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# Physics for Life

(PHYS1003) 3 credits
Collision and its applications

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Review: Conservative system (For
example, a free fall particle in air)
• A conservative system is a system in
which work done by a force is:
• 1. Independent of path.
• 2. Equal to the difference between the final
and initial values of an energy function.
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we never have the chance to know each other. 3 .Collision: Without “collision”. • The most commonly used method for exploring the unknown world • We use a known particle to collide on a unknown particle in order to infer its possible attributes by observing its scattered particle’s physical properties.

isolated system Δp1 = − Δp2 Δ ( m1v1 ) = − Δ ( m2v2 ) m1v1 f − m1v1i = m2v2 f − m2v2i m1 ( v1i − v1 f ) = m2 ( v2i − v2 f )  (1) 4 .Principles used in collision • Conservation of momentum (vector) ΔP = Δp1 + Δp2 = 0.

i.If the collision is elastic. no energy loss • Kinetic energy is conserved.e.. – The total kinetic energy before collision is identical to the total kinetic energy after. K1i + K 2i = K1 f + K1 f 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 m1v1i + m2v2i = m1v1 f + m2v2 f 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 m1 ( v1i − v1 f ) = m2 ( v2i − v2 f )  ( 2) 5 .

Result of (1)/(2): the relative velocity of approach before collision is equal to the relative velocity of separation after collision v1i + v1 f = v2i + v2 f or v1i − v2i = v2 f − v1 f 6 .

Further result 2m2 m1 − m2 )v1i + ( ) v2 i v1 f = ( m1 + m2 m1 + m2 v2 f 2m1 m2 − m1 =( )v1i + ( ) v2 i m1 + m2 m1 + m2 7 .

Assignment: Under the conditions below. what will be results? • • • • m1=m2 m1<<m2 m1>>m2 Email your result by next class time 8 .

Conservation of momentum http://www.com/ 9 .kshitij-iitjee.

x : m1v1i = m1v1 f cos θ + m2v2 f cos φ y: 0 = −m1v1 f sin θ + m2v2 f sin φ 10 .

Types of scattering • • • • Rutherford scattering Raman scattering Rayleigh scattering Compton scattering 11 .

12 .1. Rutherford scattering: the finding of Atom’s structure • Rutherford scattering: – the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction – Atom’s structure was concluded by this method.

– The finding of discrete energy levels in particles https://matsci4uwi.2.com/ 13 . Raman scattering: used for identification of unknown chemicals. explosives. narcotics … • Inelastic scattering of a photon.wordpress.

2. Raman scattering: Scattering of a photon http://bwtek.com/raman-theory-of-raman-scattering/ 14 .

Rayleigh scattering: target particles are much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation (resulted in polarized waves) http://www.invocom.pl/ 15 .et.poznan.3.put.

• Rayleigh scattering results from the electric polarizability of the particles. causing them to move at the same frequency. The oscillating electric field of a light wave acts on the charges within a particle. The particle therefore becomes a small radiating dipole whose radiation we see as scattered light.3. Rayleigh scattering • The elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation. 16 .

The picture on the right is shot through a polarizing filter: the polarizer transmits light that is linearly polarized in a specific direction.Rayleigh scattering: Reason for the blue color of the sky • Scattered blue light is polarized. 17 .

• The wavelength of the scattered light is different from that of the incident radiation • Usually it results in a decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of the photon 18 .4. Compton scattering • the inelastic scattering of a photon by a charged particle. usually an electron.

Compton scattering: A photon interacts on a charged particle.org/wiki/Compton_scattering 19 .wikipedia. resulting in an energy (frequency) change of the scattered photon https://en.