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CHAPTER FOUR

The Language of Ratios

Frequencies
as Ratios
Or rno unNy characteristics of a musical tone the most important for
musical scienceis the number of pulsations it creates, in a given length of
time, in the air in which it is heard. We call thesepulsationsvibrations,and
u'hen we use the sixtieth part of a minute as our measureof time, it is now
customary to call them cycles. The number of cycles-per second-determinesthe pitch of the tone.r
A systemof music is an organization of relationships of pitches, or tones,
to one another, and these relationships are inevitably the relationship of
numbers. Tone is number, and since a tone in music is always heard in relation to one or severalother tones-actually heard or implied-we have
at leastt o numbers to deal with: the number of the tone under consideration and the number of the tone heard or implied in relation to the first
tone. Hence, the ratio.2
It is u'ell to plunge at once into ratio nomenclatureand to disregardthe
more familiar "A-B-C " terminologv by which the ratios in our conventional scalesare expressed.The advantagesof doing so, in opening new
tonal vistas, in getting to the analyzable root of music and the core of the
universe of tone, are inestimable. If time is taken out to translate each ratio
into what is assumed to be a synonymous word value, these vistas are
dimmed or lost altogether, and the values, u'hich are not synonyms, are
nevertheless convicted of fraud by alleged synonyms. After hearing a
"major third" on-the organ or piano or some other instrument with tempered intonation, this interval becomesfixed in the mind as a pretty poor
consonance,at leastby some comparisons,A certain modern composer,one
Ifhe use ofthe word cycles prevents any confusion as between vibrations in whole and
halves of vibrations, thc latter being the French manncr of indicating frcquencies.
parts numcrical, whcn compared togeth€r,
'1In Euclid's words, "all things which consist of
arc subject to the ratios ofnumber; so that musical sounds or notes [tones] compared together,
must consequently be in some numerical ratio to each othcr." Da\\, L.lk$,2t265.

76

of numerous possibl
is, of not being exac
just intervals and te
If ratios seem a
languageso old that
of musical sound car
results are more imn
um surrounds and p,
ing and tedious th;
any case.
Before proceedin
instrumentswill be c
tonestested.For the
this precisearticlefacile thinking it is n
and functions.
The handling an
exact
mathcmati
an
tave") above it mak
This additional 200
since 200 cyclesadd
cycles.To get the 2/
the 2/1 below 400 w
constitute a ratio, al
with the sameratiofor example, both I
relationships.
This2tolrelati,
why they cannot adc
result,just as they a
"octave" at the piar
and its doubling (2[
samequality of relat
(200 to 600, for exar

3Hindemith, crul
d ,
4W i th c ents ,ex pl ai nc c
which represcnt ratios.

But the fact is that Nature does not offer one tone and its doubling (200 to 400) as a given quality of relationship. whcn compared together.THE LANGUAGE OF RATIOS most important for in a given length of tions vibrations. For the present. of not being exact widths-for no real reason except his confounding of just intervals and tempered intervals3 (seepage i53). which frequently cannot be exact in any case. The cycles. 77 of numerous possibleexamples. constant for the 2/1 measurer since 200 cycles added to 400 do not give the 2/1 ("octave") above 400 cycles. and the same quality of relationship in two tones which are not a ratio of doubling (200 to 600. for example. 265. it is possibleto add and subtract quantities which represcntratios. or tones. convicts his "thirds" of inexactitude-that is. In learning any new language.and ure of time. This 2 to 1 relationship is a constant one. these vistas are r not synonyms. ooes] compared together. always heard in rerr implied-we have rne under considerarelation to the first and to disregard the ratios in our cong so. After hearing a Ntrument with temind as a pretty poor odern composer.2.4 sHindemith. CtuJt oJ Mudeal Conposition.a doubling of 200. .the 2/l ("octave") above it makes 400 cycles. to get the 2/1 below 400 we divide by 2.. To get the 2/l above 400 we multiply by 2 and. by virtue of their vibrations. what is required is a facility in thinking with this precise article-this sine qua non of musical structure-and for such facile thinking it is necessaryto have a thorough understanding of its nature and functions. an exact mathematical process. Musicians frequently wonder rvhy they cannot add the ratio of one interval to another to get the correct result. Before proceeding to a study of the Monophonic intervals. experimental instruments will be described on which each ratio can be computed and its tones tested. or frequencies.are os. and it has long been established that two pairs of tones with the same ratio-200 cycles to 400 cycles and 400 cycles to 800 cycles. just as they add a "perfect fifth" and a "perfect fourth" to get an "octave" at the piano. however. t k rs.1t78.of two tones constitute a ratio. If ratios seem a new language.conversely. or 200 more cycles.If a tone makes 200 cycles. for example). so that the new medium surrounds and permeatesthe thinking. results are more immediate if a total plunge is made. in opening new : and the core of the ) translate each ratio lue. it is now :s-per second-des of pitches. both 2/1's-are accepted by the ear as identical musical relationships. The handling and consideration of tones is. let it be said that it is in actual fact a Ianguage so old that its beginnings as an expressionof the essentialnature of musical sound can only be conjectured. rwith cents.one vibrations in whole and frcquencies. and it is no more time-consuming and tedious than translation.etplained at thc end ofthis chapter. This additional 200 cycles is not. I the relationship of . L.

t. are employed to produce..trod.i1. then.-ri. ratios being: 2400/1200' rr"..i* *.nk in thesignificant as will be shown in the next chapter' fest. then any the factor of 2-by i.onlywhentheexpedientof complicated' . rePrest sequentlY. and or such as 3/2.:i.GENESISOF A MUSIC The2tolrelationship. rtt... i-+oO7f the relationshipbetween -rti"h. The 2' of factor ratio is itself a patticular measure of the .ine a lo*et consiant of 1200 cycles. a musicalratio rePresents +tii'it+.. if a sequenceof 2/1's i. i"".."i frequencies by some constantOb.""i/r to be Therefore....iooo/1200. muttiPlYtheir ratios' -the intervals to frc ttt"afi"g of small-number ratios.^ihere is of course But if the factor of 2 applies to the of musical intervals than successive2/1's' of 2 must apply to intervals 2/1. the five /1200'In their lowesttermsthese .u. i+oo 1tooo. of the factor of 2' and the ..i-... stq.1*r.and ^ir..-ined by their respectiveproPortions of ir. +it. ."..*ff-nrr-U. or 5/4-(just "major third'')' an .t.rr b. pitch' of d"e intJrvals..il *. than a 2/1. when any two ratios-two intervals-are -.r.and is a matt cation is synonym( reversewill be ind ItonochordProce SupPosewe ha a mark on the wc rhat indicatesa th .or .'" i. a. cvcles.ii. ..id..involves nothing olicationanddivisionofimProPerfractions..the i".tr it. ^aa is determined by . representing more than simple multi*frl.."rt th.d *ith u" ttpptt t9"t!1nt 9l'^YI'^2400 240011920' 2400/1800' i.o. i.ust Intonation the comPutations . and the symt Nlusicians are acct given "A" is still "-r any given 9/8 is sti cians will find this c should be exPresse But such a Proced seven2/1's of the t its own. by multiplication..:. and when the number of tote two or more 2/1's.i.1500/1200 courd rerationships ili.again: reducedto thelowestpossible +oO.. irrational chosen deliberately *i.io. of the factor of 2 (see page 101)' oercentJees *^. s/:' tris sameseries. or-increments of the factor of 2 ..i.than 2/1....f 2. 2/1'3/2' termsare'.'i. ii.. Positively.d to its lowestterrnsit is in abstractquantity primacyits form this in in thetotal musicalscale..when an halved or the lorve 16/5 is brought r'r'it nithin a 211 by' t' expressedin the les A system of mu cated in everl' othe s.ioi.). if it is impossible to add get a seriesof 2/1's' fo.i. .'.r' u. i/1..i interval or 312 fit'si "perfect fifth")' for examPle' an i"[*"i]oolzoo.ilil..vmbols-ratiosin 211.id"..J each since simple' v^ery are i....octave'. ea." "Higher 211 It is common tr built up*'ards (wi and this Practicei: is specificallYindic ities. a.. irost responsive..sin.tt by 2/1's. applicableto .d ao tt't computations hcome at all H. representsa certain measure even smaller measure' ZSotzOo.basedonthefactorof2'appliesonlytopromuch more to the calculation gr*ri"" L'pi.r.ttt".o*e.tbi.h of music-is themoremaniresources il i.riorrrly. 2000 iaoiiii zoo.r.. then certain decrements of the factor starting fro* u 2/1. somewhat at random in . up and down from 2.:..g"ti..frJ.t ri.thelower number is exactlY numbcr is lessthan than a 2/1.. f'equencies by constants togtt any seriesof to t.lii"u.r.l*. addei.t".:.. 24oolrzoo.:.t..*Jt narrower intervals sequenceof ii.ru..i.intheconceptoftheinterval2/|(the.".*ample' which was suggestedabove-to ZOO in"u.ia.

Such ratio symbolism isjust one of several possibilities./5. that is cmploycd." "Higher 2/1. 2400 cycles. an interval 3 factor of 2. suchas 5/2. and make a mark on the wood beneath that divides the string in half. Consequently. the upper number may be halved or the lower number doubled to bring it within a 2/7. the reverseform in practical application is synonymous. The xample. such as 3/2. are indicated in this expositionby "Lower 2. MonochordProcedures Supposewe have a metal string stretched acrosstwo bridges. r lowest terms these 'relationshipscould ay. \lusicians are accustomedto this idea. any ratio in which the lower number is lessthan half the upper. since each he factor of 2. again:2/1. The ratio 16/5 is brought within a 2/1by rvriting it 8. and.. representsan interval wider than a 217. than a 2/1. The relative positions of tuo or more 2/1's. representsan interval smaller.en the expedient of e at all complicated. and in order that this fact may not be obscured the reversewill be indicated from time to time." "Third 2/1. the /1800. then a mark rhat indicates a third ofthe string. and this practice is followed throughout this book except when the reverse is specifically indicated. svmbols-ratios in this exposition-are used to denote the degreesof one 2 1. lationship between antity applicable to form its primacy-is the more manictave")." and.a 2fl above 9/8 should be expressed9/4. and the symbols are repeated in every 2/1 of the musical gamut.and the ratio 5. the lower . and finally a mark that divides the third . since. a 2/1 aboveor below any given 9/8 is still 9/8. aboveor below.er number exceedshalf the upper.'1. being: 2400/ 1200." The situationhere is identical. Only the physicistswho are not practising musicians will find this objectionable. get any seriesof in1's is determined by rf intervals narrower rf the factor of 2-by intervals-are to be ng the intervals to --than simple multi. and when forty-three degrees-ratios-in a single 2/1 are involved the number of total symbols would be unwieldy.THE LANGUAGE OF RATIOS applies only to prore to the calculation or of 2 applies to the t apply to intervals e factor of 2 starting y simple. But such a procedure would mean that every one of the approximately seven 2/1's of the common musical gamut would have a set of symbols of its own.acoustically."Fourth 2/1. a 2/1 below a given 9/8 should be expressed9/16.3/2. by some constantr get a seriesof 2/1's. and the n smaller measure.!) number is exactly half the upper number. and is a matter of arbitrary choice./2 is brought lithin a 2/1 by rvriting it 514." etc. when tables or diagrams or examples involve ratios both up and down from a given 1/1. It is common practice musically to consider ratios (intervals) as being built upwards (with the larger numbers above) from a lower constant. 2400/1920.or narrower. r re. Nearly all ratios in this exposition are cxpressedin the lessthan 2/l form. A s)stemof music is determined for one 2/1. ly chosen inational at random in pitch. . the "octave" above or below a given "A" is still "A. and one in which the lou. the systemis then duplicated in every other 2/1. Consequently. when an interval is wider than a 2f 1.

via the agent 3. And the mental processof considering ratios as parts of a sounding body.r1.thc lorver : "Tttinking"in R Upon further i rts comPrementv numbers its comp In the ratio 3/ ar rhc upper limit l:cnce the interva :ntcrval from 3 tt *ithin the 2. one-third represents2 parts and one-half represents3 parts. Now. the ancient monochord proceduie. Suppose the whole string makes 100 cycles when in vibration. If one-half the string represents three equal parts (each a sixth of the whole string) one-third of the string representstwo equal parts. 8. but dt t unuar r r 1 1. it 3/2 (200 cycles).lr{e thus see that the numbers of vibration are inversely proportional to the string lengths (see page 99 for reservations regarding this generalization). 5 t lt e r . or 2/1. When sounded. at the same time it represeritsthe interval from 3 to 2. J ir liccl int cr lal t o 1 r nr l an im plicd ir Exprcsscd in I l. while at the same time it representsthe interval from 2 to 3. represents the higher tone of that relationship. without regard to cycles.rlci 5 -l rcprcsents 3r cpr c r . 11) . the number 2.i 2. rather than as vibrations. or 3/2. representing the constant. Each of these ratios representsboth a given tone and an interval between two tones. is essentially " downuard ratio think- 513 441 543 The scaleof fo rhe upper scale as asccndsonly if rea rhe same lilcies i r aiucs. The ratio 2/3.and ifthe bridge is placed at the one-third mark and only onethird of the string set in vibration the resulting tone would make 300 cycles.nqt hs. .r vould agair icnc. let us think in terms of parts of a string length. if a third bridge is placed at the halfway mark. or cycles. as shown in Diagram 1.1. representsthe lower tone. and the inq" lrom an urPcl r r nc of t hc r elat ior These verv cle srr ncling of t he I I o i. as here presented. or the ratio 2/3.The rario 3f2. For lack ofa better term this concept might be called "upward ratio thinking" from a lower cotslant. t hcsc r at it : ir lc t he over nur r : Lrio. Belor v is a Drlcnlu 1. t) . Thus the relationship of the half to the whole is 200 to 100.-Trre RuauoNsmp or Cvcr-rsro Pasrs or StnNc relationship of the third part to the half is 300 to 200. 4 r nl( I val t o I I / .80 GENESISOF A MUSIC in half. via the agent 3. or 2/1 . or into sixths of the whole string. ar bit r ar ilv chos : rlr r ar s t hc loucr ol r . or 3/2. either half of the string would then give tones of200 cycles. exactly the same interval as 3/2.

and 5 representthe constant 1/1. 2/3.\'oratio tones. 3. or 3f2. For lack ratio thinking" from epresenting the cons of parts of a string the string represents )e-third of the string :presents2 parts and 2f3. 3. if a third bridge is rould then give tones J mark and only oneruld make 300 cycles.heard or implicd.an implied interval ro lil). 2. and 8/5 rcpresentsa single tone upward from 1/l tand an implied interval to 1/l).3/2 representsa singletone upward from 1/1 (and an implicd interval to 1/1).where the under number of a ratio is arbitrarily chosen to represent 1/1.thescratiosr.r'ouldbe 4/5. heard or implicd. Each of these lween two tones. Expressedin the "dounuard thinking" manner. These very elementary examples are essential to a thorough understandingof the Monophonic procedure. 1. as parts of string lcngths.3. rather than as vitwnuard ratio think- BI ing" from an upperconstant. or 4/3. unity. 4/5. and if the ratio is composed of small numbers its complementary ratio is also composed of small numbers. "Thinking" in Ratios Upon further investigation of the nature of ratios we find that each has its complement within the 2/1. without regard to synonymous interval values. via the agent 3. In the .4/3 representsa single tone uprvard from 1/1 (and an implied inlcrval to 1/1). of each ratio-would again reprcsent111. the number ? in 2f 3-representing the upper tone of the relationship-being the constant. 5i8t and 4. and the nrs or Srnrr'to rr 3/2.3/4. the lower scale ascendsonly ifread in reverse. To achieve exactly the same pilchesin both scales. but dounuardinstead of upward from 111. and an implied interval to 1/1. The tone at tlre upper limit of the 2/1 may be representedby 4 (a doubling of 2). 2 represents1/1.3/4. and is aluar s the lower of thc t\.2. presentsthe interval We thus see that the e string lengths (see rn). In the ratios 5/4. Below is a schemaof theseexamples: 54 43 54 ] 8 (highertonesof intervalsupwardfrom 1/l) ? 2:t tt' the PrirneUnitY 3 8 (lowertonesof intervalsdownwardfrom 1/1) The scale of four tones is designed to be identical in the two processes. In the ratio 3/2. rhe upper scale ascendsfrom 5 to 8 (from left to right). And the mental ly.TIl E LANGUAGE OF RAT]OS Diagram L Suppose . hcnce the interval from the 3 of 3/2 to this upper limit of the 2/1 is the interval from 3 to 4. 8/5 the under numbers 4.from 8 to 5 (right to left).2i3.The ne of that relationto 2. and 5-this time the over numbers and the higJhertones. and 5/4 rcpresentsa singletone upuard from 1/1 (and. or the Prime Unity. 3i2. the lower limit of the 2/1.the lower scaleu'ould be written: 5/8.or 2/1 . which is therefore the complement of 3/2 *itlrin the 2/1i the two intervals might be expressedthus: 2:3:4. And each ratio rvould represcnta single tone. 100.

And the idea that \s no more awkMoon*Moon : Venus could accurately represent2*2:4 ward. or.4/3. and the two intervals might be expressed.The differe Thcrefore "B" in irc cxpressedas 5 l o n c. To find the interval between t\ /o tones invert the smaller or narrower ratio and multiply.which is therefore the interval representing the tonal distance between the 4 of 4/3 and the ! of 3/2. is the interval from 5 to 8. . for example. 5/4x6/5:30/20. but given an appreciation of the essentiality of ratios in understanding musical resourcessome knowledge of the piano's discrepanciesmay prove enlightening. If in the teaching of simple arithme tic the number 1 was called Sun. and if this procedure were carried to the point where the teachersthemselvesno longer knew that Sun:1.fifth" is a "major second. To find the sum of two intervals multiply the two ratios. therefore. The sum of which. to put it ch vals "C-F*F-C : In resorting tc adopt the negative would say that 16 tone flat in the "l think of the piano and the more fruit tion and indispen rtould say that "I equal semitone. Were Do RatiosFall onthePiano? It is inadvisable to think of these ratios in terms of piano keys except with the most precisereservations. of the piano. and Venus:4.1200 tr ablesthe theorist magnitudesof the sches. the procedure is inversion and multiplication. and forced upon students the euphemistic proposition that Moon*Moon: Venus. in its lowest terms. or 70/6. and use it as a multiplier: 3/2X3/4:9/8.") To find a given interval above a given tone is of course simply a matter multiplying the two ratios involved. the 2/l above 5 is 10. 5/3.4 represents 1/l. 2 called Moon. Moon:2. In the ratio 6/5. and 4 called Venus. 5:6:10. or 8/5.Il the pursuit of the J recommcnded.a6f5 above3/2 is arrived at r}Lvs 3/2X6 /5:9/5. Ellis in a tionsoJ Tone. principles. to frnd the same interval distance of downward from the same tone. 3 called Jupiter. we would have in simple arithmetic a fairly exact parallel to the "Tonic-Supertonic-Mediant" or the "C-D-E" nomenclature in the teaching of the scienceof musical vibrations. and the complement of 6/5 is therefore the interval from 6 to 10. Jupiter:3. 5 represents1/1.Thev gile lish his nhercabo number 1 to the fz subscquentpages l-'oundariesof thit If "G" is the s centsas shorvnin rains400 cents. to find the interval between 3/2 and 4/3 invert the smaller. becausethey had learned it that way. and a 6/5 below 3/2 thrs: 3/2X5/6:5/4. (The difference between a "perfect fourth" and a "perfect . the 2/1 above 4 is 8. the two intervals might be shown in this form.GENESIS OF A MUSIC ratio 5/4. the complement of 5/4. reducedto its lowest 5/4 and 6/5. sPages 446-451.4:5:8. is 3/2 (a "major third" and a "minor third" make a "perfect fifth").To do so without reservationsis a triple abuse-of the ratios. Forexample. For example.namel ander J. Ft crepancieswith tl Ellis' MeasureoJ One more ste presentedin prep.T ccnts.sTh scmitone.One can go crazy trying to reconcile irreconcilables. and of oneself. terms.

smaller or narrower rctween 3f 2 and 4f 3 2X3 /4:9 /8. and of piano keys except lservations is a triple an go crazy trying to rf the essentiality of 'ledge of the piano's ' 1 was called Sun. becausethey had metic a fairly exact C-D-E" nomenclas." 57'4.6This measureis the cent. Ellis' Measure of Cents One mori step in the simple mechanicsof dealing with ratios must be prcsentedin preparationfor the expositionof the Monophonic conceptsand principles. . sPaces446-451. And the idea that l:4 is no more awk- *'ard. 2 nd if this procedure no longer knew that :rced upon students us. In accordanceu'ith this procedureone rlould say that "F" in the "key of G" is 1679 plus one t$'enty-fifth of an equal semitone.This is the constructiveapproach. the intcrvalsof the piano keyboardcontain centsas shownin Diagram 2. the measure of musical intervals established by AlexanderJ. Follorting the explanation of cents a table of piano discrepancieswith the nearestsmall-numberratios will be given. The ratioson previousand subscquentpages. c ratios. one can adopt the negative procedure of regarding ratios as altered piano tones. the secondis certainly the procedure recommended. it is quite as possibleto think of the piano tonesas alteredratios. or 70/6. First. than the idea that the ascendingmusical intervals "C-F *F-C : C-C" can accuratelyrepresent4/ 3 X3 / Z : 2/ 1. nearly 14 cents. is "F" one tu'enty-fifth of an equal semitone flat in the "key of G." "G to B.is approximatelyone-seventhof 100.One would say that 16/9. om 6 to 10. e shown in this form. vo intervals might be re 2/1 above 5 is 10." which is 14 centssharPerthan 5/4. namely. The sum of reduced to its lowest Lkea "perfect fifth")." On the other hand. If "G" is the starting point.THE LANGUAGE OF RATIOS complement of 5/4. and the more fruitful one. the hundredth part of an equal semitone-1200 to rhe 2/1.The true "major third. which he cannot do with the ratios themselves. Thcrefore "B" in the "key of G.or approximatelyone-seventhof a semitone. barely explored sea which lies from the number 1 to the farawayshoresof the number 2.The diference. for example.containsonly a triflc over 386 cents. to put it charitably.then. are the familiar or exotic islandsthat lie within the boundariesof this little-knoransea. Cents provide a logarithmic device which enablesthe theorist to add and subtract numbersrepresentingthe respective magnitudesof the variousratios. Ellis in an appendix to his translationof Helmholtz's On theSensatiansoJ Tone." conrains400 cents.If translation into conventionalvalues seemsdesirablein the pursuit of the Monophonic theory. may be cxpressedas 5/4 plus 14 cents. In resorting to the piano two procedures are possible.They give the adventurerhis longitude and latitude and thus establish his u'hereaboutsin that vast. The tempered"major third. which between the 4 of 4/3 :rth" and a "perfect urse simply a matter me interval distance :ion and multiplica3/2X6 /5 :9 /5. since it predicates an understanding of the function and indispensabilityof ratios.

.is approximatelyone-sixthof 100. i. has nearly 316.or 7/6 plus 33 cents 5/4 plus 14 cents 4/3 plus 2 cents "G to F*" This table represents. INTERVAL RATIO "G to C*" 7/5 plus 17. Below are translations of all so-called diatonic intervals to the nearest small-number ratios. nat ion t he I oSar : 1.of course.For prescn suflicient. ll) lishing \ \ llcr c .ides.sour ccs For purpost-s o i.etc.or 12/7 minus 33 cents 16/9 plus 4 cents..5 cents 3/2 minus 2 cents 8/5 minus 14 cents 5/3 plus 16 cents.whereas the true "minor third. The difference.B4 GENESIS OF A MUSIC The tempered "minor third.-Celrrs oN THE PreNo KeysoaRD of G.Therefore"Bb" in the "key Drncnalr 2.All the l lrc-.c r i Llclrnholtz'sOrr lllis cxplainshis p . ]'ol ( : l." "G to Bl. in :( lP{ ramcnts. may be stated as 6/5 minus 16 cents.or 9/5 minus 18 cents 15/8 plus 12 cents "G to Eb" 6/5 minus 16 cents. If the "key of C" is chosen. the falsities that are found not only in the "key of G" but in any "key" of Equal Temperament. are givcn i rable of Appendix ( nlv to that advcn r oncl the ratios cxl pl:rcelogarithms.5 cents." contains 300 cents.G to Bb'. nr Plc. and on Pat r ' ir h t hc t ablc of r nrrncnts br \ hicl ' r : r usicalr c." 6/5. r r or k or t ir .(!C to Dt"-the smallestinterval-is 16/15 minus 12 cents. a trifle less than 16 cents." which is 16 cents flatter than 6/5. or approximately one-sixth of a semitone.ot 10/9 plus 18 cents . the discrepanciesbeing expressedin approximate plus or minus number of cents: INTERVAL RATIO "G" 1/1 (the unison) "G to Ab" 16/15 minus 12 cents 9/8 minus 4 cents. For finding the number of cents in a given ratio Ellis provides a simple arithmetical method-not adequate for investigation of a many-toned scale-and alsome placcs. or 10/7 minus 17.

/5 minus 18 cents 15 8 p l u s 12 cents re found not only in nt. bookstore.etc. On pagcs448-449 Ellis cxplainshis procedurefor obtaininq rcsultsto a tenth of a cent. .2 mi n u s2cents 87'5 minus 14 ccnts 513 plus 16 cents. and is thereforeuscd in this rvork onlf in computing ccnts and in examination of the numcrous tempcraments. / mrnus I /. o/ 9.THE LANGUAGE OF RATIOS rs 300 cents. lis providesa simple :r of a many-toned scale-and also methodsby logarithmsthat give resultsup to three decimal placcs. by example. or 12. a trifle less :fore"Bb" in the "key OA R D ted as 6/5 minus 16 :ervals to the nearest Lin approximate plus RATIO / ' ) p l u s I /.obtainableat almost an.and the library loan of Hclmholtz's On theSensations oJ Zonrarc the esscntials. If the "key of C" minus 12 cents.All the Monophonic ratios in this exposition. 7 minus 33 cents 167'9 plus 4 cents. either in the text or in the table of Appendix I. For purposcsof an immediatc papcr ccrnparisonof ratios in Just Intonation the logarithm is no bcttcr than rhe ratio.For presentpurposescomputationsto a tenth of a ccnt are generally sufficient. Knowledgc as to computation of ccnts is important only to that adventuroussoul rlho rvishesto organizea scaleor systcmbcvond the ratios expoundedin this volumc. ancl on pages450-451 hc supplit'stablcs to be uscd in conjunction uith the tablc of {ivc-placelogarithms.whereas ifference.For exactitude uc havc thc ratio itsclf:lbr the purposeof cstablishinguhcreabouts by-prina Jacit comparison\\'c havc cents.and manv others besidcs.) ce nts. o t l u .are givcn in centsto one dccimal point. For this purposca tablc of fiveplace logarithms.) cen ts 3 . Ratios and ccnts are thc nvo ins(rumcntsbl rrhich thc investi!{atorexaurinesand organizcshis t}rcorctical musical rcsourccs.