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Forms of Government

1. De Facto
- is that government that gets possession and control of, or usurps, by force or by
the voice of majority, the rightful legal government and maintains itself against the
will of the latter.
- is that which is established and maintained by military forces who invade and
occupy a
territory of the enemy in the course of war, and which is denominated a
government of paramount force.
- is that established as the independent government by the inhabitants of a
country who rise
in insurrection against the parent state.
2. De Jure - has a rightful title but no power or control, either because this has been
withdrawn from it or because it has not yet actually entered into the exercise thereof.
Meaning of Democratic and Republican State
1. Republican form of government - is one where sovereignty resides in the people
and where all
government authority emanates from the people.
- a government which derives all its power directly or indirectly from the great
body of people; and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure,
for a limited period, or during good behavior.
2. Democratic form of government - the Philippines under the new Constitution is not
just a representative government but also shares some aspects of direct democracy
such, for instance, as the initiative and referendum under Article 6, Section 32.
-----------------Doctrine of Incorporation
- international law as the force of domestic law. International law therefor can be used
by Philippine courts to settle domestic disputes in much the same way that they
would use the Civic Code or the Penal Code and other laws passed by Congress. By
mere constitutional declaration, international law is deemed to have the force of
domestic law.
Doctrine of Transformation
- international law can become part of municipal law only if it is transformed into
domestic law through the appropriate constitutional mechanism such as local
-----------------Civilian Supremacy
Article 2, Section 3 of the 1987 Constitution: Civilian authority is, at all times,
supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the
people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the
integrity of the national territory."
Article 7, Section 18 of the 1987 Constitution: The president shall be the
Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines
Article 16, Section 5(1) of the 1987 Constitution: All members of the Armed
Forces shall take an oath of affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution.
Separation of Church and State
1. Article 2, Section 6 of the 1987 Constitution: The separation of church and

state shall be inviolable.

2. Article 3, Section 5 of the 1987 Constitution: No law shall be made
respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The
free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without
discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be
required for the exercise of civil or political rights. - Non-establishment clause.
3. Article 9(C), Section 2(5) of the 1987 Constitution: Religious denominations
and sects shall not be registered. - religious sect cannot be registered as political
4. Article 6, Section 5(2) of the 1987 Constitution - no sectoral representative
from the religious sector.
5. Article 6, Section 29 (2) of the 1987 Constitution: No public money or
property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for
the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution,
or system of religion, or of any priest, preacher, minister, other religious teacher, or
dignitary as such, except when such priest, preacher, minister, or dignitary is
assigned to the armed forces, or to any penal institution, or government orphanage
or leprosarium. - Prohibition against appropriation for sectarian benefit.
a) Article 6, Section 28(3) of the 1987 Constitution - (Churches, parsonages,
etc., actually, directly and exclusively used for religious purposes shall be exempt
from taxation).
b) Article 6, Section 29(2) of the 1987 Constitution - (Prohibition against
appropriation for sectarian benefit, except when priest, etc., is assigned to the armed
forces, or to any penal institution or government orphanage or leprosarium).
c) Article 14, Section 3(3) of the 1987 Constitution - (Optional religious
instruction for public elementary and high school students).
d) Article 14, Section 4(2) of the 1987 Constitution - (Filipino ownership
requirement for educational institutions, except those established by religious groups
and mission boards).
Healthful and Balanced Ecology
Article 2, Section 16 of the 1987 Constitution: The State shall protect and
advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with
the rhythm and harmony of nature.
Local Autonomy
A. Article 2, Section 25 of the 1987 Constitution: The State shall ensure the
autonomy of local governments.
B. Basco vs. PAGCOR: where the Supreme Court said that local autonomy under
the 1987 Constitution simply means decentralization, and does not make the local
governments sovereign within the State or an imperium in imperio.
C. Limbonas vs. Mangelin: the Court distinguished between decentralization of
administration and decentralization of power. The latter is abdication by the national
government of governmental powers; while the former is merely delegation of
administrative powers to the local government unit in order to broaden the base of
governmental powers.
Thus, even as we recognize that the Constitution guarantees autonomy to local
government units, the exercise of local autonomy remains subject to the power of
control by Congress and the power of general supervision by the President.
On the Presidents power of general supervision, however, the President can only
interfere in the affairs and activities of a local government unit if he or she finds that

the latter had acted contrary to law. The President or any of his alter egos, cannot
interfere in local affairs as long as the concerned local government unit acts within
the parameters of the law and the Constitution. Any directive, therefore, by the
President or any of his alter egos seeking to alter the wisdom of a law-conforming
judgment on local affairs of a local government unit is a patent nullity, because it
violates the principle of local autonomy, as well as the doctrine of separation of
powers of the executive and legislative departments in governing municipal
Political Dynasty/Equal Access of Opportunities for Public Service
Article 2, Section 26 of the 1987 Constitution: The State shall guarantee equal
access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties as may be
defined by law.
In Pamatong v. COMELEC, the Supreme Court said that this provision does not bestow
a right to seek the Presidency; it does not contain a judicially enforceable
constitutional right and merely specifies a guideline for legislative action. The
provision is not intended to compel the State to enact positive measures that would
accommodate as many as possible into public office. The privilege may be subjected
to limitations. One such valid limitation is the provision of the Omnibus Election Code
on nuisance candidates.