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Accepted Manuscript

Title: 3D Numerical Simulation of Electrical Arc Furnaces for
the MgO Production
Author: Zhen Wang You Fu Ninghui Wang Lin Feng
PII:
DOI:
Reference:

S0924-0136(14)00165-4
http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.04.033
PROTEC 13985

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Journal of Materials Processing Technology

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Revised date:
Accepted date:

10-2-2014
26-4-2014
29-4-2014

Please cite this article as: Wang, Z., Fu, Y., Wang, N., Feng, L.,3D Numerical Simulation
of Electrical Arc Furnaces for the MgO Production, Journal of Materials Processing
Technology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.04.033
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For example. The comparison between the calculated results and the measurements proves that the dimensional designs of the two furnaces are acceptable for the prevention of in energy conserving and increase of productivity. Scheepers et al. Ac ce p The use of CFD to model steelmaking processes has been an active area of research for the last three decades. Arzpeyma et al. Tel. and melting. and the liquid phase of molten slag and alloy phase were modeled as stagnant liquid phases.. The complexity of the problem makes difficult to achieve satisfactory control. The electromagnetic stirring effect of the molten us bath is studied respectively with a rated current. Ninghui Wangb *. Flow Field The improvements in the production of MgO are currently centered around automatic control te algorithms. Large-capacity electric arc furnaces are qualified with significant advantages 1. In the 1    Page 1 of 16 . and the size of an its molten bath is much larger than that in the 1500kVA furnace. heating. Temperature Field. The appropriate location of the three electrodes can help to maintain a homogenous bath temperature distribution. Zhen Wanga. as well as thermal conductivity and the particle–particle radiation within the burden. the strong coupling and non linearity and the frequently changing boundary conditions. Kadkhodabeigi et al. Numerical Simulation. However. (2011) also established models in FLUENT to study the tapping process in the submerged-arc furnace for silicon and ferrosilicon production. Introduction d Key words: Electric Arc Furnace. Dalian University of Technology. Dalian 116023. Dalian University of Technology. (2011) identified as main factors affecting the process the dynamic characteristics of the electrodes. the energy associated with chemical reactions.3D Numerical Simulation of Electrical Arc Furnaces for the MgO Production . M the local overheating or overcooling. 2010). You Fub.: +86 0411-84708576. Di Barba et al. 2010). Wu et al. China * Corresponding author. the model accounted for fully developed gas flows generated from the packed bed. the model did not solve Maxwell equations to calculate Joule heating. (2012) developed a 3D Finite Element (FE) model of a submerged arc electric furnace to define an equivalent electric circuit model able to describe the furnace operations for the production of ferroalloys.net Abstract: targeted at the 3000 kVA and 1500kVA electric arc furnaces for MgO production. and its influence on the temperature field is predicted by the model in FLUENT. China b College of Electrical Engineering. Mgo. fax: +86 0411-84708576. Scheepers et al. ip t a cr E-mail address: ninghuiw@263. (2013) established an AC EAF (Electric Arc Furnace) model through ANSYS FLUENT to study the influence of electromagnetic stirring to the molten bath of waste steel and iron. and all these steelmaking processing steps involve highly coupled complex transport phenomena (Chattopadhyay et al. E. The applications of the AC EAF encounter similar problems in other industrial areas.. (2006) made use of FLUENT to establish CFD model of submerged-arc furnace for the production of phosphorus to investigate the influence of changing operating conditions on energy distribution within the solid-gas region and reaction characteristics such as the position of the solid–gas reaction zone. 3D models are developed to characterize the thermal behavior in the furnaces. Some calculated results are proved reliable by comparison with the measurements. In their subsequent studies (E. Lin Fenga School of Innovation Experiment. Dalian 116023. It can be seen that a stronger stirring effect leads to a higher average flow velocity in the 3000kVA furnace.

Simulation objects an This paper takes the newly built 3000kVA large-capacity and fully enclosed EAF as the research object. 2. As the molten MgO temperature will reach a minimum of 3100K. 1 is vertical cross section of 3000kVA or 1500kVA three-phase AC EAF along central line of EAF and one bar of electrode. increased electrode space. a twin-electrode DC EAF was designed for MgO crystal production and this technique was found to be another effective method to grow high quality MgO single crystals. When compared with the former 1500kVA furnace. electrode diameter and cr diameter of furnace body to a greater extent. temperature and flow of melt. 2    Page 2 of 16 . numerical simulation can be used to effectively estimate the shape of the molten bath. feeding control and dust collection systems. (2011) developed an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for the EAF to improve the quality and the quantity of the MgO single crystal production. Li et al. temperature field. Such especially designed EAF for MgO production is installed with automatic electrode control. 3000kVA-capacity design is improved in three aspects: 1. (2011) made use of a 3D model to determine the electromagnetic field. reduced electrode diameter. and flow field of this DC EAF and estimate its power consumption. and other important information when conventional measuring methods us become infeasible to monitor conditions inside the furnace. with detailed parameters indicated in Table 1. 2. increased diameter and height of M furnace body.field of MgO production. water cooling. Different to the AC mode. Rated power of this improved EAF is significantly enhanced and the charged d materials are increased from 15t to 45t per furnace. ip t Numerical calculations are used for energy and cooling optimization and also for finding best constructive solutions regarding furnace design. The computational modelling of the EAF is conducive to reduce the blindness of design including distances between two electrodes. Table 1 Dimensions of the furnaces with different capacities 3000 kVA 1500 kVA Height (mm) 3000 2000 Diameter (mm) 2600 2000 300 350 Ac ce p te Capacity Electrode diameter (mm) Distance between electrodes (mm) 700 650 Operation Depth (mm) 1500 1000   Fig. Wang et al. 3.

the molten bath is in a dynamic balance in its occupied space. Of them. In addition. (2) The electromagnetic field is time harmonic. e the bottom of the furnace. conductive cross arms. water cooling cables.000A. and other short network equipment regarding their distance to the molten 3    Page 3 of 16 . water cooling cables. d the center line of the furnace. a 3D furnace model including the molten bath with a known boundary was constructed in CATIA V5. and furnace walls. ρ refers to density of flux and μ1 refers to viscosity. the shape of the molten MgO bath is influenced by various factors. When the line current of 1500kVA EAF reaches 7. v refers to flow velocity. graphite electrodes. (3) The Lorentz force is the dominant driving force for the melt flow. Subsequently. and the flow pattern is laminar (Reynold's number Remax = ρvL/μ1 << 2300). the EAF will be in heat balance and the boundary of the molten bath will be fixed. Such calculations must meet the following basic hypothetical conditions: (1) When the line current to 3000kVA-capacity EAF reaches 14. for the density change of the melt is small under homogenous temperature conditions.ip t cr us an   M Fig. of te transformers. and g the interface of the molten bath and the raw materials. The calculated shape agrees well with measurements on site. 1. b one electrode. for example. Buoyancy is considered to be secondary. the three-phase current will be balanced and the shape of molten bath is kept basically constant. The vertical cross section through the center line of the furnace and one of the electrodes with a being the free surface of the melt. The unchanging shape of the molten bath means that there is basically the same speed of melting at the top and solidifying at the bottom of the molten bath.000A. f the exterior boundary of the furnace. (2011). (4) It is necessary to ignore the influence of electromagnetic field produced by conductive cross arms. busbars. 2. The CFD analysis was conducted for the molten bath in ANSYS FLUENT. the boundary of molten bath in an AC furnace Ac ce p can also be determined. and the influence of high-order harmonic currents is considered to be neglected. c the shell wall. According to the methods of Wang Zhen et al. EAFs are mainly composed.1 Hypothesis on the model of EAF The equipment of three-phase AC EAFs for MgO production is similar to that of submerged-arc d furnaces used in other areas of the metallurgy industry. In actual operation.

h is heat conductivity coefficient. The electromagnetic field calculation of molten bath and surrounding regions should thus meet the requirements of Maxwell’s equations. molten bath is the primary subject of research. Q is the item of heat source and T is temperature. In the paper. σsb is constant of Stefan-Boltzmann. (3) (4) n refers to normal vector and t refers to tangential vector. As the molten bath is located inside an EAF. Furnace and electrode surface: an Boundary conditions: v = 0 Top surface of molten bath: ∇ (v ⋅ t ) ⋅ n = 0 M v · n = 0. In the EAF. 2. q is equivalent heat flux. Energy conservation: ( ) d ∇ ⋅ C p vT = ∇ ⋅ ( K ∇ T ) + Q (5) Boundary conditions: te K is heat conductivity. Body force f is defined in the following way: f = ρg + J × B (9) g refers to acceleration of gravity and the production term of Lorentz force is the product of multiplying magnetic induction intensity B with current density J. it is far from other short network system with the exception of graphite electrodes. μ1 is the viscosity. The temperature of the boundary surface of molten bath reaches 3100K. P is the pressure and f is the body force. As the engineering issues studied in this 4    Page 4 of 16 . MgO in smelting will become conductive.bath. ρ is the density of flux. Pa is effective arc heating power. This paper therefore does not consider the influence of this part on stirring of the molten bath.2 Governing equation and boundary conditions The three-dimensional governing equation of steady state flow issue can be described as: ip t Mass conservation: ∇ ⋅ ( ρv ) = 0 (1) ( ) cr Momentum conservation: ∇ ( ρ vv ) = −∇P + ∇ ⋅ ⎡ μ1 ∇v + ∇vT ⎤ + f ⎣ ⎦ (2) us v is the flow velocity. ε is emissivity. and Sa is the bath surface exposed to arcs. T0 is ambient temperature. Ac ce p Inner surface of furnace wall: − ( K ∇T ) ⋅ n = h ( T − T0 ) (6) Upper surface of molten bath: − ( K ∇T ) ⋅ n = εσ sb (T 4 − T04 ) (7) Surface of molten bath exposed to heating area of electric arc: q = Pa / Sa (8) In the above formula. Cp is specific heat.

paper are mainly related with low-frequency electromagnetic fields. governing equations of the electromagnetic field should be simplified into the following equations using coulomb gauge. Two simulation models were constructed. Electromagnetic forces and Joule heating powers were imposed to FLUENT mesh cell to calculate temperature field and flow field of the molten bath. (12) us ∇ × μ −1∇ × A − ∇μ −1∇ ⋅ A = J A is vector potential. φ is scalar potential. ⎛ ∂A ⎞ ∇ × μ −1∇ × A − ∇μ −1∇ ⋅ A + σ ⎜ + ∇ϕ ⎟ = 0 t ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ip t (10) ⎛ ⎛ ∂A ⎞⎞ ∇ ⋅ ⎜ −σ ⎜ + ∇ϕ ⎟ ⎟ = 0 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ∂t cr (11) Not in the conduction area. Joule heat power of unit volume is calculated with the following Q = E⋅J (16) Ac ce p formula. 3. μ0 and μ refer to electric conductivity. 4. 5. The electromagnetic field was calculated by finite element method.000A. In order to ensure the unique solution to vector potential. σ. A three dimensional mesh was generated. Magnesite and light burned MgO were utilized as the raw materials respectively for 3000kVA and 1500kVA EAF with relevant physical property parameters indicated in the following table. The temperature field of the whole EAF was calculated except for the molten bath.000A and 1500kVA-capacity EAF with rated current reaching 7. 2. Table 2 Physical properties of the main materials used in the simulation Properties Values 5    Page 5 of 16 . including 3000kVA-capacity EAF with rated current reaching 14. Results and discussion This paper used the following steps in calculation: 1. 3. an Boundary conditions for calculating electromagnetic field: The bottom of the molten bath: φ=0 (13) B · n = 0 (14) M Outer surface of model: Three-phase power frequency AC current is imposed to upper surface of three electrodes respectively. The model of EAF (including molten bath with fixed boundary) was built with 3D modeling software CATIA V5. PJ Joule heating power is calculated with the following formula. Within the conduction area. d PJ = ∫ Qdv (15) V te With V as the volume of molten bath. the displacement current is ignored. magnetic permeability of air and magnetic permeability of iron respectively.

θ and Z components as the radial direction.45 7 2.5 0 3. it can be seen that the order of magnitude of measuring magnetic field fits the simulation results well. In 10Hz-2kHz mode.45 5 1. 1.056 0.074 0.00035~0.5 -120 3.047 0. By this method. the plane formed is simply the plane formed by central axis of EAF and M electrode A.0 120 0 0.17 8 2.000A. 2 and No. The Ac ce p location than a fixed one.17 0. As No.5 120 3. 1975) Resitivity of the graphite electrode/ (Ω•m) 8. cylindrical-coordinate systems are used with the selection of R. angle direction and height direction of EAF.15 0. One group of calculated results is based on the method similar to the former work (Wang et al.75 0 0 0.047 0. No.052 0.049 0.42 0. the composite RMS value Bcomp will be written in the (17) an With the central point at the bottom of EAF as the origin. By and Bz.058 2 3.0 -120 0 0. their magnetic 6    Page 6 of 16 .42 0.049 4 1.21 0.17 0. If the tri-axial RMS components following form.00045 (Leu et al. Bcomp = (Bx2 + By2 + Bz2)1/2 us of one measuring point are Bx. Tri-axial RMS and composite RMS values of magnetic induction intensity were recorded.52 0. 6~15 (light burned MgO). 3 measuring points were located at the plane zone of the bottom of EAF far away from the molten bath and electrodes. 9 typical points of the 24 measuring points are listed and compared with the simulation calculation results as indicated in the following table. liquid and solid phases of the raw materials were treated as a d uniform region to deal with moving melt–solid interface.58 0. and a large viscosity was given to ensure flow velocity in the region was zero when temperature was less than or equal to solid temperature. 8 (melt) Specific heat capacity/ (J•kg-1•K-1) 48.00314t-1172000t-2 (Ma and Fang.15 0. If θ is equal to 0. te electromagnetic field was calculated (unpublished data) with a less accurate melt–solid interface Table 3 Comparison between measurement and calculation of magnetic field Measuring R (m) θ (degree) Z (m) point Average measured Calculated results Calculated results value (mT) by former method in this paper (mT) number (mT) 1 2.1 (magnesite). When the line current of 3000kVA EAF reaches 14.049 3 3.5 0 3.15 0.5 120 3. 24 measuring points on the platforms of 1st floor and 2nd floor were selected. 0.15 2.17 0.17 9 2.1 Electromagnetic field of 3000kVA EAF ip t Thermal conductivity/ (W•m •K ) cr HIOKI 3470 magnetic field detector was selected as the measurement instrument.5 (wall).17 0.99+0.15 1.15 0.5×10-6 3.17 According to the data in the above table.45 0.5 -120 3. 1979) Density/ (kg•m-3) 2900~3000 Resistivity of the melt/ (Ω•m) 0. 2011).Emission 0.43 0.45 6 1.42 0..3 (melt) -2 -1 Convection/ (W•m •K ) 10 -1 -1 2.

so the magnetic stirring Ac ce p calculations are conducted without the consideration of the arms in the model. From vertical cross section in Fig. 3(b). with the difference lying only in that under such conditions.2 Flow velocity and temperature field Fig. 7    Page 7 of 16 . 2. stirring effects of electromagnetic force becomes weakened to a greater extent due to reduced current and maximum flow velocity of melt is less than 0. There is a long enough distance between the location of molten bath and the conductive cross arms. Fig. The area of the molten bath below each electrode is featured with the maximum current density and the strongest electromagnetic force. and C is the furnace shell. 3 is about vertical and horizontal cross sections of flow velocity field of 3000kVA EAF. M an us cr ip t Positions of measuring points 1 to 9 are shown in the horizontal and vertical views in Fig. although far away from the furnace wall. Fig. the formation of two vortexes can be seen with the formation of another vortex indicated in horizontal cross section in Fig. 3. A schematic drawing of measuring points with respect to the position of EAF elements: A is one of the d electrodes. For the same reasons. B is one of the conductive cross arms. Max flow velocity reaches 0. No.03m/s with its main location at the surface of molten bath below the three electrodes. 4(a) and (b) relate to the corresponding flow field distributions of horizontal and vertical cross sections in 1500VA EAF. flow patterns of the molten baths do not significantly vary between them. 9 measuring points. 8 and No. From these figures. The distribution of the flow velocity field shows that the flow pattern of melt is very complicated under the influence of electromagnetic stirring. As No. therefore its magnetic induction intensity’s signals were significantly increased. 3(a). 4 measuring point was located at the top of the EAF outside the furnace wall and because it was relatively closer to the conductive cross arms when compared with No. te The calculated results by the two methods are found to agree with the measured values well if the selected measuring points are far away from the conductive cross arms. 5 and No. so the flow velocity there is the largest. 7 measuring point was closer to the conductive cross arms as compared to No. it can be seen that though the design and rated power of the two types of furnaces vary. 2. 6 measuring points.006m/s.induction intensity was reduced.

000A so that it is conducive to smelt newly added raw materials completely. and the bottom of the molten bath is nearly ball-shaped with the ratio approaching 1. it will be difficult for the newly added raw materials to melt completely. θ = 180). 5(b). If Rmin is not large enough.5). Three high temperature zones are produced below the three electrodes. 5. The figure is temperature field’s cross section of 3000kVA EAF. but is reduced in the area between electrodes. If the dimension of molten bath at the early stage of the melting process 8    Page 8 of 16 . If the current is reduced. The velocity field of the 3000kVA furnace (m/s): (a) the vertical cross section (θ = 0. and (b) te the horizontal cross section (Z = 1. 5(a) and horizontal Fig. Such flow patterns inside molten baths result in strong effects on the shape of the molten bath. The area with the temperature reaching a minimum of 3100K molten bath indicates that the materials are completely melted. but the range of reduction of Rmin is larger. Rmax and Rmin will be reduced with the reduction of the current. Fig. the overall temperature of the molten bath becomes homogeneous under the strong stirring conditions of electromagnetic force. Ac ce p This influence is shown in Fig. The ratio of the max radical distance of the solid-liquid interface (long radial distance of molten bath: Rmax) and the minimum radial distance (short radical distance of molten bath: Rmin) is about 1. The velocity field of the 1500kVA furnace (m/s): (a) the vertical cross section (θ = 0. Through examination of the cross-sectional drawings of vertical Fig. The above calculation result reveals that large molten bath is easily formed when the line current of 3000kVA EAF reaches 14. the dimension of molten bath will noticeably contract. Though the calculated highest temperature of molten bath reaches at least 3800K approaching the boiling point of MgO.0).18 at the surface. The area with temperature lower than 3100K is non-melted area. 4. it can be seen that the radial distance of solid-liquid interface becomes larger in the area adjacent to electrodes.ip t cr Fig. 3. θ = 180). and (b) d M an us the horizontal cross section (Z = 1.

By comparing calculation cr and measuring results of dimensions of molten baths. From the figure. the temperature distribution becomes uniform with the highest temperature reaching a ip t minimum of 3400K. 6. 6 relates to the cross section drawing on the temperature field of 1500kVA EAF. The dimension of molten batch formed with the use of the two types of furnaces is indicated in Fig. cannot be reflected in the solidified product. 7.cannot satisfy the requirements. Thus in Fig. The temperature field of the 3000kVA furnace (K): (a) the vertical cross section (θ = 0.28. it can be determined that the model is reliable for prediction of the dimensions of molten baths. the calculated values of 3000kVA and 1500kVA furnaces were determined according to the methods proposed by Wang Zhen et al. Fig. The temperature field of the 1500kVA furnace (K): (a) the vertical cross section (θ = 0. After smelting is completed. The accurate height of molten bath. which is higher than the value in the 3000kVA EAF. Fig.0). but the ratio of Rmax and Rmin is about 1. it can be seen that the shape of the molten bath is similar. θ = 180).5). and (b) the horizontal cross section (Z = 1. Fig. it is easy to stop the furnace due to arc breaking in the subsequent charging stage and result in a large amount of materials failing to be melted completely. Max depth Hmax of molten baths will fluctuate in real time during the smelting process. (2011). 5. In the figure. no comparison is made on max te d M an depth of molten bath. and Ac ce p (b) the horizontal cross section (Z = 1. therefore. the height of the final is higher than Hmax us with the rising of electrodes and addition of new materials. 9    Page 9 of 16 . Though stirring effects of electromagnetic force are weak. θ = 180). 7.

50-100mm incompletely melted raw materials will be formed outside molten bath and the materials outside d incompletely melted raw material layer are not fused.3000 kVA calculated values 1500 kVA calculated values 3000 kVA measured values 1500 kVA measured values 1.0 0. If lightly burned MgO is charged as raw material.2 Fig.2 ip t 0.4 cr Dimensions /m 1. thus causing distribution to the incompletely melted raw material layer. 8. the temperature gradient outside the solid-melt interface will reach at least 6000K/m. most of them are transferred to air and exhausted outside. If magnesite is adopted as raw material.0 Rmax Hmax   an Rmin us 0. some impurities will be transferred out through capillary action. M Due to extremely low heat conductivity of the material and favorable effects of heat preservation. During the molten bath solidification process.8 0.6 0. 10    Page 10 of 16 . Some impurities such as SiO2 and Al2O3 with low melting point will reach or approach their boiling points respectively in fusion of MgO. As a result. a small amount of 98-99% MgO may be acquired inside incompletely melted raw Ac ce p material layer. 9. te high purity MgO crystals will form inside this incompletely melted raw material layer. The vertical cross section of the solidified product in a 1500kVA furnace is shown in Fig. 7 Comparison of the bath dimensions of the two furnaces The shape of molten bath calculated fits with the shape of solidified product in production testing.4 1. The residual impurities will be transferred inside and eventually gather at the central area. The vertical cross section of the solidified product in a 3000kVA furnace is shown in Fig.

9. The vertical cross section of the solidified product in a 3000kVA furnace: Region 1 is the solidified bath. 11    Page 11 of 16 . The vertical cross section of the solidified product in a 1500kVA furnace: Region 1 is the solidified bath. Region 3 was charged with raw materials before the removal of the shell. Region 3 was charged with raw materials before the Ac ce p te d removal of the shell. Region 2 is the incompletely melted raw materials. Region 2 is the incompletely melted raw materials. 8.ip t cr us an M Fig. Fig.

Simulation results of temperatures M correspond well to the measured values. The dimension of molten bath is larger in a 12    Page 12 of 16 . If the transformer capacity of the EAF is 1500kVA. with the use of infrared thermometers or thermal ip t imaging infrared cameras. thus leading to low visibility inside the furnace. at present it is impossible to directly collect temperature data inside the electric arc and at nearby areas of the molten bath. 10. electric arc plasma jets and molten baths inside the EAF are located at high temperature zones as well as the center of the raw materials.5%-6.During the smelting process. it can be seen that both simulated and measured temperatures of furnace wall of 3000kVA furnace are higher.4% of the total capacity. 3000kVA calculated values 1500kVA calculated values 3000kVA measured values 1500kVA measured values 850 650 te 700 Ac ce p Temperature /K 750 d 800 600 550 500 0 20 40 60 Y /degree   Fig.1%-12. 10. the computed power is 47kW to 185kW with the current range from 7000A to 14000A. The computed power is 102kW to 203kW with the current range from 10000A to 14000A. Repeated measurements were conducted at corresponding positions to determine average values. From the figure. The calculated temperature for both types of furnaces reaches about 750K. it is the nearest position to us the boundary of the molten bath with the highest temperature. 1/6 furnace cr wall area (select the area with θ between 0 and 60) is adopted to compare the two types of furnaces just as indicated in Fig. and the Joule heat power accounts for about 3. The traditional method for data measurements is to monitor the temperature of the furnace wall on site. the measured temperature is kept basically constant within certain stage after reaching an an objective value of electric current during the process of smelting. In the figure. As the model is symmetric. they are correspondent with locations of the three electrodes which produce three local high temperature zones. for example.8% of total 3000kVA capacity of the EAF transformer. Comparison of the wall temperatures of the two furnaces 3.3 Effects comparison between two EAFs If the resistivity of the MgO molten bath is within the range indicated in Table 2. With the increase of angle. Therefore. the calculated power according to formula (16) due to Joule heat effects accounts for about 2. the temperature decreases gradually to a minimum value near the central part of the two electrodes. At the position with θ = 0. As the highest temperature areas on furnace wall. the high concentration dust at the opening of furnace reaches high temperatures. In addition.

  Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the supports of “the National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 Program) of China” (No. The main conclusions can be Ac ce p summarized as follows: 1. As the thermal conductivity of MgO powder is quite low. Total product accounts for between 12t and 14t.8t MgO above an 98%.0m respectively.6m and ip t 2. 1t MgO product needs 2. the power consumption calculated according to formula (15) will reach 100kW and 40kW. 3-5t will be above 95% us and 1t will be composed of incompletely melted raw materials. The Joule heating power is very limited comparing the total capacity of the transformer.000A. but the current is merely increased to 14. however. 3. thus offering a tripling of productive output. 15t raw materials of light burned MgO are needed. the rate of total power inside the molten bath due to consumption of impedance is reduced. Magnesite ore contains approximately 45-47% MgO and it will be decomposed into MgO and CO2 by heating.8t will be 97%. 6.2t above 97%. 5. power consumption reaches about 2600-3000 kWh. for electrodes. as well as dimensions of the solidified product. 2. 4. but the power consumption for production of 1t fused MgO with the use of a 3000kVA EAF reaches approximately 2300-2900 kWh. 4-5t will be above 96%. As a result. cr 45t raw materials are required in a 3000kVA furnace. The distribution of different grade products: 3t MgO above 98%. for the Joule heating power only accounts for about 10% or less of the total capacity of the transformer according to the calculations. So it is concluded that the majority of the effective power is released by the electric arcs.6t raw materials with the distribution of different grades as follows: 0. Therefore. Large-capacity EAFs are in possession of significant advantages in terms of energy conserving and increasing output. and bottom is increased by less than two-fold. 2011AA060102) and “the Fundamental Research 13    Page 13 of 16 . furnace walls. 3D numerical modeling was used to study magnetic stirring effect on the molten bath. 1. total product accounts for between 4t and 5t.4t below 95%.3000kVA EAF. 3. so the majority of the effective power should be released by the electric arcs. It is found that electromagnetic stirring effects in a 3000kVA EAF are significantly strengthened with a larger size molten bath compared with a 1500kVA EAF. the smelting capacity for M the 3000kVA EAF is improved three-fold. Heat dissipation. Conclusions te output. 4.5t above 96% and 1. If the conductive parts of graphite electrodes to 3000kVA and 1500kVA furnaces reach 2. 1. the calculated results have been proved reliable. As a result. The heating effect by increasing current was proved by experiments to be very limited. The model predicts the design schemes of the two types of furnaces to be both reasonable for high productivity. d large-capacity EAFs are possessed of superior advantages in energy conservation and increasing In order to characterize the thermal behavior inside the EAF for MgO production. By measuring magnetic fields and temperature fields around the furnace.2-1. As a result. the temperature gradient between molten bath and furnace wall is more than 6000K/m. For production of 1t fused MgO with the use of 1500kVA EAF. the dissipated power reaches 240kW and 150kW respectively. When using the 1500kVA EAF. Due to heat dissipation effects of the convection current and heat radiation along the furnace wall and bottom.

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The temperature field of the 3000kVA furnace (K): (a) the vertical cross section (θ = 0. Region 3 was charged with raw d materials before the removal of the shell.       Ac ce p   te Fig. Comparison of the bath dimensions of the two furnaces Fig. A schematic drawing of measuring points with respect to the position of EAF elements: A is one Fig. Fig. 5.0). 6. and (b) the horizontal cross section (Z = 1. The vertical cross section through the center line of the furnace and one of the electrodes with a being the free surface of the melt. f the exterior boundary of the furnace. e the bottom of the furnace. 8. The vertical cross section of the solidified product in a 3000kVA furnace: Region 1 is the materials before the removal of the shell. 1. 4. The velocity field of the 3000kVA furnace (m/s): (a) the vertical cross section (θ = 0. The vertical cross section of the solidified product in a 1500kVA furnace: Region 1 is the solidified bath. The velocity field of the 1500kVA furnace (m/s): (a) the vertical cross section (θ = 0. B is one of the conductive cross arms. θ = 180).5). and (b) the horizontal cross section (Z = 1. cr Fig.0). 3. θ = 180). Region 2 is the incompletely melted raw materials. Region 3 was charged with raw Fig. b one electrode. Region 2 is the incompletely melted raw materials. 7. Fig. 10. c the shell wall. and (b) the horizontal cross section (Z = 1. θ = 180). and g the interface of the molten bath and the raw materials.5). Comparison of the wall temperatures of the two furnaces                                   15    Page 15 of 16 . ip t Fig. us Fig. 2.  Figure captions: Fig. θ = 180). 9. and C is the furnace shell. an and (b) the horizontal cross section (Z = 1. M solidified bath. of the electrodes. d the center line of the furnace. The temperature field of the 1500kVA furnace (K): (a) the vertical cross section (θ = 0.

  Table captions: Table 1 Dimensions of the furnaces with different capacities Table 2 Physical properties of the main materials used in the simulation Table 3 Comparison between measurement and calculation of magnetic field Ac ce p te d M an us cr ip t   16    Page 16 of 16 .