design Pressure

Wu

kN/m2

Assumed Overall Depth of foundation slab

450

mm

Effective Depth of foundation slab

d1

384

mm

C/c distance b/w columns along X -direction

lx

1.25

Maximum Bending moment =Wu lx /10

Mux

13.35

kN-m

Required Depth of Foundation d req =(Mu / 0.133 Fck b)0.5

d req

57.84

mm

Calculation of Reinforcement along X Direction

Safe
Mu/(bd2)

0.09

N/mm2

Pt required as per SP-16-Table-3

Pt req

0.021

Minimum Percentage of Steel

Pt min

0.12

Area of Reinforcement Required

Ast.(r)

460.8

mm2

436.33

mm c/c

250

mm c/c

Required spacing for 16 dia bars

S req

Provide spacing for 16 dia bars

S pro

1000/[Ast/(.1 /4)]
2

Provide16 @ 250 mm c/c along longer direction @ top and bottom


Calculation of Reinforcement along Z Direction at top
C/c distance b/w columns along Z -direction

lz

4.50

Maximum Bending moment =Wu lz2 /10

Muz

172.99

kN-m

Required Depth of Foundation d req =(Mu / 0.133 Fck b)0.5

d req

208.22

mm

Safe
Mu/(bd2)

1.17

N/mm2

0.284

Pt required as per SP-16-Table-3

Pt req

Minimum Percentage of Steel

Pt min

0.12

Area of Reinforcement Required

Ast.(r)

1090.56

mm2

184.37

mm c/c

150

mm c/c

Required spacing for 16 dia bars

S req

Provide spacing for 16 dia bars

S pro

1000/[Ast/(.12/4)]

Provide16 @ 250 mm c/c along longer direction @ top


Calculation of Reinforcement along Z Direction at bottom
C/c distance b/w columns along Z -direction

lz

4.50

Maximum Bending moment =Wu lz2 /12

Muz

144.15

kN-m

Required Depth of Foundation d req =(Mu / 0.133 Fck b)0.5

d req

190.07

mm

Safe
Mu/(bd2)

0.98

N/mm2

0.23

Pt required as per SP-16-Table-3

Pt req

Minimum Percentage of Steel

Pt min

0.12

Area of Reinforcement Required

Ast.(r)

898.56

mm2

223.76

mm c/c

200.00

mm c/c

Required spacing for dia bars

S req

Provide spacing for dia bars

S pro

Provide16 @ 184.37 mm c/c along longer direction @ bottom

1000/[Ast/(.12/4)]

Check for Punching


Critical Section is at a distance d/2 from face of Column
Maximum Shear Force

d/2

=
V

192 mm

256.911 kN

Load Factor

1.5

Periphery of the Ctical Section is b0 =2 x ((a+d)+(b+d))

4736 mm

Maximum Shear Stressv =V. / b0 .d

0.21 N/mm2

Permissable Shear Stress c per = 0.25 (Fck) 0.5

1.37 N/mm2