You are on page 1of 61

See

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272685099

Generator Circuit-Breakers Application Guide


- Edition 2
TECHNICAL REPORT JANUARY 2012

READS

198

4 AUTHORS, INCLUDING:
Mirko Palazzo
ABB
22 PUBLICATIONS 24 CITATIONS
SEE PROFILE

Available from: Mirko Palazzo


Retrieved on: 08 February 2016

Product Brochure

Generator Circuit-Breakers
Application Guide

Edited by
ABB Switzerland Ltd
High Voltage Products
Department: High Current Systems
Brown Boveri Strasse 5
CH-8050 Zurich / Switzerland
Text: Dieter Braun, Giosafat Cavaliere,
Kurt Dahinden, Mirko Palazzo

Table of contents
1 Introduction

2 History of the development of generator circuit-breakers

3 Design of generator circuit-breakers

3.1

Interrupting chamber

3.2

Hydraulic spring operating mechanism

11

3.3

SF 6-gas density monitoring system

11

3.4

Disconnector

12

3.5

Earthing switch

12

3.6

Starting switch (for gas turbine power plants)

12

3.7

Short-circuiting connection

13

3.8

Current transformer

13

3.9

Voltage transformer

13

3.10

Ferroresonance damping device

13

3.11

Surge capacitor

14

3.12

Surge arrester

14

3.13

Connecting zone

15

3.14

Phase enclosure

16

3.15

Control and supervision

16

4 Standard for generator circuit-breakers

17

5 Selection of generator circuit-breakers

18

5.1

Duties of generator circuit-breakers

18

5.2

Requirements for generator circuit-breakers

18

5.3

Selection of generator circuit-breakers

18

5.3.1

Rated maximum voltage

19

5.3.2

Power frequency

19

5.3.3

Rated continuous current

19

5.3.4

Rated dielectric strength

20

5.3.5

Rated short-circuit duty cycle

20

5.3.6

Rated interrupting time

20

5.3.7

Rated closing time

20

5.3.8

Short-circuit current rating

20

5.3.8.1

System-source short-circuit current

20

5.3.8.2

Generator-source short-circuit current

23

5.3.8.3

Required closing, latching, and carrying capabilities

27

5.3.8.4

Required short-time current-carrying capability

5.3.9

Transient recovery voltage rating

27
27

5.3.9.1

First-pole-to-clear factor

28

5.3.9.2

Amplitude factor

28

5.3.9.3

Power frequency recovery voltage

28

5.3.9.4

Rated inherent transient recovery voltage

29

5.3.9.5

System-source faults

30

5.3.9.6

Generator-source faults

30

5.3.9.7
5.3.10

Calculation of TRV in case of terminal faults


Rated load current switching capability

30
32

5.3.11

Capacitance current switching capability

32

5.3.12

Out-of-phase current switching capability

32

5.3.13

Excitation current switching capability

34

5.3.14

Rated control voltage

34

5.3.15

Rated mechanism fluid operating pressure

34

4 | ABB

Table of contents
6 Application of generator circuit-breakers

35

6.1

35

Power plant layouts

6.1.1

Thermal power plants

35

6.1.2

Gas turbine power plants

35

6.1.3

Hydro power plants

35

6.1.4

Pumped storage power plants

36

6.2

Advantages of generator circuit-breakers

6.2.1

Simplified operational procedures

38
38

6.2.2

Improved protection of the generator and the main and unit transformers

38

6.2.3

Increased security and higher power plant availability

38

6.2.3.1

Transformer failures

39

6.2.3.2

Short-time unbalanced load condition

41

6.2.3.3

Generator motoring

42

6.2.3.4

Synchronizing under out-of-phase conditions

42

6.2.4

Economic benefit

43

7 Maintenance of generator circuit-breakers

44

8 Case study 1: Impact of the method of connecting a generator to the high-voltage grid on the availability of a power plant

45

8.1

45

Power plant layout

8.1.1

Layout of extra high-voltage substation

47

8.1.2

Layout of high-voltage substation

48

8.1.3

Generator circuit-breaker

48

8.1.4

Station transformer

48

8.2

Data for availability calculations

48

8.3

Simulations

48

8.4

Simulation results

49

8.5

Economic evaluation

50

9 Case study 2: Interrupting capability of generator circuit-breakers in case of delayed current zeros

52

9.1

Generator circuit-breaker model adopted for the simulations

52

9.2

Generator terminal faults

53

9.3

Out-of-phase synchronising

55

9.4

Conclusions

56

References

57

ABB | 5

1 Introduction
A major objective of all power plant operating companies is
the achievement of the highest possible plant availability at
the lowest possible cost. Obviously, how a generator is connected to the high-voltage grid and how the power supply to
the unit auxiliaries is secured has a decisive influence on the
availability of a power plant.
Two basically different ways of connecting a generator to the
high-voltage transmission network are in use today, namely
the connection without a circuit-breaker between the generator and the low-voltage terminals of the main transformer (i.e.
the "unit connection") and the connection with a generator
circuit-breaker (Figure 1). The layout with a generator circuit-

breaker has several advantages over the unit connection, e.g.:


simplified operational procedures
improved protection of the generator and the main and unit
transformers
increased security and higher power plant availability
economic benefit
ABB generator circuit-breakers are suitable for application in
all kinds of new power plants such as fossil-fired, nuclear, gas
turbine, combined cycle, hydro and pumped storage power
plants as well as for replacement or retrofit in existing power
stations when they are modernized and/or extended.

a)

EHV

b)

HV

EHV

MT

HV

MT

UT

AUX

ST

UT

GCB

Figure 1: Layout of a thermal power plant without generator circuit-breaker a) and with generator circuit-breaker b)

Legend
MT

Main transformer

UT

Unit transformer

ST

Station transformer

GCB

Generator circuit-breaker

EHV

Transmission system

HV

Sub-transmission system

AUX

Unit auxiliaries

6 | ABB

ST

AUX

2 History of the development of generator circuit-breakers

Originally conventional distribution


circuit-breakers were used to connect
the generator to the step-up transformer.
With the increasing output of the generators, the required ratings exceeded the
load currents and short-circuit levels of
the switchgear available. Therefore the
unit connection became the accepted
standard power plant layout.

During the sixties, when there was a trend towards higher unit
ratings and, consequently, increased use of phasesegregated generator busducts, ABB developed a circuitbreaker which could meet these new requirements. This was
the first circuit-breaker designed to be installed in the run of
generator busducts (Figure 2).
Since the delivery of the first specific purpose generator
circuit-breaker in 1970, there has been a continuous development of this piece of power plant equipment. At the beginning
the circuit-breakers consisted of three metal-enclosed, phase

segregated units using compressed air as operating and arcextinguishing medium.


In the 1980s SF6 generator circuit-breakers were successfully
introduced into the market. The design of these circuit-breakers was a three-phase system in single-phase enclosures,
supplied fully assembled on a common frame with operating
mechanism and control equipment. Mainly the economical
aspect and reasons of reliability and maintainability convinced
customers of this modern arc-extinguishing medium.

Figure 2: Air blast generator circuit-breaker type DR mounted in the run of an isolated phase bus

ABB | 7

In the 1990s SF6 generator circuit-breakers were specifically


developed for open installation, i.e. without enclosure. This
solution was introduced to allow quick and easy installation
even for projects with very small space requirements (Figure 3).
Today SF 6 generator circuit-breakers with rated currents up
to 24000 A with natural cooling and up to 57000 A with
forced air cooling, respectively, and with short-circuit breaking

currents up to 210 kA are available. This breaking capacity


corresponds to the highest short-circuit breaking current ever
achieved with a single SF 6 interrupting unit. The development
was made possible by using the most advanced SF 6 selfblast principle. With this achievement modern SF 6 generator
circuit-breakers can now be delivered for generating units with
ratings up to 2000 MVA (Figure 4).

Figure 3: SF6 generator circuit-breaker type HECS-130R for open


installation

Figure 4: Generator circuit-breaker type HEC 7 based on SF6


technology and self-blast principle

Another development has been the integration of all the


associated items of switchgear into the generator circuitbreaker housing. Series disconnectors, earthing switches,
short-circuiting connection, current transformers, singlebushing voltage transformers, protective capacitors and surge
arresters can be mounted in the enclosure of the generator
circuit-breaker (Figure 5). Depending on the type of power
plant additional items like starting switches (for gas turbine

and hydro power plants) can also be fitted in the generator


circuit-breaker housing. This greatly improved functionality
allows simpler and more economic power plant layouts.
Beside a substantial reduction of the first costs this new
solution - being fully factory assembled and tested - also
makes possible considerable savings in time and expenditures
for erection and commissioning.

Current transformer
Voltage transformer

Interrupting chamber
Disconnector
Surge arrester

Figure 5: View into one pole of a generator circuit-breaker system

8 | ABB

3 Design of generator circuit-breakers


ABB generator circuit-breaker systems are three-phase systems with a SF6 circuit-breaker and a disconnector in singlephase enclosures, supplied fully assembled on a common
frame, with operating mechanisms and control equipment.
In addition to the circuit-breaker and disconnector, the
generator circuit-breaker systems are available with earthing
switch, starting switch, short-circuiting connection, current
and voltage transformers, surge capacitor and surge arrester.
The single line diagram of a generator circuit-breaker system
is depicted in Figure 6.

All the components are integrated and mounted in the phase


enclosures (Figure 5). The generator circuit-breaker system is
designed for welded connections to the isolated phase bus
enclosures. Each enclosure is made of aluminium and capable
of carrying the induced return current.
The phase distance can be selected to suit the busbar
spacing in the power plant.

8
1

G
3

10
Figure 6: Typical single line diagram of a generator circuit-breaker system

1
2
3
4
5

Generator circuit-breaker
Line disconnect switch
Earthing switch
Starting switch for SFC connection
Manual short-circuiting connection
(by removal of cover)

3.1 Interrupting chamber


Within the interrupting chamber SF 6 gas is used for both arc
extinguishing and internal insulation. The external insulation
is air. For current interruption the self-blast principle is used
which represents an optimised design to achieve a significant reduction in operating energy. The main advantages of
employing SF 6 gas as interrupting medium with self-blast
principle can be summarised as follows:
the arc-voltage of the circuit-breaker is high enough to
ensure current zeros in case of fault currents with delayed
current zeros without the need of delaying the tripping

6
7
8
9
10

Surge capacitor
Current transformers
Voltage transformers
Surge arrester
Motor-operated short circuiting link
(only with generator side earthing switch)

the pressure of SF 6 which is needed for interruption depends on the magnitude of the current
an efficient operation can be achieved with a smaller operating mechanism due to lower energy consumption during
contact movement
a gentle interruption of small inductive currents can be
obtained thus reducing the risk of chopping the arc and
generating subsequent overvoltages
SF6 gas can be monitored

ABB | 9

The interrupting chamber of a generator circuit-breaker is depicted in


Figure 7. On the left side the terminal is visible. The contacts are operated by a shaft passing through the vertical support insulator.
The design of SF6 generator circuit-breakers consists of two separate
contact systems, one for current carrying and one for arc interruption
(Figure 8).
During the interruption process the current has to commutate from the
nominal contact system to the arcing contact system. This avoids wear
and erosion of the current carrying contacts and ensures trouble-free
current carrying even after a large number of operations.

Arc Extinguishing Technology:


Mode of operation of the interrupting chamber of the type HECS circuitbreaker systems

Figure 7: Interrupting chamber of a


generator circuit-breaker

a Circuit-breaker CLOSED
b Initiation of opening movement (transfer of current from the main contacts
to the arcing contacts)
c Separation of arcing contacts with interruption of small currents supported
by puffer action

Separation of arcing contacts with interruption of large currents supported


by the thermal effect of the current arc itself to build up the pressure in the
heating volume
d Circuit-breaker OPEN
c



1
2
3
4

Terminals
Cylindrical coil
Fixed arcing contact
Moving arcing contact

5
6
7
8

Fixed main contacts


Moving main contact
Puffer
Heating volume

Figure 8: Contact systems of an


SF6 generator circuit-breaker and
description of a current interruption
procedure

10 | ABB

3.2 Hydraulic spring operating mechanism


The hydraulic spring operating mechanism combines the
advantages of a hydraulic operating mechanism with those of
a spring energy storage system (Figure 9).
Energy storage is accomplished with the aid of a disk spring
assembly, with the advantages of high long-term stability, reliability and non-influence of temperature changes.
Tripping of the operating mechanism and energy output are
based on proven design elements of the hydraulic operating
technique, such as control valves and hydraulic cylinders.
The operating mechanism is based on the so-called differential piston principle.
For the closing operation the piston head side is isolated from
the low pressure and simultaneously connected to the high
pressure oil volume.
As long as the pressure is maintained, the piston remains in
the closed position. A pressure controlled mechanical

interlock prevents movement of the piston to the open position in case of a pressure drop.
For the opening operation, the piston head side is isolated
from the high pressure and simultaneously connected to the
low pressure oil volume.
The charging state of the spring disk assembly is controlled
by switching elements, actuating the pump motor to immediately maintain the oil pressure.
A non-return valve between pump and high-pressure oil
volume prevents pressure loss in the event of a pump outage.
The hydraulic system is hermetically sealed against atmosphere. The mechanically operated position indicator provides
reliable indication of the circuit-breaker position.
The drive operates all three circuit-breaker poles simultaneously by mechanical linkages, thus keeping the switching time
difference between the poles to a minimum.

a)

b)

High pressure
Low pressure

1 Breaker operating rod


2 Energy storage device

Figure 9: Hydro-mechanical spring operating mechanism a) and its schematic diagram b)

3.3 SF6-gas density monitoring system


The breaking capacity of an SF6 circuit-breaker and the
dielectric withstand level across its open contacts is dependent upon the density of the SF 6-gas. Under the condition of
constant volume the gas density is independent of the gas
temperature, while the pressure varies with the temperature.
It is therefore more practical to measure and use the gas
density rather than the pressure for circuit-breaker supervision
purposes.
The density monitor operates according to the reference-

volume-density principle. The density of the gas in the circuitbreaker chamber is compared with the density of the gas in
a sealed reference gas volume. When the gas density drops
below the specified value, the density monitor signals the loss
of SF6-gas in several steps.
Since the gas volumes of the three circuit-breaker poles are
connected via the refilling pipe only one SF 6-gas density
monitor per circuit-breaker is required to supervise the gas
density.

ABB | 11

3.4 Disconnector
The switchgear concept provides a disconnector fitted in
series with the circuit-breaker. It is placed on the transformerside of the circuit-breaker and within the same enclosure. The
disconnector is a tubular telescopic unit and it is equipped
with a drive which operates through a mechanical linkage all
three poles. This layout provides easy access and simplifies
maintenance. In the open position of the disconnector the iso-

lating air distance can be clearly seen through an inspection


window. The moving contact is motor driven. A locking
feature prevents motor operation while the disconnector is
being manually operated. A mechanically driven position
indicator is provided in a visible position and a crank handle
is provided for manual operation. The view of a disconnector
being in the open position is depicted in Figure 10.

Figure 10: View of a disconnector in the open position

3.5 Earthing switch


The earthing switch can be provided on either one or both
sides of the system. The switch and its connections are
designed for protective earthing purposes, i.e. it is rated for
the full fault current but has no current making or continuous
carrying capacity.
The design of blade type (for generator circuit-breaker

systems type HECS and HEC 7/8 up to 160 kA) or of tubular


telescopic type (for generator circuit-breaker systems type
HEC 7/8 up to 210 kA) is depicted in Figure 11.
The earthing connection is made via the system enclosure.
The moving contact is motor driven.

a)

b)

Figure 11: Blade type a) and tubular telescopic type b) earthing switches

3.6 Starting switch (for gas turbine power plants)


A starting switch can be provided on the generator-side of
the system. It is designed for being employed for the start-up

12 | ABB

of the machine from a static frequency converter (SFC). The


moving contact is motor driven.

3.7 Short-circuiting connection


The short-circuiting connection helps to expedite the testing and adjustment of the power plant protection system. It
can be provided manually mounted for the use between the
circuit-breaker and the disconnector of the system or motor
operated. In the former case the cover of each phase

enclosure has to be removed to allow the fitting of the shortcircuiting bar. In the latter case the short-circuiting link is used
in conjunction with the earthing switch installed on the
generator-side of the circuit-breaker (for generator circuitbreaker systems type HECS).

3.8 Current transformer


A ring core current transformer can be provided on either
one or both sides of the circuit-breaker system (Figure 12).
Depending on the class up to three cores per current transformer can be accommodated. The secondary windings are
permanently wired back to terminal blocks in the control
cubicle.

3.9 Voltage transformer


Single-phase voltage transformers can be provided on either
one or both sides of the circuit-breaker system. Up to three
voltage transformers can be fitted at each side and each voltage transformer can be supplied with one or two secondary
windings, depending on the class and output power required
(Figure 13). The secondary windings are permanently wired
back to terminal blocks in the control cubicle.

Figure 12: Ring core current transformer

Figure 13: Single-phase voltage transformers

3.10 Ferroresonance damping device


In order to prevent the occurrence of ferroresonance ABB
generator circuit-breaker systems are equipped with a
damping device installed in the open delta formed by the
tertiary windings of the three voltage transformers on the
transformer-side of the generator circuit-breaker (see Figure
14 and Figure 15).
Ferroresonance is characterised by a periodic displacement
of the potential of the system neutral in a three-phase system
with an isolated neutral. These so-called relaxation oscillations
are caused by discharging and recharging the capacitances
to ground via magnetising inductances of e.g. single-pole
insulated voltage transformers and the periodic repetition of
this process. The magnetic core is temporarily subjected to
saturation during these phenomena. As a consequence of
saturation high currents are flowing through the primary
windings of the voltage transformers that heat up these
windings and often lead to the destruction of the voltage
transformer. In practice the ferroresonant oscillations may be

initiated by momentary saturation the core of the inductive


element resulting from e.g. switching operations or other type
of events leading to an unbalance in the system.
The insertion of a ferroresonance damping device in the open
delta of the residual voltage windings (tertiary windings) of a
set of voltage transformers is a very efficient solution for the
damping of second subharmonic relaxation oscillations. This
device basically consists of a saturable coil (damping coil)
paralleled by a group of resistors with a relatively high resistance. For power frequency voltages, i.e. in case of persistent
single-phase-to-ground faults, the saturable inductance works
in the linear range of the magnetising characteristic and carries only a small current thus avoiding any thermal overloading
of the voltage transformer as well as of the inductance itself.
For second subharmonic voltages however the inductance
saturates and absorbs active power sufficient to damp out the
relaxation oscillations. This power is dissipated in the resistance associated with the damping coil.

ABB | 13

Y-connection of the primary windings

Y-connection of the primary windings

open delta connection of the tertiary


windings

Y-connection of the secondary


windings

DE 6
open delta connection of the tertiary
windings

Earth Fault
Protection Relay
DE 6
Earth Fault
Protection Relay

Figure 14: Insertion of a ferroresonance damping device (DE6) in the


open delta of the residual voltage windings (tertiary windings) of a
set of voltage transformers (voltage transformer with one secondary
winding)

Figure 15: Insertion of a ferroresonance damping device (DE6) in the


open delta of the residual voltage windings (tertiary windings) of a
set of voltage transformers (voltage transformer with two secondary
windings)

3.11 Surge capacitor


Surge capacitors are fitted on both sides of the generator
circuit-breaker system to provide additional protection against
overvoltages and to support arc extinction in the circuitbreaker by transient recovery voltage limitation (Figure 16).
The surge capacitors are used to reduce the rate-of-rise of
the transient recovery voltage from the very high prospective values (and at the same time to increase the time delay
from the very low prospective values) to values the generator
circuit-breaker can cope with. The capacitors are therefore
to be considered as an integral part of the generator circuitbreaker.

3.12 Surge arrester


Surge arresters can be fitted on the transformer-side of the
generator circuit-breaker system, to provide protection for
the equipment connected to the generator busbar against
overvoltages. Metal-oxide surge arresters with silicon housing
are installed in ABB generator circuit-breaker systems (Figure
17). Metal-oxide surge arresters have a highly non-linear
resistance characteristic. At service voltage a predominantly
capacitive low current flows. Any voltage increase leads to a
rapid increase of the current, thereby limiting any further rise
in the voltage. When the voltage decreases, the condition
reverts to its essential non-conducting state.

Figure 16: Surge capacitor

Figure 17: Metal-oxide surge arrester

14 | ABB

3.13 Connecting zone


The connecting zone is designed to provide a detachable
(bolted) connection between the generator circuit-breaker
life parts and the conductors of the adjacent isolated phase
bus (IPB) or busduct. The main components of the connecting zone are depicted in Figure 18 and Figure 19. The flexible
connections shall be designed for:
1) carrying the rated continuous current and the rated shorttime withstand current without exceeding the maximum
permissible temperatures
2) ensuring that the dielectric strength requirements are met
3) compensating expansion and contraction of the conductor
due to temperature changes
4) compensating vibrations and withstanding the stress
caused during switching operations

ABB recommended type and arrangement of flexible copper


straps responds to these requirements as follows:
1), 2) & 5) Fully type tested together with the generator circuitbreaker to prove that the stringent requirements imposed by
the relevant IEC and IEEE standards with regard to dielectric
strength, hottest spot temperature and mechanical stress are
fully met. The special shape easily adapts to different distances
between terminals ensuring that dielectric strength requirements are always met.
3), 4) & 5) Flexible type employing laminates with pressurewelded contact ends designed and tested for high mechanical
stress.
6) Silver plated contact ends with high requirements on
contact surface evenness and material properties.

5) withstanding the mechanical stress resulting from electrodynamic forces in case of short-circuit currents
6) providing a low resistance, safe and stable electrical
connection

a)
b)
c)


d)



Flexible copper straps


Fastening and securing bolts & nuts
Terminal with silvered contact surfaces
for welded connection to the conductor
of the IPB or busduct
Support ring for withstanding the
mechanical stress and to reduce the
contraction of the connectors resulting
from electro-dynamic forces in case of
short-circuit currents

a)

b)
c)

d)

Figure 18: Main components of the connecting zone

Figure 19: Connection between one pole of a generator circuitbreaker and the associated phase bus

ABB | 15

3.14 Phase enclosure


The magnetic field in the neighborhood of the connection between generator and transformer may have adverse effects on
equipment and building steel if the current exceeds a certain
value. The values of magnetic fields outside of the generator
circuit-breaker housing could induce voltages and currents
which in turn might produce undesired heating effects.
For this reason, and to avoid electromagnetic forces between
the current-carrying busbars the generator circuit-breaker
system is designed for welded connections to the isolated
phase bus enclosures.
Each single phase enclosure is made of aluminium and

3.15 Control and supervision


All control and supervisory apparatuses are mounted in the
control cubicle. An active mimic diagram is provided with
position indications and the integrated local control of the
circuit-breaker and all other switching apparatuses. In the
control cubicle there is also installed equipment for local/
remote changeover facilities and counters for CO operations
of the circuit-breaker and pump starts of the circuit-breaker
drive.

16 | ABB

capable of carrying the induced return current thus minimising


the impact of the magnetic field. In order to avoid pollution
due to ingress of dust and moisture, the generator switchgear
enclosure is designed to allow air tightness and to withstand a
slight internal overpressure.
Inspection windows are provided in the phase enclosures near
to the disconnector, earthing switch and starting switch, to
allow visually checking of the position of each of them.
Occasionally, the busbars in power plants are not enclosed
and in general, effects of magnetic fields for small generator
continuous current is usually of no concern.

4 Standard for generator circuit-breakers


IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) IEEE Standard for AC High-Voltage
Generator Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis covers
the requirements applicable for generator circuit-breakers [1]. It is the
only standard worldwide specifically relating to generator circuit-breakers.
Therefore generator circuit-breakers have to be designed and tested in
accordance with [1] and its amendment IEEE Std C37.013a-2007 IEEE
Standard for AC High Voltage Generator Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis - Amendment 1: Supplement for Use with
Generators Rated 10100 MVA [2]. Since no other national or international standard on generator circuit-breakers exists, this standard is
used worldwide. Specifically, IEC publication 62271-100 High-voltage
switchgear and controlgear Part 100: Alternating-current circuit-breakers does not apply to generator circuit-breakers as it explicitly excludes
generator circuit-breakers from its scope [3]. Circuit-breakers that have
been designed and tested in accordance with IEC 62271-100 do not
meet the stringent requirements imposed on generator circuit-breakers
and therefore are not suitable for the use as generator circuit-breakers.
Contrary to general purpose circuit-breakers covered by IEC 62271-100
generator circuit-breakers have two fault ratings, i.e. the system-source
short-circuit current interrupting capability (in case of a fault between the
circuit-breaker and the generator) and the generator-source short-circuit
current interrupting capability (in case of a fault between the circuitbreaker and the transformer).

The stresses imposed on generator circuitbreakers differ from the stresses imposed on general purpose circuit-breakers mainly in the following
respects:
1. The degree of asymmetry of the system-source
short-circuit current is in the order of 60% to 80%.
2. The degree of asymmetry of the generatorsource short-circuit current is in the order of 90%
to 150%, i.e. the generator-source short-circuit
current may exhibit delayed current zeros (degree
of asymmetry > 100%).

Description of Test

Standard

Clause

Rated continuous current carrying tests

IEEE Std C37.013

Rated dielectric strength

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.1
Cl. 6.2.2

Short-time current-carrying capability

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.3

Short-circuit current rating

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.3

Rated transient recovery voltage

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.4
Cl. 6.2.5

Rated standard operating duty

IEEE Std C37.013

Rated interrupting time

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.6

Short-circuit current with delayed current zeros

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.7

Load current switching tests

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.8

Out-of-phase current switching tests

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.9

Mechanical endurance life

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.10

Excitation current switching tests

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.11

Sound level tests

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.12

EMC tests

IEEE Std C37.013

Cl. 6.2.13

TABLE I: LIST OF TYPE TESTS FOR GENERATOR CIRCUIT-BREAKERS ACCORDING TO


IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008)

3. The rate-of-rise of the transient recovery voltage


after the interruption of a system-source shortcircuit current may be as high as 6.0 kV/s.
4. The rate-of-rise of the transient recovery voltage
after the interruption of a generator-source shortcircuit current may be as high as 2.2 kV/s and the
corresponding time delay may be extremely short
(< 0.5 s).
The test quantities given in IEC 62271-100 for the
short-circuit tests do not adequately cover the
above requirements. The only standard which covers the requirements for generator circuit-breakers
is IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008). This standard
in particular covers the requirements imposed
on generator circuit-breakers regarding the d.c.
component and the degree of asymmetry of the
fault currents (including the case of fault currents
with delayed current zeros) and the characteristics
of the transient recovery voltages (rate-of-rise, time
delay and peak value).
In order to cover the stringent requirements which
are imposed on generator circuit-breakers the type
tests listed in Table I have to be performed on
generator circuit-breakers in accordance with IEEE
Std C37.013-1997 (R2008).
ABB | 17

5 Selection of generator circuit-breakers


5.1 Duties of generator circuit-breakers
The main duties of a generator circuit-breaker are as follows:
synchronise the generator with the main system
separate the generator from the main system (switching off
the unloaded/lightly loaded generator)
carry and interrupt load currents (up to the full load current
of the generator)
interrupt system-source short-circuit currents
interrupt generator-source short-circuit currents
interrupt fault currents due to out-of-phase conditions up to
out-of-phase angles of 180

5.2 Requirements for generator circuit-breakers


The requirements imposed on generator circuit-breakers
greatly differentiate from the requirements imposed on general
purpose transmission and distribution circuit-breakers.
Due to the location of installation of a generator circuitbreaker high technical requirements are imposed on the
circuit-breaker with respect to:
rated current
short-circuit currents (system-source and generator-source)
fault currents due to out-of-phase conditions
degree of asymmetry of fault currents, fault currents with
delayed current zeros
rate-of-rise of the recovery voltages
Circuit-breakers are only capable of providing satisfactory
service when they are capable of fully meeting these requirements.
Specifications must therefore fully reflect the technical and
reliability requirements and equipment, confirming to such
specifications, must be designed and tested in full accordance with recognized and relevant standards.

5.3 Selection of generator circuit-breakers


According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the ratings and
required capabilities of a generator circuit-breaker are the following ones:
rated maximum voltage

power frequency
rated continuous current
rated dielectric strength
rated short-circuit duty cycle
rated interrupting time
rated closing time
short-circuit current rating
transient recovery voltage rating
rated load current switching capability
capacitance current switching capability
out-of-phase current switching capability
excitation current switching capability
rated control voltage
rated mechanism fluid operating pressure
18 | ABB

5.3.1 Rated maximum voltage


The rated maximum voltage is the generator circuit-breakers
upper limit for operation and it is selected so that it is higher
than or equal to the maximum operating voltage of the
generator.

5.3.2 Power frequency


The rated frequency for generator circuit-breakers is 50 Hz or
60 Hz, depending on the system power frequency in which
the generator circuit-breaker is installed.

5.3.3 Rated continuous current


The rated continuous current of a generator circuit-breaker
is the designated upper limit of current in r.m.s. amperes at
power frequency, which it shall be required to carry continuously without exceeding any of the limitations designated
in IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008). Due to their installation
location generator circuit-breakers have to be able to carry
continuously load currents of very high magnitude. These
currents place a severe stress on the conductors, connections and contacts. In order to guarantee that the switches
have a high degree of reliability and a long service life, they
must be so designed that limits for temperature increase are
not exceeded. In order to make optimal use of the conductor
material employed in the circuit-breaker, the power losses
have to be minimized and the transfer of heat from the
conductor path to the environment must be intensified.
The maximum value of load current which the circuit-breaker
shall be able to carry continuously can be calculated by using
the following formula:

The current carrying capability of a generator circuit-breaker


depends on the operating condition at the specific location.
When assessing the current carrying capability of a generator
circuit-breaker special attention shall be paid to the following
items:
power frequency
design temperature of the isolated phase bus to which the
terminals of the generator circuit-breaker are connected
(normally these temperatures are 105 C (or 90 C) for main
conductor and 80 C (or 70 C) for enclosure)
ambient temperature
installation location (indoor or outdoor)
colour of the enclosure of the generator circuit-breaker
In special cases the isolated phase bus is equipped with its
own forced cooling system. In such a case also the technical
parameters of this cooling system shall be taken into account
in the assessment of the current carrying capability of the
generator circuit-breaker.
In Figure 20 the current carrying capability of the generator
circuit-breaker type HECS-100L is displayed.

I max =

I max

Sn
3 Vmin

Sn
V min

is the maximum r.m.s. value of the current which the


generator circuit-breaker shall be able to carry
continuously

is the rated power of the generator


is the minimum operating voltage of the generator

20000
19000
18000
indoor

outdoor (RAL 9010)

Current (Arms)

17000
16000
15000
14000
13000
12000
11000
-25.0

-20.0

-15.0

-10.0

-5.0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

45.0

50.0

Ambient Temperature (C)

Figure 20: Current carrying capability curves for generator circuit-breaker type HECS-100L operating at a power frequency of 50 Hz and
isolated phase bus temperatures of 90 C / 70 C (conductor / enclosure respectively)

ABB | 19

5.3.4 Rated dielectric strength


The rated dielectric strength of a generator circuit-breaker
is selected in accordance with the Table II depending on its
rated maximum voltage.

Rated maximum
voltage
[kVrms]

Power frequency
withstand voltage
[kVrms]

5.3.5 Rated short-circuit duty cycle


The rated short-circuit duty cycle of a generator circuitbreaker is two unit operations with a 30 min interval between
operations (CO30 minCO) [1].

Lightning impulse
withstand voltage
[kV peak]

20

60

8.25

28

75

8.25 / 15

38

95

15.5

50

110

27

60

125

38

80

150

TABLE II: RATED DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF GENERATOR CIRCUIT-BREAKERS IN


ACCORDANCE WITH IEEE Std C37.013a-2007

5.3.6 Rated interrupting time


According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the rated interrupting time of the generator circuit-breaker is the maximum
permissible interval between the energizing of the trip circuit
at rated control voltage and rated fluid pressure of the operating mechanism and the interruption of the main circuit in all
poles on an opening operation.
A typical interrupting time for ABB generator circuit-breakers
is about 3 cycles.
The interrupting time is the sum of the opening time (i.e. the
time interval between the energizing of the opening circuit and
the mechanical separation of the arcing contacts) and the arcing
time (i.e. the time interval between the contact separation in
the first pole and the final arc extinction in all poles).

5.3.7 Rated closing time


According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the rated
closing time of the generator circuit-breaker is the interval
between energizing of the close circuit at rated control voltage
and rated fluid pressure of the operating mechanism and the
closing of the main circuit.

5.3.8 Short-circuit current rating


5.3.8.1 System-source short-circuit current
According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the systemsource short-circuit current of a generator circuit-breaker
is the highest r.m.s. value of the symmetrical component of
the three-phase short-circuit current. It is measured from the
envelope of the current wave at the instant of primary
arcing contact separation and is the current that the generator

I ac =

I ac
X eq

20 | ABB

is the a.c. component of the fault current


is the equivalent reactance of the circuit referred to
the LV-side of the step-up transformer

circuit-breaker is required to interrupt at the rated maximum


voltage and rated duty cycle when the source of the shortcircuit current is from the power system through at least one
transformation.
The a.c. component of the system-source short-circuit current
can be calculated by using the following formula:

Vmax
3 X eq

Vmax


is the maximum r.m.s. value of the applied voltage


prior to fault (it can generally be considered equal to
the maximum service voltage of the HV-system referred to the LV-side of the step-up transformer)

The required asymmetrical system-source interrupting capability of a generator circuit-breaker is composed of the r.m.s.
symmetrical current and the percentage d.c. component. The
values of the d.c. component are expressed in percent of the
peak value of the symmetrical short-circuit current and are
measured at the primary arcing contact parting time. The primary arcing contact parting time can be generally considered

equal to the sum of 1/2 cycle (protection system tripping


delay) plus the minimum opening time of the particular
generator circuit-breaker.
The standard value for the time constant of the decay of the
d.c. component is 133 ms. For time constants different than
133 ms, the following formula can be used:

t cp

Idc = 2 Iac e

tcp


is the d.c. component of the fault current


is the a.c. component of the fault current

I dc
Iac

Xeq

is the equivalent reactance of the circuit referred to


the LV-side of the step-up transformer
is equal to 2 f with f being the power frequency

is the primary arcing contact parting time


is the time constant of the decay of the d.c.
component and it can be calculated by using the fol
lowing formula:

X eq

Req
Req

is the is the equivalent resistance of the circuit


referred to the LV-side of the step-up transformer

When the fault current is asymmetrical it is characterized by a


degree of asymmetry which is defined as follows:

a=

I dc
2 I ac

is the degree of asymmetry.

The typical course of the system-source short-circuit current


and of its degree of asymmetry are shown in Figure 21 and
Figure 22, respectively. It is understood that the degree of
asymmetry of the system-source short-circuit current is generally monotonically decreasing with time as the a.c. compo-

nent of the fault current is usually constant. Its value depends


on the opening time of the circuit-breaker and on the relay
time of the protection system and it assumes a typical value
of 75% at the primary arcing contact parting time.

100.0

90.0
1.5

80.0

Current (pu)

0.5

Degree of asymmetry (%)

2 Iac

Idc

t cp

-0.5

70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0

-1
0

10

20

30

40

50
Time (ms)

60

70

80

90

Figure 21: Prospective system-source short-circuit current

100

0.0

10

20

30

40

50
Time (ms)

60

70

80

90

100

Figure 22: Degree of asymmetry of the system-source short-circuit


current

ABB | 21

The system-source short-circuit current is generally fed by the


HV-system and by the motors connected to the LV-side of the
unit auxiliary transformer (see Figure 23). The a.c. component
of the system-source short-circuit current for the power plant
layout depicted in Figure 23 can be calculated by using the
following formula:

HV-System

Step-Up
Transformer

Generator
Circuit-Breaker

Unit Auxiliary
Transformer

Figure 23: (right side) Typical power plant layout with a step-up
transformer and a unit auxiliary transformer

I ac =

Vmax
3

(X sys + X GSUT )

Motors

1
I rM VrM2 V AUXT _ HV
I LR SrM

Vmax is the maximum r.m.s. value of the applied voltage



prior to fault (it can be considered equal to the

maximum service voltage of the HV-system referred

to the LV-side of the step-up transformer)
X sys is the equivalent reactance of the HV-system referred

to the LV-side of the step-up transformer
X GSUT is the short-circuit reactance of the step-up

transformer referred to the LV-side of the step-up

transformer
is the rated voltage of the motors connected to the
VrM

LV-side of the unit auxiliary transformer

+ X AUXT

V AUXT _ LV

SrM

I LR / IrM

XAUXT

Generator

is the rated apparent power of the motors connected


to the LV-side of the unit auxiliary transformer
is the ratio of the locked-rotor current to the rated
current of the motor
is the short-circuit reactance of the unit auxiliary
transformer referred to the HV-side of the unit
auxiliary transformer

VAUXT_HV

is the transformation ratio of the unit auxiliary
VAUXT_LV

transformer

The d.c. component of the system-source short-circuit current for the power plant layout depicted in Figure 23 can be
calculated by using the following formula:

( )

I dc tcp = 2

Vmax
3

(X sys + X GSUT )

(X sys + X GSUT )
sys + GSUT =
(R sys + RGSUT)

t cp

sys + GSUT

M + AUXT

I rM VrM 2 VAUXT _ HV
I LR SrM VAUXT _ LV

I LR SrM

M + AUXT =

+ X AUXT

I rM VrM 2 V AUXT _ HV

Rsys
the equivalent resistance of the HV-system referred

to the LV-side of the step-up transformer
R GSUT the resistive component of the short-circuit

impedance of the step-up transformer referred to the

LV-side of the step-up transformer
XM / RM the X/R ratio of the motors connected to the LV-side

of the unit auxiliary transformer
22 | ABB

t cp

V AUXT _ LV

+ X AUXT

R M I rM VrM 2 V AUXT _ HV
X M I LR SrM V AUXT _ LV

+ RAUXT

RAUXT the resistive component of the short-circuit



impedance of the unit auxiliary transformer referred

to the HV-side of the unit auxiliary transformer

is equal to 2 f with f being the power frequency

The degree of asymmetry of the fault current measured at the


contact parting time is:

( )

a tcp =

( )

Idc tcp
2 Iac

In some cases a three-winding transformer is used to connect


two generators to the HV-system (see Figure 24). In this case
the system-source short-circuit current has three contributions, i.e. it is fed by the HV-system, by the motors connected
to the LV-side of the unit auxiliary transformer and by the
other generator through the step-up transformer. Special
attention shall be paid to this scheme because the degree of
asymmetry of the system-source short-circuit current can be
very high depending on the reactances and time constants of
the generator. In some cases the current wave-shape might
show delayed current zeros (i.e. degree of asymmetry higher
than 100%).

HV-System

Step-Up
Transformer

Generator
Circuit-Breakers

Unit Auxiliary
Transformer

Generator

Generator

Motors

Figure 24: Power plant layout with a three-winding step-up


transformer and a two-winding unit auxiliary transformer

5.3.8.2 Generator-source short-circuit current


According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the generatorsource short-circuit current of a generator circuit-breaker
is the highest r.m.s. value of the symmetrical component of
the three-phase short-circuit current. It is measured from
the envelope of the current wave at the instant of primary
arcing contact separation that the generator circuit-breaker
shall be required to interrupt, at rated maximum voltage and
rated duty cycle when the source of the short-circuit current

I gen sym =

VmG SrG
3 VrG

is entirely from a generator through no transformations. The


generator-source symmetrical short-circuit current is usually
lower than the system-source symmetrical short-circuit
current.
The generator-source symmetrical short-circuit current can be
calculated using the following simplified formula for no-load
conditions:

1
1
1
1
1
et ''d +

et 'd +
x''d x'd
x'd x d
xd

Igen sym is the a.c. component of the generator-source short


circuit current
is the maximum generator line-to-line voltage
V mG
is the rated power of the generator
S rG
is the rated voltage of the generator
V rG
is the pu value of the direct-axis synchronous
xd

reactance

x'd
x" d

' d
" d

If the fault initiation takes place when the voltage in one phase
passes through zero the resulting fault current in that phase
exhibits the maximum degree of asymmetry. The a.c. component decays with the subtransient and transient time

constants of the generator; the d.c. component decays with


the armature time constant a. The armature time constant
can be calculated with the following formula:

a =

X2

is the armature time constant


is the negative-sequence reactance of the generator

is the pu value of the direct-axis transient reactance


is the pu value of the direct-axis subtransient
reactance
is the direct-axis transient short-circuit time constant
is the direct-axis subtransient short-circuit time
constant

X2
2 f R a

f
Ra

is the power frequency


is the d.c. armature resistance

ABB | 23

The value of X2 can be approximated by:

X2 =

X"d

X ''d + X ''q
2

Xq

is the direct-axis subtransient reactance of the


generator

is the quadrature-axis subtransient reactance of the


generator

The generator-source asymmetrical short-circuit current for the phase with the highest asymmetry, the generator being in the
no-load mode, can be calculated by the following simplified formula:

I gen asym =

2 VmG SrG

3 VrG2

1
1
1
1 t 'd 1
1 1
1
1 1
1
cos ( t )

e t ''d +

e
+
+
e t a +

e t a cos (2 t)
x''d x'd
x'd xd
xd
2 x''d
x''q
2 x''d
x''q

is equal to 2 f with f being the power frequency

xq

is the quadrature-axis subtransient reactance in pu

Since x" d is approximately equal to x"q for turbo generators, the equation can be written as follows:

I gen asym =

2 VmG SrG

3 VrG2

1
1
1
1 t 'd 1
1
cos ( t )

e t ''d +

e
+
e t a
x''d x'd
x'd xd
xd
x''d

If the a.c. component of the fault current decays faster than


the d.c. component, it can happen that for a certain period of
time following the initiation of the fault the magnitude of the
d.c. component of the fault current is bigger than the peak
value of its a.c. component. In such a case the degree of

Degree of Asymmetrie [%]

150

100

50

0.02

0.04

0.06
0.08
time [s]

0.10

0.12

Figure 25: Typical course of the degree of asymmetry of the


generator-source short-circuit current

24 | ABB

0.14

asymmetry of the fault current is higher than 100% thus leading to delayed current zeros. The typical course of the degree
of asymmetry of the generator-source short-circuit current is
shown in Figure 25.

In addition the a.c. component of the generator-source shortcircuit current and its degree of asymmetry can vary if the
generator is unloaded or delivering power with lagging power
factor (i.e. working in the over-excited mode) or leading power
factor (i.e. working in the under-excited mode) prior to fault.
Typical fault current wave-shapes are depicted in
Figures 26, 27 and 28.
The magnitude of the a.c. component of the fault current
which is fed by the generator is typically about 80% of the
magnitude of the a.c. component of the system-source short-

250.0

circuit current and typically shows a degree of asymmetry


measured at the primary arcing contact parting times are in
the order of 130% (see Figure 25). Special attention should
be paid if the generator is loaded with leading power factor
before fault initiation. In such a case the degree of asymmetry
of the fault current can reach very high values and exceed
130%.
In order to accurately simulate the behaviour of the generator in case it is loaded prior to fault computer simulations are
necessary.

250.0

[kA ]

[kA ]

187.5

187.5

125.0

125.0

62.5

62.5

0.0

0.0

-62.5

-62.5

-125.0

-125.0

-187.5

-187.5

-250.0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

Figure 26: Prospective generator-source short-circuit current


(generator unloaded prior to fault initiation) - fault initiation at UA = 0

-250.0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

Figure 27: Prospective generator-source short-circuit current


(generator delivering power with lagging power factor prior to fault
initiation) - fault initiation at UA = 0

250.0
[kA ]
187.5
125.0
62.5
0.0
-62.5
-125.0
-187.5
-250.0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

Figure 28: Prospective generator-source short-circuit current


(generator delivering power with leading power factor prior to fault
initiation) - fault initiation at UA = 0

Additional resistance in series with the armature resistance


forces the d.c. component of the short-circuit current to
decay faster. Such additional resistance may be the connection from the generator to the fault location, but especially
the circuit-breaker arc resistance after contact separation. If
there is an arc at the fault location, this arc resistance further
reduces the time constant of the d.c. component from the
initiation of the fault. The values of these additional series
resistances are normally high enough to force a fast decay of
the d.c. component of the short-circuit current so that current
zeros are produced.

In case of a short-circuit current with delayed current zeros


the capability of a circuit-breaker to interrupt a given shortcircuit current can be considered as being demonstrated if
the generator circuit-breaker is capable of forcing the current
to zero within the time interval in which it is able to interrupt a
current (i.e. within the maximum permissible arcing time).
According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) demonstrating
the capability of a generator circuit-breaker to interrupt shortcircuit currents with delayed current zeros may be difficult and
limited in high power testing stations. Since various designs

ABB | 25

of generators behave differently, it may not be possible to


simulate the required current shape in the testing station.
Therefore the capability of a circuit-breaker to interrupt a
short-circuit current with delayed current zeros can be ascertained by calculations that take into account the effect of the
arc-voltage of the circuit-breaker on the prospective shortcircuit current. The arc-voltage model used for this purpose has
to be derived from tests (IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008),
Clause 6.2.7). The technical data of the actual generator shall
be used for these computations.
According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008), Clause
7.3.5.3.5.3 the following two cases shall be investigated:
1) Generator at no-load with the generator circuit-breaker
closing into a three-phase fault. In the computation the arcvoltage of the generator circuit-breaker starting at contact
separation shall be taken into account.
2) Generator in service with leading power factor. An arcing
fault is assumed in at least two phases. In the computation
the arc-voltage at the fault location starting at the initiation of
the fault and the arc-voltage of the generator circuit-breaker
starting at contact separation shall be taken into account.
Further the following two situations shall be considered for a
particular generator-source short-circuit current in case of a
three-phase fault (IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008), Clause
6.2.7.2):
1) Fault initiation at voltage zero in one phase which implies
that the current in the corresponding phase exhibits the
maximum degree of asymmetry.
2) Fault initiation at voltage maximum in one phase which
implies that the current in the corresponding phase is
symmetrical.

The arc-voltage of a circuit-breaker depends on the instantaneous value of the current and on the type of the extinguishing medium, its pressure, the intensity of its flow and the
length of the arc. The uarc-i characteristic of one break of the
circuit-breaker has to be derived from short-circuit current
interrupting tests. To be able to investigate the behaviour
of the circuit-breaker during the interruption of short-circuit
currents with delayed current zeros the arc-voltage versus
current characteristic has to be transferred into a mathematical
model. From the arc-voltage u arc(i,t) and the current i(t) the
arc resistance Rarc(i,t) can be obtained. In order to model the
behaviour of the SF6 circuit-breaker a non-linear time-varying
resistance of the value R arc(i,t) has to be inserted into the
simulation at the time of the separation of the contacts of the
circuit-breaker.
Figures 29 to 32 show examples of the corresponding calculation results. Figures 29 and 30 represent the case of the
generator being under no-load condition with the generator
circuit-breaker closing into a three-phase fault. In the computation the arc-voltage of the generator circuit-breaker starting
at contact separation is taken into account. Figure 29 represents the case with fault initiation at voltage zero and Figure
30 represents the case with fault initiation at voltage maximum in one phase. Figures 31 and 32 represent the case of
the generator being in service with a leading power factor. In
the computation the arc-voltage at the fault location starting
at the initiation of the fault and the arc-voltage of the generator circuit-breaker starting at contact separation is taken into
account. Figure 31 represents the case with fault initiation
at voltage zero and Figure 32 represents the case with fault
initiation at voltage maximum in one phase.
As the maximum calculated arcing time (i.e. 20.9 ms, see
Figure 29) is shorter than the maximum arcing time of the
generator circuit-breaker of concern it can be concluded that
the circuit-breaker is capable of interrupting these fault
currents showing delayed current zeros.

250.0

250.0

[kA ]

[kA ]
187.5

187.5

125.0

125.0

62.5

62.5

0.0

0.0

-62.5

-62.5

-125.0

-125.0
-187.5

-187.5
-250.0
0.00

t cp
0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

Figure 29: Interruption of generator-source short-circuit current with a


SF 6 generator circuit-breaker
generator unloaded prior to fault initiation
fault initiation at UA = 0
contact parting time tcp = 39 ms
arcing time = 20.9 ms

26 | ABB

-250.0
0.00

t cp
0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

Figure 30: Interruption of generator-source short-circuit current with a


SF6 generator circuit-breaker
generator unloaded prior to fault initiation
fault initiation at UA = max
contact parting time tcp = 39 ms
arcing time = 20.7 ms

250.0

250.0

[kA ]

[kA ]

187.5

187.5

125.0

125.0

62.5

62.5

0.0

0.0

-62.5

-62.5

-125.0

-125.0

-187.5
-250.0
0.00

-187.5
t cp
0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

-250.0
0.00

t cp
0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

Figure 31: Interruption of generator-source short-circuit current with a


SF 6 generator circuit-breaker
generator delivering power with leading power factor prior to fault
initiation
fault initiation at UA = 0
contact parting time tcp = 39 ms
arcing time = 18.2 ms

Figure 32: Interruption of generator-source short-circuit current with a


SF6 generator circuit-breaker
generator delivering power with leading power factor prior to fault
initiation
fault initiation at UA = max
contact parting time tcp = 39 ms
arcing time = 18.6 ms

In some cases the arc-voltage of the generator circuit-breaker


is not high enough to force current zeros within the maximum
permissible arcing time of the circuit-breaker (this can happen for example if a vacuum interrupter is employed as a
generator circuit-breaker). In such a case a solution which
is sometimes adopted is to delay the tripping signal to the
generator circuit-breaker. It has to be noted that this solution

is not recommendable because the longer fault arcing time


might lead to severe damages to power plant equipment with
consequent long downtime for repair. A better approach consists in choosing a generator circuit-breaker which is proven
to be able to interrupt the fault current without the aid of any
intentional tripping delay.

5.3.8.3 Required closing, latching, and carrying



capabilities
The short-circuit current into which the generator circuitbreaker must close is determined by the higher value of either
the system-source short-circuit current or the generatorsource short-circuit current. In the majority of applications the
system-source short-circuit current is higher than the
generator-source short-circuit current.
According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the generator
circuit-breaker shall be capable of the following:

5.3.8.4 Required short-time current-carrying capability


According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the generator
circuit-breaker shall be capable of carrying for a time equal to
1 s, any short-circuit current, whose peak value does not
exceed 2.74 times the rated short-circuit current, as deter-

5.3.9 Transient recovery voltage rating


The transient recovery voltage is the voltage appearing across
the open contacts of the generator circuit-breaker
immediately after current interruption. The characteristics

a) Closing and latching any power frequency-making current


(50 Hz or 60 Hz) whose maximum crest (peak making current)
does not exceed 2.74 times the rated symmetrical shortcircuit current or the maximum crest (peak making current) of
the generator-source short-circuit current, whichever is higher.
b) Carrying the short-circuit current for a time of 0.25 s.

mined from the envelope of the current wave, at the time of


the maximum peak, and whose r.m.s. value determined over
the complete 1s period, does not exceed the rated shortcircuit current considered above.

of the generator and of the associated step-up transformer


dictate the wave-shape of the inherent TRV for various duties.

ABB | 27

A three-phase fault is the most severe case and gives the


maximum short-circuit current and the maximum TRV rate.
The neutral of the generator is not solidly grounded, thus the
phase-to-ground fault current is not significant.
The typical power plant layout is shown in Figure 23, where
the generator and the step-up transformer have essentially
the same rating. For TRV calculations the contribution of
auxiliary transformer to the fault current can be neglected as it
is a minor source of short-circuit current.

The TRV shall be calculated after the interruption of a symmetrical current as any asymmetry in the current wave-shape
would lead to a less severe TRV. At the interruption of the
short-circuit current with maximum asymmetry, the transient
oscillation of the recovery voltage will be very small or even
non-existent since at the moment of short-circuit current
interruption, the normal frequency voltage value may be very
small or zero.

5.3.9.1 First-pole-to-clear factor


When interrupting any symmetrical three-phase current the
first-pole-to-clear factor kpp is the ratio of the power frequency
voltage across the first interrupting pole before current interruption in the other poles, to the power frequency voltage

k pp =

kpp
Z0

3 Z0
2 Z 0 + Z1

is the first-pole-to-clear factor


is the equivalent zero-sequence impedance of the
three-phase circuit

In practical applications the step-up transformer is Ynd


connected and the star point of the stator winding of the
generator is usually grounded via a high resistance.

k pp =

occurring across the pole or the poles after interruption in all


three poles [3]. Standard value for generator circuit-breakers
is 1.5. The first-pole-to-clear factor can be calculated by
using the following formula:

Z1

is the equivalent positive-sequence impedance of the


three-phase circuit

The zero-sequence impedance of such a system is much


higher than Z1 thus leading to

3Z0
3Z0

= 1.5
2 Z0
2 Z 0 + Z1

5.3.9.2 Amplitude factor


The amplitude factor kaf is ratio between the maximum
excursion of the transient recovery voltage to the peak value
of the power frequency recovery voltage [3].

Standard value for generator circuit-breakers is 1.5 without


considering any capacitance connected at the terminals of the
generator circuit-breaker.

5.3.9.3 Power frequency recovery voltage


The power frequency recovery voltage is the recovery voltage
after the transient voltage phenomena have subsided [3].
The magnitude of the power frequency recovery voltage which
is imposed on the first pole which clears the current is 1.5

higher then the power frequency voltage. The second and


third poles clear the current at the same time and the power
frequency recovery voltage which is imposed on each of them
is 3/2 times the power frequency voltage.

28 | ABB

5.3.9.4 Rated inherent transient recovery voltage


The rated inherent transient recovery voltage is the reference voltage that
constitutes the limit of the inherent transient recovery voltage of circuits
that the generator circuit-breaker shall be capable of withstanding under
fault conditions and shall be defined by an oscillatory wave-shape having
a TRV rate-of-rise, time delay (td) and peak voltage (E2) [1].
The waveform of transient recovery voltages approximates to a damped
oscillation.

a) one line starts at the origin of time axis and is


tangent to the TRV curve with a slope equal to the
TRV rate-of-rise
b) one line is horizontal and is tangent to the TRV
curve at the time of TRV peak T2.
c) one line starts on the time axis at the rated time
delay (t d) and runs parallel to the first reference line

The TRV curve is bounded by three lines:

An example of a transient recovery voltage wave-shape is depicted in


Figure 33
E2

TRV rate-of-rise

td

TRV

t3

T2
E2
t3



is the time to reach the peak voltage E 2


is the peak value of the TRV
is the intersection point of the tangent to
the transient recovery voltage which starts
at the origin of the time axis and to the
horizontal tangent to the TRV curve at the
time of TRV peak T 2

T2

Figure 33: Inherent TRV curve for first-pole-to-clear for required symmetrical
interrupting capability for three-phase faults

The standard value of E2 can be calculated with following


formula:

E2 =

2
3

V k af k pp = 1.84 V

is the rated maximum voltage of the generator


circuit-breaker.

The rated TRV is the inherent value assuming an ideal generator circuitbreaker. These values may be modified by the generator circuit-breaker
characteristics or by the asymmetry of the current.
A system with a TRV that exceeds the rated values of the generator
circuit-breaker must be modified in such a way as to lower the TRV. This
is generally achieved by connecting capacitors phase-to-ground on both
sides of the generator circuit-breaker.
The additional capacitance has three effects:

it decreases the oscillation frequency and the


RRRV of the TRV
it increases the time delay of the TRV
it increases the peak value of the TRV
If the circuit-breaker requires that the inherent TRV
be modified by the addition of capacitors, then the
amount of equivalent capacitance required has to
be given in the test report and on the nameplate [1].

ABB | 29

5.3.9.5 System-source faults


For system-source faults the maximum value of short-circuit current is
obtained for a given transformer when Xsys is minimum or assumed to
be zero. It is assumed that the contribution of the auxiliary system to
the fault current is negligible. The natural frequency of the transformer is
much higher than the natural frequency of the HV-system. The TRV first
oscillates at the prospective value of 1.5 2 XGSUT Iac, where Iac is the

5.3.9.6 Generator-source faults


For generator-source faults the short-circuit current is generally lower
than for system-source faults because of the higher reactance of the
generator windings. Although the short-circuit current is lower for
generator-source faults than for system-source faults, generator-source
faults cannot be ignored because of the short time delay specified in
IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008).
For a generator-source fed fault occurring at the HV-side of the step-up
transformer the short-circuit current is lower when compared to a fault

5.3.9.7 Calculation of TRV in case of terminal faults


TRV calculations need to be performed with computer simulations which
allow to model power plant equipment with distributed parameters.
Anyway a simplified single-phase circuit for calculating the TRV in case
of interruption of terminal fault currents is depicted in Figure 34 where
V eq is the r.m.s. value of the voltage source and Req, Leq and Ceq are

R eq
Veq

L eq

r.m.s. value of the symmetrical short-circuit current


until the second and third poles open. The voltage
drop in the transformer is equal to the total power
frequency recovery voltage for
X sys = 0. Therefore, the TRV rate is maximum when
the short-circuit current is maximum [1].

at the LV-side of the step-up transformer. The TRV


results from transformer and generator voltage
oscillations. The magnitude of each oscillation is
approximately proportional to the transformer and
generator reactances, respectively. This fault location can usually be ignored because the resulting
stresses on the generator circuit-breaker are much
lower than for faults occurring at the LV-side of the
step-up transformer [1].

respectively the values of equivalent resistance, inductance and capacitance to ground of the circuit
for assessing the TRV across the first pole to clear
(lumped parameters).

GCB
Ceq

Figure 34: Single-phase circuit for TRV calculation in case of terminal


faults

Veq can be calculated by using the following expression:

Veq = Vmax

Vmax




30 | ABB

3 Z0
1.5 Vmax
2 Z 0 + Z1

is the maximum r.m.s. value of the applied


voltage prior to fault (it can generally be considered
equal to the maximum phase-to-ground service
voltage of the HV-system referred to the LV-side
of the step-up transformer and to the maximum
phase-to-ground operating voltage of the generator



Z0

Z1

in case of system-source short-circuit currents and


generator-source short-circuit currents, respectively)
is the equivalent zero-sequence impedance of the
three-phase circuit
is the equivalent positive-sequence impedance of the
three-phase circuit

is the positive-sequence resistance of the three-phase circuit.

Leq can be considered equal to 1.5 L1 where L1 is the equivalent positive-sequence inductance of the three-phase circuit.
Following the same procedure Req is equal to 1.5 R1 where R1

C0 + 2 C1
3

Ceq =

C0

Ceq can be calculated by using the following expression:

If C0 = C1 then Ceq = C1 = C0

C1

is the zero-sequence capacitance of the three-phase


circuit

is the positive-sequence capacitance of the threephase circuit

In all practical applications the following expression is valid:

>

L eq Ceq

thus leading to an underdamped wave-shape of the TRV.


The TRV will appear as the superposition of sinusoidal curves
oscillating at different frequencies, i.e. one oscillating at power

Req2
4 L eq2

frequency and one oscillating at the frequency imposed by the


circuit parameters:

u TRV (t) = 2 Veq cos ( t ) e

R eq
2 L eq

cos t )
)

where can be calculated with following formula:

Req2
1

L eq Ceq
4 L eq2

1
L eq Ceq

Assuming that cos( t) ~ 1 at the time of TRV peak


(being >> ) the transient recovery voltage can be finally

u TRV (t) = 2 Veq 1 e

R eq
2 L eq

cos t )

represented by the following expression:

The TRV peak value occurs at time

Req2
1
>>
L eq Ceq
4 L eq2

assuming

T2 = L eq Ceq

The corresponding peak value of the TRV is

2 Veq 1 e

R eq
2 L eq

T2

cos T2 ) =
)

E2 =

2 Veq 1 + e

R eq
2

Ceq
Leq

ABB | 31

5.3.10 Rated load current switching capability


During normal service of the generator, the load current is
reduced to zero before an opening operation of the generator circuit-breaker is initiated. However, the interruption of
full load current may be required occasionally for emergency
circumstances or when the synchronous machine is working

in the motor mode in pumped storage power plants. The generator circuit-breaker shall be capable of interrupting those
currents and withstanding the TRV appearing across the open
contacts immediately after the interruption of the current.

5.3.11 Capacitance current switching capability


IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) considers this as a special
case where the line or bus capacitance is separated from the
generator circuit-breaker through transformation.

The generator circuit-breaker normally is not called on to


switch purely capacitive currents.

5.3.12 Out-of-phase current switching capability


This capability applies to a generator circuit-breaker used for
switching the connection between two parts of a three-phase
system during out-of-phase conditions. The assigned out-ofphase current switching rating is the maximum out-of-phase
current that the generator circuit-breaker shall be capable of
switching at an out-of-phase recovery voltage.
Out-of-phase synchronising occasionally occurs in power
plants [4]. The main reasons for out-of-phase synchronising are wiring errors made during commissioning or during
maintenance when connecting voltage transformers and
synchronising equipment. These wiring errors lead to particular out-of-phase angles, i.e. multiples of 60el.. E.g. polarity
errors at a voltage transformer cause synchronising at 180el.
out-of-phase angle; phase connection errors lead to 60el.
and 120el. out-of-phase angles. Besides these particular
out-of phase angles any value may be caused by inadequate
settings of the synchronising equipment, e.g. due to an incorrect value of the closing time of the circuit-breaker.
The TRV appearing immediately after the interruption of fault
currents resulting from out-of-phase synchronising is very
severe with respect to both peak value and rate-of-rise and
time delay. Even though it is recognized that synchronising
with out-of-phase angle up to 180 might occur, IEEE Std
C37.013-1997 (R2008) covers only requirements for a
maximum out-of-phase angle of 90.
The current resulting from out-of-phase synchronizing might
show delayed current zeros whose causes are totally different
compared to generator terminal faults. The rapid movement of
the rotor from initial out-of-phase angle 0 to = 0 results in
a very small a.c. component of the fault current and a dominant d.c. component when the condition of = 0 is reached.
The current resulting from out-of-phase synchronizing has to
be assessed by the aid of computer simulations which allow
to model with high level of accuracy power plants equipment
and especially the synchronous machine. As the instant when
the = 0 condition is reached is determined by the movement
of the rotor, the inertia constants of turbine, rotor and excitation equipment of the generator are of special importance. As
the fault current to be interrupted by the generator circuitbreaker is characterized by delayed current zeros it extremely
important to prove that the circuit-breaker by means of its
arc-voltage is capable of forcing current to zero within its
maximum arcing time.

32 | ABB

The most important parameters which influence the waveshape of the fault current resulting from out-of-phase
synchronizing and the occurrence of delayed current zeros are
power plant equipment parameters, out-of-phase angle 0,
power frequency of the system and instant when the synchronization is initiated.
The wave-shape of the out-of-phase current is depicted in
Figures 35 to 40 for different values of 0. It is evident that at
the time when = 0 the fault current is dominated by a d.c.
component. In modern power systems the protection systems sends the tripping signal to the generator circuit-breaker
before the = 0 condition is reached, thus leading to a less
severe tripping operation. If the tripping is delayed this might
lead to extremely severe interrupting conditions and even
unsuccessful interruption. It is shown in published literature
that circuit-breakers installed at the HV-side of the step-up
transformer may not be suitable for interrupting fault currents
resulting from out-of-phase synchronizing [5]. Although the
arc-voltage of the HV circuit-breaker is of the same order of
magnitude of the arc-voltage of the generator circuit-breaker,
its value referred to the LV-side of the step-up transformer is
reduced by the transformation ratio and has practically no
effect on the time constant of the decay of the d.c.
component of the fault current.

400

400

[kA ]

[kA ]

300

300

200

200

100

100

-100

-100

-200

-200

-300

-300

-400
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

[s]

0.40

-400
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

[s]

Figure 35: Prospective out-of-phase fault current out-of-phase

Figure 36: Prospective out-of-phase fault current out-of-phase

angle 0 = 30

angle 0 = 60

400

400

[kA ]

[kA ]
300

300

200

200

100

100

-100

-100

-200

-200

-300

-300

-400
0.00

0.40

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

[s]

0.40

-400
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

[s]

0.40

Figure 37: Prospective out-of-phase fault current out-of-phase

Figure 38: Prospective out-of-phase fault current out-of-phase angle

angle 0 = 90

0 = 120

400

400

[kA ]

[kA ]

300

300

200

200

100

100

-100

-100

-200

-200

-300

-300

-400
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

[s]

0.40

-400
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

[s]

0.40

Figure 39: Prospective out-of-phase fault current out-of-phase angle

Figure 40: Prospective out-of-phase fault current out-of-phase angle

0 = 150

0 = 180

ABB | 33

5.3.13 Excitation current switching capability


IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) defines the excitation current switching capability as the highest magnetizing current
that a generator circuit-breaker shall be required to switch at
any voltage up to rated maximum voltage at power frequency
without causing an overvoltage exceeding the levels agreed
upon between the user and the manufacturer.
During normal operation, a generator step-up transformer is
rarely switched in an unloaded condition. Anyway, consideration should be given to switching of transformer excitation
current. Excitation current switching is not so much a matter
of the generator circuit-breaker capability, but a question of
whether overvoltages are produced due to current chopping.
Due to instabilities of the arc between the circuit-breaker
contacts premature current zeros at high frequencies occur
frequently when switching small inductive currents, leading to
current chopping. The chopped current flowing in the noload inductance charges the capacitances of the transformer
windings and the capacitances of the connection between the
step-up transformer and the generator circuit-breaker (e.g.

1
1
L mag i 2 = Ceq v 2
2
2

v
i
L mag

is the voltage generated by current chopping


is the chopped current
is the magnetizing inductance of the step-up
transformer

buses or cables). This might results in voltage oscillations of


high amplitudes. Modern transformers have a low no-load
current value compared to older designs, and their magnetic
characteristics are such that a relatively low amount of energy
is released when current chopping occurs during switching,
leading to moderate chopping overvoltages [1]. Chopping
overvoltages are produced only on the transformer side of the
generator circuit-breaker. No overvoltages occur on the
generator side because the inductance of the generator is
much lower than the magnetizing impedance of the transformer, and the energy content is low and not of sufficient
magnitude to produce overvoltages [1].
The overvoltage generated by current chopping can be estimated with the following formula where it has been assumed
that the energy stored in the magnetizing inductance of the
step-up transformer is transferred to the equivalent capacitance without losses. In addition the magnetizing characteristics and the hysteresis loop of the step-up transformer have
been neglected.

Ceq


v=i

L mag
Ceq

is the equivalent capacitance to ground of the stepup transformer windings and the connection of the
step-up transformer to the generator circuit-breaker
terminals

The value of chopped current, and consequently the overvoltages produced, are mainly dependent on the type of generator circuit-breaker. Experience indicates that the current
chopping level of SF 6 self-blast generator circuit-breakers is
low and no overvoltages of concern are expected. Furthermore, the transformer LV-side is usually protected by surge
arresters which reduce these overvoltages. The energy to
be absorbed by the arresters is usually extremely small. In

addition the generator circuit-breaker systems are generally


equipped with capacitors which help to mitigate the transient
recovery voltage appearing after current interruptions. Those
capacitors are also very effective in reducing the overvoltages
produced by current chopping. It has to be mentioned that
the capacitors installed at the generator circuit-breaker terminals increase the chopping current level but on the other hand
they help reducing the generated overvoltage.

5.3.14 Rated control voltage


According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the rated control voltage of a generator circuit-breaker is the designated
voltage that is to be applied to the closing or tripping devices
to close or open the generator circuit-breaker. Rated voltages
and their permissible ranges for the control power supply of

generator circuit-breakers are shown in Table 10 of IEEE Std


C37.013-1997 (R2008). Other control voltages may be specified according to other national or international standards
depending on the point of original installation.

5.3.15 Rated mechanism fluid operating pressure


According to IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) the rated
mechanism fluid operating pressure of a generator circuitbreaker is the pressure at which a gas- or liquid-operated

mechanism is designed to operate. The pressure is allowed to


vary above and below its rated value within a specified range.

34 | ABB

6 Application of generator circuit-breakers


The major demands on the electrical layout of power plants
can be summarised as follows:
transfer the generated electric energy from the generator to
the HV-transmission system considering operation requirements as well as availability, reliability, and economical
aspects

The criteria which are used to evaluate and assess the


generator circuit-breakers application exert considerable
influence on the electrical layout of the power plant.

supply of electric power for auxiliary and station service


systems to ensure a safe and reliable power plant operation

6.1 Power plant layouts


Examples of power station layouts which employ a generator
circuit-breaker to connect the generator to the main transformer are shown in Figure 41.

6.1.1 Thermal power plants


The typical layout of a thermal power plant is depicted in
Figure 41a. During normal operation the generator supplies
power to the auxiliary system. The main net is the backup
source for the auxiliaries; i.e. whenever a unit is shutdown
the power is drawn from the main net through the main
transformer. The station transformer is generally rated as an
emergency shut-down transformer.

An interesting alternative is represented by the layout of Figure


41b. In this case no station transformer is available and the
backup source for the auxiliaries are the auxiliary busbars of
another unit. This solution is very attractive because it allows
to reduce the investment costs as well as the operation and
maintenance expenses by omitting the station transformer
and the associated MV and HV equipment.

6.1.2 Gas turbine power plants


The typical layout of a gas turbine power plant is depicted in
Figure 41c. When a gas-turbine generator is started-up, its
rotor must be accelerated by external means to about 60%
of the rated speed before the start-up process becomes
self-sustaining, i.e. before the turbine can generate sufficient power to continue process independently. The energy
required for this purpose can be provided for instance by a
pony motor or a static frequency converter (SFC). Starting-up
with the help of a pony motor is suitable for smaller machines
but has several disadvantages when applied to larger machines and especially to single shaft units in combined-cycle

power plants.
For this reason the use of SFC starting equipment is becoming
more and more widespread. ABB generator circuit-breakers
also contain the switching functions required for SFC starting
within its enclosure. The output of the SFC (voltage of variable
amplitude and frequency) is fed to the generator terminals via
the starting switch that is designed for the voltage, current
and current duration occurring during the SFC start-up period
of the gas turbine. Its rated voltage is chosen according to
the rated voltage of the SFC which in general is considerably
lower than the generator rated voltage.

6.1.3 Hydro power plants


The typical layout of a hydro power plant is depicted in Figure
41d. Due to the low power consumption of unit auxiliaries the
electrical layout of hydro power plants generally employs one
unit transformer to supply power to station auxiliaries.
Three-winding transformers are sometimes used in hydro
power plants (Figure 41e). Making a justifiable decision for
applying three-winding transformers requires detailed
technical and economical evaluations.
Some of the items which should be considered for selecting
transformer arrangement in a power plant are the following
ones:

Installation: The accommodation of a three-winding


transformer is generally preferred in power plants where the
available space is at a premium.
Power delivery to the high-voltage substation: The loss
of a three-winding transformer would result in the loss of two
paths for electrical energy. For instance a failure in one threewinding step-up transformer in Figure 41e would cause the
outage of the power output of two units. Besides the cases
in which economic or space issues are important, connecting two units to a three-winding transformer is not generally
adopted in power plants.

ABB | 35

Protection: The differential protection is used as the main


protection for a step-up transformer. The block differential
protection is applied as a back-up protection. Due to a higher
number of windings involved, the protection of a threewinding transformer is relatively more complicated compared
to the case when two-winding transformers are employed.
Except for the number of windings, no additional noticeable
differences can be found between protection functions of twoand three-winding transformers.

6.1.4 Pumped storage power plants


Pumped storage power plants are of great importance for the
economical operation of a power system as they make use of
electrical energy during off-peak hours to pump water from a
lower reservoir to a higher reservoir for the use in the generation of electrical energy during system peak periods. Due
to space limitations, especially in the case of power plants
located in caverns, compact and therefore simple layouts are
highly desirable in the case of pumped storage power plants.
Simple layouts also bring about operational advantages
and lead to an increased power plant reliability. Due to high
number of transitions from one operating mode to another
possible in a pumped storage power plant the requirements
on the mechanical and electrical endurance of the switchgear
used are very high. A circuit-breaker for instance may have to
carry out up to 10 operations per day.
When a machine is started-up in the motor mode, it has to be
accelerated to its rated speed before it can be connected to
the system (unless asynchronous starting is used). The two
most common methods used for starting-up machines in the
motor mode are the static frequency converter (SFC) and the
back-to-back starting arrangements. Both are synchronous
starting modes. In the SFC starting arrangement the machine
is connected to a converter (line side constant voltage and
frequency, machine side variable voltage and frequency), and
by increasing the frequency and voltage of the converter the
machine is accelerated [6]. At about 95% of the synchronous
speed, the synchronizing equipment will take over control of
the SFC and after reaching the conditions necessary for synchronization it will give a closing command to the generator
circuit-breaker and block the SFC impulses. Therefore there
is no current flow caused by the SFC after synchronization.
When the generator circuit-breaker has been closed, the SFC
will be disconnected. In the back-to-back starting arrangement another machine in the station, acting as a generator, is
employed. The generator and the motor to be started-up are
connected together electrically. The wicket gate of the generator turbine is opened and both machines are accelerated
to synchronous speed. In asynchronous starting the unexcited
machine is connected to full or reduced voltage at system
frequency and is acting as an asynchronous motor during the
starting period.
Another important issue in all hydro power plants and therefore also in pumped storage power plants is the braking of
the machine after it has been disconnected from the system.

36 | ABB

Operation and maintenance: Preventive and especially


corrective maintenance of a three-winding transformer might
be an issue as this occurrence would lead to the outage of
two units. A solution which can be adopted to reduce the
downtime is to buy a spare transformer. In order to reduce the
cost of the spare equipment sometimes three single-phase
three-winding transformers are employed and only one spare
single-phase machine is considered.
In addition to the above mentioned items, availability and
commercial feasibility have to be considered too in order to
make a more thorough comparison between two- and threewinding transformers.

Electrical braking by short-circuiting the stator and re-excitation


of the rotor is attractive because it assists hydraulic braking
at lower speed and allows to substantially reduce the wear
of the mechanical braking system and hence to increase the
maintenance intervals and to decrease the associated costs
[7]. Hydraulic braking is most effective only down to about 50
to 60% of the rated speed of the machine, because its
effectiveness decreases approximately with the 3 rd power of
the speed. Mechanical braking is then applied only at 10% or
less of the rated speed until to full stop. The current used for
the electrical braking typically is in the range of 1.0...1.3-times
the rated current of the machine. The current will remain at
this value nearly to full standstill of the unit, because both
the voltage and the reactance decrease proportional with the
speed of the unit.

Generator circuit-breakers are widely used in pumped storage


power plants because the use of such circuit-breakers allows
the electrical scheme (Figure 41f) to be greatly simplified.

EHV

HV

MT

ST

UT

GCB

EHV

EHV

MT

MT

UT

GCB

AUX

Because of their ability to interrupt fault current also at


frequencies below 50/60 Hz ABB generator circuit-breakers
ensure an adequate protection of power plant equipment.

GCB

AUX

a)

SS
G

AUX

b)

EHV

c)

EHV

EHV

MT
MT

MT

UT

SFC

MT

MT

PRD

GCB

UT

GCB
BS
G

GCB

BS
G

UT

GCB
BS

AUX

SS

GCB

BS

SS

SS

BS
AUX

PRD

GCB
BS

SS
G

SFC

UT

d)

e)

f)

AUX

Figure 41: Different power plant layouts which employ generator circuit-breakers

Legend
MT

Main transformer

AUX

Unit auxiliaries

UT

Unit transformer

SS

Starting switch

ST

Station transformer

BS

Braking switch

GCB

Generator circuit-breaker

SFC

Static frequency converter

EHV

Transmission system

PRD

Phase-reversal disconnector

HV

Sub-transmission system

ABB | 37

6.2 Advantages of generator circuit-breakers


The use of generator circuit-breakers for the switching of generators at their terminal voltage offers many advantages when
compared to the unit connection, e.g.:
simplified operational procedures
improved protection of the generator and the main and unit
transformers
increased security and higher power plant availability

As a disadvantage of this solution in comparison with the unit


connection especially in the case of large generating units
the high costs of the generator circuit-breaker are sometimes
mentioned. This argument however refers to air-blast generator circuit-breakers and with the appearance of modern SF6
generator circuit-breakers for units with ratings of up to 2000
MVA is no longer valid.

economic benefit

6.2.1 Simplified operational procedures


The installation of the generator circuit-breaker directly in
the connection between the generator and the main transformer provides a clear and logical plant arrangement.
During the starting-up or shutting-down of the generator
only one circuit-breaker must be operated thus reducing the
number of switching operations necessary. A comparison of
operation procedures between layouts which employ a generator circuit-breaker and power plant electrical schemes
without generator circuit-breaker is displayed in Figure 42.

6.2.2 Improved protection of the generator and the main



and unit transformers
The differential protection zones of the generator, the main
and unit transformers can be arranged to achieve maximum
selectivity.

6.2.3 Increased security and higher power plant



availability
Simplified operational procedures and clearly defined
responsibilities reduce the likelihood of operational errors.
The synchronisation of a generator with the high-voltage
grid can be carried more reliably with a generator circuitbreaker than with a high-voltage circuit-breaker. During
synchronization the voltage across the open contacts of
the circuit-breaker varies from zero (i.e. in phase) to twice
the normal voltage (i.e. 180 out-of-phase condition). In
the latter case high stresses will be imposed on the external insulation of the circuit-breaker which might result in a
flashover of the circuit-breaker insulator. This is especially
true when the circuit-breaker operates in heavily polluted
atmosphere. A generator circuit-breaker even in case it is
installed outdoor is protected by its enclosure and operates
under indoor conditions. Therefore these stresses will not
be imposed on it.
The use of a generator circuit-breaker allows the unit auxiliaries supplies to be drawn directly from the high-voltage
transmission network at all times. Supply from this source
is considerably more reliable than that from a local subtransmission network.

38 | ABB

The automatic rapid changeover switching equipment


required to transfer the supply of the unit auxiliaries from
the station to the unit transformer (and vice versa) can be
avoided, thus eliminating stresses with possible subsequent
damages to the drive motors of pumps, fans, etc.
The division of responsibility for the operation of the power
plant and the switching of the high-voltage transmission
network is clearly defined.

Generator-fed short-circuit currents are interrupted within


a maximum of 4 cycles whereas the reduction of the fault
current by the de-excitation equipment requires a number of
seconds.

The avoidance of changeover switching operations required


to transfer the supply of the unit auxiliaries from the station
to the unit transformer (and vice versa) eliminates stresses
with possible subsequent damages to the drive motors of
pumps, fans, etc.
The rapid and selective clearance of all types of faults helps
to avoid expensive secondary damage and the consequently long down times for repair. Examples of serious
secondary damage being caused by the delayed clearance
of a fault are:
bursting of the transformer tank following an internal
fault in the main or unit transformer
thermal destruction of the generator damper winding
due to short-time unbalanced load conditions
mechanical destruction of a turbine-generator set due
to generator motoring
thermal/dynamic stress caused to the generator by
synchronising under out-of-phase conditions

Such incidents have a detrimental effect on the availability of


a power plant. It should be noted that the generator rapid deexcitation equipment is in most cases too slow to avoid this
kind of damage.
In many cases equipment damage can be reduced or even
prevented by using a generator circuit-breaker in conjunction
with an adequate generator protection.

Compared to high-voltage circuit-breakers modern SF6 generator circuit-breakers exhibit higher maintenance intervals as
they are especially designed for a high mechanical and electrical endurance. Depending on the application the down-time
of a unit due to circuit-breaker maintenance can therefore be
significantly reduced when a generator circuit-breaker is used.

Layout without generator circuit-breaker

Layout with generator circuit-breaker

Unit start-up:
1)
Run-up unit on station transformer (start-up supply) and

synchronise generator with high-voltage grid by means

of high-voltage circuit-breaker
2)
Parallel unit auxiliaries supplies
3)
Separate unit auxiliaries from station transformer (start
up supply)

Unit start-up:
1)
Run-up unit on unit transformer and synchronise

generator with high-voltage grid by means of generator

circuit-breaker

Unit routine shut-down:


1)
Parallel unit auxiliaries supplies
2)
Separate unit auxiliaries from unit transformer
3)
Trip high-voltage circuit-breaker and shut-down unit on

station transformer

Unit routine shut-down:


1)
Trip generator circuit-breaker and shut-down unit on

unit transformer

Unit emergency shut-down:


1)
Trip high-voltage circuit-breaker, unit auxiliaries are

isolated
2)
Automatic transfer of unit auxiliaries from unit trans
former to station transformer (approx. 4...5 cycles)
3)
Shut-down unit on station transformer

Unit emergency shut-down:


1)
Trip generator circuit-breaker and shut-down unit on

unit transformer

Figure 42: Description of operation procedures for layouts with and without generator circuit-breaker

6.2.3.1 Transformer failures


Power transformers normally show high reliability. However
in some cases internal dielectric flashovers occur resulting
into a fault arc inside the transformer causing significant
internal pressure rise by production of large quantities of gas
(mainly hydrogen) due to the dissociation of the oil. Common
causes of transformer internal failures are the flashover of a
bushing, winding interturn faults, failures of the tap-changer
and carbonisation and/or excessive moisture content of the
transformer oil. Depending of the fault arc energy (which is a
function of arc current, arc duration and arc-voltage) the pressure rise can be so high to crack the transformer tank or to
blow out one or more of the bushings. Especially arc-current
and arc-voltage strongly depend on the fault location inside
the transformer. In most cases severe damages occur inside
the transformer but also other equipment of the power plant is
jeopardized by the burning oil or hydrogen outside the transformer. Unacceptable outage of the power plant or at least
parts of it is generally the consequence.
Steep pressure rise inside the transformer tank can be generated by faults occurring in different locations, e.g.:
flashover across the winding (portion of full winding)
flashover across the bushings
flashover between winding and tank
flashover across two positions of the tap changer

Initially the fault arc current is delivered both by the HV system


and by the generator. Even if the system-fed component of
the fault current is interrupted by the high-voltage circuitbreaker within approximately 3 to 4 cycles, in a layout without
generator circuit-breaker the generator continues to supply a
fault current throughout the de-excitation time interval which
can take up to several seconds (see Figure 43a). The energy
dissipated in the fault arc leads to a vaporisation of the transformer oil and hence to a pressure rise inside the transformer.
This pressure stresses the transformer tank, and, if it rises
above a certain value, will cause the tank to rupture, with a
resulting oil spillage and possibly an oil fire. Typical times to
tank rupture are 4.5 to 5 cycles [8]. Nowadays it is common
practice to install a generator circuit-breaker between the
generator and the step-up transformer (Figure 43b) which
allows a rapid clearance also of the generator-fed component
of the fault current and can therefore make up the difference
between a repairable damage and a catastrophic event with
severe environmental pollution and possible personnel
jeopardy [9], [10].
The full lines in Figure 44 show the course of pressure rise
inside the transformer tank for different fault locations. After
the system-fed component of the fault current is interrupted
by the high-voltage circuit-breaker the pressure rise is less

ABB | 39

steep because the fault current is only fed by the generator.


Anyway the pressure can quickly reach the tank withstand
pressure thus leading to the explosion of the transformer. The
dotted lines represent the course of the pressure rise if no
generator circuit-breaker is available.
When the generator-fed component of the fault current is
interrupted by the generator circuit-breaker the pressure rise
is generally stopped quickly enough to prevent the transformer
tank explosion. Anyway depending on the fault arc energy
and on the transformer tank withstand pressure the pressure
rise inside the transformer tank can be so steep that the tank
withstand pressure of the transformer is reached even before
the high-voltage circuit-breaker can be operated for contributing to transformer protection.

Investigations have shown that a generator circuit-breaker


can prevent tank rupture in about 80% of all cases of main
transformer internal failures [11]. The use of a generator
circuit-breaker can greatly reduce the probability of a transformer tank rupture during internal fault. This will reduce the
related downtime of the power plant thus leading to a higher
availability.
In Figure 45 the sequence of events which have led to a
transformer explosion is shown. It is interesting to see how
fast a ground fault developed into a three-phase fault and
consequently into an explosion after approx 150 ms. In such
a case the presence of a generator circuit-breaker would have
allowed the interruption of the generator-fed fault current in
less than 4 cycles thus preventing such a damage.

a) Case without generator circuit-breaker (unit connection)

b) Case with generator circuit-breaker

Interruption of HV
Circuit-Breaker

I s +I g

Fault
Current

I s +I g

Ig

Grid

Ig
seconds

tens of ms

Time

Interruption of Generator
Circuit-Breaker

Grid

Interruption of HV
Circuit-Breaker

Fault
Current

seconds

tens of ms

Figure 43: Interruption of generator-fed fault currents with and without generator circuit-breaker

Pressure

Generator Circuit - Breaker

HV Circuit - Breaker

flashover across full winding

tank withstand pressure


flashover across bushing
flashover between winding and tank
flashover across two positions of tap changer
flashover across a portion of winding

Time
Figure 44: Pressure rise inside transformer tank for different fault locations

40 | ABB

Is

Ig

Is

Ig

Time

Sequence of events
t
t
t
t

= 0
= 45
= 95
150

ms:
ms:
ms:
ms:

earth fault at HV-side of transformer


2-phase short-circuit
3-phase short-circuit
explosion of transformer

Figure 45: Consequence of a transformer failure

6.2.3.2 Short-time unbalanced load condition


According to theory of symmetrical components an unbalanced load can be split into 3 systems, i.e. a positivesequence system rotating with the same speed and direction
as the rotor, a negative-sequence system rotating with the
same speed but with opposite direction to the rotor and a
zero-sequence system consisting of a set of phasors of equal
magnitude and always in phase. It is the negative-sequence
system which causes harm to the generator. The rotor rotates

in opposite direction to the negative-sequence system which


results in a double frequency current flowing in the field winding, in the damper windings and in the rotor. Single- and twophase faults represent a short-time unbalanced load condition
with critical mechanical and thermal stresses for a generator
[12]. Such conditions can arise due to single- or two-phase
faults within the main transformer or on its connections to the
high-voltage circuit-breaker (Figure 46).

HV circuit-breaker: 1 phase does not close

Transformer LV terminals: two phase fault

HV circuit-breaker: 1 phase does not open

Transformer HV windings: various types of faults

Transformer HV bushings: single phase earth fault

HV circuit-breaker: two phase flashover

Transformer HV bushings: two phase fault

Figure 46: Examples of failures which can lead to unbalanced load conditions

ABB | 41

The thermal stresses result from the negative sequence component of the fault current that interacts with the generator
damper windings. Unbalanced load conditions can give rise,
within a very short time, to dangerously high temperatures
in the damper windings. These temperatures are particularly
critical for turbo generators and in the worst case may cause
the rotor to jam in the stator. If a generator circuit-breaker is
present it will separate the generator from the fault within 4
cycles and thus effectively prevent damage to the generator.
If no generator circuit-breaker is fitted, the generator will continue to supply a negative sequence current until de-excitation
is completed. The de-excitation may take several seconds,
during which time the generator may suffer severe damage.
Unbalanced load cases might lead to severe damage as
depicted in Figure 47. In this case the rotors touching of the
stator destroyed the generator completely.

Figure 47: Damage resulting from unbalanced load conditions


(source: Allianz Insurance Company)

6.2.3.3 Generator motoring


Generator motoring can occur when the supply of energy (e.g.
steam, gas or water) to the turbine is removed and the field is
still excited. If such a condition occurs the generator will act
as a synchronous motor absorbing electric active energy from
the network and converting it into mechanical energy to drive
into rotation its rotor and turbine. Generator motoring can
lead to severe damages especially to steam turbines because
of overheating and damage to steam turbine blades. The
layout of a power plant in which a case of generator motoring
occurred is depicted in Figure 48. In that case after the highvoltage circuit-breaker was tripped the turbine-generator set

was running down normally. As a consequence of an internal


breakdown which occurred in one pole of the high-voltage
circuit-breaker the generator absorbed power from the grid
and started working as a motor. Due to the increased speed
of rotation the turbine rotated for too long time in the range of
its critical speed, i.e. the natural frequency of the turbine shaft
material. When the forcing frequency is close to its natural
frequency, machine causes noise and high vibrations because
of resonance due to matching of frequency. As a consequence of generator motoring the generator was lifted out of
foundations and the shaft was destroyed.

Generator
Pn = 500 MW

GS
3~

Main Transformer

HV Circuit-Breaker

Overhead Line
(Transmission)

Overhead Line

Coupling
Figure 48: Layout of a power plant in which a case of generator motoring occurred

6.2.3.4 Synchronizing under out-of-phase conditions


The out-of-phase conditions are abnormal circuit conditions
due to loss or lack of synchronism between generator and
power system at the instant of the synchronizing operation
of the circuit-breaker. The phase angle difference between
phasors representing the generated voltages on each side
of the circuit-breaker may exceed the normal value and may

42 | ABB

be as much as 180. The out-of-phase current resulting from


this condition is dependent on this phase angle and attains
its maximum value at 180 (phase opposition). The resulting
thermal and electro-dynamic overstress might lead to severe
consequences for the generator windings.

6.2.4 Economic benefit


Several economic advantages are brought about by the
employment of a power plant layout with generator circuitbreaker compared to the unit connection:
The possible integration of all the associated items of
switchgear into the enclosure of the generator circuit-breaker
allows simpler and more economic power plant layouts.
This solution hence allows savings in time and expenditures
for erection and commissioning.
When a layout with a generator circuit-breaker is used it is
possible to omit the station transformer and the associated
high-voltage and medium-voltage switchgear. If the station
transformer cannot be dispensed with, the use of a transformer with reduced rating (rated as a shut-down transformer) is usually sufficient.

Should the high-voltage substation be erected at some


distance from the power plant the generator circuit-breaker
can be used to protect the overhead line linking the power
plant to the substation. No separate high-voltage circuitbreaker at the power plant is required for this purpose.
The through-fault capability required of the unit transformers
is substantially reduced.
The higher availability of the power plant leads to an increased number of the operating hours and therefore to a
higher profit for the operator of the power plant. Substantial
surplus of receipts can be achieved in this way and the payback time for the expenditures of a generator circuit-breaker
is generally very low.

ABB | 43

7 Maintenance of generator circuit-breakers


Overhaul of generator circuit-breakers is scheduled based on
the criteria of service time, number of mechanical CO operations and number of current interruptions whichever occurs
first.
Specifically the electrical endurance of the generator circuitbreaker depends on the magnitude of the current which is
switched. To each opening operation, an ablation coefficient
k is assigned. The ablation coefficient depends on the r.m.s.
value of the switched current. Within a range up to 150% of
the rated continuous current the ablation coefficient is
proportional to the ablation of the arcing contacts. With the

44 | ABB

interruption of currents far above the rated continuous current


longer arcing times are expected. Therefore, the ablation of
contact material increases disproportionately. In addition, high
electro-dynamical forces arise which reduce the mechanical
lifetime of the circuit-breaker.
For typical applications generator circuit-breakers do not have
to switch load currents and therefore overhaul is generally
scheduled based on service time. Depending on the type of
generator circuit-breaker typical overhaul intervals are 15 to
20 years.

8 Case study 1: Impact of the method of connecting a generator


to the high-voltage grid on the availability of a power plant
In order to quantify the impact of how a generator is connected to the high-voltage grid on the availability of a power
plant, the contribution of the connection of the generator to
the high-voltage transmission network and of the supply to
the unit auxiliaries to the unavailability of one generating unit
has been determined with the help of computer program
based on the Monte Carlo method [13]. Three different ways
of connecting the generator to the high-voltage transmission

network were considered, namely:


a layout without a circuit-breaker between the generator
and the low-voltage terminals of the main transformer (unit
connection), refer to Figure 49)
a layout with a generator circuit-breaker and a station transformer (rated as shut-down transformer), refer to Figure 50)
a layout with a generator circuit-breaker, refer to Figure 51)

8.1 Power plant layout


The layout of a typical power plant is shown in Figure 49. It
consists of two 360 MW steam turbines. Each unit is directly
connected to two sets of three winding unit transformers (UT).
The generator is directly connected to the generator step-up
transformer (GSUT) as well. The extra high-voltage substation
(rated voltage 345 kV) consists of an air insulated one and
a half circuit-breaker arrangement. The number of outgoing

lines is two. The three winding station transformers (ST) are


connected to the 138 kV substation by an air insulated double
busbar with single circuit-breaker arrangement. The reserve
net is the backup source for the station auxiliaries; i. e.
whenever a unit is shutdown, the reserve net supplies power
to the auxiliary busbars through the station transformer.

345 kV

138 kV

GSUT

UT

GSUT

G
GEN 22 kV

UT

UT

UT

ST

ST

GEN 22 kV

Figure 49: Layout of a 2 x 360 MW thermal power plant with two station transformers and no generator circuit-breaker

ABB | 45

345 kV

138 kV

GSUT

UT

GSUT

UT

UT

GEN 22 kV

UT

GEN 22 kV

Figure 50: Layout of a 2 x 360 MW thermal power plant with one station transformer and generator circuit-breakers

345 kV

GSUT

UT

GSUT

G
GEN 22 kV

UT

UT

UT

GEN 22 kV

Figure 51: Layout of a 2 x 360 MW thermal power plant with generator circuit-breakers and no station transformer

46 | ABB

ST

8.1.1 Layout of extra high-voltage substation


The secure operation of extra high-voltage substations is
greatly influenced by their layout. In order to assure the continuity of the supply, the links between incoming and outgoing
feeders of a substation have to remain intact, even in spite of
a number of connecting elements not being available. Obviously every effort is made to attain this goal with a minimum
capital outlay.
The following substation schemes have been investigated:

A feature of the double busbar with double circuit-breaker


arrangement (Figure 52c) is that each outgoing feeder is connected to the rest of the installation by two parallel circuitbreakers, i.e. this scheme uses circuit-breaker redundancy to
secure operation under disturbed conditions.
Since each line has two circuit-breakers, one circuit-breaker
can be taken out of service at any time without interrupting
the operation.
A more economic kind of redundancy is achieved with the
ring arrangement (Figure 52d) which is considered as an
appropriate solution for substations with only a few feeders. Each feeder requires only one circuit-breaker and each
circuit-breaker can be isolated without interrupting the supply.
Starting from this scheme, new concepts were developed to
increase structural redundancy.
In the normal state of the crossed-ring substation arrangement (Figure 52e) the circuit-breakers of the basic ring (BR)
are closed while those of the cross-links (CL) are open. If
one circuit-breaker in the basic ring fails, another ring can
be formed so that the original availability is maintained. It
can be seen that even in the case of non-availability of two
adjacent circuit-breakers, the respective node can be fed via
the remaining circuit-breaker. With any of the other topologies
introduced above, this situation would automatically lead to
the loss of the node. The impact of the use of gas insulated
switchgear (GIS) instead of air insulated switchgear (AIS) has
also been investigated. The GIS solution leads to a lower
failure rate and to a higher MTTR and, even though it is more
expensive, it is to be preferred when problems of space or
pollution are present.

double busbar with single circuit-breaker (Figure 52a)


one and a half circuit-breaker (Figure 52b)
double busbar with double circuit-breaker (Figure 52c)
ring (Figure 52d)
crossed-ring (Figure 52e)
For large installations the double busbar with single circuitbreaker arrangement (Figure 52a) is preferred. The presence
of two busbars makes maintenance possible without interrupting the supply. On the other hand a circuit-breaker failure
leads to the loss of all feeders connected to that busbar and
the busbar protection may cause the loss of the substation if
all feeders are connected to the same busbar.
A scheme representing a mixture of equipment and structural
redundancy is the one and a half circuit-breaker arrangement (Figure 52b). It is often used for very important substations because of its high availability and good operational
flexibility. In this case three circuit-breakers are employed for
two outgoing feeders. All circuit-breakers are normally closed.
Uninterrupted supply is thus maintained even if one busbar
fails.
a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

BR
BR

BR
CL

BR

BR
CL

BR

CL
BR

BR

CL

Figure 52: Schemes of extra high-voltage substations

ABB | 47

8.1.2 Layout of high-voltage substation


The layout of the high-voltage substation used for the investigation is a double busbar with single circuit-breaker arrangement (Figure 52a) and uses air insulated switchgear.

8.1.3 Generator circuit-breaker


For each layout the possible use of a generator circuit-breaker
has been investigated (see Figure 50 and Figure 51).
The presence of a generator circuit-breaker located between
the generator and the main transformer allows the plant auxiliaries to be fed directly from the extra high-voltage transmission system (main net). In addition the rapid interruption of

generator-fed short-circuit currents reduces the extent of fault


damage and the related down-time, contributing to increased
power plant availability. The presence of a generator circuitbreaker can thus lead to a reduction of the MTTR of power
plant equipment.

8.1.4 Station transformer


The power plant layout used for the investigation has two
station transformers. In the cases with a generator circuitbreaker, only one station transformer (one station transformer
per two units) rated as an emergency shut-down transformer
has been considered. The influence of using no station

transformer has also been investigated for the cases with a


generator circuit-breaker installed. When no station transformer is available, the backup source for the auxiliaries are
the auxiliary busbars of another unit (see Figure 51).

8.2 Data for availability calculations


For each component of the power plant the following data is
needed:
number of failures
downtime
maintenance frequency
maintenance duration

8.3 Simulations
The simulations have been carried out with the help of a
computer program based on the Monte Carlo method [20].
This is a very powerful technique to quantitatively estimate the
reliability of complex systems like power plants; furthermore it
allows to quantify the impact of the connection scheme of a
generator to the extra high-voltage network on the availability
of the plant.
Monte Carlo methods estimate the reliability of a system by
simulating the process and its random behaviour. The simulation consists in a repeated process of generating deterministic
solutions to a given problem with each solution corresponding to a set of deterministic values of the underlying random
variables. The main element of Monte Carlo simulation is
therefore the generation of random numbers from probability
distributions describing the random variables of interest, e.g.
the failure and repair rates of different items of power plant
equipment.

48 | ABB

Reliability parameters have been taken from published


literature [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19]. The circuit-breaker
fail-to-close and fail-to-open probabilities have also been
taken into account [16].
Moreover, information about switching times, maintenance
frequency and maintenance duration was obtained from
published literature [14].

During a simulation run, when a failure occurs it is treated by


tripping the circuit-breakers forming the protection group of
the failed component immediately after the occurrence of the
failure. After the time necessary to isolate the failed component (i. e. the switching time) the circuit-breakers are closed
again. When the repair of the component is completed (or
a spare part has become available), the above procedure is
repeated. Also the transfer of the auxiliaries between different
sources during the starting-up and the shutting-down of the
unit (or when a failure occurs) is modelled. The operational
state of a unit further depends on the state of its auxiliaries,
as the number of auxiliaries available influences the level of
possible power production.
One of the results obtained from the simulations is the power
throughput of the power plant.

8.4 Simulation results


The simulations have been carried out assuming that the
power plant supplies base load. The availability of the unit
(turbine and generator) has been set to 86.67%. This value
takes into account forced and scheduled outages of the unit.
The results of the simulations are summarized in Table III and
Table IV.
The difference in the throughput power directly reflects the
contribution of the different schemes used to connect the
generators to the extra high-voltage transmission network
on the availability of the power plant. The results show that
the use of a layout with a generator circuit-breaker positively
affects the availability. Figure 53 depicts the possible availability improvements when a layout with a generator circuit-

breaker is used. This improvement is in the order of 0.4%.


The ring scheme seems to be very interesting: in this case the
availability improvement is in the order of 0.44%. The results
clearly indicate that, from a point of view of power plant
availability, a layout with a generator circuit-breaker offers a
distinct advantage over the unit connection.
With respect to the design of the extra high-voltage substation, it can be seen that in case of a layout with generator
circuit-breaker, the number of station transformers has a
negligible influence on the power plant availability.
On the other side, the difference in the throughput power between a gas insulated substation and an air insulated substation is generally very small (see Table IV).

EHV substation
(refer to Figure 52)

HV substation
(refer to Figure 52)

Generator
circuit-breaker

Station
transformer

SCHEME AIS GIS

SCHEME AIS GIS

Power
throughput

YES/NO

No.

MW

a)

a)

no

619.38

b)

a)

no

619.50

c)

a)

no

619.62

d)

a)

no

619.35

e)

a)

no

619.45

a)

a)

yes

621.93
622.08

b)

a)

yes

c)

a)

yes

622.09

d)

a)

yes

622.06

e)

a)

yes

622.04

a)

yes

621.97

b)

yes

622.07

c)

yes

622.09

d)

yes

622.07

e)

yes

622.00

TABLE III: RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS: INFLUENCE OF THE PRESENCE OF A GENERATOR CIRCUIT-BREAKER

0.44%

0.42%

0.42%

0.42%

0.40%

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Layout of EHV substations (refer to Figure 52)


Figure 53: Relative availability improvement for a layout with generator circuit-breaker (related to the basic scheme without a generator circuitbreaker)

ABB | 49

EHV substation
(refer to Figure 52)

HV substation
(refer to Figure 52)

Generator
circuit-breaker

Station
transformer

SCHEME AIS GIS

SCHEME AIS GIS

YES/NO

No.

MW

no

619.50

yes

622.08

yes

622.07

b)

a)

b)

a)

b)

Power
throughput

b)

a)

no

619.47

b)

a)

yes

622.10

b)

yes

622.07

TABLE IV: RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS: COMPARISON BETWEEN AIS AND GIS

8.5 Economic evaluation


In order to make a more thorough comparison between the
different options, an economic analysis has also been carried
out. For the economic evaluation the following issues have
been considered:
life cycle costs for selectable equipment (extra high-voltage
and high-voltage switchgear, station transformers,
generator circuit-breakers, medium voltage switchgear)
power delivered to the grid
energy selling price

the initial capital outlay also all those expenses arising from
its installation, operation, maintenance and, at the end of its
service life, its disposal.
The power delivered to the grid is given by the power
throughput minus the power consumed by the auxiliaries.
Monetary values are time dependent, and can only be
summed or subtracted when they are referred to the same
point in time. For this reason a cash value corresponding to
each cost term must be calculated to allow for interest and
inflation rates:

The life cycle cost of a piece of equipment comprises besides

Cpv =

Ci

C pv

i=1

1+ r

PV_FM
N
r
li
OC i

50 | ABB

is the present value of the figure of merit


is the number of years of service (service life)
is the effective discount rate
is the income in year i
are the operation costs in year i

Ci

r

i

is the expense payable in i years in zero-year


currency value
is the present value of cost C i

PV _ FM =

1
1+ r

is the effective discount rate (interest rate - inflation


rate)
is the number of years at the end of which the
expense Ci is paid.

(Ii OCi MCi )

MCi

AC
CWC
IC

AC CWC IC

are the
year i
are the
are the
are the

maintenance costs of selectable equipment in


acquisition costs of selectable equipment
civil works costs of selectable equipment
installation costs of selectable equipment

The differences in the figure of merit of different power plant


layouts are depicted in Figure 54. It can be noticed that lay-

outs with a generator circuit-breaker generally have a higher


figure of merit than layouts without a generator circuit-breaker.

Additional calculations have shown that layouts with a


generator circuit-breaker and without a station transformer
may even have somewhat higher figures of merit, especially in
cases with low downtimes (e. g. power stations which supply
base load) where the losses during the time when the unit is
shut down do not matter very much.

Moreover, the use of a generator circuit-breaker makes the


ring scheme (Figure 52d) without station transformer one of
the best options; such a conclusion is due to the fact that
this scheme is very cheap (low number of components) and
shows a similar reliability as the other schemes when a
generator circuit-breaker is installed.

100.50%
100.40%
100.30%

With no GCB

100.20%

With GCB and one


station transformer

100.10%
100.00%
99.90%
99.80%
99.90%

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Layout of EHV substations (refer to Figure 52)


Figure 54: Differences in figure of merit of different power station
layouts (related to the layout depicted in Figure 49)

ABB | 51

9 Case study 2: Interrupting capability of generator circuitbreakers in case of delayed current zeros
The requirements imposed on generator circuit-breakers
greatly differ from the requirements imposed on general
purpose transmission and distribution circuit-breakers. Due
to the location of installation between the generator and the
associated step-up transformer a generator circuit-breaker
must meet high technical requirements with respect to the
interruption of fault currents. In addition to their generally high
magnitude, these currents can be characterized by delayed
current zeros.

9.1 Generator circuit-breaker model adopted for the


simulations
According to [1], [2], demonstrating the capability of a generator circuit-breaker to interrupt short-circuit currents with
delayed current zeros may be difficult and limited in high
power testing stations. Considering that various designs of
generators behave differently and that the pre-load of the
generator influences the course of the fault current, it can be
impossible to simulate the required current wave-shape in
the testing station [21]. Therefore the capability of a circuitbreaker to interrupt a short-circuit current with delayed current zeros has to be ascertained by calculations that take into
account the effect of the arc-voltage of the generator circuitbreaker on the prospective short-circuit current. The generator circuit-breakers arc-resistance is an additional resistance
which forces the d.c. component of the short-circuit current
to decay faster. It is of utmost importance that the magnitude
of the arc-voltage is high enough to force a fast decay of the
d.c. component of the short-circuit current, so that current
zeros are produced within the maximum permissible arcing
time of the generator circuit-breaker. In order to investigate
the behaviour of the generator circuit-breaker during the
interruption of short-circuit currents with delayed current
zeros, the arc-voltage versus current characteristic has to be
transferred into a mathematical model. From the arc-voltage
and the current the arc-resistance is obtained. A non-linear
time-varying resistance is inserted into the simulation at the
time of the separation of the contacts of the circuit-breaker to
model the behaviour of the generator circuit-breaker.
According to [1] the following two cases shall be investigated:
fault initiation at voltage zero in one phase which implies
that the current in the corresponding phase exhibits the
maximum degree of asymmetry
fault initiation at voltage maximum in one phase which
implies that the current in the corresponding phase is symmetrical

52 | ABB

The capability of the generator circuit-breaker to interrupt fault


currents which show delayed current zeros can be ascertained by calculations that take into account the effect of the
arc-voltage of the circuit-breaker on the prospective fault
current. In order to carry out a thorough investigation on the
interrupting capability of generator circuit-breakers, a comparison between SF6 and vacuum extinguishing technologies
is provided.

The capability of a generator circuit-breaker to interrupt a


given short-circuit current can be considered as being demonstrated when the following conditions are met:
the maximum operating voltage is less than or equal to the
power frequency recovery voltage during the short-circuit
test with the corresponding symmetrical short-circuit current
the making current is less than or equal to the making current demonstrated by a short-circuit test
the symmetrical short-circuit current is less than or equal to
the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current demonstrated
by a short-circuit test
the asymmetrical short-circuit current is less than or equal
to the asymmetrical short-circuit breaking current demonstrated by a short-circuit test
the rate-of-rise and the peak value of the transient recovery
voltage are less or equal to the rate-of-rise and the peak
value of the transient recovery voltage during the shortcircuit test with the corresponding symmetrical short-circuit
current
the time delay of the transient recovery voltage is longer
than or equal to the time delay of the transient recovery
voltage during the short-circuit test with the corresponding
symmetrical short-circuit current
in case of a short-circuit current with delayed current zeros
the generator circuit-breaker is capable of forcing the
current to zero within the time interval in which it is able to
interrupt a current (i.e. within the maximum permissible arcing time)
In order to correctly simulate the behaviour of the generator
circuit-breaker, the arc-voltage model used for this investigation has to be derived from tests [1].

9.2 Generator terminal faults


The current to be interrupted by the generator circuit-breaker
in case of faults between the terminals of the generator
circuit-breaker and the LV-windings of the step-up transformer is called generator-source short-circuit current. If the
fault initiation takes place when the voltage in one phase
passes through zero the resulting fault current in that phase
exhibits the maximum degree of asymmetry. The symmetrical
component decays with the subtransient and transient time
constants of the generator; the d.c. component decays with
the armature time constant. If the symmetrical component of
the fault current decays faster than the d.c. component, it can
happen that, for a certain period of time following the initia-

tion of the fault, the magnitude of the d.c. component of the


fault current is bigger than the peak value of its symmetrical
component. In such a case the degree of asymmetry of the
fault current is higher than 100%, thus leading to delayed current zeros. The degree of asymmetry of the generator-fed fault
current is typically about 130%.
The course of the generator-source short-circuit current is
depicted in Figure 55. Fault initiation takes place at 100 ms
and a bolted fault has been assumed (i.e. that there is no
arc-voltage at the fault location). The fault initiation occurs at
voltage zero in phase A.

150
[kA ]
100

50

-50

-100

-150
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

Figure 55: Prospective generator-source short-circuit current


(generator unloaded prior to fault initiation, fault initiation at U A = 0)

Figure 56 and Figure 57 show the corresponding calculation results with the generator circuit-breaker closing into a
three-phase fault. In the computation the arc-voltage of a
SF6 generator circuit-breaker starting at contact separation is

150

taken into account. Figure 56 represents the case with fault


initiation at voltage zero and Figure 57 shows the case with
fault initiation at voltage maximum in one phase.

150

[kA]

[kA]

100

100

50

50

-50

-50

-100

-100

-150
0.08

t cp

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

[s]

0.20

Figure 56: Interruption of generator-source short-circuit current with


a SF6 generator circuit-breaker (generator unloaded prior to fault
initiation, fault initiation at U A = 0, arcing time = 17.6 ms)

-150
0.08

t cp

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

[s]

0.20

Figure 57: Interruption of generator-source short-circuit current with


a SF6 generator circuit-breaker (generator unloaded prior to fault
initiation, fault initiation at UA = max, arcing time = 20.2 ms)

ABB | 53

For comparison purposes the interrupting capability of a generator circuit-breaker employing vacuum extinguishing technology is also analysed. Figure 58 and Figure 59 show the

150

corresponding calculation results. Figure 58 represents the


case with fault initiation at voltage zero and Figure 59 shows
the case with fault initiation at voltage maximum in one phase.

150

[kA]

[kA]

100

100

50

50

-50

-50

-100

-100

-150
0.08

t cp

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.22

[s]

0.24

-150
0.08

t cp

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.22

[s]

0.24

Figure 58: Interruption of generator-source short-circuit current with


a vacuum generator circuit-breaker (generator unloaded prior to fault
initiation, fault initiation at U A = 0, arcing time = 39.0 ms)

Figure 59: Interruption of generator-source short-circuit current with


a vacuum generator circuit-breaker (generator unloaded prior to fault
initiation, fault initiation at UA = max, arcing time = 80.9 ms)

A method sometimes adopted to reduce the arcing time of


the circuit-breaker is to introduce an intentional tripping delay.
A value in the range of 100 ms 200 ms is usually sufficient
to limit the degree of asymmetry of the fault current at contact
separation to values the generator circuit-breaker can cope
with. It has to be noted that this solution would lead to longer
fault duration and consequently to severe damages to power
station equipment with consequent long downtime for repair.
Fault durations exceeding 100 ms are usually sufficient to let

the step-up transformer explode in case of internal failures.


For this reason many power station operators consider the
solution of intentionally delaying the tripping as not recommendable. Therefore the preferred method to handle the
delayed current zeros phenomena is to choose a generator
circuit-breaker having an arc-voltage magnitude sufficiently
high to force current to zero without the aid of any intentional
tripping delay [22].

54 | ABB

9.3 Out-of-phase synchronising


Out-of-phase synchronising occasionally occurs in power
plants [4]. The main reasons for out-of-phase synchronising
are wiring errors made during commissioning or during maintenance when connecting voltage transformers and synchronising equipment. The current resulting from out-of-phase
synchronising may show delayed current zeros; their causes
are totally different compared to generator terminal faults. The
rapid movement of the rotor from initial out-of-phase angle 0
to = 0 results in a very small symmetrical component of the
fault current and a dominant d.c. component when the condition of = 0 is reached. As the instant when the = 0 condition is reached is determined by the movement of the rotor,

the inertia constants of turbine, rotor and excitation equipment of the generator are of special importance. Because the
fault current to be interrupted by the generator circuit-breaker
is characterized by delayed current zeros it is extremely important to prove that the circuit-breaker by means of its arcvoltage is capable of forcing current to zero within its maximum permissible arcing time. Even though it is recognized
that synchronising with out-of-phase angle up to 180 might
occur, [1], [2] cover only requirements for a maximum of 90.
Therefore for the present study simulations referring to such a
fault conditions have been performed. The wave-shape of the
out-of-phase current in case of 0 = 90 is depicted in Figure 60.

150
[kA ]
100

50

-50

-100

-150
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

[s]

0.30

Figure 60: Prospective out-of-phase current (out-of-phase angle 0 =


90, fault initiation at U A = 0)

The simulation results are depicted in Figures 61, 62, 63 and


64. Figures 61 and 62 show the course of the fault current
in case a SF6 generator circuit-breaker is employed. Figures
63 and 64 show the corresponding results in case of use of a
vacuum generator circuit-breaker. Figures 61 and 63 repre-

150

sent the case of synchronisation occurring when the voltage


across the open contacts of pole A (UA) of the generator
circuit-breaker is zero, while Figures 62 and 64 show the case
when UA is at its maximum value.

150

[kA]

[kA]

100

100

50

50

-50

-50

-100

-100

-150
0.08

t cp

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

[s]

0.20

Figure 61: Interruption of out-of-phase current with a SF 6 generator


circuit-breaker (out-of-phase angle 0 = 90, fault initiation at U A = 0,
arcing time = 16.5 ms)

-150
0.08

t cp

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

[s]

0.20

Figure 62: Interruption of out-of-phase current with a SF6 generator


circuit-breaker (out-of-phase angle 0 = 90, fault initiation at UA =
max, arcing time = 18.9 ms)

ABB | 55

150

150
[kA]

[kA ]

100

100

50

50

-50

-50

-100

-100

-150
0.08

t cp

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

[s]

0.20

-150
0.05

t cp

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

[s]

0.40

Figure 63: Interruption of out-of-phase current with a vacuum


generator circuit-breaker (out-of-phase angle 0 = 90, fault initiation
at UA = 0, arcing time = 18.2 ms)

Figure 64: Interruption of out-of-phase current with a vacuum


generator circuit-breaker (out-of-phase angle 0 = 90, fault initiation
at UA = max, arcing time = 206.8 ms)

The results show that the fault current resulting from out-ofphase synchronising can impose extremely severe interrupting conditions if the generator circuit-breaker closes when
the voltage across its contacts in one pole is at its maximum

value and the arc-voltage of the circuit-breaker is not high


enough to force current to zero before the condition of = 0
is reached.

9.4 Conclusions
The possible occurrence of fault currents in power stations
which show delayed current zeros has been investigated. In
addition to the delayed current zeros phenomena associated
with generator terminal faults the case of synchronisation
under out-of-phase conditions has also been analysed. The
capability of the generator circuit-breaker to interrupt fault
currents which show delayed current zeros has been investigated by calculations that take into account the effect of the
arc-voltage of the generator circuit-breaker on the prospective
fault current. In order to carry out a more thorough investigation on the interrupting capability of generator circuit-breakers
a comparison between SF6 and vacuum extinguishing technologies has been made.
In all the cases analyzed the application of a vacuum circuitbreaker results in longer arcing times compared to the SF6
device. Furthermore the fault occurring at voltage maximum in

56 | ABB

one phase leads to a longer arcing time compared to the case


of a fault occurring at voltage zero.
The generator circuit-breaker employing SF6 as extinguishing
medium is suitable for the application as the calculated arcing
time lies well below the maximum permissible value.
The cases of generator terminal faults and 90 out-of-phase
synchronisation occurring at voltage maximum in one phase
lead to severe stress for the vacuum circuit-breaker. The
vacuum circuit-breaker is not suitable for the application because it is not capable of forcing the current to zero within the
permissible arcing time.
Therefore the preferred method to cope with currents exhibiting delayed current zeros is to choose a generator circuitbreaker having an arc-voltage magnitude sufficiently high
to force the current to zero within the maximum permissible
arcing time.

References
[1]
IEEE Std C37.013-1997 (R2008) IEEE Standard for
AC High-Voltage Generator Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis.

[12]
I. M. Canay; L. Werren: Unbalanced Load Stresses
in Generators due to Switching Failures, Faults in Power
Transformers, Instrument Transformers and Lightning Arresters, ABB Technical Report ASB 88/200, 1988.

[2]
IEEE Std C37.013a-2007 IEEE Standard for AC High
Voltage Generator Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical
Current Basis - Amendment 1: Supplement for Use with Generators Rated 10100 MVA.

[13]
A. Dubi, Monte Carlo Applications in Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2000.

[3]
IEC 62271-100 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 100: Alternating-current circuit-breakers.

[14]
D. Braun, F. Granata, M. Delfanti, M. Palazzo and M.
Caletti , Reliability and Economic Analysis of Different Power
Station Layouts, Conference Proceedings of IEEE Power
Tech, Bologna, 2003.

[4]
D. Braun and G. S. Kppl, Transient Recovery Voltages During the Switching Under Out-of-Phase Conditions,
International Conference on Power Systems Transients, New
Orleans, 2003.
[5]
I. M. Canay, D. Braun and G. S. Kppl, Delayed current zeros due to out-of-phase synchronizing, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 13, No. 2, June 1998.
[6]
Terens, L.; Neudrfler, W.: Application Aspects of
the Static Frequency Converter System in Pumped Storage
Power Plants, Waterpower 95, Proceedings of the International Conference on Hydropower, San Francisco, July 25-28,
1995.
[7]
Trnka, R.: Die elektrische Bremsung grosser Maschinenstze, Elin-Zeitschrift, 1979, pp 29.
[8]
Electric Power Research Institute: Power Transformer
Tank Rupture: Risk Assessment and Mitigation, EPRI Report
TR-104994, 1995.
[9]
D. Braun, L. Widenhorn and J. Ischi, Impact of the
electrical layout on the availability of a power plant, Proceedings of the 11th CEPSI, Kuala Lumpur, 1996, pp. 330-336.
[10]
L. Widenhorn; K. Froehlich; B. Culver: Minimised
Outage Time of Power Plant Units after Step-up Transformer
Failure, Conference Proceedings of POWER GEN Asia 94,
Hong Kong, 1994, pp.145-150.
[11]
B. Culver, K. Froelich and L. Widenhorn, Prevention
of Tank Rupture of Faulted Power Transformers by Generator
Circuit Breakers, ETEP, Vol 6, January/February 1996,
pp 39-45.

[15]
IEEE Power Engineering Society, Survey of Generator Step-Up (GSU) Transformer Failures, Special Publication
of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transformers Committee, 1998.
[16]
CIGRE Working Group 13.06, Final Report of the
Second International Enquiry on High Voltage Circuit-Breaker
Failures and Defects in Service, CIGRE Publication No. 83,
1994.
[17]
M. H. J. Bollen, Literature Search for Reliability Data
of Components in Electric Distribution Networks, Eindhoven
University of Technology, 1993.
[18]
CIGRE Working Group 12.05, An International
Survey on Failures in Large Power Transformers in Service,
Electra, No. 88, 1983, pp 21-42.
[19]
CIGRE Working Group 23.02, Report on the Second
International Survey on High Voltage Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) Service Experience, Cigre Publication No. 150,
2000.
[20]
CLOCKWORK GROUP, A Users Guide to Power
Plant Workbench Version 1.1, Austin , 1999-2000.
[21]
I. M. Canay, Comparison of Generator Circuit-Breaker
Stresses in Test Laboratory and Real Service Condition, IEEE
Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 16, No. 3, July 2001.
[22]
M. Palazzo, D. Braun and M. Delfanti, Investigation
on the Occurrence of Delayed Current Zeros Phenomena in
Power Stations and Related Stress Imposed on Generator
Circuit-Breakers, International Conference on Power Systems
Transients, Delft, 2011.

ABB | 57

Notes

58 | ABB

ABB Switzerland Ltd


High Voltage Products
Brown Boveri Strasse 5
CH-8050 Zurich / Switzerland
Phone: +41 58 588 34 24
Email: sales.gcb@ch.abb.com

Note

www.abb.com/gcb

possible lack of information in this document.

We reserve the right to make technical changes or


modify the contents of this document without prior
notice. With regard to purchase orders, the agreed
particulars shall prevail. ABB does not accept any
responsibility whatsoever for potential errors or

We reserve all rights in this document and in the


subject matter and illustrations contained therein.
Any reproduction, disclosure to third parties or
utilization of its contents in whole or in parts is
forbidden without prior written consent of ABB.
Copyright 2012 ABB
All rights reserved

Copyright ABB. 1HC0079219 E02-S / AC12

Contact us