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European Union

It's biggest country in population: Germany


It's smallest country in population: Malta
Biggest territory: France
Smallest territory: Malta
Free movement of persons, goods and capitals (no frontiers)

TREATIES
Treaty of Paris (1952)
Basis of the European Union (birth certificate of EU)
Purpose: Stop WWII
Creation of European Coal and Steel Community (ESCI)
Consequence: a country couldn't mobilise it's army without informing the others. Permits to
ease tensions between countries after WWII
EURATON (European Atomic Energy Community)
Six countries

Treaty of Rome (1957)


Purpose: Create the European Economy Community (EEC). Abolition of taxes, duties and
quota goods. You can't send more goods than the established quantity. Super national
institutions. Common market.
Art 911. Workers of all the EU should have the same salary and taxes without any kind of
discrimination.

Merger Treaty (1965)


It merged the EURATON, ESCI and EEC into a single council.

Treaty on European Union - Maastricht Treaty (1993)


November 1, 1993.
Changed EEC to European Community (EC)
Brought a lot of amendments to the treaty of Rome: every citizen of the countries becomes a
citizen of the EU (same passports and driving license)
EuroZone (). Not all countries got into the eurozone.
Parliament got more power.
Council took decisions on the majority basis on a wider range of matters than before.
Countries agreed to have a common foreign and security policy.

Treaty of Amsterdam (1999)


May 1, 1999.
Reform institutions in order to welcome new state members to the EU.
More transparent decisions.
Brought the co-decision (Parliament and council would decide together).
Closest cooperation.

Treaty of Nice
Prepare the institutions for them to properly function with more members.
It changed the composition (members) of the commissions.
Redefined the voting system in the council.

Treaty of Lisbon (2009 - TFEU)


It wanted the EU to become more democratic, efficient and better prepared to address
general themes like climate.
Gave more power to the European Parliament.
Changes on the voting procedures within the council.
Instituted a permanent president for the European Council.
It clarifies three points:
- Powers of the EU
- Powers that may be shared
- Powers of the member states.

INSTITUTIONS
The European Parliament
Represents the citizens of the EU.
750 representatives (736 now).
Elected under the system of Direct Suffrage.
Terms of 5 years.
Three places of work: Brussels, Luxembourg (Administrative offices/Most important) and
Strasbourg.
Legislative and budgetary powers are shared with the council.
Legislative power: Consumer rights, transport, free movement of people, agriculture, etc.
It has the power to sign international conventions on the behalf of the EU.
Parliament should accept the adding of a new member state.
Whenever a new commission is appointed, none of its members can take office without
parliament giving its approval.
Motion of Censure: measure that parliament can take against the council to make a member
of the council resign.
Institution which adopt the EU budget, shared with the European Council.

The European Council


Based in Brussels, Belgium.
Four meetings per year.
European Council doesn't have legislative powers.
Has the responsibility that treaties' objectives are reached.
In charge of general political direction and priorities:
- Approve the condition of eligibility imposed to any state that want to join the EU.
- Every year the council will analyse the state of employment in the EU and after these
analysis, the council generally makes a report of this situation. After, the report is given to the
commission.

- Every year the European Council makes an assessment of all the threats that can exist
within the EU. If there is a threat, the council will have to asses and decide whatever must be
done.

The Council of the European Union


It is based in Brussels
This is where national ministers in order to adopt EU laws and coordinate the EU policies.
Composed of 27 members who can meet at any time of the year but no more than 5 times.
Six months for rotating presidency.
At every meeting, there are changes.
Depending on the theme, the minister corresponding to it from every country will attend.
This council and the European parliament, deal jointly on legislative and budgetary powers.
Path for EU laws including budget, the council of the EU can sign agreements with other
countries.
Deal with international threats, fisheries and transports.

The European Commission


Based in Luxembourg and Brussels.
President is nominated by the European Council
European Council appoint 27 members called commissioners. European Council can do so if
this is made in agreement with the president of the European Commission.
Commissioners can be proposed by the countries.
Roles:
- Proposing new laws to the parliament and the European Council.
- Drawing up the Annual European Budget. After this, it must be approved by the European
Parliament and European Council.
- It checks if member states abide by the law.
- "Guardian of the European laws"
- Representative of the EU aboard.

The Court of Justice of the European Union


Based in Luxembourg.
Court nominates its president itself without intervention.
The court must also assure that the EU laws are applied throughout the European Union.
The court is also in charge of interpreting EU laws and they set dispute between a member
state and the EU, or between a member state and an institution.
When a matter is issued to the court of justice, they can take final decisions.

The European Bank


ESCB (European System of Central Banks)
Created in 1998.
With this system, it means that European banks cooperate with local simple banks.
Created just before the adoption of the euro ().
- It buys and sells currency to keep exchange rates in balance.
- Controls inflation.
- Can authorise that central banks in the EU issue euro bank notes.

- Promote the good functioning of the payment system throughout the EU.

The European Court of Auditors


Based in Luxembourg.
Composed of one national of each member state.
Stay in office for a six years term.
It's in charge of controlling the revenue and expenses of the European institutions.
Every country that uses the euro can be controlled by the Court of Auditors.
Has no legal power.
Whenever there is fraud or irregularities in economic issues (budget), they send a report to the
European Anti-Fraud Office.