(The following query retrieves "2" highest paid employees FROM each Department : SELECT deptno, empno, sal FROM emp e WHERE 1 = ( SELECT COUNT(e1.sal) FROM emp e1 WHERE e.deptno = e1.deptno AND e1.sal > e.sal) ORDER BY 1,3 DESC; II. Query that will display the total no. of employees, and of that total the number who were hired in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. Give appropriate column headings. I am looking at the following output. We need to stick to this format. Total 1980 1981 1982 1983 ----------- ------------ ------------ ------------- ----------14 1 10 2 1 SELECT COUNT (*), COUNT(DECODE(TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'),'1980', empno)) "1980", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1981', empno)) "1981", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1982', empno)) "1982", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1983', empno)) "1983" FROM emp; III. Query for listing Deptno, ename, sal, SUM(sal in that dept) : SELECT a.deptno, ename, sal, (SELECT SUM(sal) FROM emp b WHERE a.deptno = b.deptno) FROM emp a ORDER BY a.deptno; OUTPUT : ======= DEPTNO ENAME SAL SUM (SAL) ========= ======= ==== ========= 10 KING 5000 11725 30 BLAKE 2850 10900 10 CLARK 2450 11725 10 JONES 2975 11725 30 MARTIN 1250 10900 30 ALLEN 1600 10900 30 TURNER 1500 10900 30 JAMES 950 10900 30 WARD 2750 10900 20 SMITH 8000 33000 20 SCOTT 3000 33000 20 MILLER 20000 33000 Index IV. Create a matrix query to display the job, the salary for that job based on department number, and the total salary for that job for all departments, giving each column an appropriate heading. The output is as follows - we need to stick to this format : Job Dept 10 Dept 20 Dept 30 Total ---------- --------------- ------------- ------------- --------ANALYST 6000 6000 CLERK 1300 1900 950 4150

MANAGER 2450 2975 2850 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 5600 5600 SELECT job "Job", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 10, sal)) "Dept 10", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 20, sal)) "Dept 20", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 30, sal)) "Dept 30", SUM (sal) "Total" FROM emp GROUP BY job ; V. 4th Top Salary of all the employees : SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP A WHERE 3 = (SELECT COUNT(B.SAL) FROM EMP B WHERE A.SAL < B.SAL) ORDER BY SAL DESC; VI. Retrieving the 5th row FROM a table : SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP WHERE ROWID = (SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM <= 5 MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 5) VII. Tree Query : Name Null? Type ------------------------------------------------------------------SUB NOT NULL VARCHAR2(4) SUPER VARCHAR2(4) PRICE NUMBER(6,2)

SELECT sub, super FROM parts CONNECT BY PRIOR sub = super START WITH sub = 'p1'; VIII. Eliminate duplicates rows in a table : DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE ROWID > ( SELECT min(ROWID) FROM table_name B WHERE A.col = B.col); IX. Displaying EVERY 4th row in a table : (If a table has 14 rows, 4,8,12 rows will be selected) SELECT * FROM emp WHERE (ROWID,0) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,4) FROM emp); X. Top N rows FROM a table : (Displays top 9 salaried people) SELECT ename, deptno, sal FROM (SELECT * FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC)

WHERE ROWNUM < 10; XI. How does one count/sum RANGES of data values in a column? A value x will be between values y and z if GREATEST(x, y) = LEAST(x, z). SELECT f2, COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,59), least(f1,100), 1, 0)) "Range 60-100", COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,30), least(f1, 59), 1, 0)) "Range 30-59", COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,29), least(f1, 0), 1, 0)) "Range 00-29" FROM my_table GROUP BY f2; XII. For equal size ranges it migth be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range), 0, rate_0, 1, rate_1, ...). SELECT ename "Name", sal "Salary", DECODE( TRUNC(sal/1000, 0), 0, 0.0, 1, 0.1, 2, 0.2, 3, 0.3) "Tax rate" FROM emp; XIII. How does one count different data values in a column? COL NAME DATATYPE ---------------------------------------DNO NUMBER SEX CHAR SELECT dno, SUM(DECODE(sex,'M',1,0)) MALE, SUM(DECODE(sex,'F',1,0)) FEMALE, COUNT(DECODE(sex,'M',1,'F',1)) TOTAL FROM t1 GROUP BY dno; XIV. Query to get the product of all the values of a column : SELECT EXP(SUM(LN(col1))) FROM srinu; XV. Query to display only the duplicate records in a table: SELECT num FROM satyam GROUP BY num HAVING COUNT(*) > 1; XVI. Query for getting the following output as many number of rows in the table : * ** *** **** ***** SELECT RPAD(DECODE(temp,temp,'*'),ROWNUM,'*') FROM srinu1;

XVII. Function for getting the Balance Value : FUNCTION F_BALANCE_VALUE (p_business_group_id number, p_payroll_action_id number, p_balance_name varchar2, p_dimension_name varchar2) RETURN NUMBER IS l_bal number; l_defined_bal_id number; l_assignment_action_id number; BEGIN SELECT assignment_action_id INTO l_assignment_action_id FROM pay_assignment_actions WHERE assignment_id = :p_assignment_id AND payroll_action_id = p_payroll_action_id; SELECT defined_balance_id INTO l_defined_bal_id FROM pay_balance_types pbt, pay_defined_balances pdb, pay_balance_dimensions pbd WHERE pbt.business_group_id = p_business_group_id AND UPPER(pbt.balance_name) = UPPER(p_balance_name) AND pbt.business_group_id = pdb.business_group_id AND pbt.balance_type_id = pdb.balance_type_id AND UPPER(pbd.dimension_name) = UPPER(p_dimension_name) AND pdb.balance_dimension_id = pbd.balance_dimension_id; l_bal := pay_balance_pkg.get_value(l_defined_bal_id,l_assignment_action_id); RETURN (l_bal); exception WHEN no_data_found THEN RETURN 0; END; XVIII. Function for getting the Element Value : FUNCTION f_element_value( p_classification_name in varchar2, p_element_name in varchar2, p_business_group_id in number, p_input_value_name in varchar2, p_payroll_action_id in number, p_assignment_id in number ) RETURN number IS l_element_value number(14,2) default 0; l_input_value_id pay_input_values_f.input_value_id%type; l_element_type_id pay_element_types_f.element_type_id%type; BEGIN

SELECT DISTINCT element_type_id INTO l_element_type_id FROM pay_element_types_f pet, pay_element_classifications pec WHERE pet.classification_id = pec.classification_id AND upper(classification_name) = upper(p_classification_name) AND upper(element_name) = upper(p_element_name) AND pet.business_group_id = p_business_group_id; SELECT input_value_id INTO l_input_value_id FROM pay_input_values_f WHERE upper(name) = upper(p_input_value_name) AND element_type_id = l_element_type_id; SELECT NVL(prrv.result_value,0) INTO l_element_value FROM pay_run_result_values prrv, pay_run_results prr, pay_assignment_actions paa WHERE prrv.run_result_id = prr.run_result_id AND prr.assignment_ACTION_ID = paa.assignment_action_id AND paa.assignment_id = p_assignment_id AND input_value_id = l_input_value_id AND paa.payroll_action_id = p_payroll_action_id; RETURN (l_element_value); exception WHEN no_data_found THEN RETURN 0; END; XIX. SELECT Query for counting No of words : SELECT ename, NVL(LENGTH(REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @'),' ',''))+1,1) word_length FROM emp; Explanation : TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @') -- This will translate all the characters FROM A-Z including a single quote to a space. It will also translate a space to a @. REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @'),' ','') -This will replace every space with nothing in the above result. LENGTH(REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @'),' ',''))+1 -- This will give u the count of @ characters in the above result. XX. Function to check for a leap year : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION is_leap_year (p_date IN DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS v_test DATE; BEGIN v_test := TO_DATE ('29-Feb-' || TO_CHAR (p_date,'YYYY'),'DD-Mon-YYYY'); RETURN 'Y'; EXCEPTION

WHEN OTHERS THEN RETURN 'N'; END is_leap_year; SQL> SELECT hiredate, TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'Day') weekday FROM emp WHERE is_leap_year (hiredate) = 'Y';

XXI. Query for removing all non-numeric : SELECT TRANSLATE(LOWER(ssn),'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz- ','') FROM DUAL; XXII. Query for translating a column values to INITCAP : SELECT TRANSLATE(INITCAP(temp), SUBSTR(temp, INSTR(temp,'''')+1,1), LOWER(SUBSTR(temp, INSTR(temp,'''')+1))) FROM srinu1; XXIII. Function for displaying Rupees in Words : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION to_word_i (amount IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS v_length INTEGER := 0; v_num2 VARCHAR2 (50) := NULL; v_amount VARCHAR2 (50) := TO_CHAR (TRUNC (amount)); v_word VARCHAR2 (4000) := NULL; v_word1 VARCHAR2 (4000) := NULL; TYPE myarray IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (255); v_str myarray := myarray (' Thousand ', ' Lakh ', ' Crore '); BEGIN IF ((amount = 0) OR (amount IS NULL)) THEN v_word := 'zero'; ELSIF (TO_CHAR (amount) LIKE '%.%') THEN IF (SUBSTR (amount, INSTR (amount, '.') + 1) > 0) THEN v_num2 := SUBSTR (amount, INSTR (amount, '.') + 1); IF (LENGTH (v_num2) < 2) THEN v_num2 := v_num2 * 10; END IF; v_word1 := ' AND ' || (TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_num2, LENGTH (v_num2) - 1,2), 'J'), 'JSP' ))|| ' paise '; v_amount := SUBSTR(amount,1,INSTR (amount, '.')-1); v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_amount, LENGTH (v_amount) - 2,3), 'J'), 'Jsp' ) || v_word; v_amount := SUBSTR (v_amount, 1, LENGTH (v_amount) - 3); FOR i in 1 .. v_str.COUNT LOOP EXIT WHEN (v_amount IS NULL); v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_amount, LENGTH (v_amount) - 1,2), 'J'), 'Jsp' ) || v_str (i) || v_word; v_amount := SUBSTR (v_amount, 1, LENGTH (v_amount) - 2); END LOOP;

END IF; ELSE v_word := TO_CHAR ( TO_DATE ( TO_CHAR ( amount, '999999999') , 'J'), 'JSP'); END IF; v_word := v_word || ' ' || v_word1 || ' only '; v_word := REPLACE (RTRIM (v_word), ' ', ' '); v_word := REPLACE (RTRIM (v_word), '-', ' '); RETURN INITCAP (v_word); END to_word_i; XXIV. Query for deleting alternate even rows FROM a table : DELETE FROM srinu WHERE (ROWID,0) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,2) FROM srinu); XXV. Query for deleting alternate odd rows FROM a table : DELETE FROM srinu WHERE (ROWID,1) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,2) FROM srinu); XXVI. Procedure for sending Email : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE Send_Mail IS sender VARCHAR2(50) := 'sender@something.com'; recipient VARCHAR2(50) := 'recipient@something.com'; subject VARCHAR2(100) := 'Test Message'; message VARCHAR2(1000) := 'This is a sample mail ....'; lv_mailhost VARCHAR2(30) := 'HOTNT002'; l_mail_conn utl_smtp.connection; lv_crlf VARCHAR2(2):= CHR( 13 ) || CHR( 10 ); BEGIN l_mail_conn := utl_smtp.open_connection (lv_mailhost, 80); utl_smtp.helo ( l_mail_conn, lv_mailhost); utl_smtp.mail ( l_mail_conn, sender); utl_smtp.rcpt ( l_mail_conn, recipient); utl_smtp.open_data (l_mail_conn); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'FROM: ' || sender || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'To: ' || recipient || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'Subject:' || subject || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, lv_crlf || message); utl_smtp.close_data(l_mail_conn); utl_smtp.quit(l_mail_conn); EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Error'); END; / XXVII. Alternate Query for DECODE function : SELECT case

WHEN sex = 'm' THEN 'male' WHEN sex = 'f' THEN 'female' ELSE 'unknown' END FROM mytable; XXVIII. Create table adding Constraint to a date field to SYSDATE or 3 months later: CREATE TABLE srinu(dt1 date DEFAULT SYSDATE, dt2 date, CONSTRAINT check_dt2 CHECK ((dt2 >= dt1) AND (dt2 <= ADD_MONTHS(SYSDATE,3))); XXIX. Query to list all the suppliers who supply all the parts supplied by supplier 'S2' : SELECT DISTINCT a.SUPP FROM ORDERS a WHERE a.supp != 'S2' AND a.parts IN (SELECT DISTINCT PARTS FROM ORDERS WHERE supp = 'S2') GROUP BY a.SUPP HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT a.PARTS) >= (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT PARTS) FROM ORDERS WHERE supp = 'S2'); Table : orders SUPP PARTS -------------------- ------S1 P1 S1 P2 S1 P3 S1 P4 S1 P5 S1 P6 S2 P1 S2 P2 S3 P2 S4 P2 S4 P4 S4 P5 XXX. Query to get the last Sunday of any month : SELECT NEXT_DAY(LAST_DAY(TO_DATE('26-10-2001','DD-MM-YYYY')) - 7,'sunday') FROM DUAL; XXXI. Query to get all those who have no children themselves : table data : id name parent_id ------------------------------1 a NULL - the top level entry 2 b 1 - a child of 1 3c1 4 d 2 - a child of 2 5e2 6f3 7g3 8h4

9i8 10 j 9 SELECT ID FROM MY_TABlE WHERE PARENT_ID IS NOT NULL MINUS SELECT PARENT_ID FROM MY_TABlE; XXXII. Query to SELECT last N rows FROM a table : SELECT empno FROM emp WHERE ROWID in (SELECT ROWID FROM emp MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM emp WHERE ROWNUM <= (SELECT COUNT(*)-5 FROM emp)); XXXIII. SELECT with variables: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE disp AS xTableName varchar2(25):='emp'; xFieldName varchar2(25):='ename'; xValue NUMBER; xQuery varchar2(100); name varchar2(10) := 'CLARK'; BEGIN xQuery := 'SELECT SAL FROM ' || xTableName || ' WHERE ' || xFieldName || ' = ''' || name || ''''; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(xQuery); EXECUTE IMMEDIATE xQuery INTO xValue; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(xValue); END; XXXIV. Query to get the DB Name: SELECT name FROM v$database; XXXV. Getting the current default schema : SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','CURRENT_SCHEMA') FROM DUAL; Index XXXVI. Query to get all the column names of a particular table : SELECT column_name FROM all_tab_columns WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'ORDERS'; XXXVII. How do I spool only the query result to a file in SQLPLUS : Place the following lines of code in a file and execute the file in SQLPLUS : set heading off set feedback off

set colsep ' ' set termout off set verify off spool c:\srini.txt SELECT empno,ename FROM emp; /* Write your Query here */ spool off / XXXVIII. Query for getting the current SessionID : SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','SESSIONID') Session_ID FROM DUAL; XXXIX. Query to display rows FROM m to n : To display rows 5 to 7 : SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP WHERE ROWID IN (SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM <= 7 MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 5); OR SELECT ename FROM emp GROUP BY ROWNUM, ename HAVING ROWNUM > 1 and ROWNUM < 3; XXXX. Query to count no. Of columns in a table: SELECT COUNT(column_name) FROM user_tab_columns WHERE table_name = 'MYTABLE'; XXXXI. Procedure to increase the buffer length : dbms_output.enable(4000); /*allows the output buffer to be increased to the specified number of bytes */ DECLARE BEGIN dbms_output.enable(4000); FOR i IN 1..400 LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(i); END LOOP; END; / XXXXII. Inserting an & symbol in a Varchar2 column : Set the following to some other character. By default it is &.

set define '~' XXXXIII. Create Query to restrict the user to a single row : Index XXXXIV. Query to get the first inserted record FROM a table : Index XXXXV. How to concatenate a column value with multiple rows : Index XXXXVI. Query to delete all the tables at once : Index XXXXVII. SQL Query for getting Orphan Records : XXXXVIII. How do you remove Trailing blanks in a spooled file : Change the Environment Options Like this : set trimspool on set trimout on XXXXIX. Samples for executing Dynamic SQL Statements : Sample :1 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE CNT(P_TABLE_NAME IN VARCHAR2) AS SqlString VARCHAR2(200); tot number; BEGIN SqlString:='SELECT COUNT(*) FROM '|| P_TABLE_NAME; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE SqlString INTO tot; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Total No.Of Records In ' || P_TABLE_NAME || ' ARE=' || tot); END; Sample :2 DECLARE sql_stmt VARCHAR2(200); plsql_block VARCHAR2(500); emp_id NUMBER(4) := 7566; salary NUMBER(7,2); dept_id NUMBER(2) := 50; dept_name VARCHAR2(14) := ’PERSONNEL’; location VARCHAR2(13) := ’DALLAS’; emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE; BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'CREATE TABLE bonus (id NUMBER, amt NUMBER)'; sql_stmt := 'INSERT INTO dept VALUES (:1, :2, :3)'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING dept_id, dept_name, location; sql_stmt := 'SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno = :id'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt INTO emp_rec USING emp_id; plsql_block := 'BEGIN emp_pkg.raise_salary(:id, :amt); END;'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE plsql_block USING 7788, 500;

sql_stmt := 'UPDATE emp SET sal = 2000 WHERE empno = :1 RETURNING sal INTO :2'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING emp_id RETURNING INTO salary; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DELETE FROM dept WHERE deptno = :num' USING dept_id; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE ’ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE TRUE’; END; Sample 3 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE DEPARTMENTS(NO IN DEPT.DEPTNO%TYPE) AS v_cursor integer; v_dname char(20); v_rows integer; BEGIN v_cursor := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; DBMS_SQL.PARSE(v_cursor, 'select dname from dept where deptno > :x', DBMS_SQL.V7); DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE(v_cursor, ':x', no); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN_CHAR(v_cursor, 1, v_dname, 20); v_rows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE(v_cursor); LOOP IF DBMS_SQL.FETCH_ROWS(v_cursor) = 0 THEN EXIT; END IF; DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE_CHAR(v_cursor, 1, v_dname); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Deptartment name: '||v_dname); END LOOP; DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR(v_cursor); EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR(v_cursor); raise_application_error(-20000, 'Unknown Exception Raised: '||sqlcode||' '||sqlerrm); END; XXXXX. Differences between SQL and MS-Access : Difference 1: Oracle : select name from table1 where name like 'k%'; Access: select name from table1 where name like 'k*'; Difference 2: Access: SELECT TOP 2 name FROM Table1; Oracle : will not work there is no such TOP key word. XXXXXI. Query to display all the children, sub children of a parent : SELECT organization_id,name FROM hr_all_organization_units WHERE organization_id in ( SELECT ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD FROM PER_ORG_STRUCTURE_ELEMENTS CONNECT BY PRIOR ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD = ORGANIZATION_ID_PARENT START WITH ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD = (SELECT organization_id FROM hr_all_organization_units WHERE name = 'EBG Corporate Group'));

XXXXXII. Procedure to read/write data from a text file : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE read_data AS c_path varchar2(100) := '/usr/tmp'; c_file_name varchar2(20) := 'EKGSEP01.CSV'; v_file_id utl_file.file_type; v_buffer varchar2(1022) := This is a sample text’; BEGIN v_file_id := UTL_FILE.FOPEN(c_path,c_file_name,'w'); UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE(v_file_id, v_buffer); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(v_file_id); v_file_id := UTL_FILE.FOPEN(c_path,c_file_name,'r'); UTL_FILE.GET_LINE(v_file_id, v_buffer); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v_buffer); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(v_file_id); END; / XXXXXIII. Query to display random number between any two given numbers : SELECT DBMS_RANDOM.VALUE (1,2) FROM DUAL; XXXXXIV. How can I get the time difference between two date columns : SELECT FLOOR((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600) || ' HOURS ' || FLOOR((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60) || ' MINUTES ' || ROUND((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600 (FLOOR((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60)*60))) || ' SECS ' time_difference FROM my_table;

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