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DIABETES MELLITUS

NUTRI LAB

Summary
Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have difficulty controlling their blood sugar levels
because the cells of the body don't absorb sugar from the bloodstream the way they should.
This leads to very high blood sugar levels, sugar in the urine, and very high blood insulin levels.
If not treated properly, type 2 diabetes can cause kidney damage, poor circulation, numbness in
the feet, dangerous infections and erectile dysfunction. The main consequence of this condition,
however, is heart disease, which claims the lives of approximately 80% of all diabetic patients.
The good news is that dietary changes can really help with blood sugar control and can also
help to prevent the damage caused by type 2 diabetes.
Instead of having three large meals in a day, have five meals consisting of smaller portions.

Eat more

Organically grown green leafy vegetables, such as Swiss chard, mustard greens, and
kale
Citrus fruits and red bell pepper
Red and purple fruits, such as cherries, blueberries
Nuts, especially almonds and walnuts
Cold water fish such as salmon, cod, herring, mackerel and halibut
Extra virgin olive oil
Cinnamon
Garlic
Legumes and whole grains, especially buckwheat, and barley
Soyfoods
Tomatoes
Chili peppers
Avoid concentrated sugars, dried fruit, fruit juices, saturated fats, trans fats, excessive total fats,
excessive iron, particularly from red meat

Olive Oil
While fat intake in general should be kept fairly low in diabetes, using some olive oil can be
beneficial. Heavy corn oil dressing can drown a fresh green salad, but pure extra virgin olive oil
in a lemon or balsamic vinaigrette adds a light yet flavorful touch to any salad.

Studies have shown that meals containing olive oil have better effects on blood sugar than
meals low in fat. In addition, olive oil may be able to help raise levels of HDL (the good
cholesterol).
Olive oil helps prevent belly fat and improves insulin sensitivity. Belly fat is associated with
insulin resistance, which leads to further weight gain and increases risk of type 2 diabetes.

Garlic
Cardiovascular disease is a well-known side-effect of diabetes, but garlic may provide some
protection, according to a study published December 2003. When diabetic rats were given garlic
extract for an 8-week period, the hyperreactivity of their blood vessels to noradrenaline (a
vasoconstrictive hormone) and acetylcholine (a compound involved in nerve transmission) was
significantly lessened. According to the researchers, their results suggest that garlic may help
prevent the development of abnormal vascular contraction seen in diabetics.

Vitamin E
Vitamin E is one of the major antioxidants in the body. Its main job is to roam the body
searching for free radicals. When it comes into contact with these damaging chemicals, it
neutralizes them, so they can't do any more harm.
Vitamin E has been shown to do great things for diabetic patients. First off, it may be able to
improve the ability of cells to absorb glucose, thus lowering high blood sugar levels. It can also
slow the progression of atherosclerosis and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke by
inhibiting the formation of blood clots. In this way, vitamin E may also work to prevent
retinopathy, a condition of blood clots in the vessels of the eyes that can lead to blindness in
diabetic patients.
In addition, vitamin E has been shown to reduce the symptoms of poor circulation and nerve
damage in patients with advanced diabetes. In general, vitamin E seems to be a very important
nutrient for treating blood sugar problems as well as preventing some of the major long-term
consequences of type 2 diabetes.
Examples: dark green leafy vegetables, broccoli, fish, fruits

Vitamin C
Vitamin E and vitamin C are allies in the war against free radicals. Vitamin C also roams the
body, eliminating damaging free radicals before they can do more harm. In addition, vitamin C
helps revitalize vitamin E that has gotten worn out by destroying free radicals.
However, diabetic patients also tend to have low levels of vitamin C in their bodies. If you
increase your intake of vitamin E, it's very important that you also get more vitamin C, so the
vitamin E can do a better job.

Excellent food sources of vitamin C include broccoli, parsley, bell peppers, strawberries,
cauliflower, lemons, mustard greens, Brussels sprouts, papaya, kale, cabbage,
spinach, kiwifruit, cantaloupe, oranges, grapefruit, tomatoes, chard, collard
greens, raspberries, peppermint leaves, asparagus, celery, fennel bulb, pineapple,
and watermelon.

Beta-carotene
Beta-carotene, another antioxidant like vitamin C and vitamin E, is found in foods such as fruits
and vegetables. It's also able to eliminate harmful free radicals in the body.
Fruits and vegetables rich in beta-carotene are easy to spot since it provides their bright orange
and yellow color.
Excellent food sources of beta-carotene include sweet potatoes, carrots, kale, winter squash,
collard greens, chard,cantaloupe, mustard greens, romaine lettuce, spinach, parsley, cayenne
pepper, peppermint leaves, Brussels sprouts, tomatoes, broccoli, asparagus, and apricots.

Chicken
Chicken is good for diabetic patients because of its low fat content. The high fat content in red
meats causes elevated levels of cholesterol which can lead to blockages in the arteries resulting
in coronary heart disease. Diabetics are at a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease
and should replace red meat in their diets with lean white meats like chicken. This has a
beneficial effect on both the heart and the kidneys, two organs that are at greater risk in
diabetics.
Barbecue chicken and grilled chicken is also good for diabetics as grilling is a low fat cooking
method that does not add too many calories to the diet.
Chicken is good diet for type 2 diabetics too, especially those who have been used to a diet with
a lot of meat. It is easier to substitute chicken for red meat compared to having no meat at all in
the diet. The low fat content in chicken makes it easier for these diabetics to lose weight, a
crucial factor in diabetes management.

Salt
You're likelier to have high blood pressure if you have diabetes. Getting too much sodium can
raise your blood pressure, too.

Mushroom

Are a nutrient-rich food for people with diabetes.


Do not raise blood glucose levels, that is, they have a very low GI.

Help keep your blood glucose levels normal.


Help keep your blood pressure normal by providing potassium and
virtually no sodium (salt).
Are perfect for weight control as they are low in kilojoules and help
appetite control and the avoidance of over-eating.

In addition, mushrooms provide other very useful health benefits to anybody


with diabetes. For example, they are cholesterol free and are virtually fat free
and, with abundant antioxidants. They also contain compounds that lower
blood cholesterol, and therefore, may help to reduce your risk of heart
disease, which is more prevalent in people with diabetes.
As mushrooms are a source of potassium and virtually salt-free, they also
help keep your blood pressure healthy. As they are low kilojoule they will
never end up on your waist. The mushroom is ideally suited for weight
control because it is low in fat, low in kilojoules and has the ability to reduce
your appetite and lower the risk of over-eating during the day.

Red wine
People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease, as well as lower
levels of "good" HDLcholesterol. High levels of HDL cholesterol can reduce the risk for heart
disease and stroke, as it absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver, where it is flushed
from the body.
Researchers found that the red wine-drinking group had increased levels of 'good' high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. This 'good' cholesterol drives low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
cholesterol, commonly known as 'bad' cholesterol, from the arteries. This resulted in lowered
risks of heart disease.

Balsamic Vinegar
1. Antioxidants. Fight against free radicals with antioxidantsthe same type found in red
wine. Research has found that balsamic vinegar could decrease the oxidation of bad cholesterol
and help prevent plaque formation in arteries.
2. Improves blood pressure. Research has found that foods high in antioxidants, such as balsamic
vinegar, may help improve blood pressure by preventing cell damage.
3. Regulates blood sugar levels. Balsamic vinegar may help improve insulin sensitivity. It is also
low on the glycemic index and doesn't cause spikes in blood sugar levels. It does, however, contain
sugar, and diabetics should pay attention to how much they are using.

4. Immunity support. Antioxidants found in balsamic vinegar repair cell damage and help improve
the immune system. By eating more antioxidants your immune system may be able to provide the
defense your body needs.
5. Weight control. Balsamic vinegar slows down digestion and helps prevent overeating. Because
of its natural sweetness it makes a healthy salad dressing and marinade without the use of added
sugar.

Lemon and Diabetes


This is because soluble fiber and vitamin C have been found to have beneficial properties for
people with diabetes. Lemons have a low glycemic index and some studies even show that
lemon may lower theglycemic index of other foods.
Soluble fiber: High-fiber diets have been shown to reduce blood sugar.
The higher the fiber intake, the more benefit may be realized. This type of fiber may aid
digestion and elimination, lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol, help with weight loss, and
also is questioned to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. Because of many of these
properties, soluble fiber is a powerful aid to help prevent cardiovascular disease.
There are two kinds of fiber: soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber dissolves in water and insoluble
fiber does not. You can think of insoluble fiber as a scrubby pad that moves through your
digestive system and cleans it out. While soluble fiber dissolves in water, this does not mean it
disappears. It dissolves and forms a gel-like substance. This substance makes it harder for the
digestive system to break down carbohydrates and absorb fat. So it slows carbohydrate
absorption and prevents the absorption of some fat.
Vitamin C: Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that reduces free radical damage in the body.
Free radicals damage cells and membranes in the body. Many people with diabetes have low
levels of vitamin C. This vitamin is supposed to help prevent diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and
some cancers. Because vitamin C helps with the production of collagen, it helps maintain
integrity of the walls of the arteries and can be helpful to people who have circulation problems
and arterial damage.
Some studies have shown that vitamin C may help decrease levels of fasting blood sugar,
triglyceride, cholesterol, HbA1c, and inflammation. It may even improve insulin resistance. Keep
in mind too much vitamin C, especially supplemented, may be harmful.

Peppers
Peppers are also packed with vitamins A and C -- just 1 cup of chopped red, yellow or orange peppers
provide more than 100 percent of the recommended daily value for both vitamins. All shades of
peppers provide plenty of fiber, folate, vitamin K, beta carotene and an array of minerals