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International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Society

IGNSS Symposium 2009

Holiday Inn Surfers Paradise, Qld, Australia


1 – 3 December, 2009

Tracking of Time Hopped DS-CDMA Signals for


Pseudolite-based Positioning
Joon Wayn Cheong
School of Surveying and Spatial Information at the University of New South Wales/Australia
+61 2 93854206/ cjwayn@unsw.edu.au
Andrew G. Dempster
School of Surveying and Spatial Information at the University of New South Wales/Australia
+61 2 93856890/ a.dempster@unsw.edu.au
Chris Rizos
School of Surveying and Spatial Information at the University of New South Wales/Australia
+61 2 93854205/ c.rizos@unsw.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Locata’s positioning technology was designed to be used as an
alternative to GNSS in classically-difficult GNSS signal
environments. A network of time-synchronized terrestrial transceivers
(LocataLites) forms a positioning network (LocataNet) that can
operate entirely independent of GNSS. Operating in the 2.4GHz ISM
licence-free band, the Pseudolite Positioning System (PPS) is immune
to the near-far problem due to the usage of TH/DS-CDMA signal.
Conversely, the use of such signals results in the degradation of code
tracking performance in comparison to an equivalent DS-CDMA
system. The relative performance degradation is proven via
theoretical derivation and simulation to be directly related to the duty
factor of the TH/DS-CDMA signal. The transient behavior of the
signal is also observed and compared to the conventional DS-CDMA
signal. This type of signal provides an efficient way to track multiple
transmitter using only one tracking loop.

KEYWORDS: Time Hopping CDMA, pulsed CDMA, burst CDMA,


Locata, pseudolite positioning
1. INTRODUCTION

The Time Hopped Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (TH/DS-CDMA) is also
known as Pulsed DS-CDMA, Burst CDMA (Blanchard et al., 1998), Pulsed Direct Sequence
Spread Spectrum (DSSS), or Burst Pseudolite Signal (Zhou et al., 2008) but should not be
confused with TH-CDMA, which is widely used in Ultra Wideband (UWB) systems (Yang
and Giannakis, 2004). In UWB systems, TH-CDMA transmits monocycle Gaussian pulses
pseudo-randomly over time such that they are uncorrelated with those used by other users. In
contrast, the TH/DS-CDMA signal is a pseudo randomly gated version of a conventional DS-
CDMA signal, with its pseudorandom gating sequence controlled by a specific duty cycle.
Therefore, only one transmitter may occupy one timeslot at a time. Consequently, this system
is immune to Multiple Access Interference (MAI) that DS-CDMA is prone to. The downside
is that the number of transmitters allowed in a band is limited by the number of timeslots,
rather than the interaction between CDMA codes as in the case for DS-CDMA systems.

Every Analogue-to-Digital converter (ADC) has a limited dynamic range, due to the limited
number of bits it uses to encode an analog signal. Therefore, if a signal’s amplitude is smaller
than the ADC’s smallest possible encoded bit, the signal is undetectable. TH/DS-CDMA
overcomes the problem by accounting one Automatic Gain Control (AGC) value for each
transmitter’s timeslot. Since each transmitter transmits in a different timeslot, each
transmitter’s timeslot can be assigned a different gain. Hence, timeslots of a geographically
nearer transmitter can have a smaller gain compared to a transmitter located far away. This
mediation effectively amplifies signals that were previously too weak to be encoded by the
ADC. This type of signal provides sufficient immunity to the near-far problem as typically
encountered in a conventional Pseudolite Positioning System (PPS), while allowing a wide
dynamic range.

Locata’s positioning technology was designed to be used as an alternative to GNSS in


classically-difficult GNSS signal environments. A network of terrestrial transceivers
(LocataLites) forms a positioning network (LocataNet) that can operate entirely independent
of GNSS. Locata uses a TH/DS-CDMA signal to overcome the near-far problem.

One key property of a LocataNet is that it is time-synchronized, allowing single point


positioning with potentially cm-level accuracy. The LocataLites transmit their own
proprietary signal structure in the 2.4GHz ISM license-free band. However, the drawback is
that interference issues arise since this frequency band is not licensed and is used for many
civilian communication purposes.

2. SIGNAL MODEL

A TH/DS-CDMA signal is generated by pseudo-randomly gating a conventional continuous


DS-CDMA signal, with its gating sequence controlled by a predetermined duty cycle
(Stansell Jr, 1986). The received complex baseband signal after down-conversion is given by:

−1
( ) ( ) ( )( ( ) ( ) ( + ) ( + )
( )= − − , − 0 ) − 0 + ( ) ,
=0
=1 = −1
( ) ( )
− 0
( )
( )∈ℂ , , ∈ [0, − 1] , ∈ 0, −1 , ∈ [0, − 1]

( )
The pseudorandom code for the n-th transmitter, 1 ≤ n ≤ Nu , is given by . Let the
frequency error, wo be the residual frequency of the down-conversion process combined with
( )
any possible Doppler frequency shift, θ be the constant phase of the complex signal, τ be
( )
the n-th transmitter-receiver time delay, c , be the pulse position index of the p-th pulse, L
be the starting frame index of the pulsing signal, and ( ) ( ) be the n-th user’s binary data
bits. The additive complex white Gaussian noise is represented by ( )e ( )
in complex
baseband, while the combined system gain and signal amplitude is simply A. Definitions of
other variables can be found in Table 1.

The pulsing signal at the transmitter g ( ) (t) is a repetition of the basic pulsing signal, g ( )
(t)
governed by the following equations:

( )( ( ) ( )( ( )
)= − , )= − − ,

where Ω is the single square wave function with amplitude of one starting at t=0 with pulse
width, seconds and zero elsewhere. The pulsing signal is visualised in Figure 1(a). Each
burst represents a windowed portion of the underlying continuous DS-CDMA signal being
transmitted.

Table 1 Typical TH/DS-CDMA signal parameters


Center Frequency 2.41428 GHz Slot Period, Ts 0.1 ms
Code Chipping Rate 10.23 MHz Frame Period, Tf 1 ms
Code Length 1023 chips Number of Slots, Ns 10
PRN Code generator Gold sequence Number of Frames, Nf 200
Data Rate 50 bps Number of Pulses per Tx, Np 1

3. CARRIER-CODE INTEGRATED TRACKING LOOP ARCHITECTURE FOR


TH/DS- CDMA SIGNALS

Since the signal is a modified version of DS-CDMA, the carrier-code integrated tracking loop
for TH/DS-CDMA will be inherited from typical DS-CDMA tracking loops (Borre, 2007,
Kaplan and Hegarty, 2006). Figure 2 illustrates the conventional tracking loop architecture
pre-cascaded with a Noise Silencer Module (NSM).
0,1 =1 1,1 =4 2,1 =2

0 Ts Tf = NsTs 2Tf t = NfTf

Tf

k=0 k=1 k = Nf - 1
(a)

0 Tf 2Tf t = NfTf
(b)

0 Tf 2Tf t = NfTf
(c)
Legend
Noise
DS-CDMA burst

Figure 1 Example waveforms of the (a) received signal ( ) ( ) , (b) pulsing/gating signal
( ) ( ) −( + ) .
− and (c) real part of the local reference oscillator

Since the transmitted signal is pulsed, the timeslots where the n-th transmitter’s signal is
absent will be occupied with undesired Multiple Access Interference (MAI), external
interference and noise. The NSM’s presence will null the undesired noise so that the Integrate
and Dump (I&D) module effectively integrates only the timeslots containing the desired
signal while neglecting other timeslots. By multiplying the signals in (a) and (b) of Figure 1,
the NSM can be seen masking the incoming signal, ( ) ( ), using the generated pulsing
( ) ( )
signal −τ , resulting in the zeroing of noise in unoccupied timeslots.

( )
The pulsing signal ( ) (·) is a function of the transmitter-receiver time delay τ which
varies over time. This indicates that the pulsing signal needs to be changed over time along
( )
with τ , which is a variable tracked by the Delay Locked Loop (DLL). However, the
( )
accuracy of τ for this application need only be accurate to approximately 1 chip width,
which is sufficient to avoid losing samples for correlation. The argument of the pulsing signal
( )
c , is also known as the ‘Time Hopping’ (TH) sequence. The TH sequence can be locally
generated via memory codes while the starting index of the TH sequence, L can be estimated
from the acquisition stage (Cheong et al, 2009).

Also different from conventional tracking loops is the necessity for the I&D module to
perform ‘dumping’ and loop updating at the end of each frame (i.e. at every frame border).
This is illustrated in Figure 1(c) where the Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO) changes
its frequency, resulting in an abrupt change of frequency albeit continuous phase at frame
borders. This constraint ensures that the loop updates at regular intervals such that its attitude
conforms to digital control theory. Therefore, frame ID synchronization (i.e. identification of
k - c.f. Figure 1) in the acquisition stage is crucial before tracking can be initiated (Cheong et
al, 2009).

In order to minimise logic elements or computational complexity, a simple method to


generate a local copy of the TH sequence for all channels, is possible. Since the TH
sequence for any channel is uncorrelated over time, it is therefore orthogonal and irreducible.
However, the TH sequence of one channel can be extrapolated to all other channels via Latin
Square sequence design (Pottie, 1993). Therefore, for Np=1 the TH sequence for the -th
( ) ( )
channel, c , can be used to derive the TH sequence for the next channel, c , =
( )
(c , + 1) NS for all frames, k ∈ [0, N − 1]. Similarly, for a channel, having multiple
pulses per frame, Np>1 , the TH sequence for the p+1-th pulse can be derived from the TH
( ) ( )
sequence of p-th pulse via c , = (c , + 1) NS . Therefore, a generalization can be
made by first defining the TH sequence of the 1st channel, 0-th pulse as a basis sequence,
( )
=c , . The TH sequence of the n-th channel, p-th pulse can then be generalized as
( )
c , =( + p + n − 1) NS . In other words, the receiver need only memorize a basis TH
sequence, to generate TH sequences for all channels on-the-fly via simple modular
operations.

Legend I_L
Int. & Dump
Complex Values
I_P
Real Values Int. & Dump
I_E
Int. & Dump
( )( ) ( )(
( ) )
( )( ) Re Code Loop DLL
E P L Code Gen.
Im Filter, ( ) Discr.

(n)
Q_E
( )
− τ0 Int. & Dump
Q_P
Int. & Dump
e−j(ω o t+θ)
Pulse Generator Q_L
Int. & Dump

Synchronized
Time Complex Carrier PLL
Hopping NCO Loop Filter Discriminator
Sequence

Noise Silencer Conventional Combined PLL-DLL Tracking Loop


Module (NSM)

Figure 2 Integrated tracking loop architecture for tracking of carrier and code of TH/DS-
CDMA

After sufficient observation, it should be apparent that the NSM is a waste of logic elements
if Figure 2 is implemented directly in digital logic. The fact that the I&D module is
integrating over the zeros generated by the NSM shows that it is a redundant and inefficient
process. Therefore, instead of integrating over zeros, the I&D module should be configured to
integrate over the time interval when the signal is present, resulting in the elimination of
NSM. This requires the I&D to acquire information of timeslots from the Synchronized Time
Hopping Sequence module. Nevertheless, the overall complexity is reduced.

4. SIMULATION OF CODE AND CARRIER TRACKING

4.1. Tracking Loop Performance in the Presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise
(AWGN)

Based on the aforementioned concepts of tracking TH/DS-CDMA type signals, a simulation


of the transmission of a TH/DS-CDMA signal as described in Figure 1 and Table 1 is
performed. A receiver architecture as shown in Figure 2 is implemented by modifying the
integrated code-carrier tracking loop software provided by Borre (2007). The receiver
implements a first order loop filter, F(s) for both delay (code) and phase (carrier) locked
loops, while the DLL discriminator and the PLL discriminator are normalized early-late
power dot product discriminator and arctan discriminator respectively. This type of
discriminator is chosen for implementation due to its high quality of tracking in terms of SNR.
(Ward, 2004)

Although the signal has been deemed better tracked by the implementation of a partially
silenced I&D method as proposed in the previous section, it is somewhat surprising, that an
unmodified conventional DS-CDMA receiver can be used to track the TH/DS-CDMA signal
in a high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) environment. This is achieved by setting the
integration period of a conventional receiver to the signal’s frame period, Tf.. Intuitively, if
the loop settles slowly, and the signal’s integrated energy over its timeslots, Ts is sufficient to
overcome the noise energy integrated over the integration period, Tf , the tracking loop should
easily lock into the signal.

Table 2 Simulation parameters for the 3 cases shown in Figure 3


Case 1 Case 2 Case 3

Transmitted Signal Parameters


Signal Type TH/ DS-CDMA TH/ DS-CDMA DS-CDMA
Timeslot period, Ts 0.1ms 0.1ms N/A
Frame period, Tf 1ms 1ms N/A
Duty Cycle, = / 0.1 (10%) 0.1 (10%) 1 (100%)
Integration Period, T 1ms

Receiver Parameters
DLL discriminator + − +
=
+ + +
PLL discriminator = tan
Early-Late spacing, 1 chip
Effective Integration Period 1ms 0.1ms 1ms
NSM absent present N/A
100 10
Analytical bound for = = = = =
For the following experiment, the loop bandwidth for both loops has been set to 25Hz for its
faster settling time. The samples of its estimators collected after the loop achieves steady
state (i.e. after the settling time) are used to measure the variance of the said estimators.
Although the larger loop bandwidth produces estimators with more noise, more samples were
produced for variance measurement due to the smaller settling time, resulting in a more
accurate measurement of the variance. Other parameters of the simulation are listed in Table
2.

An equivalent case for a DS-CDMA system (i.e. case 3) is also simulated for comparison
purposes. The simulations of all three cases in Table 2 are performed over various SNR, and
the results are shown in Figure 3.
2 2
10 10
Code Frequency Estimation Variance, (chips/s)2

Carrier Frequency Estimation Variance, Hz 2

1 1
10 10

0 0
10 10

simulation - case 1 simulation - case 1


simulation - case 2 simulation - case 2
simulation - case 3 simulation - case 3
-1 -1
10 10
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), dB Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), dB

(a) (b)
Figure 3 (a) Code Frequency Estimation variance and (b) Carrier Frequency Estimation
variance vs. SNR

The plots in Figure 3 have been capped at an estimator variance threshold value of 100 due to
the loop’s inability to maintain lock above such threshold. It can be seen from Figure 3 that
there is a 10dB difference between case 1 and case 2. This is as expected because case 1
integrates 10 times as much noise as case 2. A similar difference is observed between case 2
and case 3 for both carrier and code frequency estimation. This is also as expected because
case 2 only observes the signal for one tenth of the time that case 3 does. This is coherent
with the analytical relative performance improvement of the variances as expressed in
equation (1) and Table 2 as being 10 times better due to the choice of duty factor being 10%.
The slope of all plots,


∆ = −10 10 = −1

approximates the order of the analytical function expressed in Table 2, therefore validating
the inverse proportional relationship of the loop estimator variance to SNR.
Due to the large loop bandwidth, a relatively larger variance is expected if compared to a
system with smaller loop bandwidth. However, it can be shown that the relative performance
of the three systems in Table 3 will remain the same with all estimator variances
proportionally reducing with the reduction of loop bandwidth.

4.2. Carrier Tracking Transients

In order to observe the transients as the estimators of the loop settle to a steady state, multiple
noiseless TH/DS-CDMA signals each with a different frequency error have been simulated as
shown in Figure 4.

(a) (b)
Figure 4 Carrier Frequency estimation for a simulated frequency error of 25Hz, 50Hz and 75Hz

By and large, the step response for the TH/DS-CDMA signal seems to approach that of the
DS-CDMA as seen in Figure 4(a). When viewed more closely (c.f. Figure 4(b), however,
TH/DS-CDMA is seen to be a “noisier” step response compared to the smooth step response
of DS-CDMA.

The occurrence of such phenomena can be attributed to the time-biased estimate of the
TH/DS-CDMA when compared to an equivalent DS-CDMA estimate due to its time hopped
nature. For example, suppose that there is still a remaining positive frequency error in one
frame, and the DS-CDMA burst occurs in the first timeslot of the frame. Since the arctan
discriminator measures the average phase of the I&D result, the DS-CDMA case would
return the average phase of the entire frame, while the TH/DS-CDMA case would only return
the average phase measured over the first timeslot. Since it is a positive residual frequency,
the signal represented in a phasor diagram would have its vector rotating clock-wise, and the
measured phase on a TH/DS-CDMA signal would appear to lag behind the average phase of
its underlying continuous DS-CDMA signal. This leads to a time-biased estimate.
5. ANALYSIS OF CODE PHASE TRACKING VARIANCE

Researchers working in the field of PPS have previously attempted to produce signals that
could overcome the near-far problem by modifying Time Division Multiple Access methods
(Holmes, 2007). The resulting signal is a burst of DS-CDMA that occurs periodically over
time. The drawback of using this type of signal is that it may form ‘blind regions’, in which
signals transmitted by different transmitters over different timeslots may still interfere with
each other in certain geographical regions. However, performance analysis derived on this
type of signal has been extended to TH/DS-CDMA here.

In order to compute a theoretical bound for the variance of the code tracking jitter, ( ) ( ),
we first establish that the receiver has the architecture as described in Figure 2, and its code
discriminator is simply an early minus late discriminator for simplicity. If the carrier tracking
loop (PLL) is assumed to be locked, the measured error signal ( ) ( ) can be modeled as,

1
( ) ( )[ ( − + )− ( − − )].
( ) = [ ( + )− ( − )] +

( )

which can then be reduced to,


( )( ) + ( )

The error signal, ( ) ( ) represents the output of the discriminator function. The first term of
the error signal, ( ) ( ) is the result of cross correlation between the locally generated PRN
sequence and the incoming signal without noise, which is represented here as the early minus
late autocorrelation function (ACF). The second term represents the cross correlation between
the locally generated PRN sequence and the incoming white noise, ( ).

The second equation subsequently linearizes the discriminator S-curve to K, where K is the
slope of the discriminator function near its origin. Due to the quasi-linear nature of the
discriminator function, the linearization is only valid when assuming the code phase error is
small, thus operating the discriminator within the linear region. This is typically true because
the acquisition stage is able to determine a coarse code phase that is accurate to +/- 0.5 chip.

In seeking the variance of the Code Tracking jitter, we are interested in two distinct cases:

a) Case 1 – Integrated tracking loop operating in the absence of the Noise Silencer
Module (NSM)
b) Case 2 – Integrated tracking loop operating in the presence of the Noise Silencer
Module (NSM)

The absence of NSM can be shown to be equivalent to the case where the Integrate and
Dump module integrates over the entire frame duration , and the NSM present case is
where the I&D module integrates only over the timeslot duration when the signal is
present. The former represents case 1 while the latter represents case 2.
The derivation for both cases is shown in the Appendix. The relative improvement of the
code phase tracking variance from case 1, to case 2, and from case 1, to case
3, can be expressed as,

= = , = = ··············· (1)

where is the SNR of the signal, = / , is the loop bandwidth and is the early-
late spacing of the conventional wide correlator (i.e. 1 chip spacing).

6. ACQUISITION AND TRACKING OF REAL TH/DS-CDMA SIGNALS

6.1. Acquisition of Real TH/DS-CDMA Signals

The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) (Blossom, 2004) was used as a hardware
platform for the RF front-end, down-converter and signal recorder. The USRP acts as a
software-configured front-end working with any computer equipped with a USB 2.0 port.
The USRP was chosen because of its useful features, which include plug-on RF front-end
daughterboards that allow the USRP to be used on different RF bands, and its open source
design that permits scalability. The configuration of USRP for data collection is shown in
Table 3.

Table 3 Radio Frequency Frontend settings


Sampling Frequency, fs 16MHz RF Local Oscillator, fBB 2.412 GHz
ADC resolution 8 bits IF Local Oscillator -2.28MHz

Fs = 64MHz Fs = 16MHz

CIC Resampler
LNA 20MHz LPF ADC LPF ↓4 USB

Complex sinusoid Complex sinusoid Legend


FBB = 2.412GHz Fddc = -2.28MHz Complex Values
Real Values
Analog Digital

Figure 5 The RF frontend down-conversion stages

The parameters of the transmitted incoming signal are shown in Table 1 while the RF down-
conversion chain is shown in Figure 5. The architecture of Figure 5 uses quadrature sampling,
and a further digital down-converter (DDC) to produce complex 8-bit samples at the output.
This process directly down-converts the RF signal to its complex baseband equivalent. It is
worth mentioning that the device has a maximum sampling frequency of 16MHz at 8-bit due
to the limitation set by USB transmissions.
Since the effective sampling frequency, fs is less than the bandwidth occupied by its main
lobe, 20.46MHz, the digital signal is considered to be under-sampled. Under-sampling results
in “rounding-off” of the spreading code’s ACF, consequently causing a relative correlation
loss of 1-2dB (Qaisar et al., 2008) via an optimised method. The optimised method of using
anti-aliasing filters to generate local copies of the spreading code is used herein.

As explained in Cheong et al (2009), the preferred method of using a Digital Passive


Matched Filter (DPMF) for acquisition is utilised as this method maximizes its detectability
and correlation peak.

The USRP uses a low cost crystal oscillator with an accuracy of 10ppm. This results in a
large frequency error range to search for in the acquisition stage. The acquisition module
implements a 49-bin frequency search that spans the frequency range [-15kHz, 15kHz]. This
fine frequency bin spacing results in a correlation loss of less than 1dB.

The correlation surface and the frequency domain plot of the wirelessly transmitted TH/DS-
CDMA signal are shown in Figure 5(a) and (b), respectively.

-1
Power Spectral Density Estimate
10
Correlation Amplitude

-2
10
Power/frequency (W/rad/sample)

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
Frequency Bin 2.4 2.405 2.41 2.415
Frequency (Hz)
2.42 2.425 2.43

Code Phase
9
x 10

(a) (b)
Figure 6 (a) 3D plot of acquisition surface for a real TH/DS-CDMA signal (b) power spectrum
density plot of the collected signal

6.2. Tracking of Real TH/DS-CDMA Signal

In order to show that the abovementioned method for tracking TH/DS-CDMA signals is
feasible in reality, the real signals collected using the USRP are passed to the tracking loop
after acquisition is successful. All parameters of the software receiver remain the same except
for the PLL loop bandwidth which is extended to 100Hz to accommodate the rough accuracy
of the frequency error estimation in the acquisition stage (i.e. +/-312.5Hz).

The tracking results show successful code tracking as indicated in the lower plot of Figure 7a
that shows the early (blue) and late (red) power converging to a value less than the prompt
(green) power. Plots in Figure 7c also suggests that the PLL estimators have stabilised to a
steady state.
Raw DLL discriminator Raw PLL discriminator
Bits of the navigation message
0.2
0
200

Amplitude
Amplitude
0.1
-0.2
0
0
-200 -0.4

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.05 0.1 0.15


0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 Time (s)
( ) Time (s)
Time (s) Filtered PLL discriminator
Correlation results Filtered DLL discriminator

-10 200
350
300

Amplitude
-20

Amplitude
100
250 -30
200 0
-40
150
-50
100 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.05 0.1 0.15
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 Time (s)
Time (s)
Time (s)

(a) (b) (c)


Figure 7 Tracking results for a real TH/DS-CDMA signal

7. TIME SHARED TRACKING LOOP

Even with the suggested modifications made to the tracking loop architecture in Figure 2 to
improve its efficiency, the tracking loop is still considered to be operating inefficiently
because the loop halts its operation over the timeslots where the signal for that channel is
absent. Instead of halting the loop over such intervals, it is proposed that the tracking loop
saves the states of the current tracking loop, and then track another channel in which its
signal its present over that timeslot. The tracking loop can then revert back to the saved states
of the previous channel to continue tracking it before performing a “dump” at the frame
borders. For example, assume that the incoming signal is of the sort described in Tables 1 and
2, and that there are 10 transmitters, each occupying one timeslot at one time. This results in
only 1 tracking loop being necessary to track all 10 transmitters. The extra complexity to add
in the functionality of saving and restoring tracking loop states is worthwhile considering the
huge reduction in logic elements otherwise required to form 10 tracking loops. This would
involve a number of memory elements and the assistance of a microprocessor (CPU) running
at high update rates to synchronise data transfers between the memory elements and tracking
loop states (e.g. I and Q accumulator, states of the loop filter, phase and frequency of the
tracked code and carrier, etc.). Alternatively, this can also be implemented by logic circuits
via multiplexing of tracking loop states at the triggering edge of the pulsing
( ) ( )
sequence, −τ of each respective transmitter being tracked. This concept has been
patented by Locata (LaMance and Small 2004).

8. CONCLUSION

Operating the TH/DS-CDMA signal on a PPS to overcome the near-far problem has proven
to be promising. Performance analysis shows the degradation of a Time-Hopped DS-CDMA
signal being linearly prominent over reducing the duty factor of the signal. Such effects are
further verified via theoretical analysis. To counter the effects of small duty factors, a larger
correlator integration interval is necessary. The receiver architecture has been tested using
real signals collected using USRP to verify its applicability for real world signals.
The transient behavior of the noiseless signal is also observed and compared to an equivalent
conventional DS-CDMA signal which reveals that the tracking loop output transient response
of the TH/DS-CDMA signal is merely a noisier response of the DS-CDMA signal. As the
transient approaches steady state, the response of both signals converges.

On the issue of hardware implementation, this type of signal enables some simple
modifications to track multiple transmitters using a single tracking loop. Two options, the
first requiring support from the microprocessor, and the second requiring extra logic and
memory elements to perform multiplexing and saving tracking loop variables, were described.

The proposed architecture has been shown to perform well under regular loop updating
intervals at each frame border. Further work will investigate irregular loop updating intervals
where the loop is updated immediately after each pulse is tracked. Initial investigation has
revealed a failure to track via such methods in certain cases. Further investigation will also
focus on its susceptibility to interference. As the signal is pulsed, and only one signal is
transmitted at one time, a simple architecture for interference cancellation may be viable.

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Beijing, China.

APPENDIX
The received signal is,

( )( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
) = −τ −τ −τ e( )
+ ( )e ( )

Assume perfect pulse shift, carrier frequency and carrier phase synchronization,

( )( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
) = −τ −τ −τ −τ + ( ) −τ

The error signal output by the DLL discriminator in the absence of Noise Silencer Module (case 1),

1
( )( ( )[ ( − + )− ( − − )].
) = [ ( + )− ( − )] +

( )

Reduces to,

( )( ) + ( )

The error signal output by the DLL discriminator in the presence of the Noise Silencer Module (case 2),

1
( ) ( )[ ( − + )− ( − − )].
( ) = [ ( + )− ( − )] +

( )

Notice the difference in the integral limits in both cases. It should be noted that the NSM effectively reduces the
amount of integration of the noise portion. This reduces to,

( )( ) + ( )

where K is the slope of the discriminator function operating within its linear region. K is exactly 2 when a
conventional wide correlator is used.

In both the case of the absence and presence of the NSM, the following loop equations can be formed for the
loop gain necessary to form the variance of the DLL code estimate, .

( )
( ) ( )(
( ) ( )
= )= + , = 1,2

( )
= −

( ) ( )
=− + +
( )
=− ( ) + [1 − ( )]

where,

( )
( )= ( ) , 1− ( )= ( )

We are only interested in acquiring the tracking noise variance, therefore we set T=0.

( )
=− ( ) ··········································· eq. (1)

Thus, with H(s) having a unity loop gain, the effective loop gain, associated with ( ) is,

1
=

Given the following,

( ( ) ( )) = ( − ) ····························· eq. (2)

where No is the noise spectral density. The generic formula to calculate the variance of the correlation over one
frame for both cases is:

1 ( − )
= 2 [2 (0) − 2 (2 )]. . =
. (2)

1 ( − )
= 2 [2 (0) − 2 (2 )]. . = =
. (2)

Therefore, the associated ACF of ( ) and ( ) can be written as:

| | | |
( )= 1− , ( )= 1−

Finally, the tracking error variance is given by,

(0)(2 ) (0)(2 )
= = = , = = =
( ) 2 2 ( ) 2 2

where is the loop gain as presented in equation (2), is the SNR as defined by = / , and the power
spectral density of ( ) and ( ) evaluated at d.c. defined as:

( )| = ( ). , = 1,2