Seabed Prehistory

:
Gauging the Effects of Marine Aggregate Dredging Final Report-Graphics

Volume II Arun
Ref: 57422.32

February 2008

Wessex Archaeology

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Wessex Archaeology Survey grid

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Figure II.3

Approximate edge of buried palaeochannel

m below OD

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Wessex Archaeology Bathymetry surface over the study area

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Figure II.6

Profile N S
Bathymetric profile

m below OD

Bathymetric plan

Profile N
Base of channel in-fill profile

S

m below OD

Base of channel in-fill plan

Profile N
Top of bedrock profile

S

m below OD

Top of bedrock plan
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Bathymetry, channel infill and bedrock surfaces

Figure II.7

Channel edge Seabed

Channel infill Gravel deposits with visible stratigraphic architecture Palaeochannel

approx. 20m

Strong, bright reflectors interpreted as peat horizons

Seabed
approx. 4m

Key
Vibrocore target location
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Examples of vibrocore survey target locations identified from seismic data

Figure II.8

VC13-14

VC9-10

VC15-16 VC5-6

VC17-18 VC11-12 VC19-20

VC1-2

VC7-8
VC13-14 VC11-12 VC19-20 VC17-18 VC9-10 VC15-16 VC5-6 VC1-2

Key

Vibrocore locations

1km Study Area

3km Study Area

VC3-4

Approximate edge of buried palaeochannel

0

1km

VC7-8

a) Location plan

VC3-4

m below OD

b) Locations mapped onto seabed bathymetry
Date: Scale:
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Vibrocore locations

Figure II.9

a) Hydraulic vibrocorer deployed from deck

b) Hydraulic vibrocorer deployed from deck

c) Liner and core extruded

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Vibrocoring process

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Figure II.10

a) Cores labelled

b) Core cut into sections

c) Core being put in storage

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Vibrocoring process

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Figure II.11

a) VC1, palaeo-channel infill core

b) VC17

c) VC17, flood couplets

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Examples of core log photographs and characteristic sedimentary units

Figure II.12

a) VC3, angled peat

b) VC3, wider palaeovalley edge core

c) VC3, peat

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Examples of core log photographs and characteristic sedimentary units

Figure II.13

Schematic transect A E VC1

W

VC3
Seabed

VC7

1:2000 20m Transect B

0

100m

1:10,000

VC3
Peat
17.85 +/- 1.8 ka

VC7

VC1

Key
Channel edge deposit Channel infill
22.44 +/- 2 ka

9131 +/- 45 yrs BP/8530-8260 cal BC (NZA-19298)

9333 +/- 45 yrs BP/8740-8440 cal BC (NZA-19296)

Peat
9629 +/- 50 yrs BP/9220-8880 cal BC (NZA-19297)

Peat

Gravel Sand

18.51 +/- 1.3 ka -37.35mOD -41.27mOD 20.51 +/- 1.7 ka -38.98mOD

Clay Peat Flood/tidal couplets Flood/tidal couplets/sand/gravel Bedrock
VC Complete sequence sampled for environmental assessment VC Peat and adjacent sediment units sampled

C

C14 Dates OSL Dates

VC13

VC9

VC17 VC11 VC19

VC15

VC5

VC1

Schematic transect C

VC7 VC13 Seabed

Crosses channel edge VC9 VC15 VC5
Peat
1:200 5m 15.22 +/- 1.4 ka

Plan of transect locations

Key

9155 +/- 50 yrs BP/8530-8260 cal BC (NZA-19299)

Peat
-36.47mOD -35.89mOD -35.69mOD 0 1:8000 100m -37.83mOD

Vibrocore locations

VC3

Approximate channel edge

Palaeovalley edge 1000m
1:25,000

0

A

Date: Scale:
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Broad sedimentary units within each vibrocore and the environmental and dating samples assessed

Figure II.14

B
VC13 VC17 VC11 VC19 VC9 VC15 VC5 VC1

Key
Channel edge deposit Channel infill Gravel Sand

VC7

Clay Peat Flood/tidal couplets Flood/tidal couplets/sand/gravel Bedrock

Key Vibrocore locations
VC3

VC Complete sequence sampled for environmental assessment VC Peat and adjacent sediment units sampled

Approximate channel edge Palaeovalley edge 0
1:25,000

C14 Dates OSL Dates 1000 m

Schematic transect B
VC19 VC11a Seabed
16.50 +/- 1.0 ka -28.97mOD

VC17 VC9 VC13

-30.97mOD

16.17 +/- 1.1 ka -33.52mOD

15.22 +/- 1.4 ka

9155 +/- 50yrs BP/ 8530-8260 cal BC (NZA-19299) -38.98mOD

Gravel deposit Channel infill

Channel edge deposits

?

Und

ete

ed rmin

bou

nda

ry

5m

Bedrock ?

1:200

Actual profile
-30m

0

1:2000

100m

Scale 1:5000
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Schematic transect with palaeoenvironmental data

Figure II.15

Key

Grab sample locations

1km Study Area

3km Study Area

Approximate edge of buried palaeochannel

0

1km

a) Location plan

m below OD

b) Locations mapped onto seabed bathymetry
Date: Scale:
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Seabed grab sample locations

Figure II.16

a) The trawler that the grab was deployed from

b) The hamon grab on deck be readied

c) Grab sampling underway

d) Wet sieving grab samples

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Grab sampling process

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Figure II.17

G44 - Highly probable G49 - Highly probable

G70 - Improbable

G44b - Highly probable

0

10 mm

Flints identified onboard survey vessel

G49 - improbable

G49 - possible G49 - possible

G31 - probable

G61b - probable

0 G49 - improbable

10 mm

Examples of struck flints located during wet-seiving

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Examples of struck flints from the grab-samples and their potential anthropogenic origin

Figure II.18

Wessex Archaeology
B

A

C

Dredging scars Fine-grained channel infill

Peat horizons

Bedrock Top of bedrock reflector

B

Seafloor multiple

Seafloor multiple

A

B

C

1km study area 3km study area

Dredged gravels Palaeochannel

Bedrock

Bedrock

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Seafloor multiple

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Seafloor multiple

Complete seismic line collected during prospecting for Survey Area

Figure II.19

Location

8m

SW
Dredging scars

NE

Fine-grained channel infill

Bedrock

Interpreted seismic (boomer) profile in the NE corner of the survey area. The undulating seafloor surface is due to the extraction of gravels by dredging.

Location of profile 1km Study Area 3km Study Area
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Figure II.20

Location

8m

SW

NE

Bedrock

Peat horizons

Interpreted seismic (boomer) profile in the SE corner of the survey area. This bedrock outcrop forms one side of the wide valley landform and contains few internal reflectors. In the valley at the base of this outcrop are two bright, discontinuous reflectors interpreted as being peat horizons.

Location of profile 1km Study Area 3km Study Area
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Figure II.21

Location

8m

SE

NW

Coarse-grained infill (gravels) Onlapping fine-grained channel infill

Bedrock

Typical example of an interpreted seismic (boomer) profile across the main palaeochannel feature. There is an outcrop of coarsegrained infill indicated by high amplitude, steeply dipping reflectors. The adjacent unit of fine-grained sediments onlaps on to the coarser unit.

Location of profile 1km Study Area 3km Study Area
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Figure II.22

Location

8m

SW

NE

Coarse-grained infill (gravels)

Onlapping fine-grained channel infill

Bedrock

Interpreted seismic (boomer) profile across the main palaeochannel feature. The bedrock beneath the coarse-grained infill (gravels) has been eroded to a lower level than elsewhere in the survey area, allowing a thicker deposit of gravels to accumulate.

Location of profile 1km Study Area 3km Study Area
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Figure II.23

Location

8m

NW

SE

Fine-grained channel infill

Bedrock Older palaeochannel

Interpreted seismic (boomer) profile showing a small palaeochannel cut into the bedrock below the main palaeochannel.

Location of profile 1km Study Area 3km Study Area
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Figure II.24

Location

8m

SW
Coarse-grained infill (gravels) Wreck

NE

Onlapping fine-grained channel infill

Coarse-grained deposit

Bedrock

Interpreted seismic (boomer) profile showing a coarse-grained deposit at the base of the palaeochannel. This unit is not seen on all profiles and its stratigraphic relationship to the coarse-grained gravels on the south of the channel is unclear.

Location of profile 1km Study Area 3km Study Area
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Figure II.25

Flint finds - on board vessel Sample without flint Flint finds graded by their potential for anthropogenic origin: Highly probable Probable Possible Improbable 1km Study Area 3km Study Area Approximate edge of buried palaeochannel

0

1km

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Distribution of struck flint finds across the survey area

Figure II.26

50m x 50m grid

100m x 100m grid

200m x 200m grid

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Examples of data points for the three survey grids

Figure II.27

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Coda bedrock profile 1

Coda bedrock profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Coda top of bedrock plan

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Geoframe bedrock profile 1

Geoframe bedrock profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Geoframe top of bedrock plan
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Wessex Archaeology

Top of bedrock surface, 50m x 50m survey grid

Figure II.28

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Coda bedrock profile 1

Coda bedrock profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Coda bedrock plan

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Geoframe bedrock profile 1

Geoframe bedrock profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Geoframe bedrock plan
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Wessex Archaeology

Top of bedrock surface 100m x 100m survey grid

Figure II.29

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Coda bedrock profile 1

Coda bedrock profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Coda bedrock plan

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Geoframe bedrock profile 1

Geoframe bedrock profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Geoframe bedrock plan
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Wessex Archaeology

Top of bedrock surface, 200m x 200m survey grid

Figure II.30

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Coda channel profile 1

Coda channel profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Coda channel plan

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Geoframe channel profile 1

Geoframe channel profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Geoframe channel plan
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Wessex Archaeology

Channel infill surface, 50 x 50m survey grid

Figure II.31

N

S

Coda channel profile 1

Profile 2

Profile 1

Coda channel profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Coda channel plan

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Geoframe channel profile 1

Geoframe channel profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Geoframe channel plan
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Wessex Archaeology

Channel infill surface, 100m x 100m survey grid

Figure II.32

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Coda channel profile 1

Coda channel profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Coda channel plan

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

Geoframe channel profile 1

Geoframe channel profile 2

N

S

m below OD

Geoframe channel plan
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Wessex Archaeology

Channel infill surface, 200m x 200m survey grid

Figure II.33

Profile 2

Profile 1

Profile 1

N

S

Data points Profile 2

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

m below OD

Coda
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Wessex Archaeology

Top of bedrock surface, 100m linear survey pattern in NW-SE direction

Figure II.34

Profile 2

Profile 1

Profile 1

N

S

Data points

Profile 2

N

S

Profile 2

Profile 1

m below OD

Coda
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Wessex Archaeology

Top of bedrock surface, 100m linear survey pattern in NE-SW direction

Figure II.35

Location plan

VC13
VC9-10

Core stratigraphy

G

ra

s

s se

VC15-16 VC5-6 VC1-2

VC17-18 VC11-12 VC19-20

-30.29mOD
VC7-8

Key

Vibrocore locations 1km study area 3km study area
VC3-4

0

Approximate edge of buried palaeochannel Approximate edge of wider valley
1km

9155+/-50 BP/8530-8260 cal BC (NZA-19299) c-33.48mOD

c-33.6mOD

c-34.6mOD

Trees

Shrubs

Herbs

VC13
Seabed

Dredged area

1:2000

20m

0

0

100m

1:10,000

Date:

23/05/07

Revision Number: Scale:
Not to scale

2

Taken from pollen analysis report (Scaife 2004b). See Appendix III
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Pollen analysis diagram for VC13

Figure II.36

Location plan

VC13-14

VC9-10

Core stratigraphy

G

r

as

s se

VC15-16 VC5-6 VC1-2

te lu so n cy Ab olle uen p eq fr

VC17-18 VC11-12 VC19-20

-32mOD
VC7-8

9131+/-45 BP/8530-8260 cal BC (NZA-19298)

Key

Vibrocore locations 1km study area 3km study area

VC3
0

9333+/-45 BP/8740-8440 cal BC (NZA-19296)

Approximate edge of buried palaeochannel Approximate edge of wider valley
1km

-34.6mOD

-36mOD

Trees

Shrubs

Herbs

VC3
Seabed

Dredged area

1:2000

20m

0

0

100m

1:10,000

Date:

23/05/07

Revision Number: Scale:
Not to scale

2

Taken from pollen analysis report (Scaife 2004b). See Appendix III
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Pollen analysis diagram for VC3

Figure II.37

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