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Design and Manufacturing

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction:
The economic future of India depends on our ability to design, make and sell competitive products. Excellent
design and effective manufacture are the pre-requisites of a successive industry.
There is a general impression that the quality of Indian products can still be improved. The fact that consumers
have lost their confidence on Indian-made products cannot be denied.
This problem can be solved only by designing and manufacturing better products through improved
methodology. Keeping this in view, the subject Design and manufacturing purpose to present the methods
and procedures of design and manufacture.

Although engineers are not the only people who design things, the professional practice of engineering is
largely concerned with design. It is usually said that design is the essence of engineering.
The ability to design is both a science and an art. The science can be learned through procedures developed
by eminent scholars. But the art can be learned only by doing design.

1.2 Types of Products A product is the tangible end result of a manufacturing process and is meant for
satisfying human needs.

The product can be classified as follows: 1. Convenience goods

These are less expensive and are clustered around shops and restaurants. These can be purchased at
consumers convenience. E.g. Cigarette, Candy, Magazines etc.
2. Shopping goods
These are expensive and people buy it less frequently. E.g. Jewellary garments etc.
3. Specialty goods
These are purchased, taking extra pain. E.g. Rare objects like stamps.

4. Industrial goods.
These are items used in the production of other items. Eg. Raw materials.
Another way of classifying products is into, (a) Continuous Products, and (b) Discrete products
The continuous products are those which are produced in a continuous fashion. For example, plates, sheets,

tubes and bars etc are produced in very long lengths, and then these are cut into desired lengths.
On the other hand, discrete products are produced one after another, each in separate units. On the basis of
the output product, the Industry is usually named as continuous industry and discrete industry.

1.3 Requirements in a good product

1. Customer Satisfaction 2. Profit
How to achieve customer satisfaction? The product should function properly.
-It must have desired accuracy
-It must have desired reliability
-It must be easy to operate
-It must be serviceable
-It must make minimum space utilization
-It must withstand rough handling
-Pleasant appearances.
-Reasonable price.
How can it be profitable?
-It must be easy to manufacture
-The raw material must be cheap and easily available
-The manufacturing process has to the decided on the basis of quantity to be produced
-It must use standard parts
-It must be easy to pack and distribute.

1.4 Definition of Design: (S 94)

Designing is such a vast field that it is defined in several ways.
Various definitions of designing as pronounced by well-known designers are --:

Design is that which defines solutions to problem which have previously been solved in a different way
Design is the conscious human process of planning physical things that display a new form in response to
some pre-determined need.
Design is an act of collecting all pertinent information for the production of goods and services to meet some
human need.

The design of any component includes two things, (i) Product design (ii) Process design The product design
involves the development of specification for a product that will be functionally sound, good in appearance,
and will give satisfactory performance for an adequate life. The process design involves developing methods
of manufacture of the products so that the component can be produced at a reasonably low cost.

1.5 History of Design Process

(i) Design by Single Person
(ii) Over-the-wall design
(iii) Simultaneous Engineering
(iv) Concurrent Engineering
(v) Integrated design and Manufacture. In olden times one person could design and manufacture an entire
Even for a large project such as the design of a ship or a bridge, one person had sufficient knowledge of the
Physics, Materials and manufacturing processes to manage all aspects of the design and construction of the
project. This period is referred to as the period of design by single person in the history of design.
By the middle of the 20th century products and manufacturing processes became so complex that, one person
could not handle all aspects of design and manufacturing. This situation led to over-the-wall design process. In
this method each functional departments were separated from others, as shown by wall. There was only oneway communications between Customer, Marketing, Engg. Design and production department.
The customers throw their needs to marketing department. The marketing department may throw the
customer needs to the design department, in many instances, orally. The Engg. Design department may
conceive a design and hands it over to the manufacturing sections. The manufacturing department interprets
that design and makes the product according to what they think suitable. Unfortunately, often what is
manufactured by a company using over-the-wall process is not what the customers had in mind.
his is due to lack of interaction between the different departments. Thus, this single direction over-the-wall
approach is inefficient and costly and may result in poor quality products. By the early 1980s the concept of
simultaneous engineering emerged. This philosophy emphasized simultaneous development of the
manufacturing process- the goal was the simultaneous development of the product and the manufacturing
process. This was accomplished by assigning manufacturing representatives to be members of design team,
so that they could interact with the design engineers throughout the designs process. In the 1980s the
simultaneous design philosophy was broadened and called concurrent engineering.
A short definition of concurrent engineering is the simultaneous progression of all aspects, at all stages of
product development, product specification, design, process and equipment etc. In concurrent engineering the
primary focus is on the integration of teams of people having a stake in the product, design tools, and
techniques and information about the product and the processes used to develop and manufacture it. Tools
and techniques connect the teams with the information. Although many of the tools are computer-based, much
design work is still done with pencil and paper. In fact, concurrent engineering is 80% company culture and
20% computer support. With the advent of computer technology, drastic changes have taken place in the field

of design and manufacturing.

The result was a completely integrated design and manufacturing system. This system makes a good use of
technologies such as CAD/CAM, FMS etc. The computer integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS) moves
towards the Factory of the future. CIMS is necessary for better quality, efficiency and productivity.
1. How can you explain the term design? Explain the process of mechanical design. Discuss the role of
creativity in the design process (S94, 8M) 2. The design of product is ..........customer expectations. (S99,
3. .get first preference in design
Answer---. Functional requirements (S93)
4. Explain the meaning of (i) Conceptual design (ii) Functional design (iii) Production design. Give suitable
examples for each. (S03)


2.1 The design can be classified in many ways. On the basis of knowledge, skill and creativity required in the
designing process.
The designs are broadly classified into three types
(i) Adaptive Design (W 95, 97, 98 00)
(ii) Variant Design (S 97, 99)
(iii) Original Design
(i) Adaptive Design
In most design situations the designers job is to make a slight modification of the existing design. These are
called adaptive designs. This type of design needs no special knowledge or skill. E.g. converting mechanical
watches into a new shape.
(ii) Variant Design
This type of design demands considerable scientific training and design ability, in order to modify the existing
designs into a new idea, by adopting a new material or a different method of manufacture. In this case, though
the designer starts from the existing designs, the final product may be entirely different from the original
product. E.g. converting mechanical watches into quartz watches. Here a new technology is adopted.
(iii) Original Design
Here the designer designs something that did not exist previously. Thus, it is also called new design or
innovative design. For making original designs, a lot of research work, knowledge and creativity are essential.
A company thinks of new design when there is a new technology available or when there is enough market
push. Since this type of design demands maximum creativity from the part of the designer, these are also
called creative designs.
2.2 On the basis of the nature of design problem, design may be classified as:
(a) Selection design
(b) Configuration design
(c) Parametric design
(d) Original design
(e) Re-design

(a) Selection Design. It involves choosing one or more items from a list of similar items. We do this by using
catalogues. Eg. -Selection of a bearing from a bearing catalogue -Selection of a fan for cooling equipment Selecting a shaft.
(b) Configuration / Layout / Packaging Design (W 97, S'02)
In this type of problem, all the components have been designed and the problem is how to assemble them into
the completed product. This type of design is similar to arranging furniture in a living room. Consider the
packing of electronic components in a laptop computer. A laptop computer has a keyboard, power supply, a
main circuit board, a hard disk drive, a floppy disk drive and room for two extension boards. Each component

is of known design and has certain constraints on its position. For example, the extension slots must be
adjacent to the main circuit board and the keyboard must be in front of the machine.
Main Circuit board
Extension slots
Floppy drive
Power supply
The different components are shown above. The designers aim is to find, how to fit all the components in a
case? Where do we put what? One method for solving such problems is to select a component randomly
from the list and position it in the case so that all the constraints on that component are met.
Let's take keyboard first. It is placed in the front. Then we select and place a second component. This
procedure is continued until we reach a conflict, or all the components are in the case. If a conflict arises, we
back up and try again. Two potential configurations are shown above.
(c) Parametric Design Parametric design involves finding values for the features that characterize the object
being studied. Consider a simple example We want to design a cylindrical storage tank that must hold 4 m3
of liquid. The volume is given by V = r2 l The tank is described by the parameters, radius 'r', and length l. Given
V = 4 m3 = r2 l r2 l = 1.273 We can see a number of values for the radius and length, that will satisfy this
equation. Each combination-values of r and l gives a possible solution for the design problem.
(d) Original Design As described in an earlier section, an original design in the development of an assembly or
component that did not exist before.
(e) Redesign The redesign is a modification of an existing product to meet new requirements. It is same as
adaptive design. Most design problems solved in industry are for the redesign of an existing product. Suppose
a manufacturer of hydraulic cylinders makes a product that is 0.25m long. If the customer needs a cylinder
0.3m long, the manufacturer might lengthen the outer cylinder and the piston rod to meet this special need.
2.3. On the basis of the objective or strategy the designs are of following main types.
A. Production Design
B. Functional Design
C. Optimum Design
A. Production Design In production design, the designer designs something in such a way that the cost of
producing the product is minimum. That is, the first responsibility of the designer is reduction of production
cost. Hence, a production designer is concerned with the ease with which something can be produced, and
that at a minimum cost.
B. Functional Design W93 In functional design, the aim is at designing a part or member so as to meet the
expected performance level. Functional design is a way of achieving given requirements.- but the same may
the unproducible or costly to produce. A good designer, then, has to consider the production aspects also. A
product designed without keeping all these aspects into account, wastes time, money and efforts.

C. Optimum Design [W 95] It is the best design for given objective function, under the specified constraints.
2.4 On the basis of the field/ area or the domain of design, the following types are important.
1. Mechanical Design
2. Machine Design
3. System Design
4. Assembly/sub-assembly design
5. Computer aided design
1. Mechanical Design It means use of scientific principles, technical information and imagination in the design
of a structure,or machine to perform prescribed functions with maximum economy and efficiency.
2. Machine Design It is the process of achieving a plan for the construction of a machine.
3. System Design System Design is an iterative decision making process to conceive and implement optimum
systems, to solve problems and needs of society.
4. Assembly/sub-assembly design [S 93] In the design of Assembly/sub-assembly the major criterion is the
fulfillment of functional requirements. The assembly has to be designed to meet broad technical parameters
and purpose for which it was meant.
The characteristic features are: The total number of parts used in the design must be minimum. Subassemblies should be capable of being built separately in order to give maximum manufacturing flexibility.
Standard parts may be used. Flexible parts should be avoided, as they are easily damaged during handling
and assembly.
5. Computer aided design [CAD] It is a design methodology in which the designs take the advantages of digital
computer to draw concepts, analyze and evaluate data etc. Computers are largely used in a design office for
simulation and prototype study. In modern design, computers have become an indispensable tool.
Other types of designs are Probabilistic Design Industrial Design
Probabilistic Design [S 96] It is a design approach in which design decisions are made using statistical tools.
Generally, the external load acting on a body, the properties of materials etc are liable to vary. In probabilistic
design, the designer takes into account the variations of such parameters.
Industrial Design [W 93] It is the design made by considering aesthetes, ergonomics and production aspects.

1. What are the characteristics features of system design, assembly/sub-assembly design and component
design? Explain briefly with the help of examples. [S'93, 5M] 2. Distinguish between functional design and
industrial design. [W'93]
3. Discuss the meanings of conceptual design, creative design, adoptive design and variant design. [S'97]
4. What are the three main types of design? Give a comparative analysis. [W'00, W '97]
5. Explain the difference between creative design, adoptive design and variant design. [S'02 W'98]
6. Designing for function involves the use and knowledge of .. Ans. Eng. Sciences [W '94]
7. Explain the meaning of (i) Conceptual design, (ii) Functional design and (iii) production design. Give suitable
example of each. [S0'3]
8. Explain layout design. [S0'2]

Chapter 3
3.1. Introduction
Developing a manufacturable product is not an easy job. This chapter presents some methods that help
achieve quality products. Rather than making a detailed study, only an overview of designing process is
attempted here.
3.2. Features of design process
The following features can be observed in a design process.
* Iteration
* Decision-making
* Conversion of resources
* Satisfaction of need

Design is completed in many phases. In each phase, repeated attempts are required to accomplish the aim. A
satisfactory conclusion can be reached on, only after a number of trials. Decision-making is essential for a
designer to select one out of several. A designer often comes across several equally acceptable alternatives to
meet some end. In such conflicting situations, designer has to make the best decision. In any design process,
there is conversion of resources such as time, money, talent, materials and other natural resources. All
designs are aimed at satisfying some human need. Needs, whether important or unimportant is the starting
point of design.

3.3. How a design is born?

In a broad sense there are two methods by which a design comes into existence.
a. Design by evolution (Traditional Design)
b. Design by innovation (Modern Design)

a. Design by evolution
This implies the traditional method of design in which the objects and articles that we see around has taken its
present form by gradual change of time. If one looks at history it can be seen that most of the tools,
equipments, implements, took a long time to acquire their present form. Things changed gradually with the
passage of time. Each change was made to rectify some defects or difficulties faced by the users. Bicycles,
calculators, computers, steam locomotives etc. all went through a process of evolution in which designers
tried one concept after another. Even today this process is being used to some extent. However, this
evolutionary process is very slow. i.e., it took a very long period of time to occur even a slight modification.

he main reason for this slow evolutionary process of design was the absence of proper information and design
data records.

In modern design situations the evolutionary methods are not adequate because of the following reasons.
1. The traditional designing did not consider the interdependence of products. They were concerned about only
one component /product. But in the modern world, the existence of one product is dependent on another in
some way or other.

2. In the past, production was on small scale. Thus the penalty of a wrong design was tolerable. But, in the
present time, production is on large-scale basis. As a result, any penalty of a wrong design will cost great loss.

3. Requirements of the customers of todays world changes so frequently. Traditional design lags behind the
advanced product & process technologies available today.
4. Traditional design methods cannot cope with competitive requirements of the modern world. Due to the
above reasons modern design problem cannot be handled by traditional methods.

b. Design by Innovation
Since the traditional design method failed to cope with modern design requirements, nowadays almost all
designs are made by innovation. i.e., developments of a product by following scientific and purposeful effort.
The innovative design is entirely different from the past practice of evolutionary design. Here the designers
task is greatly magnified. He has to design and create something, which did not exist yet. Here he tries to solve
the design problem in a systematic and orderly manner.

This approach is similar to analytical problem solving. However, an innovative designer faces the following
1. He has to collect and evaluate information on a product, which is non-existing yet.
2. Necessity of analyzing complicated interaction of components.
3. He has to make predictions regarding its performance.
4. He has to ensure the technical and economical feasibility of the product. Notwithstanding the above
difficulties, there are eminent experts like Morris Asimow, J.E. Shigly, Dieter etc have attempted to systematize
the design process.

This systematized steps in design process is called Morphology of Design. The best way in which any problem
can be solved is to break up the problem and to try for a solution in an analytical method. This approach of
problem solving is also adopted in the Morphology of design.

3.4. Problem-solving Methodology

Knowingly or unknowingly we follow six basic actions when we try to find solution of any problem.
1. Establish or convince ourselves that there is a problem. Or we understand that a solution is needed.
2. Plan how to solve this problem
3. By analyzing the problem we decide what is actually required from the problem-solver. Or we decide the
4. Generate alternative solutions.
5. Evaluate the alternatives.
6. Present the acceptable solution.

3.5. Morphology of Design.

Morphology means a study of form or structure. Morphology of design refers to the time based sequencing of
design operations. It is a methodology of design by which ideas about things are converted into physical
objects. The logical order of different activities or phases in a design project is called the morphology of
3.6. Design Process- Simplified Approach
A simplified approach to designing as outlined by Morris Asimow is given below. According to him the entire
design process in its basic forms consists of five basic elements as given below.
General Information
Specific Information
Design Operations

Design operations imply the various processes done during designing. These include Searching for possible
alternatives systems to satisfy a need. Formulating a model for analysis purpose. Materials selection, etc.
But in order to carryout the above processes (i.e., design operations) a lot of information is required.

The required informations may be broadly classified into two.

1. General Information E.g. Scientific Laws Information on market trends etc.
2. Specific information. E.g. Information on manufacturers catalogue Materials science handbook etc. Once the
designer has obtained the necessary information he can start design operations.
The design operations give outcomes. The outcome may be in the form of Computer print outs, or drawings.
Next stage is the evaluation of this outcome. The purpose of evaluation is to decide whether this outcome is
able to meet the need. Here a comparison between the capabilities of the outcome and the need is carried out.
If the outcome is sufficient to meet the need, the designer goes on to next step, otherwise the design operation
is repeated.

3.7 Detailed Morphology of Design

A design project goes through a number of time phases. Morphology of design refers to the collection of these
time phases. The morphology of design as put forward by Morris Asimow can be elaborated as given below.
It consists of seven phases.:
I. Feasibility study
II. Preliminary Design
III. Detail design
IV. Planning for manufacture
V. Planning for distribution
VI. Planning for use
VII. Planning for retirement

Phase 1. Feasibility Study.

This stage is also called conceptual design. A design project always begins with a feasibility study. The
purpose and activities during feasibility study are To ascertain there really exists a need [ie the existence of
need must be supported by necessary evidences, rather than the outcome of ones fancy] Search for a
number of possible solutions Evaluate the solutions i.e. is it physically realisable? Is it economically
worthwhile? Is it within our financial capacity? Phase

2 Preliminary (Embodiment) Design.

This is the stage art which the concept generated in the feasibility study is carefully developed. The important

activities done at this stage are: * Model building & testing * Study the advantages and disadvantages of
different solutions. * Check for performance, quality strength, aesthetics etc.

Phase III: Detail Design

Its purpose is to furnish the complete engineering description of the tested product. The arrangement, from,
dimensions, tolerances and surface properties of all individual parts are determined. Also, the materials to be
used and the manufacturing process to be adopted etc. are decided. Finally, complete prototype is tested.

Phase IV: Planning for manufacture

This phase includes all the production planning and control activities necessary for the manufacture of the
The main tasks at this phase are
* Preparation of process sheet, i.e. the document containing a sequential list of manufacturing processes.
* Specify the condition of row materials.
* Specify tools & machine requirements.
* Estimation of production cost.
* Specify the requirement in the plant.
* Planning QC systems.
* Planning for production control.
* Planning for information flow system etc.

Phase V: Planning for Distribution

The economic success of a design depends on the skill exercised in marketing. Hence, this phase aims at
planning an effective distribution system.
Different activities of this phase are
* Designing the packing of the product.
* Planning effective and economic warehousing systems.
* Planning advertisement techniques
* Designing the product for effective distribution in the prevailing conditions.

Phase VI Planning for Consumption/use

The purpose of this phase is to incorporate in the design all necessary user- oriented features.
The various steps are
* Design for maintenance
* Design for reliability
* Design for convenience in use
* Design for aesthetic features
* Design for prolonged life
* Design for product improvement on the basis of service data.

Phase VII: Planning for Retirement.

This is the phase that takes into account when the product has reached the end of useful life.
A product may retire when
* It does not function properly
* Another competitive design emerges
* Changes of taste or fashion The various steps in this phase are
* Design for several levels of use
* Design to reduce the rate of obsolescence.
* Examine service-terminated products to obtain useful information.

3.8. Methods of Innovative Design

As we know, innovative design is an organized, systematized and logical approach for solving a design
There are two design methods for innovative design.
(i) Design by creative design route
(ii) Engineering Design

(i) Design by creative routs [Creative Design]

This is a design method that demands maximum creativity from the part of the designer. Hence this method is
also called creative design. Here the designer finds solutions to problems by allowing his creativity aspects
grow in a particular manner. Creativity [S94, W95, W98, S03]
Majority of designs belong to variant design, where the designer simply modifies an existing system. But the
success of engineering design depends on the modes of thinking and acting distinctively different from others.
A creative designer is distinguished by his ability to synthesize new combinations of ideas and concepts into
meaningful and useful forms. Design is commonly thought of as a creative process involving the use of
imagination and lateral thinking to create new and different products.

Qualities of a creative designer [S96, S00, S03]

The creative designer is generally a person of average intelligence, a visualiser, a hard worker and a
constructive non-conformist with average knowledge about the problem at hand.
Generally, a creative designer has the following qualities.
* Visualization ability. Creative designers have good ability to visualize, to generate and manipulate visual
images in their heads.
* Knowledge All designers start their job with what they know. During designing, they make minor
modifications of what they already know or, creative designers create new ideas out of bits of old designs
they had seen in the past. Hence, they must have knowledge of past designs.
* Ability to manipulate knowledge The ability to use the same knowledge in a different way is also an important
quality of a designer.
* Risk taking A person who does not take the risk of making mistakes cannot become a good designer. For
example, Edison tried hundreds of different light bulb designs before he found the carbon filament.
* Non-conformist There are two types of non-conformists:-constructive and obstructive. Constructive nonconformists are those who take a firm stand, because they think they are right. Obstructive non-conformists
are those who take a stand just to have an opposing view. The constructive non-conformists might generate a
good idea. But the obstructive non-conformists will only slow down the design process. Creative designers are
constructive non-conformists, and they want to do things in their own way.
* Technique Creative designers have more than one approach to problem solving. They are prepared to try

alternative techniques, till they reach a satisfactory solution.

* Motivation They always motivate others in the design team. In such a favourable environment creativity is
further enhanced.
* Willingness to practice Creativity comes with practice. Creative designers are ready to practice for a long
enough period.

Roadblocks to Creativity
* Fear of making a mistake
* Unwillingness to think and act in a way other than the accepted norm.
* Desire to conform to standard solutions.
* Unwillingness to try new approaches
* Fear of criticism
* Lack of knowledge
* Overconfidence due to past experience
* Unwillingness to reject old solutions
* Fear of authority
* Difficulty in visualization
* Inability to distinguish between cause and effect
* Inability to collect complete information
* Unwillingness to be different

Methods to enhance Creativity

* Use of analogy
* Asking question from different view points
* Memories of past designs
* Competitive products
* Deliberate day-dreaming

* Reading science fictions, etc.

Intuition [S01]
Intuition means sudden ideas or flashes of inspiration and involves complex associations of ideas, elaborated
in subconscious mind. Intuitive ideas lead to a large number of good and even excellent solutions.

Creative Design Route [W95, 94, 98, 900]

Creative design route is the procedure through which a creative design is born. The success of this design lies
with the creativity of the designer. Creative design route can be practiced by following the sequences shown in

During preparation period, the designer analyses the need and collect all the necessary information required at
various stages.





Concentration is the period when the designer digests all the aspects of the problem situation and tries various
possible combinations. The next step is the incubation period. The designer relaxes away from the problem for
some time. Illumination is the sudden insight and throwing up with a solution. The final step is the verification.
Now, testing and inspection of the design is done and the details are completed. For a designer using creative
methods for design, habitual or familiar methods must be avoided.


Another procedure for obtaining innovative design is Engg. Design.
Apart from creativity-approach, this is a logical and intellectual attempt to solve design problems. It largely
depends on discoveries and laws of science.
The different steps in Engg. design process is given below:
- Recognition of need
-Definition of the problem
-Gathering of Information
Evaluation of concepts

Communication of the design

Since all design projects are meant for satisfying some need, any design work starts with Recognition of the

The need for a design is initiated by either a market requirement, the development of a new technology or the
desire to improve an existing product.
Once the need has identified, the next step is to define the design problem. This is the most critical step in the
design process.

The definition of the problem expresses as specifically as possible, what the design is intended to accomplish.
It should include objectives and goals, definitions of any special technical terms, the constraints on the design
and the criteria that will be used to evaluate the designs.

The success of a design project depends on the clarity in the definition of the problem. Need Analysis is the
technique used to define the problem(Chapter 6). The next step is collecting information. In many phases of
deign process a large quantity of information may be required. The required information can be obtained from
textbooks, journals, or other agencies (See Art. 6.4) The conceptualization step involves, finding several design
ideas to meet the given need. Inventiveness and creating is very important in this step. The different ideas
conceived are weighted and judged in the evaluation step. The advantages and disadvantages of each idea
against its performance, cost aesthetics etc is valued. After evaluation, the best design is emerged. This final
design with every detail is furnished in last step-ie communicating the design.

Common features between Creative Design & Engg. Design (W.94)

(1) The preparation phase in creative design and need analysis in Engg. Design is more or less common. Both
steps deal with analyzing the need.
(2) In both design methods brainstorming and Synetics can be applied.
(3) Reviewing is applicable in both design methods.
(4) For both deigns, the success depends on the clarity with which the need statement is prepared.
(5) Testing and inspection is applicable for both designs.

Difference between Creative Designs & Engg, Designs (W 94)

1. Intelligence is not a must for creative design-but the same is desirable in Engg. Design.
2. Creative design is based on use of analogy and synthesis of alternatives but engineering design is based
on proven laws and past experience.

3. Creative design involves phases like incubation, illumination but no such philosophy is followed in
engineering designs.
4. Creative person is highly intuitive and independent in thinking and usually resists working in group but
engineering designers like teamwork.
5. Customs, habits and traditions are enemies of creativity but the same are required in engineering design.

3.9. Divergence, Transformation & Convergence (S97 5M)

The entire design process can be said to have composed of three distinct phases Viz. Divergence,
Transformation and Convergence phases. The problem definition, need analysis and conceptualization etc.
aims at generating as many ideas as possible to solve a given design problem. Thus, these activities belong to
the Divergence phase. That activity wherein the concept is converted into physical object is termed as
transformation phase. The convergence is a narrowing process, where the best optimal solution is tried for, by
eliminating unwanted ideas.
3.10. Design Process Using Advanced Technology (W00)
Although Engineering is a major sector of the economy in a developing country. It has not been benefited
greatly from advances in computer technology. Engineers still use computers only in peripheral tasks, such as
drafting and analyzing, but not in making fundamental design decisions.
Current computer tools such as computer-aided drafting are restricted to the end of the design process and
play no fundamental role in aiding design. It aids only in the final drafting of the specifications. Computer-aided
Design, (CAD) means a class of tools for crating drawing, or the physical description of the object. CAD
systems have been sophisticated and 2D and 3D models are available. The CAD allows the designer to
conceptualize objects more easily.
The design process in CAD system consists of the following stages.
1) Geometric modeling
2) Analysis and optimization
3) Evaluation
4) Documentation and drafting.

1. How can you explain the term design? Explain the process of mechanical design. Discuss the role of
creativity in the designs process. (S94. 8M)
2. The mechanical design process normally has six stages and amongst them the three stage are ----- ------ ------(S99, S94, 1 M)

3. What is morphology of design? Explain the various steps with the help of block diagram (W.95)
4. The three stages of design are (W 96)
5. State the different phases that are involved in morphology of design (S.96)

6. Briefly discuss the concept of creativity as applicable for solving design problems (W 98. 6M)
7. What makes the design process tortuous? Explain (W 99, 6M)
8. The creative design process can be considered to be (S93)
9. Discuss creativity and creative design. Use examples to explain. (W 95)
10. What do you understand by intuition (S 01)
11. Draw a flow-chart showing different stages of engineering design. Explain why some stages are repeated
several times. (S.93.5M)
12. What feedback loops provide information for the redesign of products and the productive systems. (W93)
13. The process of design by evolution adopted by craftsman is a .. Ans. Slow process of design
development (W94)
14. With suitable examples, compare Design by evolution and Design by innovation. (S 96)
5. Enumerate the steps in Engg. Design process and explain (W96)
16. Justify the statement with reasons Modern design problems cannot be handled by traditional methods.
(S97, W98)
17. Good design requires both------ --------. Ans. Analysis and Synthesis. (S93)
18. Define creative design routes. What are the stages of these routes, Explain these in brief. (S00)
19. Explain the process involved in creativity. What are the various qualities of creative designer? Give the brief
description of these. (S00).
20. What do you mean by creative design routes. Write down the different statements about creativity and
creative designers. (S01)
21. Compare the design synthesis and design analysis. Explain the basics procedure of design synthesis
giving suitable examples. (S 02).
22. What are the common features and differences between creative design activities and Engg? Design
activities. Explain briefly with the help of examples. (W94)
23. Discuss the divergence, transformation, and convergence phases in the design of a new product. (S97)

24. What are the three different stages in the design process? Explain with example. (W99)
25. What are the most important steps involved in the design process? Explain? (W00)
26. What are the methods currently being adopted for design process using advanced technology? (W00)
27. Name various phases in design morphology. Explain these in brief. (S01)
28. Explain Engg. Design (S01)
29. What major steps are involved in design process? Briefly explain each one (W01).
30. What do you understand by the design process? List out the various phases involved and explain them
briefly. (S02)
31. Give the checklist for an engg. Design problem. (W98)
32. ___ is one of the most powerful aids to creativity in design.
(Use of analogy) (W 94).
33. What do you understand by the term creativity? What are its requirements? (03).
34. Discuss the stages in engineering design process with the help of example. (S 05)
35. Explain Design processes. Illustrate the steps followed with the help of a figure. Also explain the flow of
work during the design process. (W 05, 8M) 36. What do you understand by morphology of design?

Discuss the phases of feasibility study, preliminary design and detailed design. (W 05. 8M)

4.1. What is a need?
A need can be defined as a personnel unfulfilled vacancy which determines and organizes all psychological
and behavioral activities in the direction of fulfilling the vacancy A product can be product and marketed only if
it is needed by the customer. A person buys a pen because he needs to write. A patient needs something
that can cure his illness.
These examples show that needs are nothing but a scarcity or problem or wants felt by a person, device or a
system. In fact a designers goal is to find solutions to such problems

4.2. Hierarchy of Human needs (W 96)

Maslow developed a hierarchy of human needs as given below
1. Physiological needs - These are the basic needs of the body- For example, thirst, hunger, sex, sleep etc.
2. Safety and security needs For a person whose physiological needs are met, the new emerging needs are
safety needs. These include, protection against danger, threat etc.
3. Social needs Once the physiological and safety needs are met, the next dominant need is social need. For
example he/she want to love and be loved, he want to be in group, etc.
4. Psychological needs These are the needs for self-respect and self- esteem, and for recognition.
5. Self-fulfillment needs These are the needs for the realisation of ones full potential through self-development,
creativity, and self-expression.

4.3. Identification/Recognition of Needs (W 96)

The beginning of any design process is the recognition of need or problem. When a turner hears an awkward
noise from some part of the lathe he identifies/ recognises a need. i.e. the lathe requires repair. When the sales
personnel observes that their customers are always complaining of poor performance of the products, a need
to develop a better product is identified.
Similarly, when the customers are unsatisfied with the present model, a new need is recognised.
Needs can be identified from,
* Careful market analysis
* Statements made by politicians from their observations
* Interpretations of a communitys requirements
* Trends in other parts of the world

4.4. Variety of Needs [S00]

Following are the needs, which can generate ideas for the development of new products.

(i). Variation of an existing product. This could be a change in a single or a few parameters of an existing
product. Eg - Changing the length of a cylinder. -Changing the power of a motor, etc.
(ii) Improvements in the existing product. This implies the need to redesign some of the features of an existing
product. Such needs can arise, when -Customers want a new feature or better performance than existing
features -A vendor can no longer supply components or materials that had been used so far -Manufacturing or
assembly departments identifies a quality improvement -Invention of a new technology that can be
incorporated in the existing design.
(iii) A change in production model Whenever the production model changes from job-shop to mass, a
corresponding change in product design may be demanded. For example, there is more tendency to buy offthe shelf components for short-run products. Whatever may be the situation, a company has to identify or
locate a need before the production of any device.
This crucial step is called Recognition/ Identification of need.
1. With the free-entry of Chinese products to Indian market, manufacturers in India recognize a need to sell
their products at a lower price.
2. When a company observes that their products do not perform well, the company recognizes a need to redesign it.

4.5 Need Statement

Once the need has recognized, the next step is to prepare the need statement. It is a general statement
specifying the problem for which a solution is required. In other words-It is the objective of design, expressed
in the form of a statement.

Need Statement Examples [S 93]

Give one need statement for each of the following
Voltage stabilizers
Personnel Computer
i). Bicycle: - The need statement for a bicycle could be A device for a common person to travel reasonable
distance comfortably with least effort The initial cost should be low- and be as light as possible, have
adequate life, be easy to maintain etc
(ii). Voltage stabilizer A solid state noiseless electrical device of adequate power rating to provide
continuously an output at constant voltage, accepting the input power at varying voltage between the
limits__and__volts . The indications for input and output voltage levels may be provided.
iii). Personnel Computer A computing device to accept input data, manipulate it according to a set of
instructions and provide the desired output on CRT and printer

1. List hierarchy of human needs that motivate individuals. [W96]
2. Give one need statement for each of the following Bicycle (ii) Voltage stabilizer (iii) Personnel Computer

3. Explain the steps involved in identification of a problem by a designer [S96]
4. Every product is made in response to.of individual or society. Ans. needs [S97]
5. Enumerate and explain variety of needs which can generate ideas for the Development of new product. [S00]

5.1 Introduction
Once the top management of an organisation recognized a need to develop a product, it will go for product
design, only if, - the purposed product will guarantee a handsome profit - the market conditions are favorable
in respect of competition. - the necessary resources are available - the purposed design is worthwhile.
5.2 Feasibility Study.
The starting point of a design project is a need. Once the need has been identified, the company has to ensure
the worth of the project. Feasibility study is a preliminary analysis for making a decision regarding the design
project, to be forwarded or not. If the feasibility study reveals that the proposed design project does not bring
comfortable revenue, or the design demands huge investments beyond the capacity of the organisation, the
project is dropped.
5.3 .Product Planning [S 01]
Planning is the process used to develop a scheme for scheduling and committing the resources of time, money
and people. A plan shows how a project will be initiated, organized, co-coordinated and monitored.
A product plan is a decision-making as regards to the design and manufacture of a product, by considering the
revenues from different products.
For example assume that a company already manufacturing 3 products, say P1, P2 and P3 identifies a need to
design a new product N. Owing to the design and manufacture of the new product, the production volume,
and hence revenue from products P1, P2,and P3 may be affected (due to re-allocation of company resources
such as raw materials, machineries).
In this situation, the company has to decide a time-schedule for the design and manufacture of the new
product. Such plan made by the management is called the product plan. It must contain the time-as well as
resource allocation for each of the products. More over it will result in optimum and efficient use of resources.
After the product plan in made, the management begins a project for a new product design.

5.4. Organisation Of Design Group

The complexity of mechanical devices has grown rapidly over the last 200 years. For example Boeing 747
aircraft (which has over 50,000 components) required over 10 thousand persons years of design time.
Thousands of designers worked over a three-year period on the project. These show that, design work is
generally done by a team or group. A design team may include thousands of design and manufacturing

engineers, material scientists, technicians, purchasing agents, drafters, and quality control specialists, all
working over many years. The first phase in any design process is identification of needs. Needs may be
identified by market survey, the desire to improve an existing product or even by the development of a
technology. Since any design activity consumes company resources like money, people and equipments etc.
the planning of these resources is the next phase after need- identification. Planning means allocation of
resources such as money, people etc. The first step in planning is to form a design team.

5.5. Members of Design Team

Following is a list of individuals needed in a design team.
Their titles may vary from company to company.
1. Design Engineer. This person is responsible for suggesting ideas for the proposed product. For that, he
must clearly understand needs for the product as well as its engineering requirements. Hence, he must posses
both creative and analytical skills. He must be an engineering graduate having vast experience in the particular
product area.
2. Marketing Manager. He is responsible for success of the product in the market. He is a link between the
product and the customer. He always sees whether the customer like this product?
3. Manufacturing Engineer. He knows the best manufacturing process suitable for the production of the
particular product. He can give advice on the various manufacturing processes available in the industry.
4. Detailer In many companies the design engineer is responsible for specification development, planning,
conceptual design and the early stages of product design. The project is then turned over to detailers who
finishes the details, develops manufacturing and assembly documents.
5. Drafter A drafter aids the design engineer and detailer by making drawing of the product. In many companies
the detailer and the drafter are the same individual.
6. Technician. The technicians aid the design engineer in developing test-apparatus, performing experiments
7. Materials Specialist. In some products, the choice of the material is based on availability. In some other
cases, a certain material is to be chosen according to some features of the product. Material specialist can give
advice on properties of different materials.
8. Quality Control Specialist. A quality control specialist observes how well the product meets specifications.
This inspection is done on finished products as well as raw materials purchased from vendors.
9. Industrial Engineer. Industrial designers are responsible for how a product looks and how well it interacts
with customers. They generally have background in fine arts and in human factor analysis.
10. Assembly Manager. The assembly manager is responsible for putting the product together. Note that
assembly process is an important aspect of product design.
11. Suppliers Representative. As part of product development, the company may purchase components or
sub-assemblies from out-sources. In that case, the representative of the supplier of the specified component
must be included in the design team.

5.6 Organisational Structure of Design Teams

Since a design project requires individuals with different fields of expertise, they can be organised into
different structures. Listed below are the five organisational structures.
The number in the bracket shows the percentage of design projects that use that particular organisation
1. Project matrix, (28%) It is an organisation structure having the features of project and matrix organisations.
2. Functional matrix (26%) It is another organisational structure obtained by combining functional as well as
matrix organisations.
3. Balanced Matrix (16%) Here the project manager and functional manager work together. A project manager is
assigned to oversee the project, and the responsibility and authority for completing the project rests with
functional managers.
4. Project Team (16%) A project manager is put in charge of a project team composed of a core group of
personnels from several functional areas or groups assigned on a full time basis.
5. Functional Organisation (13%) Each project is assigned to a relevant functional area or group within a
functional area. A functional area focuses on a single discipline.

5.7. Task Clarification [S 01]

A project plan is a document that defines the tasks necessary to be completed during a design process. A
project plan is used to keep the project under control. It helps the design team and management to know how
the project is actually progressing.
There are five steps to establish a plan.
They are,
1. Identify the task
2. State the objective of each task
3. Estimate Personnels, time, resources required.
4. Develop a sequence for these tasks.
5. Estimate product development cost.

Step 1 Identify the tasks

In the first step of the planning of the design project, the different tasks needed to bring the problem from its
initial state to the final products are identified. The tasks are the activities to be performed during the design
Given below is a list of tasks drafted by a design team, for the development of a certain product.
a. Collect and evaluate customer requirements and competition scenario.

b. Establish two concepts for product development.

c. Develop final prototype.
d. Test prototype No1 and select one design for finalisation.
e. Redesign and produce proto type No2.
f. Field test prototype No2.
g. Complete production documentation.
h. Develop marketing plan.
i. Develop quality control procedures.
j. Prepare patent applications.
k. Establish product appearance.
l. Develop packaging.

Step .2. State the objective for each task.

Even though the tasks are initially identified, they need to be refined to ensure that the results of the activities
are the stated objectives.
For example, for the task No.
(a) above, the objective is to collect information required for developing specification.
Step 3: Estimate the Personnel, Time & other Resources Required.
Completion of each of the tasks listed above will consume resources such as personnel, time etc. An estimate
of the requirement of resources may look like: Task Personnel/time Collecting data Two market surveyors, two
months Concept generation Two designers, two week.
Step 4 Develop a Sequence for the tasks
The next step is scheduling of tasks-the purpose is to ensure that each task is completed, before its result is
needed. CPM is the best method to accomplish this.
Step 5 Estimate Product Development Cost
On the basis of the above steps, the costs for developing the product can be estimated. Normally design cost
is only about 5% of manufacturing cost. The above plan developed in the early stage of the design has to be
refined as the project progresses.

1. Market research is necessary before starting the production of any product. (True) [S '97]
2. Write a short note on Product planning and task classification. [S '01]


Morphology of Design
Morphology of Design

What is Design?
Engineering design is not an art or skill : it is a cognitive or intellectual process
based on knowledge---- by John R. Dixon.
Engineering design is an iterative decision-making and problem solving activity
to produce the plan to convert resoures optimally into systems or devices to
fulfill a specified task. In case of machine design, the resources are material ,
machines and wquipments involved, and labour put into, and system is the
machine product.
The activity is subjected to certain constraints. Those are (1) Problem-solving
constraints, designer's problem-solving capabilities, time available, laboratory or
computational facilities, and (2) the problem-solution constrains, cost of the
product, availability of raw materials , equipments or manufacturing facilities.
Plan is a method, or scheme of actions , or a way proposed.

Design is that area of human experience, skill and knowledge which is concerned with mans ability to mould
his environment to suit his material and spiritual needs.

Design is essentially a rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems or initiate change in
man-made things

For the term design process, we can also read problem-solving process, which in all but its abstract forms
works by consultation and consensus.

The process begins with the identification and analysis of a problem or need and proceeds through a
structured sequence in which information is researched and ideas explored and evaluated until the optimum
solution to the problem or need is devised.

Design was not a total process. The work of participants in the process was often compartmentalised, each

having little if any input in matters which fell outside the boundaries of their specific expertise. Thus,
participants explored their ideas unilaterally, with one or another participant, through virtue of their
expertise, imposing constraints upon all others.

Morphology of Design:

Morphology, the study of pattern and form, is crucial to design because it constitutes an essential part of its
corpus of coherent knowledge.
The collection of time phases of the followiing steps is usually called the
"Morphology of Design"
The phases are:
(1) Feasability study (evaluation of alternatives): The aim is to produce a number
of feasible and useful solutions.

The Design Process

In Design Process, we will have to look at techniques or best practices, that help
the egineer design quality products. To understand how to make the best use of
the techniques, it is omportant to look at them in the context of the overall
design process. Thus, the progress of a product from need to production is
explored by means of examples that demonstrate the flexibility of the process.
The emphasis is on the importence of design documentaion. A design problem is
introduced and is used as acase study.

Overview of the Design Process

The Design process varies from product to product and industry to indistry.
Nonethless, we can construct a generic diagram of the activities that must be
accomplished for all projects.
Before the design of a product can begin, the need for that prodict must be
established. There are two sources for design projects, the market or the
development of a new product idea without market demand. About 80 percent of
new product development is market-driven. Without a custumer for the product,
there is no way to recover the costes of design and manufacture. Thus, the most
important part inlunderstanding tyhe design problem lies in assessing the
market , that is , establishing what the custumer wants in the product. Even if
market-driven, new products must contain the latest technology if they are to be

perceived as being of high quality for what consumers means by "high quality"

Product Design Specifications

1. What is a PDS and why write one?
A product design specification (PDS) is a document which sets out fully and
in detail exactly what will be required of a product, before it is designed. Many
companies do not work to such formal specifications , but as a result they are
not fully in control of what they produce. PDSs are essential.
A PDS does not just help the people who design and make the product. Those
who eventually use it also benefit. Consumers' judgements are all too often
overlooked by engineers, but people think critically about the products they
buy. They may take an interest in design or engineering for its own sake. They
certainly will not hesitate to criticise a product if it does not do, efficiently and
reliably, what they expect it to. A PDS is therefore also an analysis of what the
market will demand of the product.

2. Before you write a PDS

A PDS specifies a problem, not a solution. A PDS does not pre-empt the
design process by predicting its outcome. Rather, it defines the task by listing
all the conditions the product will have to meet. This can involve a good deal
of research, into market conditions, competing products, and the relevant
literature including patents.
When you write a PDS, you are defining something that does not yet exist. But
for practice at thinking this way, it can help to look at an existing product and
work out what its PDS was

3. Everybody is involved
Once a PDS has been written, it becomes the principal reference for all those
working on the design. The PDS must therefore be written in language that all
parties can understand.
A PDS must not become the exclusive property of one group. Everybody
concerned with the project must endorse the PDS and share responsibility for
observing it.

4. A PDS can change

A PDS has to be a written document, but it does not need to be engraved in
stone. It can be changed. As a rule, the design follows the PDS. But if the
emerging design departs from the PDS for some good reason, the PDS can be
revised to accommodate the change. The important thing is to keep the PDS
and the design in correspondence throughout the design process. In this way,
the PDS ends up specifying not just the design, but the product itself.

5. Points to cover in a PDS

This section give detailed advice on writing a PDS under the 29 headings
listed below. It is therefore a good idea to write your PDS under these
headings, leaving out only those that clearly do not apply.
1 Performance
2 Economy
3 Target production cost
4 Quantity
5 Manufacturing facilities
6 Product life span
7 Customers

11 Size
12 Weight
13 Maintenance
14 Materials
15 Special processes
16 Ergonomics
17 Appearance

8 Competition

18 Finish

9 Service life
10 Environment

19 Quality and reliability

20 Packing

21 Shipping
22 Industry standards
23 Shelf life / storage life
24 Testing
25 Safety
26 Personnel
27 Market constraints
28 Political and social
29 Design time

Reliability and robust design

Reliability Engineering and Robust Design
Reliability Engineering means considering tolerances in design parameters, uncertainties in environments,
uncertainties in application (e.g. usage scenarios), and variations in manufacturing as the stochastic
phenomena that they are.

Robust Design means factoring reliability into the development of the design itself: designing for a target
reliability and thereby avoiding either costly over-design or dangerous under-design in the first place. Such an
approach eliminates a deterministic stack-up of tolerances, worst-case scenarios, safety factors, and margins
that have been the traditional approaches for treating uncertainties.


The reliability constraints deal with the probability of failures, while the
robustness minimizes the product quality loss.


Although Taguchi sees product design as consisting of three phases [7]:
1. System design
2. Parameter design
3. Tolerance design, these terms are somewhat foreign to most mechanical and electrical design engineers in
the U.S.

So, we will use the traditional phases of 1. Conceptual design 2. Preliminary design 3. Detail design when we
discuss the classical approaches to design for reliability (DFR). Reliability is generally not a consideration in
conceptual design, which seeks to combine technologies in new ways to determine if it is even feasible to meet
the specified mission. Below we identify a top five list of approaches to design for reliability in preliminary
and detail design.



This section has four examples illustrating robust design for reliability.
The first is from Phadke [11], who states There are three fundamental ways of improving the reliability of a
product during the design stage: 1. Reduce the sensitivity of the products function to the variation in the
product parameters 2. Reduce the rate of change of the product parameters 3. Include redundancy, and the
most cost-effective approach for reliability improvement is to find appropriate continuous quality
characteristics and reduce their sensitivity to all noise factors."

A Robust Design methodology is an organized and proven development philosophy designed to

improve system reliability.
The principles of Robust Design allow design teams to handle complex system integration issues
with repeatable processes. As shown below, a Robust Design-based system accepts input signals
and produces an appropriate response. In a typical environment, however, variations in the design
can influence the performance of the system. Design teams must implement control techniques to
compensate for the design variations.
The general Robust Design system diagram is based on Taguchi methods.
A Robust Design flow is focused on reducing the effect of variations on system performance and reliability.
These variations can come from sources internal or external to the design and include changes in component
tolerances, manufacturing processes, use patterns, the environment, and those due to system aging. While
these are broad categories, each factor can have a major effect on the reliability of a system. The key objective
of a Robust Design process is to optimize the system design for performance, reliability, and cost while
accounting for these variations. In a typical design flow, accounting for multiple variations requires extensive
testing. This means that once a system has been designed, it must be prototyped and tested.

A Robust Design process requires that multiple variations be tested, which means a new prototype has to be
built and tested for each variation. It is obvious that implementing Robust Design methodologies using this
design-prototype-test flow would soon become too time consuming and expensive to be practical. The solution
is to move the design-prototype-test operations into the virtual world of simulation and analysis. This is often
referred to as virtual prototyping. With modern design tools like the Saber simulator, design teams can design
and build virtual prototypes of their systems and run many tests within the time and budget allotted for the
traditional design-prototype-test flow. Simulation and modeling, therefore, are critical requirements to
implementing a Robust Design flow.

Design flow
A Robust Design flow based on modeling and simulation must follow a systematic process. The key to this
process is determining:
The critical performance metrics of the system
Modeling the system in a way that highlights these metrics
Then verifying the metrics at each stage of the system development process A Robust Design flow has the
fundamental development stages and requires the simulation capabilities shown here.

An effective Robust Design process depends on a systematic development flow and requires advanced
simulation capabilities. This Robust Design flow can be easily illustrated using the development process of a
hybrid vehicle system.


Standardization means: "the development and implementation of concepts doctrines, products and designs to
achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility intechangeability or commonality in the
operational,procedural material, technical and administrative fields to attain interoperability."
where it generally used? Common use of the word standard implies that it is a universally agreed upon set of
guidelines for interoperability.

Standardization techniques:
The Zero-Based Approach This is a very effective technique to reduce the number of different parts (part types)
by standardizing on certain preferred parts. This usually applies to purchased parts but it could also apply to
manufactured parts.
The methodology is based on a zero-based principle that asks the simple question: "What is the minimum list
of part types we need to design new products?"
Answering this question can be made easier by assuming that the company (or a new competitor) has just
entered this product line and is deciding which parts will be needed for a whole new product line. One of the
advantages of new competitors the ability to "start fresh" without the old "baggage:" too many parts. Just
image a competitor simultaneously designed the entire product line around common parts. Now image doing
the same thing internally. This is called the zero based approach.

The zero based approach, literally, starts at zero and adds only what is needed, as opposed to reducing parts
from a overwhelming list. An analogous situation would be cleaning out the most cluttered drawer in a desk, a
purse, or a glove compartment; removing unwanted pieces would take much effort, and still not be very
The more effective zero-based approach would be to empty everything, and add back only the items that are
essential. Where the "clutter" ends up is the difference in the approaches: in the drawer, purse or glove
compartment or in the garbage can. Similarly, parts reduction efforts have to work hard to remove the clutter
(excess part variety) in the system, whereas zero-based approaches exclude the clutter from the beginning.
The clutter is the unnecessary parts that would have not been needed if products were designed around
common parts. Not only do these excess parts incur overhead costs to administer them, they also lower plant
efficiency and machine utilization because of the setup caused by product that are designed to have more
parts than can be distributed at every point of use.
This approach determines the minimum list of parts needed for new designs and is not intended to eliminate
parts used on existing products, except, when the common parts are functionally equivalent in all respects. In
this case the new common part may be substituted as an equivalent part or a "better-than" substitution, where
a common part with a better tolerance can replace its lesser counterpart in existing products.
Even if part Standardization efforts only apply to new products, remember that in these days of rapid product
obsolescence and short product life cycles, all older products may be phased out in a few years.

Tool Standardization.
A subject related to part Standardization is tool Standardization, which determines how many different tools
are required for assembly, alignment, calibration, testing, repair, and service. Company-wide tool
standardization can be determined as follows: Analyze tools used for existing products. Prioritize usage
histories to determine the most "common" of existing tools. Work with people in manufacturing/service to
determine tool preferences. Coordinate common tool selection with common part selection. Issue common tool
lists with common parts lists.
Feature Standardization.
"Features" are any geometry that requires a separate tool like a drill, ream, hole punch, bend radii, and cutting
tool bit for machine tools. These tools need to be standardized using the same procedures as parts.
Raw Materials Standardization.
If raw materials can be standardized, then the processes can be flexible enough to make different products
without any setup to change materials, fixturing mechanisms, or cutting tools. Raw material Standardization
can apply to bar stock/tubing, sheet-metal, molding/casting, protective coatings, and programmable chips.
Process Standardization.
Standardization of processes results from the concurrent engineering of products and processes to ensure
that the processes are actually specified by the design team, rather than being left to chance or "to be
determined later." Processes must be coordinated and common enough to ensure that all parts and products
in the mass customization platform can be built without the setup changes that would undermine flexible
manufacturing. Example: auto-feed screwdrivers.

Standardization of parts helps part suppliers rationalize their product lines and allow them to:
C reduce their overhead costs and subsidies, which allows them to be more cost competitive
C improve their operational flexibility, resulting in better delivery.
C simplify their supply chain management,
C free valuable resources to improve operations and quality, implement better product development practices,
and introduce new capabilities like build-to-order & mass customization.

C Cost Reduction

Purchasing costs reduced through purchasing leverage

Inventory cost reduction
Floor space reduction
BOM/MRP/ordering expense avoided when common parts are simply drawn as needed from kanban
resupply systems
Overhead cost reduction

C Quality:

Product quality
Continuous Improvement
Vendor reduction

C Flexibility:

Eliminating setup

Inventory reduction
Simplify supply chain management
Internal material logistics
Breadtruck deliveries
Flexible manufacturing

C Responsiveness:

Parts availability
Quicker deliveries from vendors


Benefits of Standardization
The main criteria for international standardization are:
Improvement in universal technical communication and mutual understanding;
Facilitation of international exchange of goods and services;
Removal of technical barriers to trade;
Transfer of technology.
For product standardsthe benefits may be broadly summarized
under the headings:
1.Variety reduction,
the effects of variety reductionare well known and can mostly be
assessed in terms of hard cash, taking due account of the
additional cost reduction effects on associated parts and
2. Interchangeability:
Interchangeability as a result of standardization leads to higher
productivity and lower manufacturing costs. These benefits are
relayed to the users as a result of increased competition.
lnterchangeability is also very important to erection, installation,
maintenance, and repairs
easy availabilityimplies that an adequate number of varieties are
always in stock. This means shorter lead times and less capital
tied up on the user side.

Benefits of Standardization
To consumers:
A source of information
The application of the performance approach
Comparative analysis
Source for complaints

More balanced technical regulations

Standardization in Design
The development of a Machine one the drawing board is part of the overall task
of design. If the designer's creation is to leave the drawing board and become a
physical peice of hardware, it must be manufacturable. In other words, the
design of all the parts if a machine should be such that they can be produced by
some manufacturing methods and then assembled at competitive cost. The
designer should have a thorough knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of
the manufacturing methods. Only then can be properly design parts, select the
materials and manufacturing methods, specify toelerences, consider assembly
procedures, specify the reliability of the machine and incorporate human aspects
in the design..

Modern systems are increasingly becoming more and more complex. A large
number of mechanical components , controls, computers and communication
subsystems are found interconnected in a complex system. Such a complex
system can have many sources of errors. While some errors may be predictable,
others are not due to their randam nature. Predictable errors are those which can
be foreseen based on the mathemetucal description of the system's dynamics. In
order to minimise predictable errors, the use of standards is advocated.
The main purpose of standardization is to establish mandatory or obligatory
norms for the design and production of machines so as to reduce variations in
their types and grades and to achieve quality characteristics in raw materials,
semi-finished and finished products.
Standardization , therefore, provides the following benefits.
(a). Better product quality , reliability, and longer life service.
(b) Mass production of components at low cost.
(c) Easy avalability of parts for replacement and maintenance.
(d) Less time and effort required to manufacture.
(e) reduction in variations in size and grades of an article.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has standardized a number of items for the
benefit of designers and users.
In the area of machine design, items of the following categories are standardized
and this process is on going one.

(1) Engineering materials, their compositions, properties and method of testing.

(2) Rules of preparing drawings and use of symbols.
(3) Fits and tolerences for various parts frowm assembly considerations.
(4) Dimentions and preffered sizes for various machine components, namely
rivets, bolts, nuts, keys, couplings, ball and roller bearings and so on.
In standardization, the concept of preffered numbers helps to reduce
unnecessary variations in sizes and grades of an article. Experience has shown
that the general requirements of such a grading are mostly satisfied when it
follows a geometrical series.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What is met by "engineering standards" in this criterion?
Why do we have standards and how did they come about?
Who enforces standards? How are standards established?
What general and field-specific guidance is there for engineering educators
wanting to include engineering standards in their courses?
Discussion of engineering standards is going to colored by the different meaning
standards will have to individual faculty. The interest in standards has been
fueled by the globalization of the world economy the need for companies to
compete internationally - and the rapid growth in telecommunications and other
high-tech areas.
Examples of product standards include fuel economy standards and airbag
requirements both effecting the design of automobiles. Examples of process
standards include standards for electronic data exchange. Standards are as
important to doing business internationally as any treaty might have been in the
past. Telecommunications companies are basically trying to take the politics
from issues such as privacy in the electronic area and emphasize getting the
benefits of the new economy into your communityand the only way to do that
is if you agree upon a standard in the truest sense of the word.

The product design specification (PDS)

Speciuficaations involve the formal statement of the required functions, features and performance of the
product or process to be designed.
The product design specification is the formal specification of the product to be designed. It acts as the control
for the total design activity because it sets the boundaries for the subsequent design.
The purpose of the PDS is to ensure that your design actually addresses your customer needs. This is
essential if your product is to succeed.

The product design specification

(PDS) is a very important document in the design process as it contains all the information necessary for a design team to
successfully produce a solution to the design problem.

A PDS splits the problem up into smaller categories to make it easier to consider the problem. The final document should fully
document as unambiguously as possible all the requirements that a product must fulfil together with any constraints that may affect
the product.
The actual or intended customer should be consulted as fully as possible while the PDS is being drawn up as their requirements are
of paramount importance.

Any numeric properties in the PDS should be specified as exactly as possible together with any tolerances allowed on their value.


Product Design Specification

The Product Design Specification (PDS) comprises your quantitative statement of what you want to design
prior to starting to design it.

In other words, the specifications of the PDS should be largely independent of any specific embodiment of
your product, so multiple solution concepts are possible.
The purpose of the PDS is to ensure that your design actually addresses your customer needs. This is
essential if your product is to succeed.
Each specification consists of a metric, a weighting of importance, units, a marginal value, and an ideal value.
The metric is something that you can measure. The weighting of importance is scaled from 1, for low
importance, to 5, for essential. Units correspond to your measurement; for example, mm for length or degrees
C for temperature.

The marginal value state the value, or range of values, for the metric that you feel the customer would be able
to tolerate. The ideal value states the target for the metric that you hope your team can meet.
Most ME 4054W projects will have between 20 and 50 specifications.
Your customer needs should be stated so that they are independent of the way that the final design is actually
implemented. For example, if your product were a roofing nailer, the needs should not constrain your nailer to
be implemented with an electric, a pneumatic, or an explosive power source. Strive to make your PDS
independent of implementation, also, wherever possible.
As you approach the end of the design process, the marginal and ideal values are merged into a single column
of known values.
The PDS provides the specifications for ranking different ways of implementing your design in the selection

A PDS checklist
The product design specification, or PDS, should contain all the facts relating to the product. It should not lead
the design by presupposing the outcome, but it must contain the realistic constraints on the design.

This list is one attempt to cover the principal questions that need to be answered in formulating a PDS.
Inevitably, it isnt comprehensive; specific products will require their own additional items.

1. Performance At what speed must it operate? How often will it be used (continuous or discontinuous
use)? How long must it last?
2. Environment (during manufacture, storage and use) All aspects of the products likely environment
should be considered: for example temperature, humidity, risk of corrosion, vibration.
3. Target product cost This is strongly affected by the intended market.
4. Competition What is the nature and extent of existing or likely competition? Does our specification
differ from the competition? If so, why?
5. Quantity and manufacture Should it be made in bulk, in batches, or as individual items made to order?
Does it have to be a particular shape? Can we make all the parts or must we buy some in?
6. Materials Are special materials needed? Do we have experience of working with the likely candidate
7. Quality and consistency What levels of quality and consistency does the market expect for this
product? Does every product have to be tested?
8. Standards Does the product need to conform to any local, international or customer standards? Is the
product safe?
9. Patents Are there any patents we may either infringe or register?
10. Packaging and shipping How will the product be packaged? How will the product be distributed?
11. Aesthetics and ergonomics Is the product easy and fun to use? Is it attractive to the right customer?
12. Market constraints Does a market already exist or must it be created? What is the likely product
lifetime? How long do we have to get the product to market? What are the customers likes and
13. Company constraints Does the product fit in with company image? Are we constrained in material or
process choice? Are there any political considerations?

Casting is one of the easiest classes of process to understand. Casting is simply a process where a mould is filled with a fluid, which
then solidifies in the shape of the mould cavity. Provided the liquid is capable of undergoing a liquid-to-solid transition, by freezing or
chemical reaction for instance, then casting can be used.

Making ice cubes and jellies are useful analogies here. The production of the mould is one of the most important stages in making a
casting. The casting, when solidified, must be of the right shape for the final product. In making the mould, often a pattern made in
the shape of the final component is used. This might be a wooden mock-up, for example.
Complex 3D shapes can be made using casting processes. Casting can be used to make a vast array of products, from gas-turbine
blades to cheap plastic toys. Cast parts can range in size from fractions of centimetres and grams (such as the individual teeth on a
zipper), to over 10 metres in length and many tonnes (such as the propellers of ocean liners).

Using one of the available casting processes almost anything can be manufactured. It is a matter of optimising materials to be cast,
the mould material and the pouring method (see Properties for processing casting).
Generally, during casting, the fluid flows into the mould under gravity, but sometimes the fluid may need some extra force to push it
into the cavity.
Casting is not restricted to metals (or jellies).

Glass and plastics can also be cast using a variety of processes, each being dependent on the raw starting material, and the manner
by which it can be made to flow when it is in its liquid state. Casting processes can be classified into three types depending on the
nature of the mould used.

Properties for processing casting

The casting (or pouring) group of processes is one of the most convenient for making three-dimensional shapes, especially if
repeated copies are required. However, you do have to be able to get your material into liquid form, and it has then to be runny
enough to be poured.

What do these conditions require?

To get a liquid, you have to either melt the material; or dissolve it in a solvent which is subsequently evaporated off (the solution
route); or pour liquid precursors into a mould where they react chemically to form a solid (the reaction route).
Some materials (e.g. thermosetting plastics) decompose rather than melt on heating. Others react with oxygen when heated, so need
to be melted in inert atmospheres (which may prove expensive). Yet others have such high melting points (see the database) that the
energy costs of heating them is only justified in special cases.
The solution route needs a suitable solvent, which you then have to be able to evaporate safely (many coatings such as paints are
applied this way), but you can have shrinkage problems as the solvent is removed. The reaction route is used for both thermosets
and thermoplastics and for concrete, but chemical reactions can produce considerable quantities of heat, so you must allow for this
in the design of the process.

Once you have the liquid, can you pour it?

The physical property that determines the runniness of liquid is called viscosity. This varies with temperature and is not all that

useful for describing how well a mould will be filled if the temperature of the liquid is falling as it runs into the cold mould. In the
casting of metals a more useful property is fluidity, which takes into account not only the viscosity changes but also the effects of
cooling rate, surface tension of oxide films and the temperature range over which the alloy filling the mould actually freezes. Eutectic
alloys have a high fluidity as they melt at a single temperature. Many of the alloys used for casting products are based on eutectic
Water and most liquids at room temperature have low viscosities, so can be poured easily, as can thermoset precursors. Molten
thermoplastics, freshly-mixed concrete and clays have much higher viscosities. Although concrete can be poured, the others
generally need to be pushed into their moulds, which is why injection-moulding machines for plastics are much beefier than their
pressure die-casting machine counterparts for metals.

Types of casting
Permanent pattern
This type of casting uses a model, or pattern, of the final product to make an impression which forms the mould cavity. Each mould is
destroyed after use but the same pattern is used over and over again. Sand casting is a typical example of a permanent pattern
process, where a pattern is placed into a special casting sand to form the right shape of cavity. Permanent pattern processes are
usually cheaper than other methods, especially for small quantity production or one-offs, and are suitable for a wide range of sizes
of product.

Permanent mould
In this method the same mould is used for large numbers of castings. Each casting is released by opening the mould rather than by
destroying it. Permanent moulds need to be made of a material which can withstand the temperature fluctuations and wear
associated with repeated casting. A good example of a product made with methods such of this is the ubiquitous die-cast childs toy
(die is another word for mould).

Expendable mould and pattern

With this type of casting, a pattern is made from a low melting point material and the mould is built around it. The pattern is then
melted or burnt out as the metal is poured in. The mould has to be destroyed to retrieve the casting.

This method is used to make moulds for casting high melting-point alloys like those used for jet engine turbine
blades (Figure 19). A model (the pattern) of the blade is made in wax. The pattern is then coated in a thick
slurry containing ceramic particles. The slurry dries, and is then fired in an oven: this hardens the ceramic (like
firing a pot) and melts out the wax, leaving a hollow ceramic mould. The metal is then poured in to the mould,
which is broken away after the metal has solidified and cooled.

Figure 19: A turbine blade


Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introduced
into a mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part.
Casting is used for making parts of complex shape that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by
other methods, such as cutting from solid material.
Casting may be used to form hot, liquid metals or meltable plastics (called thermoplastics), or various
materials that cold set after mixing of components such as certain plastic resins such as epoxy, water
setting materials such as concrete or plaster, and materials that become liquid or paste when moist such
as clay, which when dry enough to be rigid is removed from the mold, further dried, and fired in a kiln.
Substitution is always a factor in deciding whether other techniques should be used instead of casting.
Alternatives include parts that can be stamped out on a punch press or deep-drawn, forged, items that
can be manufactured by extrusion or by cold-bending, and parts that can be made from highly active

The casting process is subdivided into two distinct subgroups: expendable and nonexpendable mold

Expendable mold casting :

Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand, plastic, shell, and investment
(lost-wax technique) moldings. This method of mold casting involves the use of temporary, nonreusable

Sand casting :
Sand casting requires a lead time of days for production at high output rates (1-20 pieces/hr-mold), and

is unsurpassed for large-part production. Green (moist) sand has almost no part weight limit, whereas
dry sand has a practical part mass limit of 2300-2700 kg. Minimum part weight ranges from 0.075-0.1 kg.
The sand is bonded together using clays (as in green sand) or chemical binders, or polymerized oils.
Sand in most operations can be recycled many times and requires little additional input.
Preparation of the sand mold is fast and requires a pattern which can "stamp" out the casting template.
Typically, sand casting is used for processing low-temperature metals, such as iron, copper, aluminium,
magnesium, and nickel alloys. Sand casting can also be used for high temp metals where other means
would be unpractical. It is by far the oldest and best understood of all techniques. Consequently,
automation may easily be adapted to the production process, somewhat less easily to the design and
preparation of forms. These forms must satisfy exacting standards as they are the heart of the sand
casting process - creating the most obvious necessity for human control.
Plaster casting (of metals) :
Plaster casting is similar to sand molding except that plaster is substituted for sand. Plaster compound
is actually composed of 70-80% gypsum and 20-30% strengthener and water. Generally, the form takes
less than a week to prepare, after which a production rate of 1-10 units/hr-mold is achieved with items as
massive as 45 kg and as small as 30 g with very high surface resolution and fine tolerances.
Once used and cracked away, normal plaster cannot easily be recast. Plaster casting is normally used for
nonferrous metals such as aluminium-, zinc-, or copper-based alloys. It cannot be used to cast ferrous
material because sulfur in gypsum slowly reacts with iron. Prior to mold preparation the pattern is
sprayed with a thin film of parting compound to prevent the mold from sticking to the pattern. The unit is
shaken so plaster fills the small cavities around the pattern. The form is removed after the plaster sets.
Plaster casting represents a step up in sophistication and requires skill. The automatic functions easily
are handed over to robots, yet the higher-precision pattern designs required demand even higher levels
of direct human assistance.
Casting of plaster, concrete, or plastic resin :
Plaster itself may be cast, as can other chemical setting materials such as concrete or plastic resin either using single use waste molds, multiple use piece molds, or molds made of flexible material such
as latex rubber (which is in turn supported by an exterior mold). When casting plaster or concrete the
finished product is, unlike marble, relatively unattractive, lacking in transparency, and so is usually
painted, often in ways that give the appearance of metal or stone. Alternatively, the first layers cast may
contain colored sand so as to give an appearance of stone. By casting concrete, rather than plaster, it is
possible to create sculptures, fountains, or seating for outdoor use. A simulation of high quality marble
may be made using certain chemically set plastic resins (for example epoxy or polyester) with powdered
stone added for coloration, often with multiple colors worked in. The later is a common means of making
attractive washstands, washstand tops and shower stalls, with the skilled working of multiple colors
resulting in simulated staining patterns as is often found in natural marble or travertine.
Shell molding :
Shell molding is also similar to sand molding except that a mixture of sand and 3-6% resin holds the
grains together. Set-up and production of shell mold patterns takes weeks, after which an output of 5-50
pieces/hr-mold is attainable. Aluminium and magnesium products average about 13.5 kg as a normal
limit, but it is possible to cast items in the 45-90 kg range. Shell mold walling varies from 3-10 mm thick,

depending on the forming time of the resin.

There are a dozen different stages in shell mold processing that include:
initially preparing a metal-matched plate mixing resin and sand
heating pattern, usually to between 505-550 K
inverting the pattern (the sand is at one end of a box and the pattern at the other, and the box is inverted
for a time determined by the desired thickness of the mill)
curing shell and baking it.
removing investment.
inserting cores.
repeating for other half.
assembling mold.
pouring mold.
removing casting.
cleaning and trimming.
The sand-resin mix can be recycled by burning off the resin at high temperatures.

Investment casting :
Investment casting (lost-wax process) yields a finely detailed and accurate product, but mechanical
properties are not good since the process involves slow cooling.
Polystyrene foam is also used in investment castingsee lost-foam casting.
After a variable lead time, usually weeks, 11000 pieces/hour-mold can be produced in the mass range
2.32.7 kg. Items up to 45 kg and as light as 30 g are possible for unit production.
The process starts by creating an injection die to the desired specifications. This die will be used to inject
wax to create the patterns needed for investment casting. The patterns are attached to a central wax
sprue, creating an assembly, or mold. The sprue contains the fill cup where the molten metal will be
poured into the assembly.
The wax assembly is now dipped multiple times in a ceramic slurry, depending on the shell thickness
desired. A layer of fine sand (usually zircon) is added on top of each ceramic layer. This process will be
repeated until the desired shell is created.

After the shell is created to the specifications desired, the wax must be removed; this is normally
achieved using an autoclave. This is where the name "lost-wax process" comes from. This leaves an
impression of the desired castings, which will be filled with metal. Before being cast, however, the shells
must be heated in a furnace so they do not break during the casting process.
Next, the desired metal is poured into the hot ceramic shell. The metal fills each part on the assembly, and
the central sprue cavity and fill cup. The individual parts will be removed after the mold cools and the
shell is removed. The shell is generally removed with water-blasting, although alternate methods can be
used. What remains are the cast metal parts, but they are still attached to the sprue assembly. The
individual parts are removed by cold-break (dipping in liquid nitrogen and breaking the parts off with
hammer and chisel) or with large cutoff saws.
Most investment castings need some degree of post casting machining to remove the sprue and runners,
and improve surface finish. Grinding operations are perfomed to remove the gate. Parts are also
inspected to make sure they were cast properly, and if not are either fixed or scrapped. Depending on the
investment casting facility and specifications, more finishing work can be done on-site, sub-contracted, or
not done at all.
Investment casting yields exceedingly fine quality products made of all types of metals. It has special
applications in fabricating very high-temperature metals such as alloy steels or stainless steels, especially
those which cannot be cast in metal or plaster molds and those which are difficult to machine or work.
Investment casting is often used in the aerospace and power generation industries to produce single
crystal turbine blade, which exhibit superior creep resistance to equiaxed castings. A combination of slow
cooling rates, seed crystals, and an elaborate sprue and runner system referred to as a "pigtail" are used
to produce single crystal castings.

Nonexpendable mold casting :

Nonexpendable mold casting differs from expendable processes in that the mold need not be reformed
after each production cycle. This technique includes at least four different methods: permanent, die,
centrifugal, and continuous casting.
Permanent mold casting :
Permanent mold casting (typically for non-ferrous metals) requires a set-up time on the order of weeks to
prepare a steel tool, after which production rates of 5-50 pieces/hr-mold are achieved with an upper mass
limit of 9 kg per iron alloy item (cf., up to 135 kg for many nonferrous metal parts) and a lower limit of
about 0.1 kg. Steel cavities are coated with refractory wash of acetylene soot before processing to allow
easy removal of the workpiece and promote longer tool life. Permanent molds have a life which varies
depending on maintenance of after which they require refinishing or replacement. Cast parts from a
permanent mold generally show 20% increase in tensile strength and 30% increase in elongation as
compared to the products of sand casting.
The only necessary input is the coating applied regularly. Typically, permanent mold casting is used in
forming iron-, aluminium-, magnesium-, and copper-based alloys. The process is highly automated.
Die casting :
Die casting is the process of forcing molten metal under high pressure into the cavities of steel moulds.

The moulds are called dies. Dies range in complexity to produce any non-ferrous metal parts (that need
not be as strong, hard or heat-resistant as steel) from sink faucets to engine blocks (including hardware,
component parts of machinery, toy cars, etc). In fact, the process lends itself to making any metal part
must be precise (dimensions plus or minus as little as 50 m--over short distances),
must have a very smooth surface that can be bright plated without prior polishing and buffing,
has very thin sections (like sheet metal--as little as 1.2 mm),
must be produced much more economically than parts primarily machined (multicavity die casting
moulds operating at high speed are much more productive than machine tools or even stamping presses),
must be very flexible in design; a single die casting may have all the features of a complex assembly.
If several machining operations would be required or assembly of several parts would be required (to
make a finished part), die casting is probably far more economical. This level of versatility has placed die
castings among the highest volume products made in the metalworking industry.
Common metals used in die casting include zinc and aluminum. These are usually not pure metals; rather
are alloys which have better physical characteristics.
In recent years, injection-molded plastic parts have replaced some die castings because they are usually
cheaper (and lighter--important especially for automotive parts since the fuel-economy standards). Plastic
parts are practical (particularly now that plating of plastics has become possible) if hardness is not
required and if parts can be redesigned to have the necessary strength.
Process :
There are four major steps in the die casting process. First, the mould is sprayed with lubricant and
closed. The lubricant both helps control the temperature of the die and it also assists in the removal of the
casting. Molten metal is then injected into the die under high pressure. The high pressure assures a
casting as precise and as smooth as the mold. Typically it is around 100 MPa (1000 bar). Once the cavity
is filled then the pressure is maintained until the casting has become solid (though this period is usually
made short as possible by water cooling the mold). Finally, the die is opened and the casting is ejected.
Equally important as high-pressure injection is high-speed injection--required so the entire cavity fills
before any part of the casting solidifies. In this way, discontinuities (spoiling the finish and even
weakening the casting) are avoided even if the design requires difficult-to-fill very thin sections.
Before the cycle can be started the die must be installed in the die casting machine (set up) and brought
to operating temperature. This set-up requires 1-2 hours after which a cycle can take anywhere between a
few seconds to a few minutes depending on the size of the casting. Maximum mass limits for magnesium,
zinc, and aluminium parts are roughly 4.5 kg, 18 kg, and 45 kg, respectively. A typical die set will last
500,000 shots during its lifetime with lifetime being heavily influenced by the melting temperature of the
metal or alloy being used. Aluminum and its alloys typically shorten die life due to the high temperature of
the liquid metal resulting in deterioration of the steel mold cavities. Molds for die casting zinc last almost
indefinitely due to the lower temperature of the zinc. Molds for die casting brass are the shortest-lived of
all. This is despite, in all cases, making the mold cavities out of the finest "hot work" alloy steel available.
A shot occurs every time the die is filled with metal. Shots are different from castings because there can
be multiple cavities in a die, yielding multiple castings per shot. Also the shot consists not only of the
individual castings but also the "scrap" (which, unlike in the case of scrap from machining, is not sold

cheaply; it is remelted) that consists of the metal that has hardened in the channels leading into and out of
the cavities. This includes, for example, the sprue, runners and overflows. Also there is usually some
unplanned-for thin scrap called flash, the result of molds not fitting together tightly.
Molding (process) : Molding is the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid
frame or model called a mold.
A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw
materials. The liquid hardens or sets inside the mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the opposite of a cast
(see casting). The manufacturer who makes the molds is called moldmaker or mouldmaker. A release
agent is typically used to make removal of the hardened/set substance from the mould easier.
Types of molding include:
Powder metallurgy and ceramics

Compaction plus sintering


Injection molding

Compression molding

Transfer molding

Extrusion molding

Blow molding

Rotational molding


Vacuum forming, a simplified version of


Reaction Injection Molding


Expandable bead molding

Foam molding


Vacuum plug assist molding

Pressure plug assist molding

Matched mold