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NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER.D. p (/ " 2 . and the doctrina which is — according to godliness. & 3l9 BROADWAY.THE CHEISTIAI DOCTEIIE SLAVERY. VA. 311 1857. 3. PASTOR OP THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF NORFOLK.." ^1 Tim. GEO. even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ. D. " Wholesome words. D. VI. ARMSTRONG.

TINdON. B. -S:? CZNTKK «T. CRAlGHHAn. by CHARLES SCRIBNER. rUINTKE. in the year KST.Enterkd according to Act of Congress. New York. . In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of . KTIKKOTYI-BK.

— P E E F A C E. No topic which they omitted — has been introduced. that the hand the means of determining whether or not he putting forth novelties in the interpretation of God's Word : to- gether with such notes as seemed needful to illustrate and establish the paraphrase. and is now given to the public. 2. ex- positors of established reputation both for piety reader is may have at and learning. meaning of the true by Nothing which they taught. the —however essential and poUtical question. has been inten- to a full discussion of Slavery as a civil be : A faithful exhibition of the doctrine respecting Slavery taught 1. this little book has been written.''^ as the author thinks them^ . and in connection with his own. An examination of the ^^ false glosses. the paraphrases of Whitby. Throughout. the simplest it may method of exhibting the author has given a paraphrase of each passage of Scripture particularly examined. tionally omitted. to "see eye to eye" on the much vexed question of Slavery. and Doddridge. McKnight. North and South. the author has kept these two ends in view Christ and his Apostles. With the hope of doing something toward bringing God's people. As text.

Views of Slavery. systema- to " wrest the Scriptures " respecting Slavery quotations are Notes^ common how he him- in his Notes. Barnes has put upon tJccse passages in his Barnes' Notes are the only exposition of Scripture. account." for the purpose of showing self Dr. ^'- . in lation in our country.'s *' Scriptural would develop the doctrine "God's word world. B. truth." and his " Church and Slavery. is laid down and on this Occasionally. as truth. made from Dr. will ere long govern the . they are thus singled out for examination. circu- which the attempt has been made.IV PREFACE." and. in tically. which Dr.

VI. These Catalogues 3. V . Slavery a Matter of Little Ill. PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE. The Doctrine of Christ. Nature of Slavery in Sins or Testament. 1 § 10. 1 Tim. 50 CI 3. § 7. 2 . § 5. in the Church. 05 11. full § New any Catalogue of 9 written in Slave-holding States. 18. § 9. VI. APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. —Eph. 1. 19. . Col. IV. CHAPTER I. IV.. III. Often referred to 10 11 Christ's day. 9. 1 Cor. Case of Onesimus.— Gal. 2S . VI. DocLOS. III. . Col.—1 Tim. 2.—Phil. Preliminary Statements. 22-25. Slave-holders received § 8.21. by Christ and 13 his Apostles. New Testament § 4. Titus II.COE^TEI^TS. 10. 20. . 21 I. 9 . APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. 2 . 1 Cor. 10-19. II. 5-9 Col.18 § 6. VI. T and minute. —Slave-holding not in " Offences " given us in the § 2. Moment. and retained Phil. CHAPTER II. VII. 1 Tim. 13 . § 11. VI. 1 . Duties of Masters and Slaves taught as Christian Duties. 1 Pet. XII. 88 CHAPTER III.—Eph. PA03 § 1.

9. APOSTOLIC INJCNCTIOK. 10. Church and 124 Discipline of the Church. § 18. The § 19. 114 CHAPTER VI." 5. § 15."—!. Titus II. The Teaching of the Church. "Mere Property." 8. "Theft. 15. 102 § 16. "Blasphemies. 117 CONCLUSION.— 1 Tim." 4. State. 5 . 122 § 20. VI CHAPTER IV. §18. "Logomachies. 86 V." CONTENTS. Counter-arguments. PARB Church. God's Work in God's Way. TI." 75 82 §14. CHAPTER 2. 181 . a Thing. "A Chattel. Bible Theory of the Origin of Slavery. NATCRK AND ORIGIN OF SLAVKBT. RELATION OF THE CHURCH TO SLAVERY. " Exclusion from the Pulpit. Doctrine to be taught in the 4. § 12." " Unrequited Labor. Paul's Definition of Slavery. 110 § 17.

and declarative. and apart from the Bible T y ." of the can announce what testimonies his servants. ministerial of the Its doctrines are his teachings. is Its discipline Church accordingly. The Bible. what it She com- and enforce her Beyond the Bible she can never rightfully go. "^The Church cute his wilL is as a lias which he "The power Bible alone. Preliminary Statements. prohibit by which as a king has ordained. enjoin condemns spiritual sanctions. CHAPTEE I. PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE. prophet his law.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. he is it what teaches it . only- is and the her rule of faith and practice. Lord Jesus bound to exe- given from God. § 1. mands kingdom the Its officers are Christ. . .

both by her teaching and her discipline. —teach respecting slavery.— THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. they direct that the Church. evils any particular country or age. way beyond be regulated the State. What do by him Christ and his Aposties organization of his Church and the relation in institution We —commissioned and perfect the to complete the sacred canon. it is Synod of South Caro- lips. The evidence Word reader. : the whole subject shall be this —And. she her duty to silent. as fundamental to their doctrine defining slavery not a not to be accounted an and care^dly . and "offence-'' to that by distinction his Church. which the Church stands ? reply —^They teach that slave-holding sin in the sight of God. as other civil institutions are. shall labor remove the incidental to which they this. them and when they are put her hand upon her ' To the law and to must always alone. is is Having a regard to the between slavery and the incidental which may attach to it in itself. that this answer we now proceed is to according: to the set before the . by evil distinctly point out and .' and to appeal . left to in a that. 8 she can never rightfully speak. of God. and his gospel truth faithfully exhibited by the Church. the testimony. 1848." lina. under the wholesome influence of God's providence.

boasters. let the reader take —" Being filled with all unrighteous- ness. debate.. un- merciful. 29-31. despite- ful proud. we must presumption this proper its take account of such facts as the following § First. In illustration of such as these i7i New this statement. — The Gcutalogues of Sins and Discip- linable Offences^ given us in the ment. fornication. disobe- . without understanding."—Eom. inventors of evil things. covetousness." That we may give to weight. deceit. whisperers. and minute. Slave-holding does not appear in any Catalogue OF Sins or Disciplinable Offences given us in THE ]^EW Testament. wickedness. V Presumpt ive Evidence. covenant breakers.: PKESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE. 2. which none will call in question. I. without natural affection. 1^- "JN'ow the works of . murder. dient to parents. malicious- ness. malig- nity . are extended numerous^ and : Testa- some instances. backbiters. is pre- sumptive proof that neither Christ nor his Apostles regarded slave-holding as a sin or an " offence. haters of God. implacable. full of envy. This fact.

drunkenness. Y. 10 Eph. XXI. III. like. 10 the flesh are manifest. Matt. 8. 15. of be of the heathen that are round them shall ye buy hond-men and ho7id- Moreover. lasciviousness. 5 YI. III. 9 ." 2. variance. — Gal. This. shall about you maids. and founded the Christian Church. 3. strife. 8 XXII. Mark. 1 I. 21. Second. of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you. sedi- envjings. Christ and his Apostles lived. and labored. places all his- beyond reasonable question. re- tions. Slavery was expressly authorized by Moses' Law. 10 2 Tim. emulation. 9. § 3. heresies. Col. Y. One of them addressed —the to a epis- slave- holder.THE CHKISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. itself. 22. Tim. for- . . N'ew Testament and were and churches states^ origincdly addressed to j)ersons tle See also 1 Cor. 11. in the midst of slaveholding communities. which are these adultery. .holding in slaveholding states to Y. All the hooks of the were written in slave. and such vellings. nication. uncleanness. . Eev. the Xew Testament as well as the concurrent testimony of tory. witchcraft. and . Philemon — : is . of them shall ye buy. hatred. 19. murders. idohitry. '* Both thy hond-men and thy hond-maids^ which thou shalt have. XY. wrath. 9. 4 YIL 10-21. .

"— Potter^s Gr. in the days emperor contemporary with our than 60 million. 10 and the number of slaves. the number of citizens in state was 21 thousand.. tliat of foreigners. states^ lohilst in all other countries greatly worse. of in (i. we have no means of determining with certainty. All their earnings The maid-servants were em- ployed in domestic concerns.j an inheritance f 07' shall And 11 which they begat be your possessions^'' ye shall take them your children after you^ them for a possession. 400 tliousand. they shall he everJ^ —Lev.) e. to inherit your londmen for- The number of 44-46. of slaves in the of Claudius Lord —at Vol. went to their masters. and in Judea. XXY. 26. Gibbori's Rome^ p. in the days of Clirist as slaves his Apostles. the thousand . tlieir families tnat are with you. Southern it was In Judea. I?i Greece. I. your land : and they " your property.— PKESDMPTIVE EVIDENCE. The condition of slaves in Judea^ in our Lord'^s day^ was no better than it now is in our § 4. number number —the no less And Gibbon estimates the Koman Empire. Ant. — " When Demetrius the Phalerian was governor of Attica. I. though not unfrequently . Third. 9. — " Both the food and clothing of slaves were of the poorest description.

slaves." . . they were commonly crucified. pto- were the property Jahi's not of the parents. which they could not conCooper's Justinian^ p. and not to for slaves at Rome. wherever slaves were beaten. ISO. a permitted cohabitation tract." They commonly had the consent to marry. were tlieir engage in those duties wliich. be put all his domestic slaves were liable to to death." " There Tlie seller was a continual market was bound his slaves. When punished capitally. punishment — " For . In Borne. 181. wood round "When their necks. the lash was the common but for certain crimes they used to be branded in the forehead. If a master of a family was slain in his own house. to woman in that way connect themselves with a wliich is law term. contiihernium/^ ceeded from of their masters denominated by a Latin The children that this sort of marriages. or rather. more befitting the other sex. 12 tliej were compelled from " to nature. and the murderer they might not not discovered.— — THE CHEISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. promise for the soundness of to conceal their faults. that move them. and sometimes were forced to carry a piece of they went. not partaking of lawful marriage." ArchcBology^ pp. Hence * " Contuhernium was the matrimony of slaves. but of their owners. 420. they used to be suspended with a weight tied to their feet.

as goods or ." condition of slaves in Greece much appears to have been Potter's Gr. the incidental reference to it. or nor could they of matrimony. were in a They had no head take by purchase or descent will . in our Lord's day. had extended her dominion over known workl. 48." 10. they were not capable of being injured . register . : nor but of quasi-cogna- they could be sold. were specified. and therefore could they were not entitled to the rights and considerations were they proper objects of cognation or . affinity. Ant. nay. : state than no name. the same as at Rome. and therefore had no relief in case of adultery tion only any title. : chlirch. transferred. and the relations which it establishes are freciiiently sjpoken of. 51. and a scroll hanging at their necks. Adaim^s In Greece. bad —"The § 5. qualities Ant. . As instances of on the part of Christ.^ Fourth. pro mor- they had no heirs. 13 they were commonly exposed to sale naked. her law was the then in the supreme law in every country which the Apostles preached and planted a Christian Under the Roman tuis : pro quadrupedibus cattle whatsoever. and yet more frequently referred and his treat of to hy Christ Apostles. The passages which they expressly in slavery will be examined hereafter. or pawned. on which tliey carried and good their Rom. make no "slaves were held civil law.^ pp.— PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE. * As Rome. Slavery. I. nullis j!??'o much worse in the state.

The illustration slave has drawn from what with the servants of sin. we may cite — Luke XVII. in reference to the custom of purchasing slaves. but the son abideth ever . quoted in Cooper's Justinian. family . he cannot be alienated from the N. is no claim to remain continually abide in : it whereas. the parable of the wicked husbandmen. of Civil Law. the parable of the improfitable servant {doulos. THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. VL 20. at in the same the liberty of sons of God will Thus family. and as such they were esteemed they might be tortured for evidence. for goods they were. . be excluded from God's house and favor. into outer darkness T. were personal estate. at the pleasure of his owner. VIL 22. p. it is any time. maltreat. '' St.''" Jno. and even put many'other civil incapacities by to death which I his authority . see § G) Luke !^X. 9-18. i^crvaiits. be sold unto another. 35. " who and then their lord's servant {doulos) Whosoever committeth the servant of sin. just as upon any other commodity. 7-10. first abideth not in the house for ever. punished at the discretion of tlieir lord." Taylor's Elm. usual in com- but may. 31:." who have Bloowfeld's ." his lord doeth. who may. 15. 411. on whose head a price was then fixed. and who.— — 14 . those for ever. when bought. '' Henceforth I the servant {doulos) call you not knoweth not what have called you friends. and the servant {doulos) is gill. . "Here we have an * mon life. Not so the son. for XV. Paul. VIII. but I Evident reference to slavery on the part of the Apostles we have in 1 Cor. together with have not room to enumerate. his sou Jno.

persons entirely and for as life devoted to his service. for murderers of fathers and murderers of " mothers. represents Christians as ex23i'essive And the servants (douloi) of Christ. for . YI. With the Apostles the word servant [douloi) word no let body the trouble me. 10 made is : for a " righteous man. tliat — signi- now under examination that contained in 1 Tim. a crime uni- . 17. liars. 9." On the word andrajwdistcds Bloomfield remarks " Expositors are agreed that the Vv^ord means kidnap- ping free persons to be sold as slaves.' Rom. Jude. is 1. and bound to implicit obedi(See ence. '' — Knowing 1 . for " them man-slayers. tile 15 property of the pnrcliaser. the law is not I. but for the lawless and disobedient. that defile themselves with " STEALERS (cindrcijoodistais)^ for " persons. this. and if mankind. writes man '' : From henceforth of the Lord Jesus. for unholy and " 2:)rofane.' " my metrics Ilovneh Introduction. in Gal.) significant allusion to slavery ficant in so far as the point concerned I.— — — : PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE. for I bear in is a favorite for setting forth the relation Vvhich they sus- tained to Christ. But the most I. for whoremongers. " for the ungodly and for sinners. 2 Pet. 1 . for men- for perjured there be any other thing that is con- " trary to sound doctrine. alluding to the signatures with which slaves in those days were branded. by a very beautiful and similitude.

whilst in the same Thessalians. 10. and. according to Aristophanes. or if ' See also Deut. had known the Holy Scriptures." Paul writes XXY." Ant. T. punished with death. — must and when of the deepest dye. were notorious for But if and education. and always the countries adjacent to that in which when Paul wrote this epistle to is one always made. Old New Testa. XXIY. death. slave-holding 44-J:G.) whilst " capital crime. ." ment was not written to be —Ex. XXL him. "The for the this distinction 1. to man and he be found in his hand. And selleth him. —the 16. Patrick^ condemned. express ^^ between slave-holding and kid- distinction napping in Timothy was him we have testimony that kidnapping prevailed. in so far as the laws of slave-holding states. (i. and selling them any person was convicted of having betrayed a freeman. he was severely punished by Solon's laws.— — — " THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. in Timothy's childhood have been familiar with sins ' Timothy. to 7. e." Potter's Gr. The And BloonifielcVs iV. in giving a catalogue of stealing persons of ingenuous birth as slaves. was expressly authorized. mentions " man-stealing among crimes * Bj). who " from a Testament Scriptures. (Lev. 16 versally regarded as of the deepest dye. quoted in § 3. of course. kidnapping was made a he that stealeth a he shall surely be put in Under Moses' law though he had not actually sold him child we know.

would be suggested made (see inevit- in Moses' law con- tinued under the Gospel dispensation. 1-5. and this the 17 to teach slaves to more heartily when obey their the masters are Christian men.PRESUMPTIVE EVroENCE. and to withdraw himself from any who should teach a different 1 Tim.) the idea ably that the distinction doctrine. YI. . epistle lie requires him masters.

possession. jou have us so as and for an III. 6. the clotdos was one bound to serve slave — and was the property of his master. the latter being ."— Phil. fore.' as Aristotle calls him. there- servant. are alike translated servant. servant. § DouLos. pr. was never a hired 18 The ' — a living doulos. by birth. APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. IT. be followers " mark them which walk " example. There are several Greek words used by the sacred writers which. as preparatory to an intelligent decision of the question.a CHAPTER 11. in our English version of the IsTew One Testament. What do teach respecting slavery " Doulos Christ and his Apostles ? —A 'bondman^ slave. together of me. it will of be necessary to examine. them. the word Doulos. "Brethren. In a family.

1. iT.. Ant. Barnes is one among the few writers called this definition of djoulos in question little show. /wV<?c^ hondman servant. ^'^ Dr. and called misthios See Potter's q.s APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. also translated servant in our English version.^'' His definition of " one in a permanent relation of servitude to another. used denotes a 'bond-servant^ usually for substantively. Lexicon. of the " (i. Eph. as stated — " The word {doulos) own . —Hodge adds — " misthotosy Hodge It : or who was on Eph. v. between the word doulos and several other words.." doidos. Qnisthotos^ 19 —BohinsoTi's " Doulos^ from deo^ to bind. signifying distinction Eom. Dr. And 5. servus^ art. both from the meaning of the terms here used and from the known historical throughout the Roman age.. For the hound. is : reason an examination of his The case. Ant. means a from a slave^ as distinguished and called misthios VI. who have with how authority will by himself in his " ITotes. Dictionary Gr. I. that this e. adjective. of Ant. was pro- but. is evident. the reader can consult " Trench'' Synonyms of the doulos is New Testament. 5-9) and other passages New Testament The word perly an fact that slavery prevailed empire during the apostolic refer to that institution." is that which is commonly . Adam's Eom. YI. contracted for deolos. liiQ^—Bloomfield's iT. T. T.

for in God's people Rev. 5 is 1. to it Mark. zy—Barnes' 20. 17 its signifi- species of servitude. 3. 1 . X. 1 27 II. 41. . Acts. 27. Jude. 1. . mtes. But whosoever him be your 15. in the parable of the tares. for the setting forth the fact that they life devoted to God's service. 29.. . YII. XYI. 29. among XX. YII. Eom. 2 Cor. B. 20. 20 applied to a slave^ but it is so extensive in any cation as to be applicable to There whether voluntary or involuntary. THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. the mean- ing of the word doulos slave ^ in the On is positively determined to be by the use of the corresponding term despotas same sentence. II.. 1 Tim. its which — viz. see § 5. 17. Of these fourteen instances thus quoted six— viz. II. nothing is limits XX. Four are instances applied in the same Luke. 1. Rev. . in the word itself which essentially Examine Matt. slavery. 1 by Barnes. II.) and the chief we give the word doulos any other than what Dr. I. lY. 1 . will be great minister {diakonos) . XIII. admits to be ''common" it is meanins:. 2 Cor. 1. VI. lY. XIII. XYI. 27 you. lY. XY. Jno. 18. let : — •" For Jno. way 18 to . IL 29 Acts. IL . Rom. Acts.. Matt. 1 . lY. 5 . 29. 27. — are instances in which it used figuratively. Eev. XY. by themselves or either others. and applied to the Apostles. 1. (see § beauty of the figure is purpose of were entirely and destroyed if 5. 15. Jude. Luke. Matt.

joiir servant" {doulos). The Apostles Received Slave-Holdeks into THE ChpJSTIAN ChURCH. same words. record 'parallel remarks : of — And the Mark. . THAT Slave-Holding was a Sin before God. ing a servant like owy footman or valet^ and nsiially a freeman slaved . § 1. in- instead of setting aside. VI. W^ITHOUT GIVING ANT INTIMATION EITHER AT THE TIME OF THEIR RECEPTION. 1.APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. IV. Col. 2. OR AFTERWARDS. stances cited Z" can All these by Dr. or to be accounted an offence by the Church. 2. a servant for For an all work. be the is — Bloomlield There is properly a the former si^nifv- . the reader consult " Treiicli's Syn. — " Dlakonos—doulos. the latter. II. X. VL 9. AND CONTINUED THEM THEREIN. difference 21 . as beautifully illustrated in the parable of the marriage-supper. Barnes.— J5?A. and also a illustration of this difference in the meaning of the two words. between these terms let liim 4-i. when examined. of iY. 1 Tim. and whosoever will be chief among yon. Philemon I. Proof. do but establish the meaning assigned to the word doulos by all our lexicographers and commentators of reputation.

YI. have enjoined I ^ (') 5) in the it upon them you. forbearing threatening ter also is in heaven . in so far only as they bear upon the point under examination at the time they are quoted. are the titles by which the mem- bers of the Christian Church were nated in the Apostle's days. " forbearing threatening " also in is heaven . 9. The titles. —And ye masters^ who are saints and faithful in Christ Jesus slaves {douloi^ which Y. .. Epii.* •» Masters who are saints and faithful in ]^0TEs. Agioi. so become a used but three times in the of the epistles are addressed distracting the reader's attention. had not then common New * designation Testament. neither is that yom. commonly The name generally used in later times. {See I. 1. we shall give a para- phrase of the passages of Scripture quoted in proof. and Pistoi^ faithfuls or believers.) treat same Christian : neither knowing is your spirit in that they treat that your mas- there respect of per- son* with him." Paraphrase. " 1 ' And ye do the same things unto them. knowing . inastors.— 22 THE CHKISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY.master there respect of persons " with him. saints.(') Christ Jesus. To avoid : it is Some desig- Christian.

to ^' the chiiTclies^'' others to '^ e. by the to the saints which are the faithful in Christ Jesus^'' I. 2). your slaves {douloi) that which knowing that ye also 1. The propriety of the para- phrase will appear. but whicli would be it folly to present to a heathen. give unto your servants that whicli is "just and equal. Eom. Tim. 23 Gal. 1 — Erom (2) motive with whicli Paul enforces obedience injunction: —"knowing that ye heaven neither . 1. and 1 and 2 Thess. From epistle will of to : — " Paul. g. 2. "And is saints I. Col. YI. just and give unto and equal. God. great effect in addressing a Christian master . and 1 this epistle to the Ephesians. (1) the address of the an Apostle of Jesus Christ. the saints ^^^ ov 'Hhe saints or lelievers^^ e. g." Paraphrase. and faithful^ and 2 Cor. —Ye masters (who are faithful brethren in Christ at Colosse. let them' . at Ephesus. have a master in heaven. IY. knowing that ye also have a master " in heaven. they that have believing masters. is also and the to his have a master in there respect of persons with him :" a motive w^hich might be urged wdth.. .. APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. " Masters.

and of God. because they tlieir are partakers in the benefits of their and heloved Q) {agapatoi) labor. such slaves. for though all Christians are equal as to religious privileges. {adeljyhoi) in Christ. These things teach " and exliort. fancying that they are their equals. elect. because they .— 24 THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. hrethren. are faithful {pistoi) These things teach in the Church. he- have ever been applied etc. saints. Wherefore. e. And let them do them so. par- takers of the benefit. because they are advanced to be brethren. exliort Christian slaves to observe some words.. partakers of the benefit." Paraphrase. let thera not despise them. . equal to service." V. because they are their brethren in Christ . because they of the household of faith) and beloved of God. not despise them. as " whole- Lord Jesus Christ." those Christian slaves who have beUeving Wldthy. let them not despise them. but " rather do them service.. because they are faithful and " beloved. e. masters. but rather. even the words of the them. and them in Christ are faithful (i. let them serve their masters more diligently. God. 1) tliat —And they (i. sons of * " And titles. V.* IToTEs. " as These things teach and exhort. slaves are inferior to their masters in station. they that have believing masters. 3. douloi^ have believing {pistons) masters.(') —"The loved. because they are who let them hrethren (') but the rather do them service. because tliey are brethren . " not despise them.

" " (') fellow-soldier. " Paul. 2. . unto our dearly beloved Philemon. to teach and exhort thine hearers always to maintain a due regard to them. 110." Paraphrase. and with respect to sacred privileges equal in Christ their conimon Lord with so to McKnight. These things teach . because they are faithful and beloved. and to the Church in " thy house." 2 Doddridge. —Paul." Cole7na7i's 25 of believers. ou7' fellow-minister {simergos) m the Church. the special prerogative Christians. and respect. and Archippus our who and to our beloved Apphia. I. . and to " Archippus our fellow-soldier. and our beloved Apphia. let who practise are so happy as to have believing them not presume upon because they ai'e much that account to despise them brethren. and beloved of God. our dearly beloved and " fellow-laborer .— — — APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. and to the Church enjoy the benefit of their service. and partakers with them of the great and glorious benefit which the Gospel brings to of whatever rank or profession in been mentioning. a prisoner of Jesus Christ. tenderness. unto Philemon. all its faithful professors. and Timothy our "brother. take care. life. but let them rather serve them the greater care. p. a prisoner for the cause of Jesus Christ. These things which I have Timothy. or professing Ancient Christianity^ Philemon. are believers. and Timothy our brother. and exhort the brethren And as for those servants masters. them.

his pious consort." McKnight. confined with a chain for preaching Christ Jesus to the Gentiles. Archippus. our dearly beloved and fellow-laborer. A Smiergos. helper in the Christian work. co-worker. "Paul. and our fellow-laborer in the Gospel. write unto Philemon. or Preacher to the congregation uncertain. and Timothy our brother. helper. Lexicon. and to the church in thy house. a brother. JS^. and the Doddridge. "Paul. and Timothy. and Timothy.—— —— — THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. '•'' In helper. BloomfieWs N. Redecmor.*' ." e. T. spoken only of a co-worker." is assembling in his house. JRoMnso7i''s {swiergos) in the i. not unknown. join in their salutations to Philemon our beloved friend.) whether as a Deacon. the beloved of to that all part who know her. to Philemon the beloved of us both."— IFAi^iy. of Christian teachers. a well-known prisoner in the cause of Christ Jesus. and to our beloved Apphia. fellow-laborer. our lirothcr-ministcr. (in T. * " Paul. " Literally. "Archippus. and one of the Pastors of the Colossian and we also address thorn to Apphia." 26 which statedly assembles for GotVs worship in thy * house. (^) Our fellow-minister KoTES-O Church. and pious fellow-laborer in the work of the Gospel of our blessed Church and . T. IST. and Archippus our fellow-soldier. and to Apphia. and to of Jhe Church at Colosse which is in thy h^use. the cause of the Gospel. little church of . our fellow-soldier in that holy warfare in which Christians tliat is in we are engaged thine liouse. to his associate in the ministry. a prisoner of Jesus Clirist. and to Archippus our fellow-soldier.

wo/'shij? XYI. to have been a Pastor of The the Church of Colosse. ' the in their house^ are understood by Greek and modern commentators.) and the general strain of the letter shows. Breth- . First. The Ckurch which 5. makes it probable that he was his He colleague in the ministry. given Philemon. church that many mean of the their to On a similar phrase in Hodge remarks is Phil. giving to slave-holders the an titles.— — — APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. Remabks. (ver. Tholuck. —In these several passages w^e find inspired Apostle. and looked upon him one of the great supports of religion in that society. hints given in the Epistle. words. ' / so Calvin.) and made of his liberal con- tribution to the relief of the saints." (") in thy house. 2. to distinction of fellow-laborer. 5. Christian faraily Koppe. that the Apostle held as him in very high esteem. &c. title seems from several have been a person of particularly from the mention : the Church in his house. 27 appears from Col. (ver. Dr. ral interpretation is. T . Doddridge^ Int. lY. The most common and natuthe church which " to assemble in their house. statedly assemhlesfor God's : — " These Rom. " Saints^ Faithfid in Christ Jesus. to Flatt. Believers.' is accustomed Hodge on Bomans. IT.

VI. Whatever may be the passage before us only man who was a slave-holder might be converted. Barnes be inferred from this passage that he (Paul) meant to teach that they (masters) might continue yet be entitled to to the Christian all tlie this (i. respect and confidence due points. sending like salvation " to the Church in his house. members Dearly Beloved^^ of the which as it titles by which and enjoining npon them . by masters Christian And motives in their — motives folly to have addressed to in the case of Philemon.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRIXE OF SLAVERY. addres- Deacon or Pastor in the would have been heathen men. seeing in their slave-holding nothing inconsistent with " having a good conscience before God" and Second. ? Dr. as many have in the believer. — " Nor is it foirly to 2. and be sj)oken of as proves that Paul considered that a a ' Many have been concircumstances. the Church were commonly designated the Apostles' day duties call sing a slave-holder as a Christian Church. and along with his salutation to him.' or a Christian. 28 ren^ Beloved." Could we have clearer evidence than this that the Apostles received slave-holders into the Church. verted in similar . or be regarded as maintaining a good standing in the Church. true on these e. writes : " good standing" in the Church In his Xotcs on 1 Tim. and continued them therein. slave-holding) and name.

d. 2. power of the Gospel should be may be tried a model Church. B. VI.." The quotations are Dr. 1-5. he spends therefore. a. Barnes hijpa- and that " the * " of 1 Tim.) he adds not teach that a man that point. (see Barnes' Int. italics in these insinuation.APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. It —" It does can be a Christian and continue hold others in bondage. Colossians." ^ that this full and being our witness-in-chief? The Apostle. Dr. their duty after their conversion was another ques- And tion. Ill the case church at to Philemon. —Paul founds a Ephesus." in the summary of the truth taught in the whole passage." What are the facts in this case. or rather the clear implication contained in these paragraphs masters.'s own.) full there. (ver. to 1 Tim. seems to liave been anxious that power of the Gospel should be tried there. and those of the passages similar in import in the epistles to the Ephesians. 29 What was practice of all other kinds of iniquity." here spoken of. 55. whatever to : may be true on does not teach that he ought to be considered as maintaining a 'good standing' in the Church if he continues The to be a slave-holder. self 1. tlie and that Ephosus . and were required to free their slaves before they could be permitted " to maintain a good standing in the Church. is that the " believing were slave-holders only at the time of their conversion.

or that they were not " entitled to all the respect and confidence due to the Christian name. " helievers. there are slave-holders in known and in writing it.d.— THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. ?>0 years with tliree wliole from house this time he them" is who Timothy. at the is leaves II. that they their " believing masters") the more faithfully. has served with him in the Gospel. Paul wrote his First Epistle to Timothy. to . 68 or 59 Three years then. as important as a centre of influence in the Christian had been in paganism and civil affairs. also se^'ve them members (i. profitable to " teaching publicly and it. keeping back nothing that was to house. and treat them with the more respect.) he writes Timothy. In the case of '' —^beloved of God. 9." he requires Timothy to teach their slaves. 20). VI. Paul speaks of them as this fact." —From four seven brethren Eph. to years after." Barnes^ Int." (Phil. his First Epistle to Church the end of " as a son with the father. (Acts. their pastor. but this. model after this founded by Paul. away from Ephesus. (a. sliould become world as it Epheaians. e. hrethren^ faithful^ and helomdP far And he from intimating that they ought is to so be excluded from the Chnrch. driven XX. —Barnes. yet laboring in Ephesus. and to Timothy. because they are their 2. is well to Paul. Shortly after At least. in charge. of the same Church. 22).

parents and children. Church at at Colosse.) he addresses an epistle to Philemon. he addresses slave-holders as faithful brethren in Christ. 4. (see Barnes' Int. which Paul writes —At the same time his epistle to the and by the same person. and enforces these his directions Christian motives." he specially addresses masters and slaves. giving them the titles and Faithful in Christ Jesus.. 3. (See Barnes' Int. 2. to in this intimating that they ought not to model Church. his " dearly be- . writes during his second imj^risonment at Rome. he writes an it 31 epistle to tlie Churcli at Ephesus. epistle to this this epistle Church. I. IV. Ill the case of direction. as classes of Church members.) Slave-holders are and Paul still cognizant of this is (See Barnes' Int.APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE.D. resj^ecting Col. Ii the case of Phil. 52. —Paul. 1.) In " saints and Some ten to thirteen years afterwards." and repeats '' Saints to Christ- ian slaves the same their conduct which he had before given by Timothy. he writes an to Col. to Col. A. along with husbands and wives. and shortly before his martyrdom. found a Church at Colosse. But instead of fact. Eph. 53. in conjunction with Silas and Timothy. '' be regarded as maintaining a good standing in the Church. by but says not one word about emancipation." and carefully prescribes the relative duties of masters and slaves as Christian men. in substance.

will not affect the case. to a slave. but he writes in terms which. 19). 32 loved sunergos^^ deacon or ('' Bloomfield^ ' preacliei*- Dod- " one of the pastors of the chnrch at Colosse" dridge)^ sendhig back him Onesimus. not only without any intimation that his slave-holding was inconsistent with his "good standing" in the Church. did reguest his master to grant under examination con- admit. we own him his freedom. then. Onesimus was sent back as Dr. contends. and he writes to this Paul knows Philemon an to meet all this. at the least. who had some time before run away from him. and who. in and even that Paul desire. that accordance with his If It had only. Colosse w^as founded by Paul not as worthy members deacon or pastor (ver. ten years. Home. Is all this reconcilable with the idea that a slave- holder. but now clear. the after it is it Church at slave-holders. as an honest man. B. in so far as the point that is concerned. a slave-holding one of Paul's own converts and one of such standing in the Church that a part of that Church was accustomed for divine worship in his house. he could not have used had he thought Pliilemon an unworth}^ office-bearer in the Church. had been hopefully whilst a fugitive in verted through Paul's instrumentality. though " ho might be converted —as many . also. epistle of wdiich slave-holding furnishes the occasion.— — THE CHRISTIAN DOCTJRINE OF SLAVERY.

which now I in times past profitable to thee have sent again thou there- . that . but " and to me whom . were of neces- For perhaps he therefore " departed for a season. —Philemon. have been in the practice of quity —yet Church § 8. aftek the Slave's hopeful Conversion. a brother beloved. but willingly. me in the But without thy mind would " that thy benefit should not be as " sity. but above a unto thee both in the flesh and in 2- . mine own bowels is whom son Onesimus. especially to me. Proof. it bonds of the I do nothing. that thou shouldest receive " him '' seivant. to his Christian Master again. but " how much more for ever . that in thy stead he " might have ministered unto '' Gospel. and assigns as his reason for so DOING THAT MaSTEr's RIGHT TO THE SERVICES OF HIS Slave. "I beseech thee for my " have begotten in my bonds " was to thee unprofitable. 10-19. : whom I " would have retained with me. other kinds of ini- maintain a good standing " in conlcl not the Christian all 33 in the Aj^ostles' day ? Paul sent back a Fugitive Slave. I " fore receive him. not now as a servant.APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE.

34: " tlie Lord " receive If ? him tlioii count me therefore a partner." I it with mine own do not say even thine own to . 5. beseech thee (Philemon) for my son in the faith. YI. but believe. 23. In time past. that in thy stead he might have rendered mine imprisonment which I me that service in know thou wouldst most Pome.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. though called Onesimus. But cheerfully have done hadst thou been in that I I might not even seem had a right to compel thee. have written " repay it albeit. " or oweth thee aught. hand.) as As lie I have sent I entreat thee to receive Had hath served his sj^iritual father Christian duty^ bowels. 1 would do nothing of the kind loithout thine expi^ess consent. I. I would have kept him with me. If he hath as myself. " owest unto me Paraphrase. whom I have begotten in my bonds. as I have confidence in him. but in singleness of heart. wronged thee. (^) and mine own wishes." —I Paul.(^) . even where to expect assistance from thee. version. I now that he has been truly converted. I will thee how thou self besides. he has been an unprofitable slave to {profitable ^) thee .{^) in. and not thy rights. that he will en- I him him as regarded mine it "heart- me since his con- and instructor in hach to thee one that own is ." (Col. . 6. Onesimus.) doing ily. deavor to serve thee '' not with eye service. put that on mine account " Paul." (Eph.

and of the Church worshipping in thy house. along with his diligent and willing service for the future. to even more dear to thee. not as a fugitive slave {do2dos). and if sent back.* beseech thee for ray son Onesimus. past I own with mine my account. to me : Whom if received. that thou shouldst have him again for Ufe. or detained without thy leave. converted to the faith — when I was in whom I have begotten my bonds which in time : was to thee an unprofitable servant. and not to be employed by others. thou yet thinkest that he hath thee in to thee. sav — that is. become especially dear to me. thou owest me. thee. will be I have sent again unto thee. Onesi- shall say mns escaped from thee for a season. in God's providence. I doubt not. I own hand.— APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. and. I will God made me not to say to thee. he being as dear to me as if I he had . Thou therefore receive him— him. profitable to thee.i^) Eeceive him back into thy family again. even. better than an ordinary slave. count me him therefore a partner. receive taking into account his former unprofitableness to If. {doulos. I beseech thee. that as the instrument in thine thine wronged running away^i^) or in any way he hath be- come indebted i.Q) to be regarded with suspicion and treated with severity but. If thou as myself. Who 35 but that. he being in duty thine.) a brother. but now. mine own bowels. as one . put that to Paul have written repay it : this * " e. self to own conversion. as a member of thy family.

by whom thou wast converted. that thou shouldst receive him for ever him. even Onesimus. as is were a matter of necessity. be very profitable to thee. and who on that account is very dear to me. that in thy stead he might have ministered unto me 1 nature this who received from him it But without thy mind would being in the bonds of the Gospel. even as he has own is to desire. but above a servant. by his faith affectionate services. by thine For perhaps he grant. but how much more unto thee." and we can only sense which tlie is proceeded from mine own bowels wliom : I assign to would willingly have retained with me. Do thou one who Him I therefore receive is have sent back to thee by him mine own bowels. to serve thee for now That thou shouldst receive life. even thine sides. or oweth thee aught. specially (or. not e. particularly) to me. formerly was to thee an unprofit- " By all begat iu able slave. and as e." I will own hand. but now' having ful. wronged thee in anything. receive his conversion. on thy part. i. as being also in Christ a brother beloved. been to me since his embraced the Gospel. be- — Whitby. do nothing of . because thou couldst not have him own returned to |hee. these considerations I beseech thee for my son.. — i. he will. that thy benefit (or the advantage I thy servant) should not be. repay it albeit I : : I so have entered into do not say to thee. that son.— — THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY.. receive him as myself. put that on mine account Paul have written it with mine a solemn obligation that i. insist upon it. therefore a own self. whom I my bonds. whom I acknowledge. or the well-being of thy soul. If thou count me If he have partner in thy friendship. a part of me. e. I say. as a servant only. 00 As he hath served me since his conversion. therefore departed from thee for a season. into thy family my . but willingly. both in the flesh being of thy family and of ihy foith. JSToTES-C) This is McKiiiglit's paraphrase of ''profitable to me. how thou owest unto me. and in the Lord.. . say.

that." my not say to thee." to in these the Gospel. with mine This I have done. in thy might have performed those of what thou owest to dif- stands connected with different it same sentence Being so useful to me. by who affection. place it all to to entitle thee to payment. give him the same reception which thou wouldst give And to myself. I Paul have written hand. whatever me title I had to bonds of thou hadst if on account his services. without giving to the same ferent senses. considered as a soul which God hath given me at such a to sea- . will. as a brother. stead. both fidelity. that perhaps was separated from thee for a . that in urging all. be inclined to favor. little while. consider. or oweth thee in the And own way of borrowing. life .— APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. without me." and offices to me But. thou owest me even McKnight. as a partaker of thy affection. whose Gospel. bonds . '^ wish to detain him with myself. but as proceeding from thine own good To mitigate thy resentment. I will repay thee thee to pardon Onesimus I thine own self besides. and that account. "I entreat thee concerning begotten to Christ in account. as an Apostle of Christ suflFering for knowing thy mind. How much more religion. will serve If thou then hold than before? me for his by nation and to thee. which thou thyself wouldst have performed been at Rome. may my it a certain son of mine. that thy he would do good deed in pardoning him might not be as extorted. have upon knowing how dear he must be me. that no longer as a slave only even a beloved Christian brother and have been indebted his worth. I is. if he hath injured thee anything by running away. he word nothing to encourage him to stay with slave he me . whom I whom hope thou I wilt. also for this reason he thou mightest have him thy slave for but above a slave who know m^e services. 37 the expression. and . to especially to him thee with more understanding. as parts of the I : " to thee.

XXI. negligent of thy business. if I it. and I trust will be. so as daily to give increasing satisfaction to us both to me : whom. that thou mightest receive him and enjoy him and useful whose to the for ever ear. I him with readiness and receive. is as it Hebrew custom. between masters and their slaves shall cea&e. signifies profit. here rendered " sent again. might have been do thou therefore receive Receive him did affection." and his spiritual father^ And may it is no other than thy servant Onesimus . as it with him wherever he goes. profitable both to thee and to me. is. to carry the heart of Paul along Whom indeed I was desirous to have kept neir me. bored to the door of thine house. that he might have officiated for thee. the justice to believe. did not formerly answer to (Onesimus. I therefore return for perhaps he thou wert in this affair without thy express him by necessity. Ex. how agreeable and here.) " for he was once unprofitable to thee. where . (to allude 6. and in thy stead attended upon me in the bonds I suffer for the sake of the Gospel Philemon. as a servant. that thy benefit might not seem extorted appear a voluntary opportunity . my own : a person I say ? nay rather whom I so tenderly were. But I would do nothing this kind. that it useful soever he have sent back to thee again were. all that he might not only be dear life. . to thee. who so allude to his name. and so conscious of thy displeasure that he fled from But he now it. bowels . by the permission of Providence to this very end." Robin-" word son as this. found a pious pleasure in every ministration of near me.) source of eternal delight to thee. but by the to thee was separated from thee first for a while. —Note. during all the remainder of his distinctions but that he might indeed be a in that infinitely better world.— : THE CHRISTIAIi DOCTKENE OF SLAVERY. as love. 38 As (') Christian duty^ I have sent him hack instructor in Of to thee. act. indeed. if consent. the anapempo. thou wouldst have for I do thee. were. he may seem.

now.) as account. for his former him merely as a common brother. give thee again upon demand. as I me. done unto him. and do hereby." Doddridge. mean the time. I beseech thee to receive him as thou wouldst myself. he sent him to you I (Pilate) sent nothing worthy of death lo. : higlier tribunal. again. but flesh relation. own . or son. as standing much more dear and honorable in another. and wilt have the pleasure of discerning how happy temper and character faults servant. little making thee a If he have injured thee in any pecuniary matter. a beloved some time a very how much more and use- so to in the Lord. if I could have the satisfaction of to thee in far as it written I hope."— even that world of complete liberty and everlasting friendship. '•'1. receive him not now frowned upon. my was the happy instrument of thy conversion to Christ. and kept at a distance. To send up before a Luke XXIII. it made him it I Paul have were. has been the case. To send lack 39 to is him (Herod) to and . especially to me. to be long ? a change Christianity hath If therefore. thou esteem me made in his as a friend and a companion in Christ. as I will substance will go. charge it with my own legal security for it. as having been for ful attendant upon whom thee. thou owest even thine self to per visit in consequence of any former extravagances and which divine grace hath. knew soon as he (Pilate) For Herod. as thou him. 2. to remit. but as above a servant. . 11 I*liilemon . 7. son gives this definition " 11. that he (Jesus) Herod's jurisdiction.— APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. 15. (of truly sensible. to hast so long more me in my afflictions he belongs both in the known particularly nor treat . a In as a fugitive slave." As belonged — —Luke XXIII. as far as to say to thee thus. hand. to my pay Not it is indebted foUies.

"— Luke XXIII." to mean. 40 Luke XXIII." the only consistent interpretation of the expression presented in the paraphrase. I love and my children . and we So Doddridge para- think. requires us to understand Paul. (*) Shoiddest receive him again for use of the expression {aionios) ''for to slaves." I would do nothing of the kind without thine When express consent. to ment usage. that he had used some authority in returning Onesimus his master. again (Herod) sent him (Jesus) New Pilate. as a fugitive slave. I will not 6 : life. For this ever^"' as applied if the ser- —" And my my master. phrases the clause. (^) ir shall serve . See also Deut. Not : and through with an awl him for ever^ XXY. Ex. have sent again. since . 11. correctly. sajs. Lev. " Paul thy min-d would I do nothing. 46. vant shall plainly say. 15. see Sep. XXI. Testa- then. THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. go out free master shall bring him unto the judges : . 5. And as an Apostle idea of acting '' as a Lord in God's heritage. or unto the door-post his master shall bore his ear and he XT. " and instructor (') As is that his spiritual father in Christian duty.— . " I when he And " 7. wife. writes." him to indignantly repels the But without we must understand what he has written in the verse as referring to preceding. then his he shall also bring him unto the door.

(') 41 his subsequent from other sources. relation to him. many infer that Onesi- crimes to Phil. as Lardner observes. thee this sort. commonly received by returned severe. . injured The words will pretation. But of no evidence this there is think the expression. or perhaps fieWs N. Adikase may apply to the having wronged his master by depriving him of his services during his absence. Many are of opinion that Onesimus robbed his master before he ran we off. Paul here speaking immediately of Onesimus' is by reception his master. But the recent commentators seem right in thinking that the terms will scarcely authorize us to suppose this. by the loss fairly bear this inter- then. by idleness before. to " From these words. 18. mus had been guilty of robbery as well as desertion. T. thee in ^ But the Apostle might mean." Bloom- . ver. that the treatment fugitives was very Hath and not of And we know.— — — APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. impute men without proof?" M^KnigMs Int. Why unless If he have injured anything^ contain an insinuation of of his services. " loronged thee in rimning away.

{See Paraphrases of Whitby and Doddridge on this point. when setting made of this epistle.) . REMARKS. did not become a freeman by embracing was still Christianity. who had in his bonds. of his own slave in also the belonged to 'because it the way him to dispose he thought proper. highly worthy of our namely. such as expressed a great inclination to stay with although if him . Philemon on notice tliis occasion Apostle wrote to the : is Philemon. yet the Apostle will by no means detain Onesimus without Philemon's leave.'^'^ Whitby and Doddridge on {See Paraphrases of this point also. he would only have discharged the duty which Phile- mon himself owed to his spiritual father. and Onesimus had remained with him. makes no alteration in he writes men's : forth the uses to be —" Christianity political state. unless his master gave him his freedom. but obliged to be Philemon's slave for ever. —In his preface to M'Knight writes — " What this Epistle to First.42 THE CHKISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY." And subsequently. the slave.) Such was the Ap(?Stle's regard to justice and the rights of mankind. Onesimus. Slaves should not be taken^ nor detained from their masters^ without their inaster'^s consent. that although he had great need of : an affectionate and honest servant to minister to him Onesimus was.

"whom —Dr. 7. The language to go. 7. to brother and companion in labor. Epaphro- and Tychicus were sent by Paul. 12. to which on the expression. nor upon the sent there any more reason is Barnes^ Notes. fact that the ti-anslated sent in Phil. lY. "There 1. in these instances." T 43 makes (ver. are not the same with that used in Philemon.) /<9?. posed it letter to Colosse. 25. and that Paul sent go and bear a Comp. 8. the one to —in virtue of his Apos- commentators are agreed. Second. 25. the other to Colosse tolic authority. not the slightest evidence that he is (Paul) compelled him (Onesimus)." ]^ot to dwell will. Tychicus declare unto you. to his request.' against their own to think that Onesimus was.' is him agreeably Phil. him or even urged would have just such as is been used on the supposition either that he requested him to mus desired to go. 11.— APOSTOLIC P^XAMPLK. 12. and therefore cannot properly that word ditus : be appealed We remark. lY. who a beloved brother. and a faithful minister and fellow-servant in the Lord : whom I have sent unto But Epa]3hroditus and Tychicus were not you. we remarks. Greek words and Col. as all to in interpreting . Not Philippi. Barnes. in his notes have sent again. — Col. II.r will briefly turn the reader's attention. or that Onesi- necessary to send ' my All state shall 'Yet I sup- my you Epaphroditus.

" (qy. unless authority . away from could he have sent him. there is no evidence that Paul even told him Colosse against his own have sent him away requested it." inclination. is so comment from us. and he had no him. he . 1st. against their will. no civil he had no guard to accompany him to go to means of ing he had no How him from controlling any other place than could indeed have sent him himself. Could he not have sent him to Colosse in the same way?) " he could have told to go to Colosse . The quibble involved 3. taught they were' worthy Christian if of the Spirit of God submit to themselves to one set over them in the Lord not. may have been many reasons why . to send Onesimus back to to go. or that at all. on that account. simus then could have gone where he pleased. by Paul the Apostle. if he chose He Colosse. guard or sheriff. to convey him? 2d. 2. the less sent yet . but there his power ended. in virtue of that authority which Christ had conferred upon him calling in him the to Apostleship. ministers. to him One- in this note of Dr. " Paul had no power he chose his master. see- civil authority.— 44 THE CHRISTIAN DOCTKINE OF SLAVERY. He had could intrust him to no sheriff to convey place to place. unless evident as to need no " There But go to he would he had himself Barnes' Notes. B.

if he can ourselves. man who. B. and in consequence of have been poor and a may have been stran- greatly disap- pointed in what he had expected to find there he left Philemon. him was not his sending He may such request. therefore. '^ It may be added. and may have when desired to return to the comparative comforts of his former condition. after his conversion. him or to Paul as case.— APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. Onesimus desired can prove that and that lie and no one to return to Colosse. 4. 45 ger in Kome. is before his conversion. and who. B. much respect memory both of Paul and far too stronger term) for the (to for use no his convert Onesimus to admit any such explanation of their conduct as this. If this reason for Onesimus' return be admitted to be the true one. that should not be adduced over a run-away to justify slave to induce any him this sort to passage of influence return to his . presents it. we have . we remark. the whole transaction does very little that of a credit either to The Christian men. did not express that desire to Paul. has over- reached himself in attempting to over-reach a Christian brother. takes advantage of his Christian profession to throw the bad bargain upon the hands of the Christian brother whom he had attempted to wrong. believe this of an Apostle of Jesus. may Dr. as Dr." Barnes'' Notes.

is perhaps quite as away. B. signification imply the use of some it occasionally has fugitive slaves " Scriptural Yiews come Dr. he never " uses them would sort of influence.— THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY." p. and of late years. makes to It run Philemon. 324). would be met by the supposition that he was hound to Philemon.. Paul did If Paul did not " use any sort of influence over Onesimus to induce him to return to his former mean by writing ''whom I Even giving the word the most master. B. that ." what does he have sent again?" limited possible. are surprised that Dr. as We it is common for slaves^'' for apprentices to —Barnes'' Int. nothing elaeP—Barnes^ Notes. not Dr. " There is no certain evidence Onesimus was ever a slave ver. is ever appealed to. made such so little use of a it ." I should publish the statement to certainly of Slavery. 16. any sort of influence to —Dr. to him. writes Dr. " All that is stated of at all. B. 46 There former master. If this instance should be to justify what it — and. is not the least evidence that this occurred in the case before us. either by his parents or guardians." him Notes on in this epistle. cry out npon comes me as a slanderer ? But. him —would induce Barnes sends to his master every fugitive slave that back (see Supposing to return to their former masters. having pregnant discovery as this. B.

suggest more ingenious —not to say ingenuous than the remark that Paul could not have sent One- simus to Colosse. for by their occupation they were tent-makers. And when he his "iTc? one can prove that he was apprentice." ver. And One- been a mere one can jprove then: the whole transaction have a right pretation. that he bound by And ^^ any thing to infer Should Dr. because sheriff" at his disposal. Philemon " maif^ have been a tent-maker also.— — APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. because he (Paul) was of the same read craft. It is business. we would 1. ^^ No one can prove that he was addresses 1. him business. feel inclined to consider this inter- an eye to a future edition of his Notes. suggests.^'' Now. in his after labors to XYIIL Acts upon 47 Had he this epistle. " mon and when he speaks of himself as Philemon's " partner.^^ as his " fellow-worker {sunergos)^^^ ver. meant Paul. turned —"And he abode with them (Priscilla and Aquila) and wrought. the he " may " have may " have Paul. he had "no guard or . this epistle to And no one will at all respecting Philemon. he might have 3. 17. with not^'' No new from tent- his father or guardian to Phile- appears in an entirely fugitive slaves. as Dr. light. was notP at tent-making partner in the simus. have meant fellow-worker '^may^'' making And not. tent-makers. B. B.

directs him to return. We do not sup- pose that Onesimus returned against his will^ more than Zaccheus. assigns in his note 3d for Onesimus' return to Lis master. the repair his conversion. on made tion of restitu- what he had before taken wrongfully." to repair McKnight. Luke XIX.'s two It favorite arguments can prove that it — " It was homogeneous part of which seems 'heen^'^ —and his JSTotes " No one fonn a so. and wishes the injury by returning to him. An not so " once. that Onesimus.— THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. " becomes sensible of his fault in running away from his master. 8. both of Paul and of Onesimus. ingenuous ^'whom have springing up from every part of this epis- difficulties. 3. alike. will on Philemon. B. B. to temporary But enough of such notes blindness. of make them convey the idea. after his conversion under Paul's teaching. at tle. 48 ter. It disposes. Paul's words. may I have interpretation sent again^'' will as these. of the whole 4. B. against his will.) Holy Spirit made any (see In both instances the convert willing to any and every wrong done before conversion. derogatory to the Christian charac- It is far less 2. to swarm of minor have stung Dr. And Paul. than the reason Dr. . taking this same view of his past conduct and present duty. can be supported throughout bj Dr.

directed Onesimus master. as liis instructor in Christian truth and duty.APOSTOLIC EXAMPLE. is to return to his clearly implied in his have sent again." former words — " whom I . But that Paul.

IV. 2 .. in 50 singleness of your heart. tlie Spirit of Trutli. 19. he. " When "guide you § 9. . Titus itself. 5-9 1 Tim. by Christian Motives. YI. II Ool. 9. " Servants {douloi) be olDedicnt to those that are " your masters according to the flesh. as unto . 5-9. APOSTOLIC PKECEPT. The Apostles kepeatedlt enjoin the relative Duties of Masters and Slaves. 1 I'et. FZ 1. -with fear and " trembling. lie will XYI. and enforce THEIR Injunctions upon both alike. ^uniformly treating the Evils which they sought to correct AS incidental Evils. Eph.— ^>A. as Chris- tian Men. 22-25. 13. III. and not part and parcel of Slavery Proof."— Jno. CHAPTER III. is come. II 1 18. 10 . VI. into all trutli.

knowing : neither that your master there respect of per- is " sons with him. men " the Lord. give unto your servants {douloi) that " which is just and equal " a master in heaven. knowing that ye also have . all lY. as but in singleness of heart." CoL. IIL 22-25 " Servants {douloi) obey in " according to the flesh " men-pleasers " God . " Christ 51 not with eje-service. things your masters not with eye-service. doing the will of " God from the heart . it heartily. as men-pleasers. " as to the Lord. and there is no respect of persons. do . 1. and not to men knowing that whatman doeth. " as the servants {douloi) of Christ." " Masters.APOSTOLIC PEECEPT. But he : that doeth " wrong. but . as to knowing that of the " Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance " for ye serve the Lord Christ. " forbearing threatening *' also is in heaven . . the same shall " soever good thing any : " he receive of the Lord. . whether he be bond or " free. with good-will doing service." " And ye masters. shall receive for the wrong which he hath " done ." . do the same things nnto them. and not unto . fearing and whatsoever ye do.

" all Peter " with may adorn the that they — LiJfkll and Scott. 7 all doctrine of things. be subject . because they are . 1. In the N. a Iwuse- . but showing " good fidelity " God . God and his doctrine be not blas- they that have believing masters. Lexicoyi.. V—Eobinsoji's iV Strictly. a domestic. 13 T. but most usually. because they are " faithful and beloved." Titus II. 10. for this is an inmate of one's house meyiiaiy to your masters thankworthy. slave. own masters worthy of all honor. breth- but rather do them service. Rom. : if a Luke XVI. THE CHKISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. and to please them well in all things " not answering again.. 52 1 "Let many as name " let " ren of And " phemed. our Saviour in "Servants {oilcetaif' all fear . 2. partakers of the benefit. 9. not purloining. * " Oiketas. T. " . not only to the good and gentle. but " also to the froward Acts X. II. YI. XIV. a servant. 19. " Exhort servants {douloi) to be obedient to their " own masters. them not despise them. 18. servants {douloi) as are under the " yoke count their " that the Tm.

' with all good fidelity. Instead of giving the reader a paraphrase of these several passages —and bears upon the point their meaning. which they cannot understand. who. who answer . property. furniture. hypocritical who abuse who and disputatious servants. Apostle. and dote about abstruse questions. stores." 53 grief.' and give away to their companions whatever they ill-instructed religious servants. and which do not concern their prac- . in the is it so —we of the instruction they words of Bishop Wilson " If the deepest student of Christian morals were to endeavor to point out the especial dangers to which servants are exposed. gardens. instead of guarding their master's house.. suffer- ^^^. provisions. persons . if take liber- they are pious and devout lastly. in so far as now under consideration. " man for God endure conscience toward " ing wrongfully. he could mention none so pro- minent as those experience of Eye-servcmts named by our inspired The ages agrees upon these matters. ties with their masters. all who watch the absence of their masters for indolence or negligence vants.' pert and froward ser- disrespectfully when rebuked dishonest servants. can . obvious as to render a paraphrase unnecessary summary give an admirable contain. the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ.' ' purloin. : APOSTOLIC PKECEPT. food.

as ters to do.' of support and recompense for their labors.." " Tliey are to give to their servants dressed to them. reasonable. For though the give them great power. as well as . 54: tical duties allowed by tliese are . their servants forbearing threatening. that care of in old age nary . or to express them even when anger at law of man might any haughty or excessive faulty. would wish they. precisely adapted to the dangers to which masters are exposed in the performance of their are the duties to their inferiors. or slaves ' which that instructions ad- is and equal just that measure . yet they who would Lord and Master of deal with all them accord- ing to their conduct to their inferiors. which them their contract with require . them word. manity and gentleness. to render . or the natural laws of them in sickness God that provision that proportional reward for extraordi- fidelity and exertions . all to be the most unprofitable and disgrac^l to the Gospel they proof fess. in like circumstances. w^ere accountable to the great for their use of it . not only without rigorous punishment. ' . their authority with hu- therefore.' and remembering that they also have a master in heaven and exercising. to in a that con- all and affectionate attention. which siderate. THE CHEISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. it inflicting was too common for mas- but also forbearing to menace and terrify their servants. " all How kinds of persons in stations of dependence.

APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. 343. First. rulers and subjects. by working in this unobtrusive way It —in eigns — good magistrates. —In Paul his Epistles to the Ephesians and Colos- treats of the relative duties of master and slave in immediate connection with those of and wife. on the masters equity enjoining. REMARKS. them . in ab- existing tlije state of the world. husband least. parent and child in very much the And Peter treats of these connection with those of husbands and duties in wdves. at all in in his Epistle to Titus. good children. remark. good that Christianity was to dous effects. ample of " his own divine 55 his people to mercj and copy the The wisdom of the inspired Apostle directions stractedly is He most observable. And let the reader Paul and Peter treat . upon the subject of ex- leniency. sians."— ^j?. 340. but requires implicit obedience from servants same their masters to . good servants. the ser- good sover- produce stupen- its Col. with the addition of rulers and subjects. was making good husbands. that in form. the sarn<^ way. at and mildness. time. and not the absolute manumission of their slaves.. others and who expects . these in enters not slavery. Wilso}i on rulers. pp. same connection. good wives.

* The condition of the Child. as that of a some respects harder than that of them became their The condition of own masters Adam's Rom. under and death over the Koraan law He his children. 60. had the power of life — " A father. send them bound into the up. to the husband till the death of p. 441.. The greatly abused. and the slave were. and labored. those relations of level. was for were could acquire no property but with the father's consent. Rome his children he might imprison. pp. Ant. nistration oppressive. but even them to death The condition of a son was of a slave. the child."—^lc/am'« Rom. was a despotic government. Nero was emperor throughout Paul's and ministry.* many and life. country." in the Wife.— THE CHKISTIAN DOCTEINE OF 6LAVEEY. and preached. The Apostles found incidental attaching to all evils. into which he had been unrighteously Roman Throughout the cast. None their father and grandfather. empire. actual admi- its many the greater part of of his epistles were written from a Itoman prison. and in and often exceedingly corrupt. 56 In the Apostles' days. these relations were all government under which civil they lived. and what he did thus acquire was called slave. and also put — "A sou when in the place of a daughter. — " The woman and he to her as a .. could not only expose them when infants. in law on very nearly the same as well as in fact. the wife. 60. father. — " A daughter by marriage passed from the power of her father under that of her husband.. scourge. his peculium. and wrote. and these were sanctioned by law. great. which cruel custom prevailed at many grown ages. as among other nations." by any punishment he pleased. Ant.

they clearly and unequivocally and within the pale of the Church. as su- preme. All that Tvas contrary to the laws of God. but . 57 Calledj in such circumstances. whether it be man for to tlie king. they did not shut their eyes to the abuses of these several institutions slavery — civil government. they set themselves to work with zeal and faithfulness — —faithfulness once to at God and to man to correct the abuses." Children . condemn . by their authority as Apostles. in each. the family. even as Chi-ist loved the Church and gave himself for 3* it. and in the w^orld at large. marriage.APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. as then actually existing. They require subjects " to submit themselves to every ordinance of the Lord's sake . With civil government. as unto them that are sent by him for the praise of them punishment of evil-doers and that do w^ell. as unto the Lord. the institutions themselves. carefully distinguishing between the institutions themselves and the abuses which had become attached to them.'' and hiislands " to love their wives. to preacli the Gospel. and slavery they dealt in the sinful. the family. and to teach mankind righteousness. through the influence of their teaching and example." themselves to their for the " Wives to submit own husbands. nor do they affect an ignorance of them. marriage. same way. or unto governors. they labored to But they touch not remove.

and that these abuses are sanc- the laws of the land for to example —no — the laws one. deu}^. good children. is. evils attaching to would human it. applied to which the Apostles applied change. at the time Christianity was be easy life to in the wrought first preached among men. good. good husbands. show way this in And it that Christianity." and stripped . that the husband often abuses the authority which belongs him as a husband." and parents " to bring np their children in the nurture and admonition of the who were Slaves " to be obedient to tliose Lord." make good subjects. both in law and in fact. unto good wives." their masters according to the flesh. good parents. good slaves. tioned by property. as unto Christ. respecting we presume. 58 " to obey their parents. will Tliat the industrious. has That there are yet incidental the marriage relation . in the Bible sense of the discharging the all out of their several relations as growing duties men and word as Christ- ians." their servants that which was ing that they also had they sought to and masters " just to give and equal. pains-taking wife should be turned out of " house and home. The condition land is not of the wife in this our Cliristian now what it was throughout the civilized world.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. in singleness of heart. good masters —that good . know- Thus a master in heaven.

any of our in God-fearing man.— APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. Shall we and . slave. in so doing. senses. in spite of all the guards which very different from what Christianity has wrought it was this the law has thrown around childhood. all '' in old the helplessness of the influence of the Gospel. in denounce the marriage But States. in this Christian land. is very was throughout the Eoman And this change also is one of the trophies of our heaven-descended Christianity. all will admit . to pay the by a debts contracted unknown event profligate husband. on this not an is will any account. 69 even of that which she has herself earned." and and indirect. liis relation. he either God or humanity a service ? Christian would be doing The condition of the different ? from what it empire in Paul's day. Eome and And yet. mak- ing children the immediate care of the community Can any man believe that. and advocate the doctrine of the " Free-lovers ?" The condition of the child. That there are incidental institution. From father time to time often is we read in the papers of fathers cruelly beating. and even murdering their own children part of the land. evils yet attaching to the both in law and in fact. starving. in the United States. direct the authority of the greatly abused. this in every therefore abolish the authority of the father. is change. . in our country. and introduce socialism.

VI. Supposing we admit the correctness of this view . agency its for the future. that therefore the slave feels that the master withholding his freedom men will in this. will ere long remove. slave has been done through perfectly willing to trust do. has has always it . 71. we firmly believe. either Barnes^ of the N'otes. slave But may. It is right in him suppose. because religion required the martyrs to be unresisting. It it approves of what the mas- does this no more than it sanctions the conduct of Kero and Mary. in God's appointed way.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. 60 evils which working Christianity. believing. be- cause religion requires the slave to be submissive and obedient. Dr. nor let this not a master let shows head of this spirit. and we arc . that the time will yet see and acknowledge that " the foolishness of God —Referring addressed to slaves. that therefore ter does. or God the persecutor. done a mighty work in worked Ly-gone da3^s All that has ever been done for the well. come when all wiser than man. is Barnes writes section. as in other matters. and to allow themselves to be led to the stake. as it we Second. because a pious slave ." may and doing his martyr sanction the wrong." the Scriptural injunctions to and quoted : at the — " But think. this just a conscientious as does not slave-owner Eph. A conscientious find happiness in submitting to will.

in immediate connection with these. impale. And your is just you. God and of his doctrine be not . crucify. Bloody of Smithfield anew. YI. but. cast to you must answer conduct. you if as and equal" in '' this Mary. lY." burn these holy men . § 10. of own masters worthy of all honor. Proof. but see to Paul's words. " beloved with the same meek- ness and single-eye for God's glory with which they submit to be burned. way: this l^ero. kindle the please. ACCORDINa TO GoDLINESS AND THE Doctrine of the Lord Jesus Christ. we must then interpret the corresponding injunctions addressed to upon masters. the same Col. Paul declares that his Doctrine respecting THE Duties of Slaves and Masters is whole- some DOCTRINE. of tlie injunctions addressed to slaves. VI.— : 61 APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. 1. in it. the disciples of Jesus God to for give unto them that which whole matter. And would read somewhat and faithful" the wild beasts. and send your brethren in Jesus to the stake of God. " Let as " *' many yoke count that the servants {douloi) as are under the their name 1-3. fires 9. " Saintly principles. that you in Eph.— 1 Tim.

even the words of our that woukl be of all first among Lord Jesus yon. and consent not to words. and to render to believing mas- the more cheerful and hearty service because they are believers. he teaches what with the doctrine which wholesome words. wholesome commandments which arc . or 27. and to the doctrine which " ing to godliness. *' let them not " thren "are . (Matt. X. sei'vant. any man teach that slaves ought not to count even unbelieving masters worthy of ters all honor. he is proud. even is is at variance according to godliness and the expressed will of the Lord Jesus Christ. i^Y * " If any man tcacli otherwise." Paraphrase of Yer. —If is accord- etc. to serve their masters. but and docs not consent to the under the Grosiicl.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. " These things teach and exhort. He servant according to godli- ness. even the words of the Lord " Jesus Christ."— Whithif. " blasphemed. despise them.) and to the doctrine which is wholesome XX. him be your —Mark. let Christ. because they are bre- but rather do them service. 44. because they faithful and beloved. ought to be set free. by affirming that. "If any one teach slaves are not bound differently. and consent not " to wholesome words. " If any man teach otherwise. 62 And they that have believing masters. partakei's of the benefit. 3." 3.

to teach which in McKniglit. Timo- and exhort thine hearers always to maintain a due And regard to them.— —— APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. which Christ. be spoken of as " the words of the our Lord Jesus and all points *' is Christ's. simplicity Doddridge. even to those of our Lord Jesus Christ. is. if any one teach otherwise. while on and which. and which agreeable and subservient to the great it is whatever the declared design of fair show of certainly proud. affect. livered 63 by inspiration being precepts of Christ. conformable to true morality. thy. Commissioned. understand him as to referring to such precepts as are actually recorded in the Gospels." etc. Whitby has as done. and attend not to such sound and wholesome words. made known not recorded by the Evangelists. and complete by " the Spirit of the sacred cannon." or. with strictest propriety. what they taught may. as the Apostles were. thougli earth. were Paul by revelation to . if he attempt to broach principles contrary to these great maxims. which G-ospel to promote humility he may in the world. there no occasion suppose that he referred to some to precepts concerning slaves. he is propriety be called. delivered to his Apostles. and guided Jesus" into all truth. to j^erfect the organization." etc. tlie and . The expressed will of N'oTE. to the doctrine of the Gospel. may these as with express the doctrine that is strict cause of practical godliness. he These things which I have been mentioning. but which do not directly refer to the case under consideration.(') is Lord Jesus the " All the precepts which the Apostles de- Christ. take care. of the Christian Church.

" This. Paul distinctly his first epistle to the Corinthians : " If himself to be a prophet." Master and slave are alike the creatures of God. must be such there were.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. XIY. Remarks. understood to include those also." teaches the slave to serve his with singleness of heart. refers expressly to such as should teach doctrine respecting the duties of slaves alone. 64 Lord Jesus Christ. as taught false doctrine respecting the duties of masters. if it The " doctrine which correlative is according to godliness." —1 Cor. false and just as master distinctly teaches the master to give unto the slave " that which is just and equal. the objects of his care. upon fair principles of interpretation. 37. the subjects of his government : and alike responsible to him for the discharge of the duties belonging to their several stations. or spiritual. Paul's declaration in the passage under examination. . asserts in any man think let him acknow- ledge that the things that I write unto you are the commandments of the Lord." Yet.

28. 13. Gal. 21. there " bond {doulos) nor free {eleuthereos)^ there " male nor female . . Proof. " There XII. neither III. . Jew nor Greek. 20. circum- cision nor uncircumcision. 2S is . XII. whether we Spirit are {douloi) or free {eleutheroi) to drink into one . for 1. Scythian. III. " {doidos) nor free {eleuthereos) " in all. Paul treats the 65 Diste^-ctions wnicii Slavery CREATES AS MatTERS OF VERY LITTLE IMPORTANCE in so far as the interests of the christian Life are concerned. " For by one " body. whether " be bond "^ made all Col. ye are all is neither is neither one in Christ Jesus.APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. III. III. 11 VII 1 Cor. we all baptized into one we be Jews or Gentiles. Barbarian." Col." : but Christ bond is all and . and have been spirit.— 6'«Z. " *' Where there is neither Greek nor Jew." Cor. § 11. 11. 13 1 Cor.

and Eedeemer a part in the great a freeman chiefly esteemed upon account of his boasted liberty. nof accepted Jew being a a society where he can . 66 The common sentiment ture well expressed is phrase of the of these passages of Scrip- by Doddridge. nor lose anything by uncircumcision . bond of union among the matter of their boasting and their joy. where no Barbarians.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. since he shares with others in the possession of that inestimable treasure. without any difference on any of these accounts. to be all dwells in that all is who is acknowledged amiable and excellent. education. and who true believers. or rank in life. are treated with contempt for that want of learning and most remote nations in the upon unworthy of as which politeness . an immortal soul. quoted last " : become genuine members where there is in his para- Thus you will indeed of that blessed society no distinction between men of differ- ent rations. or is to be found any slave trampled notice. or even Scythians. but of souls or regarded may have is . claim nothing by virtue of circumcision. that they are related to Christ. where neither is any man rejected merely for for being a Greek. nor rather in proportion to his subjugation to our divine master them : for this is the great all." II .

20. Circumcision is thou called being a servant if ^oliticcil state^ so him not become rather. 20.APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. Is abide in the same calling wherein he " was called. makes no Let ? free. 21. being a slave {doidos\ care not for it. and uncircumcision " keeping of the " every man pel is it . as though it could affect thine acceptance with God. but is nothing. as a general rule^i^) slaves had better accept their . —Since not of this world." Pakaphease of ver. But as God liatli distributed to every " as the Lord hath called every one. thou raayest be made 20. him not be ''let in all the churches. Yet if they can lawfully be made free. same condition." (Jno. Christ's " king- alteration in a man's civil relations or and hence far ? 19. but the of God. so let And so ordain I " man called being " " uncircumcised. " IT. 21.) his Gos- I ordain in all tlie churches in the as these are concerned. dom any in uncircumcision commandments 2L Art " care not for it him walk. 18.(^) in finds them. " use let ? any called man. " nothing. circumcised Is circumcised. 67 1 CoE. in which the Gospel Art thou called of God. or thine acceptable service of him. that Christian men remain XYIIL 36. VII.

not thinking himself obliged mayest lawfully be made to account.(^) ing. care not for free. rather obtain thy freedom.* The same !N'oTES.. I may rent employments. ." Doddridge." McKnight. but relations in Christ. fancying that a Yet God's favor than a freeman. "As for other matters. called into the Church of gious professions. diffe- as well as diversity in reli- Art thou. wast thou called being a bondman. Art thou called being a servant. uneasy be made : but free. The word relations or political state. be not excessively concerned about but in whatever calling. of you was called. slave? do not so apply this not only to the life. one for a condition of slavery is not . desired on " Since the Gospel makes no alteration in men's political state. any one him continue : aflFcct not to change without the clear and evident leadings of Providence. less the object of if bondman is thou canst even be made free by any lawful method. low rank. 68 freedom own its condition^ man abide still i. as there is generally greater reason to expect comfort and usefulness in such a And calling than in another. but of a much regard if it as ui)ou that account to make thy thou canst. rather. Agreeably to this rule. without any sinful method of obtaining choose it rather. for instance.THE CHKISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. yet not absolutely necessary to the happiness of a good )nan. as what is no doubt in itself eligible." it civil hlaseis^ is here. let every Christian remain in the same political state in which he was called. being in the life it. that is. in that let them: profession or circumstances. be not thou solicitous to be made free. use same calling called to the faith. <?. not only of a hired servant. * " Let every in the same be the wherein he was by to quit his call- it it : but if thou Whitby.

in (^) it." Paul uses it II. . it rather. is free. " use as well as are many become him para- " civil relations or jpolitical stateP advice. which the advice his master is There to a slave to would willingly grant would be neither kind nor wise. the greatest practical difiiculties which the enlightened Christian citizen encounters in attempting to solve the problem of emancipation. Roman here This . Uaseis and classes^ which word he de- doubtless the sense in which and as we have no one English word which corresponds exactly phrased it are. ." from the whole tenor of the context. not used in the sense of "calling.— APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. are the rives there from. here. cases in free where his freedom. to give anything That Paul does not mean more than general evident from the language he uses. Indeed. since Paul's circumcised Liddell and Scott Dion H. bond and give this definition^" kaleseis. to it. we have As a general rule. and as Doddridge seems to have understood specifications under the general term and uncircumcised. are such as grow out of the obligation to act with a righteous regard to the subsequent w^ell-being of the slave." as we understand that word at the present day. 69 evidently.

THE CHEISTIAN DOCTTRIXE OF SLAVERY.

70

Remarks.
First.

— In

the passage under examination, Paul

must be understood

as

speaking in his character of a

religious teacher, an Apostle of Christ

when he

treats the relation of master

matter of very

little

importance,

him to mean, of very
and

duties

little

;

and

lience,

and slave

as a

we must understand

importance in so far as the

interests of the Cliristian life are concerned.

In other words

—a

man

can be as good a Christian,

and can as acceptably serve God,

as a slave, if in

God's providence the Gospel finds him a slave, as he
could had

only not

it

tJie

pediment

found him a free man.

way

it

1.

in the case of

—although there

is

of incidental evil attaching to slavery as

among

exists

not

of the spread of the Gospel.

A practical proof of this is afibrded
little

is

great impediment, but not a great im-

in the

the slaves in our Southern states,

not a

Slavery

us,

in

such

A larger proportion

facts as these, viz.

of the laboring classes be-

long to the Christian Church in the Southern than in
the Northern states of the Union.
2.
is

be
as alleged — and we believe that
—that the piety of the Christian slaves the

If

true

South

it

true,

it

at

is

of a lower, less intelligent grade than that

of the laborers of the North,

we have

at the

South, as

AVOHTOLUi

an

U)

ollricit

[JiiivdrHaliHrn,

many

loriiiH

their

an altnoHt

l.liiri,

uM\(>UjS

remov(Ml

lower grade of piety prevailing
Hlav<tn, to n-.tiK-iiiln-.v tliat tlioso

many

of them, but a very few generations

and

;

hintory

all
Ixicfi

debarting,

inowt

its

tefltlfi<;fl

that a

going on through ages

oidy gra<lually overcome.

Hnmnd.

made

in

h<;ath(;nirtm

fronj

degradation vvhieh ban
b(.-

in

tlifi

degrading form

(!an

laboring

fair, too,

('hriritian

ar:r:ourit of*

HJavcH an;,

\\i(i

initiibcr

tlio

fiecmg but

It

jjoin

.'likI

wlilcli

by thouHand.H atnorig

diH(;ij)lcfl

oiii*

MormoiiiHin,

lnli<l<;llt,y,

l)a[)l,Iz<:<l

claHHOB in tlio Free StatcH.

taking

<;X(;tn|)lioii

(tiillni

Spirit.iJJiliHin,
oi'

71

I'ltWJlJl.

— When

U'('m^

une

it

I'aid writes,

rather,"

—"

If

thou rnayeat be

we munt underntand him

an givirig thin direr^tion wifli enpeelal ref(*rene(i to the

of thingH (ixihting

Htato
wrol<;

l.hJH

in

epihih; to the ('hnrcli

a H<jund i'ul«;of Inter[>n;l:ation in
(thp<;elally fiuggehted In

find

Ih

tho

eontexf.

boufid fo a

In

wifo'i?

iooHadfronfh a

ver.
H(:(;k

'impt f

27

not

n.

<

'oilnl.h,

all (vxm-a
tin;

b(3

of

'llii.-i

tiiin

:

— ''Art
Alt

looiftd.

mife.^''

No

h<j
irt

kind,

eane before nn

writ<*fl

h«;

not to

H(utk

at.

time

at the

(ir(;<-<!e

by

ihoii
l/i.ofi

ingcnmuiH

interpreter ban ever urnlerrfood Paul an here intond-

ing to diMf,<jiint(inaneo marriage, or an in a/iy

eonlradieling
for

man

to

\\\(\

bo

H<;nt dirttrehH,"

<llvifie

aloiu.-."
1.

e.

dcelarati'nj, "
It

liability

waw
to

in

it

in

way

not good

view of " iho pro

porhoeutlot) for their

THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY.

72

religion's sake,

Paul gives the advice he does respect-

ing marriage.

So in the words " if thou
it rather ^^

if

we wonld

may est

he

made free^

fairly interpret

them

use

for the

purpose of applying the truth they teach in our
country, and at the present day,

we must

take into

account,
1.
^^

In Rome, and in Greece

jpro quadrujpedibus^^

might torture

3,)

our Southern States
the law, as

is

and the master

as cattle,

even put them to death, at

tliem, or

(See §

his will.

e.

i.

In contrast with
is

were held

also, slaves

as truly a

the master.

this,

man,

A master

a slave in

in the eye of

will

be hung as

quickly for the murder of his slave as he would for
that of a freeman.

in his

In

comments on

this

view of the

this

passage, writes

case, Calvin,
:

— " This

admonition was very necessary at that time, when
slaves

were driven by threats and

fear of death, to

stripes,

and even

obey every kind of command with-

out selection or exception, so that they reckoned the

procuring of prostitutes, and other crimes of that
nature, to be duties belonging to slaves, equally with

honorable employments."
2.

Most of the

in Greece,

slaves in Paul's day, especially those

were of nations so closely

allied to that of

the master that they could freely intermingle
free,

and

in the course of a

few generations

all

if set

trace

as And ration of the Christian negro. clearer proof Tliat in the free where the number of negroes is very small. they never have been admitted upon equal footing 4 . out a second. second is also. parent. blessed be of the physiologist could of man. " the has on that of the Anglo-Saxon. we need no than that afforded in the facts States. of of condition would disappear." has branded its has made on all He common mark the The body : has a soul first of our unity just as deeply and indelibly upon the soul of the negro. — ^1. tlieir servile tlie We slaves in our Southern States fully human one blood nations of all face of the earth. and firmly believe in the doctrine of the " unity of the find is The case race . But that the negro cannot mingle with the Anglo- Saxon in our country. black or white. in his union with Christ." not no trace of all And very different. and." master and slave — and And sit it in the regeneSpirit brings a brighter of that same' unity. purpose why this matters not for our present it be so .73 APOSTOLIC PRECEPT. the fatal sin of our God mark ^' the every time that the Christian side by side at the Lord's table in a ministry of twenty years at the South I never recollect to have sat at the Lord's table when there were not slaves at the same table —we make a public profession of our faith on this point. the Holy God ! Adam." that " men Even if for to dwell body this unity in the Adam.

74 CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. must be taken And into account. and at the present day. Whenever the number of negroes has seemed likely to increase to any great extent. immediately laws have prevent their immigration. in any of those been passed to States. exist- ing in our country. even where his legal freedom has been granted him. these Church in that city. . as in Ohio. There are impediments then in the way of a slave's attaining to the rank of a genuine freeman. which did not exist in Corinth at the time Paul wrote this epistle to the ness. and 2. TFIE with the whites . in all fair- in inter- preting Paul's words with reference to our country and our day.

Titus. " Yerily I say unto yon. and prohibits the teaching of any Doctrine at variance WITH it under most SOLEMN SANCTIONS. VL 3-5. 10." —Matt. that the name of God and his doctrine be not blas" Let as " " 75 . whatsoever ye shall bind " on earth shall be bound in heaven. XYHL 18.CHAPTEK lY. 3-5. Pkoof. §12. 9.— 1 Tim. 1 Tim. APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honor. 15. and whatsoever " ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. YI. 11. Paul directs the Chkistian Minister to teach THIS Doctrine respecting the Duties of Slaves AND Masters in the Church.

knowing nothing. Paraphrase of ver.) though he knoweth having a morhid fondness for so-called 2>hilosoj[)hical questions Cometh envy. From all money is the best such teachers publicly withdraw thyself (^) and acknowledge them not as the ministers . the he 4. He 4. and consent not " some words. puffed up with nothing. —^These Church and exhort thy hearers them." men wicked suspi- of corrupt minds destitute of the true doctrine of Christ Jesus. supposing that gain " godliness . even the words of the " Christ. where" of Cometh envy. " 5.THE CnRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. men Perverse disputings of surmisings. is which is 3. to If whole- Lord Jesus according to proud. but " doting about questions and strifes of words. strife.) pride heed to (ver. reckoning whatever produces most religion. and to the doctrine *' godliness. are but rather do them service. perverse disputings of and things teach in to take any man teach otherwise. is from such withdraw thyself. 4. 76 " phemed. " and destitute of the truth. (Yer. " 2. let " brethren " they And • These things teach and exhort. evil railings. . '' they that have believing mas- them not despise them. because they are ters. of corrupt minds. strife. is If 2. any man teach otherwise. 5. because and beloved partakers of the faithful " benefit. and logomachies ^{^) whence hlasphemies^i^) cions.

he runs on. . railings. whereof cometh envy. man From such withdraw teach otherwise. he any good purpose . contention.* proud.) know- is ing nothing. teach otherwise. puffed up. and destitute of the truth. he authority. evil speakings. he knoweth nothing. raving and delirious in a fever. unjust suspicions that the truth is not sincerely maintained. of Christ. declaiming on idle questions and useless debates about words. idle which afford no foundation for such doctrine. by men wholly corrupt in their minds and destitute of the true doctrines of the Gospel. for not submissively yield to what abusive language. evil surmisings. whatever fair show of simplicity and humiUty he may may have From and do not dispute with them. more regarded than them- offend them. but doting (sick) about questions and strifes of words. keen disputings. putings of men that gain is godliness. envying of those selves. most money withdraw is man all the such impious teachers McKnight. and is Christian although he pretends to have great knowledge of both tempered perverse dis- of corrupt minds. a great deal of mischief. puffed up with pride.'' Jewish or the mind about in his Whitby. and evil suspi- of the worthiest and most men whose minds are corrupt which they pretend so eagerly to . will dictate all . but. either of thyself.— — APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. supposing revelation. but are the source of envy. but. which their angry debates of and averse from the on the contrary. affect. carried on contrary to conscience. like a man is and whatever conceit he one who knows nothing to. who representations truth. contention with others such self-sufficient teachers who intemperate zeal Heals round to cions and obnoxious amiable characters . but is dis- questions and debates of words. (Gr." thyself. of his superior knowledge. that all men may not the countenance of thy * " If any man YT see that this doctrine has name and teach otherwise. he is certainly proud. " If any who reckon whatever produces the best religion. " If any strife. from whence no good can be expected to arise.

. of which the word in used here JV^oson for. Turn away Doddri<lt/e." para converts And Bloomfield : (strifes more .THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. 78 NoTES. and we see no for giving especially as it is it a different meaning here. strife loith mere words spoken against God. evidently used in this sense — " that the name of God while they seem to suppose that which promises the largest quantity of gain to be most worthy of pursuit. varnish it is used in the J^ew Testament of in the immediate context plead common since The Greek word llasphemia Blasphemies. was called diatriba addition of the preposition into a bad meaning." word logoniachia in Rec. such as was this — " A philosophical held in the schools. therefore from such. and would. (railings) is generally railing w^ords word The Greek of words) has no used to convey the idea of a f) the — " The para English word exactly corresponding to as well as about but the . zataseis (questions) Paul's words '' is marks : is determined by On word McKnight re- disputation. and have no intimacy with them.(') Having a mo rlid fondness for and philosophical questions (doting) denotes ' so-called logomachies." if possible. mere words. good reason it. '' having a morbid fondness which examples are adduced by Wets and Sjn.' it over with the venerable name of godliness. and the dia vehemence. disputings" {j)aradiatriba\ j^^^'^'^^^se subsequently used." The sense Bloonijleld. denotes inanity.

Titus "Exhort servants II. have just given thee in charge. adorn the doctrine 15. 15. and to please " not answering again " all " of good fidelity : : them well to in their all own things not purloining but shewing that they God our Saviour 10. to : now if I have written unto any man that is called a brother be a fornicator. with such an one. thus understanding this word. 9. may in all things. " Let no man despise thee. (') self. and be not blasphemed." understood by all com- that such an one should be excom- municated from the Church. and exhort and rebuke with all authority. we have many illustrations at the present day. or an extortioner. no not mentators to mean to eat . From For such teachers puhlicly withclraio thy- all tlie use of a similar expression in this sense. or covetous. Of 1.— . These things " speak. 15. —^These things which I. or an idolater. Y." Paraphrase of ver. APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. be obedient to " masters. as an Apostle of Jesus. the truth of Paul's descriptions. respecting the duties of the old and the young of both . or a railer. — " But see 1 Cor." his doctrine Y9 — Yer. or a drunkard. 11 you not keep company.

may set thee above all danger of con- | . all the authority ^ an Evangelist. to despise thee.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. but use the censures of the Church. which tempt. otherwise confute with all the authority which thee as a teacher commissioned of Christ. and as such a spiritual ruler in the Church. And suffer no man or disregard thy decisions in these matters. rebuke them And if they despise thee . as has a divine commission to support him man all such as teach one that knows he and. let no but endeavor to give them exhortations with that solemnity and dignity."^ * " These things speak and exhort. (ver. 80 I and of those wlio in God's provi- sexes. 9. 1-G." Doddridge. and exhort who And profess the Gospel to live suitably to them. And all thy hearers to attend rebuke the Judaizing teachers who inculcate a different doctrine with which belongs to thee as tliee. proper manner. and rebuke the opposers of this doctrine with all authority. to despise (ver. fail : all thy of regarding them in a w^ith all authority. and to Let no one have reason McKnight." " These things therefore speak boldly. and deliver up to Satan those Jews gainsay this doctrine. " These things inculcate as necessary to be believed. upon the whole. Let no man despise thee.) dence are in the condition of slaves {douloi\ 10. and to enforce them by that wisdom and sanctity of behavior. and earnestly exhort hearers to attend to them. is due to truth." who Whithy.) to speak openly and exhort them.

by might have formed an association been an elective one. Let the reader compare this account. has often been fierce. I believe their wrong to mischief may be winked : for how much be wrought with good designs fallen into the common . that they have sought to accomplish their object by abusive. plished by The passionate eloquence. 4* . should as members. Remaeks. given by by Dr.: 81 APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. and as if no guilt could be compared with that of countenancing and upholding as I it. or with have —of day class of teachers in this our They ! error of enthusiasts. . but Abolitionists it should have of strong principles. Channing Paul. and movement is. that to their is. sobriety. and held together. judi- have been carefully sought Much good might have been accom- the co-operation of such philanthropists. Men ciousness. that of exaggerating their object. because done at. and extended. of feeling as if no evil existed but that which they opposed. as far have seen them. bitter. good intentions fanatically. by a system of afiili- ated societies. Channing cannot be thought to be a witness giving testimony nnder pro-slavery prejudices same '' nor The is the Abolitionists have done wrong. with that given —and surely Dr. Another objection a system of agitation . gathered. The tone of their newspapers.

proposed to the slave-holders. and exhausted on them the vocabulary of abuse as he sowed. 82 Instead of tors. and formed these into trine to the To societies. con- he ap- proached them with vituperation. § 13." Among strifes of the consequences of such words" as '* questions and characterized the anti-slavery . colored people. their doc- mixed and excitable multitude. heart-rending. vert The . some of them transported with sound tlie fiery zeal. and to organize these into associations for the battle against op- Yery unhappily they preached pression. and for this end." p.THE CHKISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. Hodge's Essays^ pp. descriptions of slavery were given in the piercing tones of passion holders were crime. Channing. "Blasphemies. the imj^etuous. the excitable." ! And he has reaped Quoted from. pupils from schools. ! ! ! in his " Scriptural Yiews of 267. the ignorant. Barnes Slavery. to gather together young and old. 478. Dr. the Abolitionists sent forth their ora- this. and slave- held up as monsters of cruelty and Abolitionist. females hardly arrived at years of discretion. indeed. quotes and endorses this descrip- tion of Dr. against slavery throughout the land. Dr. this minute. 47Y. to alarm.

pollution. preaching in Paul's day. as that quoted above. injustice. the . the with your Bible down down with your trod that The God of Moses Stuart. Barnes " Is it to be held that the manufacture and sale of ardent spirits will have something to do with the progress of the Gospel and the salvation of men. he reckons blasphemies. H. there that of blasphemy is is no need that I should remark. And in connection with such blasphemy. the God of Wm. one of the characteristic features it. an extract or two from the open and positive let the reader take late writings of Dr. composed of oppression. Church.— : 83 APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. and not? tliis That the amusements of the ball-room. The same is true of take the following : it " in our day. is am I an Atheist. To such a Wright^ in his Speech before the Anti-Slavevy Society in Boston^ To those a monster. ! Andover God. which is ! ! worshipped in the Winter St." 3fr. Kogers. God instance. Down with your political parties sanctions slavery As an May^ 1850. familiar with the anti-slavery literature of the day. and slavery nothing tickets is ? That the vending of a few lottery- a matter of sufficient importance to claim the attention of the ministers of religion. fraud. especially the speeches delivered at anniversary meetings. and every crime in the shape of slavery.

" With what consistency. 84 and the opera. or even sufficient tlie moment to Shall a a duel^ be deemed of awaken the soul of a minister of Christ. 161-2. which systematically and on principle holds three millions of human beings in slavery ? What is the kind of religion which such a people would seek to introduce among the heathen. prayers and exliortations of the ministers of religion. and to substitute for the forms of superstition and idolatry which prevail . at all to be compared slavery. Barnes^ Church and Slavery. an evil greater than American slavery ? Is the voluntary hurning of a few widoics on the funeral pile. should engage the earnest theatre. pp." enormity with American in extent or in Dr. indio-nation and this and stir enormous system of injustice and wrong have nothing to awa- ken his sympathy. can have no claim on the attention of the ministers of Christ? horse-race. a bull-fight. and the iact that three millions of tliat human beings are held under such a system. and to enkindle his zeal ? Is -the system of caste in India. can a of missions to the heathen. either as an obstruction to the with Gospel or as actual wrong^ to be compared this l)ainful system ? Is the torture of the swinging on hooks or the body in Hindoo devotion an obstruction to the progress of the Gospel.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. nation engage in the work it might be asked.

and that if a book professing to be a revelation from God. for they neither can. by any defended slavery. favorite expressions would " a proper development of it " be ? but we —what . and should is from God. nor could be received by mankind as a divine revelation. parent and child. Dr. or we must give up a very large —and an increasingly large —portion of the people of this land to infidelity nor will. 193. which can never be set aside by any authority of a pre- tended revelation . . I believe that and that there are great God has made us. or placed it fair interpretation on the same basis as the relation of husband and wife. such a book neither ought to be. to positive own blasphemy . heathen 85 lands ?" pre- Church and Slavery^ pp. nor ought. he so principles in our nature. Barnes may be of his does not ask able to show. 170. there And what would ? tuting a religion vail in be the advantage of substi- where such views and purposes are which now actually for those systems avowed. guardian and ward. that this language amount —using one of his p. as . to be convinced that a book which sanctions slavery this must. 1. "We must either give up the point that the New Testament defends slavery." The Church and Slavery.— — APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION.

so far as they can be made the master. Barnes' 9. in his domestic animals. their (slaves') bodies are not their own. and That in his forests. his services his unexpired . in his children." The Church and Slavery. " According to the system. right to the possession and use of these several ob- He jects according to their nature. p. " Property - ''Mere Property. Scriptural Vieivs^ to subserve the interests of up at auction. their souls. distin- now be an- property in a human being. swered by the single same sense ' men endeavor of 'property. *' What guishes it is He chattel.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. his wife. * " So long as the slave is regarded as a selves with the feeUng that he Notes on Uph. he has the is. not of p. " So-called logomachles. and is must of necessity vary according objects to and Questions Philosophical which it to the nature of the A man has property in attaches. VI. he term . 55." Views of Slavery. " He (the master) sets the slave disposes of the slave in his of service. not by name. »* the right of possession and use.' like a horse.' or a may be held in bondage. 1. that (the master) regards ? it is him (the ? "What This question can p. in his fields." the essential element of the system from mere piece to content them- all other relations reply. are not their own. slave) as his own property as he regards anything else as his property. 86 § 14. 179. so long has no more in the Scriptural 47. " will.

his horse because to treat according to the nature The man who should burn he was his property. than he has the right to use a There are general principles of rectitude as a brute. in virtue of the man right of property. it to service This claim of the nature of property. and subject to his disposal by will or otherwise. be properly applied. p. whether Christian or have taken . the pro- therefore. obligatory on all all the creatures men. 87 right to use a brute as a log of wood. the idea of property comes to be analyzed. which require them of God which he has given them. lawfully treat his ox or a tree. would find no God man is man." Hodge's Essays on Reviews^ Dr. as is this not^ very evident from his frequent . Barnes had before him Essay of Dr. person to no use to which a by the laws of When is God and human being may not. nature. and is is consequently liable for the debts of the owner. and Dr. it said that one is can only mean that the one has a right to use the other as a man. 499. found be nothins: more than a claim to either for life or for a transferable. writers of is the view which all ethical any reputation.— APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. justification in that plea either before or When. This view of the nature of the property which a master has in his slave. Hodge. it perty of another. and is term of years. but not as a brute He has no right to treat him as he may He can convert his or as a thing.

THE CHRISTIAN DOCTEINP: CF SLAVERY. it. does he set it aside On ? none. B. would he not naming him might be common —for Such ? life . I a is perform the service he had hired have hired such an one month or a year. for hire in the market-place language when " hired is stand ye They say unto him. say. to transfer to hire a huuse- would he not expect show himself bodily that house-servant to such to him?. authority. hy we read 6. month servant for a or a year. not because he wished to acquire a temporary right of property in his body. as the case the language always used in and although it may not be philosophi- . These men exposed them- selves. but because thus only could he judge of for his physical ability to And when which he wished him. XX. except that presented in " He sets the slave up In Matt. 7. that the ''owner of the vineyard" hired them he acquired a temporary property " in their bodies and and that they meant their souls. bodily. 88 quotations from those quoted in when he penned such sentences as On what ground. him. that can discover. : liis we words —he disposes of the — " About the eleventh hour he went out and found others standing idle in the marhet-^lace^ here no the day idle all man and said unto them." property to him? wished If Dr. Because ? usP hath hired Why usP Shall we hence and . their infer. at auction nameP slave in his will. on what the note.

and meet exactly the and yet regard him (Oaesimus) thing. But Barries' JSfotes on would be impossible for Philemon to comply with the wishes It the case. infidehty." the law in South Carolina. VI. a redeemed is whom things. skepticism. misunda'stand tlie willfully perverse can it.' this system does at least as much in this country to hinder the progress of the Gospel of Christ. is And the language of hence it is inferred that that law does not regard a slave as a being.' or as He man. none but callj a'^. not of the feelings of who it not to be regarded as a He property. and involves as many violations of the law of God. taken. "* " Slaves shall be claimed. ' letter.'* Church and Slavery. lotteries. " This system (I speak of the system.' " desires of Paul in as property. as either intemperance.'''' be a correct view of the It follows chattel or a ' from this that a slave is thing. '• ' ' chattels.curate. A " chattel. sabbath-breaking. 9. held. but as a 'chattel.' is case.' as a 'thing. but as a " K this * " ' ' thiiig. much as all combined. a thing.' " Christ died. . if not as p. reputed and adjudged law in be chattels personal in the hands to of their owners and possessors. as a * chattel.—— — 89 APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION.' Barnes' Notes. Pldlemon. Christ did not die for £ph. breathed forth in this as a human are connected with it) treats man many not as man. and not as capable of redemption. 167. gaming. an immortal man.' one for and ' how comes a man.

90
that

THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY.
tlie

laws of Soutli Carolina

make

the killing of

a slave, murder; and the forcible violation of the

person of a female slave, rajDC?
bale of cotton, for examj)le

"What

a

is

''

chattel f "

Can a '"thing"

—be murdered

?

" In the grand costumier

of l!Tormandj," writes Blackstons:, " a

chattel

is

described as a mere movable, buc at the same time
it is

set in opposition to a fief or feud

so that not

;

only goods, but whatever was not a feud, w^ere

And

accounted chattels.

ic

is

more

in this latter,

extended, negative sense that our law adopts

it

;

the

idea of goods or movables only being not sufiicientlj

comprehensive

to take in

everything that the law

considers as a chattel interest.

For

as

since,

the

commentators on the costumier observe, there are

two

requisites to

to time

make a fief

or heritage

and immobility with regard

ever wants either of these qualities,
to the K'ormans, a lieritage or fief
us, is not a real estate

both laws
chattel."

is,

that

civil

;

as

what-

not, according

or,

according to

the consequence of which in

must be a i)ersonal

Blaclcstone's Goimnentary^

"When then the
is

;

it

to place

is
;

—duration

book

estate or
ii.

code of South Carolina

the civil and not the criminal code that

is

ch. 24.

for

it

quoted

declares that " slaves shall be claimed, held, taken,

reputed, and adjudged in law to be chattels personal,"

the

declaration

in

eftect

is,

simply that

APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION.

they are not to be held as real estate

that the pro-

:

—without at
determining the extent of that property — shall be

perty which the master has
all

91

in the slave

governed by the laws respecting transfer and

which apply

mission,

which a master has

to personal estate.

in his apprentice,

The

trans-

interest

under the laws

of Pennsylvania, or which Dr. Barnes

may have

in a

minor, bound as a servant to him for a term of years,
as truly a chattel interest, in the

is

law sense of that

term, as the interest which the master has in his

And

slave.

this fact

no more degrades the person,

in the account of the law, from the rank

whom Christ died, in
other.
And when Dr.

tal being, for

the

in

of an immor-

the one case than

Barnes

declares,

" Christ did not die for chattels," he cuts off the
apprentice and the bound servant along with the
slave

-"

the ])Oor^'^

whom

to

Christ

left

especial

direction that his Gospel should be preached

—from

up

in that

all

the precious hopes which are garnered

Gospel.

3.

'^Unrequited Zc^Sor.*"

In the aspect in which
*

''

One of the elementary

must be

'

unrequited labor

more than he receives

;'

this objection

principles of

that

is,

it

contemplates

(slaver}')

is,

that there

the slave must earn as

much

as will do his part in maintaining the roaster in

THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY.

92

properly one respecting the

slavery, the question

is

relations of

and labor," and

''

capital

in all fairness

should be so treated.

Let us state

it

and

as a question of capital

labor,

taking the case of a slave on one of our southern

and

plantations,
(i.

e.

it

will stand thus

:

—The

capitalist

the master) furnishes the land, live-stock, seed,

The laborer

and agricultural implements.
slave) furnishes his
tal.

The master,

own

(i. e.

the

labor in the use of this capi-

and

in return for his capital used,

his skill in superintending

and conducting the

affairs

of the plantation, receives the maintenance of himself

and family

—perhaps something more.

The

slave, in

return for his labor, receives as wages, shelter, food,

and clothing

for himself

and

his

young

children, as

yet dependent on him, his maintenance and medical

attendance in sickness, and a comfortable provision
for his old age.

In what does this case differ from

that of the northern capitalist, the

idleness, for

it is

owner

of a cotton-

of the very essence of the system, that he

is

maintained in indolence by the slaves which he owns."

IV.

Notes, Col.

" Slavery
expects

to

is,

to be

Barnes'

1.

of necessity, a system of unrequited

make something by

more from the labor of the

the slave

that

;

is,

toil.

Tlie

master

he expects to secure

slave than he returns to him,"

— " Appro-

priating to ourselves entirely the avails of the labor of another man,
is

an essential to the system."

Script.

Views of Slavcri/, pp. 52,

35-t.

fails to it. ''^ the righteous slave-laws'''^ of the and if the master them. B. And does the owner of a cotton-factory labor as an operative within its w^alls ? But.93 APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. e. But " the master ? is maintained he does not take hold of the plough- handle and the hoe. and the cottage of the slave are any equivalent for his services. as the slave does. (i. for excepting that in one case the wages are paid " in kind. e. the does not the lN"orthern capitalist ex- make something by the laborers he employs ? pect to Are master make something by cotton-factories benevolent institutions. or that the deficiency of these is that he made up by w^ill and that he We the implied pledge of the master him with medicine when sick. the Southern capitalist) e. factory. the raiment. " the But expects to And laborer).. take care of him when he is. example." furnish will would inform Dr. for the benefit of the poor in idleness . the slave " (i. and the laborer he employs.." i. the proper authorities will do ter will have to pay for it. provide and the mas- " J^one of these things are such an equivalent for his services that a free- man would be willing to contract for them by selling . " it is vain to say that the food. that these are not matters secured by " the implied pledge of the master." but by Southern States . old. says Dr. B. by the way." in the other in money.

the latter as is. less profitable This tlie the slave must freeman anything. of the secnre. and a comfortable provision in sickness and old age. is proven by the fact. we understand the If slave are not as free laborer in — we reply. mean often Vieios. but a few generations moved. mean else . (see 25." not what a freeman Script Views. and ought to be. p. in these particulars the American laborer is far in advance of the African. taken And into account in determining a laborer's wages. Even in our country. of these free laborers. must how can to the capi- allegation. of the and the wages of the former are better than those of the latter five.) if it account into so Scrijpt. that one out of every even in Great Britain. But compare the case debasing barbarism. as . the be that slave-labor talist than is free-labor? labor. that the . re- slave with that of the free laborer in Europe. taking amount and quality of the receive it more wages than. Intelligence and industry are. from the most degraded.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. repeated by anti-slavery writers. 52. by freeman. the wages much as the freeman can our ISTorthern States. 2:1:. tliey are can secure by voluntary labor. is spend a part of his days in the poor- to is. compelled That house. pp. 94 himself into slavery . what amounts he does not receive for his labor to a support for himself and family while able to labor.

— APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. for it is Barnes'' Notes ginated by theft.'' for the present * " None become slaves voluntarily. as the put' be so. 1 all who own known I. 356." as guilty of " theft not as the actual thieves. B. remarking time. Anti-slavery writers are accustomed to speak of . it to Tim. and consequently the whole process of making slaves partakes of the nature of theft of the worst What kind. nor can it ever be obliterated but those works of art. ''Theft:''' 4. for a given amount of labor performed under a sys- tem of slavery than under one of free-labor. but as the receivers of stolen goods." slave-holders as " men-stealers. . : " It is clear that no lapse of and no number of transfers of the property. the perpetuated and extended. wrong is by a restoration. Dr. his father or tially guilt is like that of stealing a mother? The by those who purchase those who are thus chaser of a stolen horse. no amount of legal enactment. SSY. illustrates the case by that of Napoleon's plundering the Itahan churches and monasteries of their choicest paintings. could ever convey a moral right to Somewhere." —Pp. and tlie 95 more wages laborer receives. capitalist pays. Barnes' illustration of the case by that of " a and admit stolen horse. by sale or bequest. In his Scrij)tural Vieios of Slavery. in spite of all these forms of law. knowing A man's children or wife. to slaves." a system on stolen. participates in the crime. and have been ori- 10. Let us take Dr. or guilt of man-stealing is incurred essen- measure of that criminaUty also adheres to thus maintain the system.

were the persons immedi- employed ately in the African slave-trade at the time that most of the original stock of slaves into this countrj^. him me * They *' (i. that I to his rightful owner. 96 what lie Dr. S. has found out that say. let with the money that him come may restore Return for him. certain than that the inhabitants of the ISTorthern States." Barnes' Scrip. such was the nature of the JST. that bj as stated deal fairly we the parties concerned in the transaction. theft. he would If honestly repair the wrong done. though the illustration to the beginning. paid him. is may That we not fully stated. B. and returning —I have found out that the it of Is God remember with not this as well as little country by which it gratitude (slavery) Northern ships by which the inhabit- conveyed to their shores. by all is The case a fair one. and ants of Views ^ Africa were p. neither party thought was a But since then. horse I sold you was a stolen horse. not. stole the horse The ITorthern man . the Southern people) was imposed on them. must go back Who we do doubtless believes. e. . only true reply more is. I therefore bring you back the you paid me to S. what would be required by the law the laws and cupidity of the it. now. and not the people of the South. 9. act.— THE CHRISTIAN DOCTBINE OF SLAVERY. To ? and ask this the for nothing is first of all. At the time.* was brought and that Southern men purchased from them. Mother the money the horse.

Let us take another case. Neither did the pre- money that money is receive the stolen rightfully called If the stolen horse " him paid for the : men not.) and therefore cannot be return him. The present generation of : is upon to somewhere. this just the case in first But sup- ? not Is into the "Thou hypocrite. England — was — and the same procured from Most of the land in New is true in the Southern States its original possessors. of man in the case as stated pose that. say Northern men did not receive the price^ it upon to return it ? We reply sent generation of Southern horse^ and they have him is day. is be a thief as long as you keep him." so " somewhere. (he died years ago. paid him for the horse. and not offering any part of the price which S. as the stolen horse is New upon a Southern plantation. and they and therefore cannot be rightfully called have not. the In- . beam cast out the you S. instead of to refund this. with sanctimonious visage." Does Dr. comes. then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye. own eye and out of thine . : a stolen horse. B. that horse and you'll mouth which our Lord puts of a respondent the reply. B.. !N". 97 by Dr. says you have are a thief.APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION." At this just as easily to be found in the shipping and manufacturing establishments of England.

Moral (See Foley's more tion such reasoning as this all Phil.) full between man-stealing is The distinc- kidnapping) and in the laws of our country distinction — and was made in the laws of Moses. and recognized in the ]^ew Testament (see § 5) — is a proper distinction. true of other of the age and the spirit of the Gospel. examination of the subject. and one which no sound writer has ever discarded. as spirit demands. 98 dians. is is have any undue prominence not that the subject of slavery should in these discussions. 3. 2. Barnes complains.^ book made slave-holding same just the (i. 4. ch. and the same * " Now. Does one. delusive. who all And land hence the original now is would regard held — has purchased or inherited Is A^ ? it title an unrighteous as this vitiate the title of the present operation of law a is owner. as the which. as preventing the . original. 5. for a iii.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. what the I understand it.'^ Dr. e. nor that it should be forced into the publications of the Tract Society and the Sunday School Union. Exclusion from the Puljpit. at this day. title — by fraud or violence. under the peaceful a robber as truly as if he had wrested the land from the Indian on yesterday ? The truth is. nor that but that it it should occupy the sole place in the pulpit should be treated just as wrongs are : all other acknowledged evils and as contrary to the Gospel of Christ.

I will of twenty years. than on this very one. and teach on the teaches subject. am weary of the care taken. This all is a misrepresentation of the case from The beginning to end. there Southern congregation is just all they as Clirist that the Bible introduce has given them add. through the agency of the American Tract Society and the American Sunday School Union . to Church and . B. and more than to avoid giving in other cases of them offence. and as an Does Dr. conciliate their favor Slavery^ pp. weary — and I am For one. that he his doctrine is not permitted to preach on the subject of slavery. anti-slavery writers. 159. or by means of the press. sure that in this I speak the sentiments of I am many thousands of others— of the perpetual deference shown to the holders of slaves in the pulpit and in the religious literature of the land. but to be removed. 158. ask evil : allow not to be perpetuated.— 99 APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION. South are accustomed ministers of Christ at the to introduce the subject of slavery into the pulpit." I wrong. as a violation of the spirit of the Gospel. after an experience no subject on which a listens more respectfully to God's truth. as taught from the pulpit. Would you me to occupy salvation of men. in the pulpits at the South. any other subject which And in charge. and represents this as a willful withholding of God's truth for the purpose of conciliating the favor of the Southern slave-holder.

if the Bible. received of slavery infidel. 188. will and be welcome. professing to be a revelation from God. to preacli never. fair interpretation. such parent and child. believe. polygamy. pulpit to preach on that the Free-lover can- to preach on marriage. that if a book. that nothing but God's truth shall be preached from its pulpit. any more than we could answer the argument by a fair interpretation. if authorized by the Bible. or the Socialist to minister of Christ will a book by man- on the subject preach on the relation of parent and child. or placed basis as the relation of theft. you slavery. but to any pulpit in the slave-holding States. to preach on the ." — " I or the same neither ought to be. are. responsible to on slavery My prompt reply ? As a pastor of a Cliristian Churcli. You cannot it my in sir. highway robbery. (juardian pp." And it husband and and ward. God and to man. in such passages from your published works as these argument is AYe cannot answer the drawn from for infidelity admit that slavery '' : this source. for the not enter I say to you. what on wife. Church and Slavery^ kind as a divine revelation. justified piracy. view. pulpit only. sir am . not to come and preach all my But any just that the Bible teaches. we who the Bible teaches. my enter same reason to God's truih. nor could be.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. have I your creed on slavery. 100 jour pulpit is I : ]S'o. by any defended slavery. 193.

" a w^ordy dispute about mere clusion from the pulpit. and. a — " A chat- thing"—" Unrequited labor"—" Theft"—" Ex- is fitly described by Paul mere " logomachy. subject of slavery.101 APOSTOLIC INJUNCTION." as words — words stand. which the "orator" does not under- many an instance. does not because he . in will not. or any other subject on which Christ has given instructions to his Church. All this talk of " orators transported with fiery zeal" (Channing) about " mere property" tel.

CIIAPTEE Y.
NATURE A^D ORIGIN OF SLAVERY.

In our examination of what the !N"ew Testament
teaches on the subject of Slavery,
1.

we have found—

That slave-holding does not appear in any cata-

logue of sins or " offences " given us by inspired men,
(§ 2-5.)

into

the

2:

That the Apostles received slave-holders

and continued them

Christian Church,

therein, without giving

any intimation, either

at the

time of their reception or afterwards, that slave-holding was a sin or an " offence,"

(§ 6, 7.)

sent back a fugitive-slave to his

and assigned

3.

That Paul

own master

again,

as his reason for so doing, that master's

right to the services of his slave, (§

8.)

4.

That the

Apostles frequently enjoin the relative duties of

master and slave, and enforce these injunctions upon
both alike, as Christian

men by

Christian motives

uniformly treating certain evils which they sought
to correct, as incidental evils,
102

and not " part and par-

NATURE AND ORI&IN OF SLAVERY.
eel " of slavery itself, (§ 9.)

5.

That Paul treated the

which slavery creates

distinctions

103

as matters of very

importance, in so far as the interests of the

little

Christian

are concerned, (§11.)

life

6.

That he de-

clares that this, his doctrine respecting the relation

of slave and master,

wholesome

is

doctrine,

and

ac-

cording to godliness, and the doctrine of the Lord
Jesus Christ,
ters to

(§ 10.)

teach

And

7.

directs Christian minis-

in the Church, and prohibits the

it

teaching of any doctrine at variance with
the most solemn sanctions

known

to the

it

under

Church,

(§ 12.)

All this

is

utterly irreconcilable with the idea that

slave-holding

is

to

be regarded as a sin in the sight

of God, or accounted an offence
is it

by

his

Church

;

nor

possible to maintain the opposite doctrine, with-

out either rejecting the
rule of faith

Word

God

of

as our ''only

and obedience," {Larger Catechising or

adopting principles and methods of interpretation

which
It

will destroy all certainty in

language.

becomes, then, a matter of great practical impor-

tance to

God

human

him who

receives the Bible as the

— especially in view of

tlie conflict

the Christian Church in our day
the question.

What

Apostles teach
in his Church.

is

is

to

Word

of

of opinion in

answer correctly

the slave-holding which the

not a sin before God, or an " offence "

THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY.

10-i

§ 15. Inspired Definition of Slavery,

The Clmrcli
is

is

the School of Christ j and the Bible

the authoritative text-book appoiated to be taught

in that schooL

If,

in the statement

of a doctrine

taught in any text-book, doubtful terms are used,

must go

to the

terms.

Tliis

we

text-book itself for a definition of those

is

nothing more than in

common

fair-

ness any author might demand.

The Church
Bible

is

is

the

Kingdom of

Christ ; and the

the one only law-book.of that kingdom.

the case of any other system of laws,
lation

were declared

to

if

In

a certain re-

be a lawful one, we would go

code of laws in which such declaration was

to the

made, and not

to that of

some other country or some

Any

other age, for a definition of that j-elation.

other course than

this,

would be accounted simply

absurd.

Let
us.

us, then,

The

adopt this course in the case before

Bible, the authoritative text-book in the

School of Christ, the code of laws in the
Christ, teaches that slave-holding

is

Kingdom

not a sin.

of

To

the Bible, then, let us go, and not to the writings of
Aristotle, or to the Civil

Law

of

Rome,

or to the laws

of South Carolina, for a definition of slavery.

Bible

we

will not find a definition of the term,

In the

drawn

"— a>Z. with Lord and not to knowing that whatsoever good thing any . in substance. knowing heaven. . be obedient to " ters according to the them flesh." and equal. 10. as men-pleasers '' Christ. God from set'vice." £ph. See TIL 22-25 Titus IL 9. TIONS OF THE SLAVE. doing the will of " good will doing " " men man . give unto your servants that which '^ just " in is and equal. * OF MUTUAL DITION AND EIGHTS is a con- ThE OBLIGATIONS. EIGHTS OF THE MASTEE. as unto Christ " eje-service. VL 9. and con- of the most important doctrines of our holy religion we way it : —but this so presented as to leave the ingenuous inquirer in no doubt respecting the matter. in the Bible sense of the term. for not the is tliis 105 which the Bible ordinarily presents truth in tains no strictly logical statement of many will find a definition. " in singleness of your heart. as . to " that which just " Masters. the same shall he receive of the Lord. that are your mas- with fear and trembling.— NATUEE AND ORIGEST out in strictly logical form — OF SLAYEET. not with but as the servants of to the the heart . doeth. 5* See also Epli. VL 5-8. The Rights of the Slave and the coeeespondinq also Col. Slayeey. " whether he be bond or free. lY is that ye also have a master 1. " Servants. . AND THE COEEESPONDING OBLIGA- AEE TO OBEDIENCE AND SEEVICE. Obligations of the Mastee aee.

Slavery is a relation formed without the consent — of ihe'slave being first obtained. that the. and portions. 1. T. " Kow.) though he be lord of " tors " {ejpitro])08^ place of a parent. and thus of the Church.) " and governors. there are certain other particulars. standing in the is entitled to the obedience due a parent. essential to slavery. 6^) and analogous provisions exist in the laws of many slave-holding states." Besides what may be considered. . 5. 2. {doidos^ a " slave. so treated generally attaching to it. viz. confirmation of this view. but is under tu- a guardian. who.) " until the time appointed of the father." Lex. made for a man's voluntanly assuming the condition of a slave. 106 For an exposition of these words. to assign their tasks Robinson^ s N. In see § 9. that they may be —as they are by the sacred writers —as " part and parcel" of the institution itself. as long as he is a " child. under the old dispensation. let the Gal. all. heir. reader turn to where Paul makes use of the condition of a slave to illustrate that of a child during his minority. differeth nothing from a servant. ^This is not essential since in the law of Moses provision is to slavery . strictly speaking. 1. Of this nature are the following. XXI. this 1 say." {pikonomos^ " an overseer : one who had authority over the servants of a family. lY.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. (Ex.

in slave. and similar laws have existed may that slavery 107 XXI. a distinction. It is a relation which cannot he lawfully termi- 3. presumed —In and : yet were not the consent of both parties recpired. while slavery which tinction Christian the life It is "Whatever else itself. who. Thus.NATURE AND ORIGIN OF SLAVERY. nated without the consent of loth the general. a It is 2. The rights and obligations already stated. they treat as incidental. lies method at itself remains. which has always been re- cognized by ethical writers of reputation. relation for life.) so exist without life-long duration. in other countries 2 . or at the jubilee at the farthest. are all that the Apostles treat as properly belo^iging to slavery may attach to it in any particular country or age. should regain his —Moses' law provided any way had become a freedom end of seven at the years. too. (Ex. and these three particulars. the consent of the slave is jparties. is may a dis- the very foundation of the of dealing with and writings of Christ and it. . that an Israelite. . cases of great injustice might arise — for example By : the master's manumitting a slave in his old age. that which that which is is ^^ jpart And the distinction between and jparceV of slavery itself and merely incidental^ and therefore vary or disapper. for the purpose of getting rid of his obligation to sup- port him. as set forth in his Apostles.

for which those who work either through Law for hire are often at a loss. B. extent. and They have a confused idea of chains and whips. to perpetual labor which. of ignorance and vice. and the unreasonable rigor of some laws. oijpersonal servitude^ that a : is for the sake of food shall lie if and under an obligation taken in true natural its from the barbarous cruelty of some masters. Ch. who were well clothed. and to this complex conception they apply the name slavery. 108 Pnfiendorf s definition of slavery " The full amounts sum and to this man. .. was such pictures to as themselves ? Might not that patriarch have had men purchased with his silver. well instructed. of degradation and misery. want of business or And Dr. as the aggregate of all such persons suppose that slavery existed in the family of imagination moral and thus Abraham. any particular time or place. of holding is itself writes those a crime. then. and denounce it physical Do as it their evil. itself considered. that slave- that they do not discrimi- nate between slave-holding in its willful idleness. other necessaries of life. § 10. accessories at III. extracted .. doth not imply an extravagant degree of hardship and severity." of Nature and Nations. For that perpetual obligation well is •requited by a perpetual certainty of maintenance. Hodge we apprehend.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. YI. as : who maintain is. " The grand mistake. in these words : notion.

themselves as a most desirable rescue from the and not in fate which The property them may have been merely in their persons. and the purchase may have been regarded by species of redemption. 483. are deprivation of personal liberty. Hodge's view of the nature of the property which a master has in his slave. physical discomfort. Either of these definitions would answer our purpose.^^ And and still less as referring to 1. Barnes wiutes comparatively a harmless thing essentially an undesirable condi- having any thing Abraham's slaves. had we no other design than that of defending the doctrine of Scripture. treated with parental kindness? 109 in all respects ^Neither inadequate remuneration. was understood that he had property in their titne. or a usually attends such captives which it — perchance from death. well conpensated for tlieir and labor. how All the ideas which necessarily will remain. (see § 14. and the transferable authority and character of the claim of service of the master. little enter into the definition of slavery."* but neither of them as is * In commenting upon Dr. Or the purchase . nor moral degradation." Hodge's Essays and Beviews^ pp. dition of a slave.—— : NATURE AND ORIGIN OF SLAVERY. wrong. obligation to service at the discretion of another. that slave-holding is neither a sin nor an " offence . 484. is essential to the con- removed these ideas are if all from the commonly received notions of slavery.) Dr. in it that is morally he writes: "They may have been purchased from those who had taken them as captives in war. intellectual ignorance. Yet. " According to this view. slavery is and no one should regard slavery as tion of society.

and gradually raising them from the degradation into which they have sunk. stated. —an self- slavery appointment at once punitive a punishment for sin actually com- mitted. comes upon them and remedial . latter enter as truly into the idea of slavery as the former do. this influence. thus viduals and nations. they do not take as. is degradation. government. explicit notice of the corresponding obligations of the master and the . sink so low in the scale of intelligence and morality as to become incapable of safe and righteous When. Origin of Slavery. is desirable in eman- . § 16. 75. continued through : efi'ect of A people under many generations.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. 110 perfect a definition as that given ciency consisting in by Paul their defi- . 40.. The Scriptural theory respecting the origin —The of Slavery. disobedience to God's laws. in brief." amounted to every thing that Script. and correctly the obligations of the slave. upon both indi- i. may be sin. that whilst stating distinctly this. Views of Slavery^ pp. e. by God's appointment. raay have in fact cipation. and at the same time a means of saving the sinning people from that utter extermination which must otherwise be their doom.

the slave) of the wise in heart. shall man shall And Solomon fool (i. It was consequence of in mitted. IX. 23. a servant of servants . means a III. " vant XL 68. in case of their disobedience. This doctrine of God's word is strikingly illustrated * The connection between sin and slavery appears in connection with the record of man's first sin yorth from the garden of Eden taken. but slave the ground. whereof I spake unto again : and there hond-icomen^ and no XXYIII. and yet more foreseen slave sentence of first sin. The Thou thee. but a slave to his that the labor required on Slavery^ p. and was the labor of a slaLxe^—Fletcher's Studies . the Lord sent him the ground from which he was is the word that literally means " to Adam had become own necessities. not that the slave of any other person. 29." slave." — Gen. and is used to show.^ to his of Moses. terms. shalt see ye be sold for no more it hond-men and buy you. 434. here used as a verb." —Dent. e. God the threatens his people Israel." —Prov. the wicked) shall be the ser- (ehed. that the which we have any record was pronounced by Koah upon Canaan and his descendants — " Cursed shall he be mouth be Canaan By brethren."— Gen..'' is and " To — " Therefore to till till.NATURE AND ORIGIN OF SLAVERY. in Ill part actually com- in the future. 25.^'' in the Hebrew. in general declares. by the way ments. with a long series of judg- — " And the Lord shall bring thee into Egypt again with ships. terminating in slavery.

Europe are calls " the first .of slavery.. have been those degraded operation of sin in just this way. destroyed." i.in laid in the degradation of the people. to require. and you cannot them make the people free. dict. wants and necessities must they men All in his providence. Overturn those despotisms a thousand times.. e. in the scale of intellectual Where you can for many generations. no . that they are even under the general That. i. e. fit in op- to care for them..THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. so no longer safe guardians to themselves. — " in the sweat of their face Where eat their bread.* * " We may so poisoned with sin. slavery to their physical e." persisted in for a time sin has been by any people. and hence what Fletcher well degree. in the history of man. then comes the third degree oi^\BNQYj^ i. under the guidance of a inter- That for such God provides as position to the laws of God. that he has seen placing "The world never everywhere notice that some among the family of man have become some to sla- by the long-continued . whom. then comes the second degree of slavery. by or by placing them. unless sin has been persisted in first raise and moral being. become so deteriorated by a continued action them under the control of others mercy. Uniformly the people who have been reduced very. 112 all are subject to are sinners. and a people have become deeply degraded. in less deteriorated race. that animal want enslaves us the general safety races have may seem all. personal slavery. subjection to despotic The deep foundations of despotism government.

or his hopes of Slaveri/. p. attained a point at self-government. difficult to find made more upward and onward than made under the operation of rapid progress slavery.^' to the welfare of Fletcher^ s Stiidies of man on earth. it 113 ever witness. and physical superior has been an as a fixed state. and therefore capable of forming an intelligent opinion. nor will intellectual. we believe. . if this upon has taken And may position pre- sents anything contrary to the general law of benevolence of the Deity — contrary heaven. to in slavery. to inquire of the Christian man.— — NATURE AND ORIGIN OF SLAVERY. is as unchangeable as the Fletoher'^s Studies law of gravitation. p. superior rule and government to the moral. doubt." on Slavery. intellec- and physical superior. 391. tual. is God The work which very possible. safe would an instance in wdiich a people have the African race has American it which they are capable of is. we have a striking illustration in the case of the African race in our be own In the history of nations. That they have not yet as a peo- ple. The law giving inferior race. country. Of tlie remedial operation of slavery. he holds responsible for the we be permitted in inflicting slavery it good he intends them. a case where the moral. That it may take generations yet. conceded by every one personally acquainted with them. to accomplish the gracious purposes of them. has. 504.

by God. even Christ. cient answer. hath made of one Mood dwell on all all the face of the 26. There is — " For one all ye And— "God men is a -suffi- Such. for example. XYIII. § 17. the simple state- of the Scriptural doctrine of slavery. one passage. becoming deeper as time rolls on at once a punishment for —then. however. and XXIII. Barnes' is your mas- are 'bretJirenP —Matt. more certain than that God's plan has* operated well thus far National ration sin. sin has the order estab- word and and thus understood. 114: ages to do. persisted in — then.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY."— Acts. national slavery. arguments from express Scripture advanced by anti-slavery ment writers. To most ot the Cou7iter' arguments. there is in a pro- found philosophy underlying the Scriptural method of dealing with slavery. and a gracious pro- vision for saving from utter extinction. sin. as Dr. nations of for to earth. and gradually restoring again to the position from dragged lished its Such victims down. 8. is it But nothing often takes ages to undo. his providence is which as set forth both in his . which may need a . national and darker from generation to gene- degradation. argument from the passages ter.

viz. These words of Christ are given by him. 40. the Yet its Its influence iir secur- those now certain and it held in bond- and inevitable. XXII. passing notice. if fairly Freedom that if a is applied. as he would desire loosed. '9. Turning to second table of the law. as written by God's finger. . — " And the second (commandment) Thou these two shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. B. our Lord's words. is obvious. Or. ing the emancipation of age. commadments hang prophets. now. sweet to man were all would be man . as a summary of the second table of the law. sistent with the it is manifest that nothing incon- of Christianity. this. " Whatsoever : ye would that men should do to them YII. pp." —Matt. Dr. " This rule he (Christ) evidently designed should be incorporated into his religion as essential and to the system. remarks : is the law and the all On 39." can be in ac- fair application of it cordance with the to toward be treated if bonds of servitude would soon be Scrvpt. 248. as the same truth was expressed. cannot be doubted in all circumstances to act those under him. delivered in full to Israel this own from the top of Sinai. nor his .— NATURE AND ORIGIN OF SLAVERY. nor his man-servajit (male-slave)."— Matt. for this to you. Views. expressly. spirit bearing on slavery. on an- 2. do ye even so the law and the prophets. in their place. we read. other occasion like unto On is 115 it. " Thou shalt not covet thy neigh- bor's wife.

seemeth to be joyous. Can any father rightfully restrain the waywardness. "for no chastening. taking Dr. recognized —recognized by thy neighbor's. would like to be hung ? All interpretation of general laws. statement in full of directly at variance with the principle ? Or. can the civil magistrate punish the criminal? Does he believe that criminal. but grievous." without any violation of the "law of . they who he were the if and the criminal were the magistrate. or correct the disobedience of his child he were the if the child were the father. —Ex. we ask." this his IT. he . B. which of that law is ass. quences of self. he and child. nor his nor anything that Can it is be that God has regulating it — a right. in a law. and if conse- God him- they come must come against the will of him under them. Does he believe that ? would like to be chastised? Or.'s method of interpreting the words of our Lord. sin. must come upon the sinner suffers The consequences established by as chastening. for the present. XX.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. B. is delusive. nor his ox." and all this love.. such as that of Dr. 116 maid-servant (female-slave).

of the Church. a mem117 . that some murder father. his servants. Under might the Roman kill his child. govern her Beyond which Christ has given The Bible. a father and yet be guiltless of Supposing now. that we may see clearly its difi*er- scope and import. RELATION OF THE CHURCH TO SLAVERY. law. the code never rightfully go. Its discipline is his king has ordained. (see § 9). she the can and that alone. of the Lord Jesus bound to exe- law. § 18. w^e presume. prohibit what he condemns. about which. must discipline.CHAPTER YII. her. " Tlie Discijpline The Church is the kingdom Its officers are Christ. and enforce her testimonies by spiritual sanctions. in Paul's day. cute his will." Bible. there would be no ence of opinion. which he as a The Church can enjoin what he commands. Let us apply this principle — first in a case or two.

divorced lawfully according to the States' law. you out Or.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. How such a case? Undoubtedly. the law of the land. and subsequently in cases in which the law of God does Supposing a it.'' as such. Will the plea that the second marriage was lawful according to law of offender moment. That court. the law of you God is alone of authority are a murderer. and her discipline. comes up for decision in a Church court. case. gives away the my of life child . me law. Did he put over to Satan. not allow to mur- some of our of certain States allow be divorced. the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ. as a of the Church. they should deal with the man ought the Church to deal with as a murderer. and by that law and under that law. in which a member of the Church. 118 ber of the Christian Church. but in the Church. cases of apparent exception —and the . the right to take the reply would Roman plea might avail you before a him The Roman be. must regulate The only all is or the law in his Church. derer. has married again. husband and wife to marry again. " deliver and in the plea. we cast . take a case such as might occur in Northern The laws States. and not the law of this that particular State. but unlawfully according to God's law. had taken away the life of his child. the State shield from the Church's censure? the E'ot for a The law of God.

* and this at his But supposing that often referred to by anti-slavery writers. exception ters left apparent only is — are those in which mat- undetermined by God's law are prohibited by the law of the or enjoined In this case.) the law of the State men offence in the account of the Church. at the present day. profit. a defined in God's law. required to deal with it may among is arise in con- marriage rela- member of guilty of adultery. under the general requirement of Christian obey magistrates. Church The laws of our slave-holding States. ignore the tion an indirectly. " to an offence against (Titus." may become. and the may be 119 Supposing a slave. masters uni- . and his case comes up for adjudication before the Church. Turning now to such cases as nection with slavery. gives to the master the right to separate finally husband and wife among pleasure and for his * As this matter is own his slaves. III. as such.RELATION OF THE CHURCH TO SLAVERY. act "Will the plea that the was not adultery according admitted in bar of judgment? The law law of God. in his The law to the State Kot for a and not the law of the law be moment. the Church. at the present time. is the Church. in our slave-holding States. 1. State. as that crime is slaves. State. let me ask the attention of the reader to an extract from Fletcherh Studies on Slavery^ the most elaborate work on slavery which has been published at the South : — " So far as our experience goes.

is doubtless a fact. separately. He to to inform abuses corrected. to say we never heard of Indeed. Wayland that we have . is live And Besides the interest of tranquillity of his household. that in Virginia all of up for decision it —no no such case has occurred. and in their train. common is —Pp. 120 member a master. and happy . or desire to gether in conformity to the rules of civilized life. because has never known a Christian master to violate God's law of marriage in the case of his slaves. contented. no other. lived to see many The author would add. and out- raged the feehngs of humanity in Nor do we wish this behalf. good conduct. the master. would consent to of slaves. to different individuals. his education on the subject of marriage must be allowed to have a strong influence a connection which his and to their happiness his his mind to favor own and foster in his slaves teaches him must be important tranquillity.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY." in a ministry of case such as that he by the churches sense and These are abuses and we are happy hope that many more corrections may follow 38-41. a family the slaves them- hve toge- That the owners of slaves have sometimes abused the power they possessed. in conformity to Christian rules. by saying that proud and to excuse such conduct wealthy parents sometimes outrage the feelings of of their own children in a somewhat similar way. and a selves manifested when sell habit. one reason. a power of that the State law gives exercises his Cliurcli. if the peace and The master wishes to secure very obvious. that can be and should be corrected Dr. be ad- and to with their wives and children. a pride. twenty years supposing has come which he has ministered. will the plea him this authority versally manifest a desire to have their negroes marry. on own judgment nothing of his duty a master who did not feel a strong desire. tlie in violation of the law of God. to see his slaves in good condition. as a Christian. that no man who entertained character. . and we venture to a proper regard for his own assert.

•6 (S." repubUshed of the PreshyterioM Magazine for 1857. between a arise which is —in contrary to the law K such laws were enacted.. RELATION OF THE CHUKCH TO SLAVEKY. in the case of slaves than in the case of freemen. Unscriptural State laws can no more determine the discipline of the Church. States. must govern the discipline of the Church.'^ 'No conflict Church " (i.) Baptist Associa- in the February number . the Christian and the Christian we so far as Church course of the is very plain they must obey God. as did the martyrs But where the State law simply of other days. of law. the * The reader who wishes to know how such cases as those stated above are treated by the churches of Christ in the slave consult a very able tion *' per- Report of the Charleston on the Marriages of Slaves. the State. be Free under diflerent codes that There are no alone. 121 mittecl as a valid defense in a Churcli court? for a Not The law of God. e. in their several courts. sanctions spiritual Church extends and they become such by choice — enjoining of God. likely to is not a State Church) that Christ intended his where —and Church The discipline of the own members own voluntary sions by only. mits that which is contrary to the law of God. ^' believe free " every- to her their and she can enforce her deci- . slave-laws in our Southern States know — and we to '' the State out of the administration of justice. and not man. and not the law of moment. can C.

and of the coramam^ded Bible in the words. I have As the is to observe all things you. " all nations^ baptizing Holy Ghost." What slavery what ? tlie is the Church to teach on the subject of Just what Christ hath commanded. without in any in conflict with the State. and they are Go —Matt. to from the exercise of the permitted way coming powers. Bible teaches — adding taking nothing therefrom. it is when her duty to put her liand upon her lips. commanded. alone she must always appeal. 20. she can never rightfully speak. Beyond her ow^n pale the Church has no authority On of discipline. spiritual sanctions. the Bible must govern her and them and of the Son. and the Church can under the penalty of her abstain. the world at large she can operate directly through the Her commission agency of her teaching alone. And Just nothing thereto this she is to teach . 19. 122 man Christian him require can abstain. XXYHI. teaching them soever is silent.'''' teaching. § 19. The Teaching of the Church. to in what- the only record of what Christ hath in all her " Apart from the Bible. ' To the law and to the testimonies.' them.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. as a teacher ye therefore and teach the name of the Father.

or in any other part of the Testament. time." Dr. among agencies or embassies sent mind against slaves. be they " bond. and men will She has no will forbear. subject of slavery? we reply as freely as they : do the doctrine of God's word on any other subject. Barnes^ Notes on 1 Tim. nothing in this passage. or excite would undoubtedly forbid It among their masters. teach from the pulpit all that the Bible teaches on the Yes. terference. may let the op- not be fully The italics are ." the ministers of Christ. B."^ is hear. VI. or that the wrongs of the system set before him.'s own. 123 publicly. as " In Christ Jesus there T3arnes seems to imagine. (See § 14. Dr." and " wlietlier initiated. in all them such in- slaves themselves view of their wrongs." or be tliey " free. There are practical 5. both in teaching and administering the discipline of tlie Church touching domestic as every N'orthern pastor own experience must have learned from in the case of * This passage teaches upon their masters. — " That the ministers of religion should not labor to produce a spirit of discontent to rise relations." esoteriG doctrine for the exoteric for the people the master which the slave for the slave may bond nor neither Do : no doctrine not hear for and none . forbids us to go to the maater himself^ and show him the evils of the system. and all to inflame their At the same New husband and his wife. to all alike. and to enjoin upon him to pressed go free. 5. which the master may not hear.) difficulties to be encountered.— RELATION OF THE CHTROH TO SLAVERY. in the Southern states. or whether they free.

in so far as the re- lations established Church. " The powers " that be are ordained of God . There are other institutions. " He (i. The Church God by many for granted all of Church and is —an not State." that are the Church Civil men to " live in all godliness as truly institutions of God as itself. and wage war upon every form of human ill. the civil ruler) is the minister of God to . to enable and honesty. not to Scriptural teaching from the pul- It is Southern Christians or men of the world ob- but to the uuscriptual teaching of men "puffed up with pride though they know^ nothing." § 20. resisteth the ordinance of God. having a morbid fondness for so-called philosophical questions and logomachies. or South. — as seems to be taken institution intended to do the good w^hich needs to be done in the world. 124: and l^arent Church is But we believe that the Southern cliilcL as faithful to her duty. government is one of these. jS'orth as the respecting the is duties growing out of the marriage or parental relation. either by slavery are concerned. that ject. whosoever therefore " resisteth the power. e. intended to do good and to alleviate the ills of life.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. pit.

the civil God the minister of the Church. 14. XIII. " therefore. " men of first and " able in the sight of '' " hy him for all for all that are in authority / For God Submit yourselves for the Lord's sake se7it exhort. 11." " supreme. 13. prayers." Is "a life in all godliness and honesty " to be secured to the Christian man ? the . man be to the hing^ as punishment of for the life. in all every ordinance of whether . is our Saviour. to be done through great the many of the same way. appointment. lead a quiet and peaceable " godliness and honesty. be done in to this world. According to the plain teaching of Scripture in such passages as those quoted above multiply the quotations did it —and we seem might necessary the Civil government is God and a great deal of the good as is the which needs Church . that " intercessions. them that are evil-doers. sphere. all.— RELA. and a of life are to be alleviated in own proper as truly " the minister of good. 125 and giving of thanks. this to good and accept- it — Tim.TION OF THE "thee for good. be made for kings . 1 II. we may " that CHURCH TO SLAVERY. ruler is ills In his an institution of as truly is by God's agency its . to thee for Is the " evil- doer to be terrified ?" the civil ruler " beareth not the sword in vain."— Rom. or unto governors^ as unto " "I l-t. l-tt. supplications. " for the praise of them that do well." —1 and Pet." as is.

and sincerely rejoice in the truth. any more than a similar state of things in the All interfere. has put man's nature out of the State. man. but is because sin has introduced disorder into the working of all earthly things The Church. is '' as God's minis- ter " in their administration. is Tlie bound to regard these ap- Church may no more right- fully intrude itself into the province of the State. not because the ordinance of God And this. that adminis- its not authorize the Church to step in and supply these deficiencies. be the case so long partially sanctified at best. "We freely grant. imperfect. cover And evils in the such. The may intrude itself into the province of not be accomplishing all the good civil or political evils are suffered tration. though ordained of God —are imperfect in their operation.THE CHEISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. Church would authorize the State human institutions —human. that needs reforming it under — does ought. will — we dis- working of them all. re-act upon all in its . that it the State fact. that the healthful operations of the Church own the interests appropriate sphere. joint. than the State may the Church. if fact it be. but we ." punishment of and the praise of them that do well. to in that they are administered by man. or reform these abuses. 126 civil ruler is " sent of evil-doers for the " God." The Christian man pointments of God. the Family practical believe.


RELATION OF THE CHURCH TO SLAVERY.
of man, and contribute to

But we are

of society.
that

it is

tlie

far

127

progress and prosperity

from admitting,

either,

the purpose of God, that under this present

dispensation of religion, all evil shall be banished

from

this

sublunary

a paradise

;

or, that

and earth be converted

state,

the proper end of the

the direct promotion of univeral good."

into

Church

is

Synod of

South Carolina^ 1848.

— and the same true
—was always in conformity

The conduct of the Apostles

is

of that of Christ himself

with these principles so plainly laid down in the

Word

of

labored
'

;

They

God.

they planted the Church, and nurtured

countries where the civil

and greatly needed reforming

ills

life

which

civil

were suffered

rect,
feon

;

where the State

much

designed the State to do

of

;

of the good

in

is

intended to cor-

unchecked

and property were insecure

which

where many of the

government

to prevail

failed

;

;

where per-

where the judges

took bribes and the rulers oppressed the people
the Apostles suffered in their

various ways.

it,

government was oppressive,

in the accomplishment of

God

and preached, and

lived,

own

Yet never do we

persons in

all

;

and

these

find these heaven-

guided ministers of the Church, either individually
or in their synods, intermeddling with the affairs of
state.

Never do we

political agitation

;

see

them taking

the lead in

never did they, on the Sabbath,

THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY.

128

lay aside the Gospel that they might preach civil or
legal reform.
to " teach

all

Having received

things whatsoever Christ

manded," they abide by
transgressing

a specific commission

it,

had com-

their commission

by adding any thing

to,

;

never

or taking

anything from Christ's commandment.

Would

that the

Church

in succeeding ages,

Alas

followed their example.

she did not.

!

had

With

increasingnumbers, increasing wealth, and increasing

power, the ordinance of Christ came to be disregarded, the wisdom of

man was

truth of God, and the

Church was wedded

State in

and

in

And

unholy union.

quence of such a

step,

substituted for the

then, as

the

to the

conse-

growing corruption in doctrine

manners mark her histery

;

and a long, dark

night of ignorance, and degradation, and

down upon Christendom.
union with the Church

;

The

sin, settles

State, cursed in her

and the Church yet more

deeply cursed in her union with the State.

These unholy bonds are now, in some measure,

broken throughout Christendom.
try,

In our

own

coun-

they have been more thoroughly broken than in

any other

;

and God forbid that they should ever be

formed anew.

government

is

And
a

Church of Christ

let

us not say that because our

government of the people, and the
in our land is divided into different

denominations, there

is

no danger of Church and

RELATION OF THE CHURCH TO SLAVERY.
If such a union

State ever uniting.

its

that has existed heretofore.

And

will,

it

he who has

care-

watched the course of things during the summer

last passed,
it

formed,

is

character from any

of necessity, be different in

fully

129

may

may have some

A

take on.

inkling of a form which

which

state of things in

political

questions shall be discussed in the pulpit and on the

/

Sabbath, and ecclesiastical councils, turning away

from the matters which Christ has given them in
charge, shall busy themselves with affairs of state

;

and

men's religious feelings shall be evoked as elements

and they made

of political strife,

to feel that in

promot-

ing the interests of this or that party they are verily

doing
is

God

service.

no tyranny

Experience teaches us that there

like that of a

The

mob.

in the bloody history of France,

is

the despotism of the people.

And

bloodiest

that

page

which records

so,

we

believe,

should God, in righteous judgment, suffer a union to

be fprmed between a government of the people, and a

Church such

as ours,

it

will

prove

itself

the most dis-

Church and State the world has
disastrous to civil liberty and yet more

astrous union of

ever seen

;

;

disastrous to the religion of Christ.

God
each

has assigned to the Church and the State

its

separate province,

and

neither has ever

intruded into the province of the other without suffering therefor.

To

the

Church God has
6^

intrusted

^

But let neither prescribed. is political franchises. is sin. rectly reacts Each. The transgression whether by individuals or nations.130 all THE CHRIS-HAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. and an incorrupt State blessing to the Church. down in the . and con- this she is to and the supervision of the manners of his people. a the one nor other o'erstep the "metes and bounds" which has is is God of God's law. the interests of cern the man which more immediately come life to . the interests of so train them for his hea- man which more immediately this present life — all all concern questions respecting capital and and labor. and these she to regulate by his law. his Gospel. her members. the pro- weak. and sin and sorrow came into our world hand-in-hand. acting in upon the other. civil rights tection of the and To the State God has intrusted venly kingdom. the forcible repression of crime. preach to every creature . own its A sphere. indi- pure Church a blessing to a State. and the general administration of justice between man and man. and handin-hand they have walked " up and earth" ever since.

yet seem is to have almost oblite- he an immortal creature 131 . has appointed his Church — as we learn it. the to respect the one appoint- distinclj set forth in the life his Apostles than in any in whatever manner the will that will In the case of a race of which God liis Cliiircli. in slavery. way where and ministry of Christ and of WAT. deeply degraded of sin may. also in Both the worJc of the Church and But positive precept. both from the example and the precepts of inspired men — is to labor to secure in ou earth and meetness them a Christian for his heavenly kingdom. Church is as ment the And much bound as the other. . rated his humanity. . in our Southern States. way are often God is more made known. the worli. which that this is the case. life may be the debasing effects of generations at first sight.CONCLUSIOK GOD Where God WOKK S IN GOD has appointed a vwrlc for he has generally appointed the work is to be done. The African slave. 3 is men law to his Church.

men this point there can be no difference of opinion among God's people. 507. so as to the a worthy wor- among God's people on earth. " go ye into and preach the Gospel to the world every creature^^^ sends her a messenger of glad tidings him to above him in the scale of frir all the as truly as to On civilization. one for whom God'the Son died . and therefore only under circumstances where mote that end. is Gospel has been received —the Church of the Lord Jesus which " there * " The fact and when there . And ing prodigal to his heart and to his home.''^ In what ^cay By this is work to be done We answer. to tion. one whom God make him Spirit can re-fashion. commission of the Church. assigned by Revievjs. in so far as the slave race among concerned. that this admit them. w^ho intelligently take word the of obedience. in — and to seat is not emancipa- obligatory only as a means to an end. ? preaching the same Gospel of God's grace alike to the master and the slave ble evidence given same Church is.132 THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. Korth or South." credi- slave. into the that the great duty of the South but improvement. master and in faith." him us to his is God as their " only rule of faitli This is the Church. it would pro* . and worh of God. p. is neither bond nor The former free " is Ilodge'a Essaj/s and Christ. and a welcome worshipper among the ransomed in heaven one whom God the Father waiteth to receive as a returnshipper .

" the good ulti- political condi- directly to be the emancipation God's name. the law b}^ the teaching of the Church. but before the world. that drinking of the same cup. we camioV^ even to ti^ht and With Church has nothing If the ultimate effect of of the slave make "good she labors to inake good subjects. God. and eating of the same loaf." —and we would not lest if haply we be found If the ultimate effect be . that the light whicli has given her the is And of Christ. members way in slavery. them into the same Church. upon the tion of the slave the we God and in their writings prohibit any other. same to the discipline prescribed let it come.'' just as " good husbands. good children. effect of this just is with in their wives. civil it —we say— in could — " overthrow as^ainst it it. body in the to teach them the duties belonging to their several " callings " out of the them Bible. " be of God. life members may appear unto The this way must men. but to the world at large discipline of her secret. be addressed not to the this. In " If all his Apostles dealt instructions they her to and her . be exercised not in to is which Christ and masters and good do.133 them same table of the Lord. good parents. mate good rulers. only. and subject same law. This have given us the Church labor to slaves. they mayat the communion witness to the world their And having received and blood of the same Saviour.

regulating the rela- tions of capital and labor. God's solution of which the wisest statesmen of Europe confess themselves " at fault. let be. if it be an unrighteous freedom. free laborers in name is j^laced of the free States of Europe at the present this kind what the masses of is France are clamorino: of " the right to labors for under the Something of ' this kind would have protected the ejected tenantry of the Duke of Sutherland against the tyranny which drove them forth from the home of their childhood. than the too great freedom in which capital many in Something of day. referred to . that Christian slavery hearth-stone. say." and the just slave to render to the master a cheerful obedience and hearty service may It — we slavery continue." free. though implying some deprivation of j^ersonal liberty. that such a slavery. into fields be. will prove a better defense of the poor against the opj^ression of the rich. God. " to give and equal. and quenched the fire upon many a converted once cultivated It may the problem about is and sheep-walks.134 THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY."* " Bonds make Freedom * For an able examination of this point the reader is enslaves. be they but righteous bonds. the perpetuation of slavery divested of evils by —a slavery in which the master the laws of man as well as that of unto the slave that which is incidental its shall be required.

thus clearly God pointed out in God's word. North.god's To way this wokk way. Crocker and Brewster. . publishers. Principles and Suggestions for a Memedial Code. would soon quench for ever that light of Christian civilization which a wise philanthropy has kindled upon the dark Slavery and the Remedy or. by Samuel Nott. Boston. year by year. is highly civilized race. as all history inevitable destruction to the former. as God-fearing provide for the just rights and well-being of the emancipated slave To leave the ? partially civilized slave race. in contact with a much more fies. at the it has to us. To remove one hundredth part of the annual increase of the slave race to Liberia. shall we. often lose sight of the greatest difficul- the case. It is comparatively an easy matter to devise a scheme of emancipation just rights and the well-being of the master provided for. in god's 135 of dealing witli slavery. writ of enfranchisement is testi- Their their death-warrant. does in his provi- dence " shut us up." for years to come. But how in which all the shall be men. . in a state of freedom. None but the sciolist in political philoso23hy can regard the problem of emancipation — even were the aim which the Christian immediately in view And —as a problem men thoughtful Christian seemed ties in granting that this have citizen should of easy solution.

is it is this is hidden from view in " the clouds and darkness" with which purposes. And immediately to do. and not the Church. but there And light God —heaven's oft veils his light — upon with the present alone we have . continue? Is slavery to We is want the best of Christian masters and the best of Christian slaves. to it —simply pletely God's that the reader may how com- see word and God's providence are " at one. And we have referred to the question of emancipation \vhich settle —a question belongs to the State. 136 How coast of Africa." in so far as the present duty of the Church concerned. we shall provide for the well- being of the enfranchised slave? Here is the real difficulty in the problem of emancipation. T]ie an enfranchisement indeed. to introduce stated in the outset. future may be the presetit. that it and the may prove other.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. We mean feasibility no opinion respecting the to express of the future emancipation of the slave race among pose is As we us. slaves. a blessing to both the one Is ultimate emancipation before us "We want the best of Christian masters carry out the scheme by which and the best of Christian it to devise shall ? and be efiected. our pur- no question on which the Bible does not give us specific instruction. that their emancipa- tion may be just what the Bible plan of dealing with slavery aims at.

we give his in the midst of slavery. which specifically it has been to diffuse a definite moral influence in respect . The not be primarily the conversion of the heathen. licentiousness. State^ p." {Church and 21) it as as it. 193).* * That the reader may see how own words: — "A Church. or the diffusion of Bibles which God requires own geographical and for and The work tracts abroad. yet owes an important duty to society and to God in reference to the system. and only the teaching of the Church slave-holding as a sin. Its primary work reference to an existing evil within burden which is laid upon it may its planted there. and and so labor put an end to slavery throughout the directly to world. under the guise of dealing with "American Slavery. intemperance. . duelling. and so we firmly convinced are that Church that we cannot abandon Another way ^xo^o^^^ tion between slavery which attach to it is God'S it is way it. or even by drawing within shall be saved. B. though all be wholly unconnected with slavery. would go." in to denounce evil.^'' is detached it theft. and evils at the present day. as " evil. limits. and in the an " offence. 1 Cor. located its members may far Dr. Church discipline of the YIL to treat and " detach the Church from from piracy. — confounding the itself for his distinc- and the incidental in our country. and its mission will not be accomplished by securing merely the sanctifi- cation of those who its its fold midtitudes of as a Church may have members. always evil." {Barnes' Notes. it may be to do.137 This one is way of dealing with slavery.

Slavery all. 159164. once the folly of fanaticism and the fanaticism of folly. into a kind of " omnibus.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. Barnes true of all anti-slavery writers this day. to and something peculiar to each. B. admits Church and Slavery^ p. " American Slavery. 138 To all this First. —and the which attach itself." in To con- which every- thing called a moral reform shall be free to ride on an equal footing with the Gospel. Roman. upon is at . which we designate by the adjuncts Jewish. and Koman slavery. Dr.) is bad enough. Jewish slavery. B.) The fact that Dr. Nothing more is real than the distinction. we object —There use which a radical fallacy involved in the is made is of the expression. to an existing evil institution. 1. is Unphilosophical. as Dr. B. . and American from the others. as different the one that there can write about slavery. (See § 15. (see Church and Slavery. does. whose works Slavery 1. but thus actually to turn the Gospel out the pave. seen — the aggregate Tlie incidental evils country and at an indivisible ject means Slavery. to it in this considered as inseparable This treatment of the sub- unit. 21." vert the Church of God Dr. of. 2. until a certain moral reform has been carried home. American. shows must be something common to them which we give the common name." By American same is we have and. pp. as set forth in the writings of Paul.

the features of cruelty. and is why manner? that remains disappear in like The change of the to slavery has we believe that Christianity is from destined to a final triumph in the world. just so certainly do to continue to exist we believe that slavery —must continue to — if it is be modified by until all its incidental evils disappear. or revolting to the principles of a Christian. 250. cates of the system should have all in such circumstances as to regard and treat it as an evil. * " It is by the Apostles. proper that they should Christianity regards Views of Slavery^ pp. advo- the advantage which can be de- rived from the fact that the Apostles found —Scriptural (slavery). and wrong. which can ever exist to make and It is of approaching the sub- ject of slavery from that adopted Paul never wrote a 1. as certainly as God. it as such at all. 251. is* cruel and oppressive than —that that is. an By It is unscTijptural. if It is fair that the make it it in its little most odious forms.— 139 Roman that was far more American slavery now incidental evil disappeared. may not all by the Apostles slavery. as encountered in their day. that has taken place. which once attached If much much has already disappeared. 2. line respecting Jewish slavery proper to concede that the state of things was such that they (the Apostles) must have encountered then had all it it and that it repellant to any of the feelings of humanity. oppression. quotation given a further on. essentially diflerent way this we mean." Compare this with a . it. has been effected And just under the benign influence of Christianity.

and the incidental day and among the nor does he give the Churches any directions couched in any such lan- guage He as this. that be considered all which now belongs as. reasonable to it ought . for all practical to purposes. as he does. and about cer- tain Qvils attaching to slavery as he encountered it. is It 2. to is sanctioned by the Bible. exists in the United States a degree elsewhere influence of the Christian religion. is the incidental evils of which suppose Christianity will ever and hence. which he writes about slavery^ treats as neither a sin nor an offence .THE CHEI8TIAN DOCTRESTE OF SLAVERY. upon which ignores the very ground method of dealing with slavery prescribed Word of God. Barnes justifies his dealing. it may be This is a unknown. to labor to correct. to it all exists in the United States." upon the ground 1. slavery evils wliicli attached to Jews — or itself in his it lloman slavery . 140 meaning thereby. with what he calls " American Slavery. is. sphere. That slavery." Dr. which he in her treats as sinful. as slavery divested of is it divest it. under the It could hardly be hoped that a . Yiews In his introduction to his "Scriptural of Slavery.* * "If any system of slavery presumed that that which Christian land —a land. essential to the system. own proper and requires the Church. whole the in the predicated.

as part of a Fourth-of- July oration of some beardless Sophomore.''— Scriptural Views^ p. without destroying the essential character of the marital tions as set forth in the and our home relations and parental AYord of God shall .. than in our own land. that w^e should . B.141 This "American certainly is glorification" — "with a witness. wrong often inflicted by the profligate and the child against the cruelty of tho drunken father . have -comforted ourselves with the creasing years may give the young we could reflection — in- man wisdom. and all this. thought that her social institutions. entertain the either in law or in fact. who must have " gray hairs here and there upon him. or where developments would more accord with the prin- its ciples of the Bible." For ourselves. too. But God forbid. patriotic pride in her standing among the nations. we love our country and we feel an honest. shall never be brought more fully under the control of God's truth than they now are tliat . the wife shall never be better protected against the husband . And so. 14. in which slavery could be better de- veloped." we can account for only by calling to mind what Paul That we should read them from the pen of one state of society could be found. with reHad we heard such sentiments as Christian than they spect to slavery. . rela- that our heart never be more thoroughly now are. those just quoted from Dr.

That what we have designated as God's way of 2. is The very question of &nj practical importance to us exists in the United States is. instead of confining themselves to the slavery in the abstract only one that slavery as it is is right or -wrong. 12. in with the principles and the spirit of Christianity. among exists separate exists it That 1. and. or is matter. we example. 142 tells lis of the effects of feeding on " YL words.jpTactical matter. abstract^ and not dealing with slavery in the is as 2. B."^ AYhat Dr.— — THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. we —slavery as — in any such sense as in the abstract with American slavery us. after Paul's w^hicli is essential^ i. that a subject of not unfrequent complaint. away or neglecting for the time being either essential or incidental. —something. as contrary to the naked question. dealing with slavery. Bible.s- it exists in our country. or in Europe in the Middle Ages."— 1 Tim. whether slavery. . unwholesome 3.. in the exami- nation of this subject (slavery). belonging to such institution. But. — among this. there might indeed be it some existed in the — not. 10. whether is. just as slavery. the adversaries of the system endeavor to show that slavery a. We have always supposed that such dealing implied the abstraction the taking i. We take it are not dealing * It is it into us. e.'s idea of dealing with an institution in the abstract we know is.. was in accordance with the spirit of the Christian religion. e. — the whether accordance As an abstract interest attached to the inquiry Roman empire in the time of the Apostles. Scriptural ViewSy pp. that. and the whole of slavery. not. surely.

that the and show. practical dealing with hoth parts. . we seek If this we its entirety. The Jlrst we of the second —and violation of God's by authority given members. from the 2. What ask. is to re- not dealing What is If this abstract^ we ask. in discussion^ deal with lothj^arts. just . ? have we abstracted ? We remarked volved in the use which American of the is slavery ^^ as used same was that there school. We prove then. The only meaning which can properly attach expression American exists in these slavery. work god's which must continue That which if incidental^ is way. we to the that of slavery as are dealing with it In this American . that e. and. Word law tion of his of the second is of God. a radical fallacy in- '^ made of the expression. in god's 143 slavery continues i. by Dr. with' all the world at large. sense of the expression. and prohibit. that in violation of that law. which may disap- Having done pear and slavery yet remain. B. fir^st is this.. is United States of America.. and move from is Christ to his in every proper dealing with slavery in the of re- as is in it the Church over her way. and other writers The reader will now see just what was meant by that remark. quire both the parties to conform to much And as a Churchy it^ we liot in viola- as clearly. with slavery in in our obligations its much just so —we law much we deal with treat as not sinful.

because quires the Church to it re- obtrude herself into the province of the State. tial. that is.* in addition to slaits proper meaning. than Dr. A course which has never been taken in times past. as well as to the State which permitted tbe wrong to thing which it is right be done. It is. and others. Whilst Dr. we is. neglecting this thus. the Clmrch. as Paul distinction. the idea of the indivisible unity of To take such a course the mass. without disastrous consequences to the Church which did the wrong. issues in question are more nor less Second. in direct violation of the ordi- nance of God. Many a and proper. just as truly. and he does American very. in this our free country. as such. treating all as essen- as it an indivisible unit this under the guise of dealing with " . we The real difference cidental. the duty of the Christian zen.. for example. and even the duty of the Christian citizen. far think." foisting upon that phrase. B. for deaUng with slavery. as Paul deserves. between us between that which and with as fully. B. is nothing than "a begging of the question. practically. B. distinguish and that which is in- and we deal with each as it essential did. when the as this. to use all proper means to citi- inform ." —We object to the course proposed by Dr.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. more of jpfactical wisdom. and deals with is did. 144: and just slavery. and this. to do. such as they are. has v/ith. no right to intermeddle doubtless.

by the application to and methods of tainty in interpretation.) impeachment of the to declare Word it of God. rival candidates. love man. to God.'^ the New it a sin. members how direct her State has each own its tion assigned it of to vote in her councils to The Church and ? appropriate sphere of opera- God. has done in his Notes. mercy.145 himself respecting the qualifications of candidates for ofiDce. them which destroy In order to Bible declare that slave-holding plainly teaches * "As it j ust the contrary is . — It leads to tampering with God's truth. and under Testament is nowhere forbidden or denounced. human language. in the it is pulpit and on the Sabbath. direct (that and love to is. Thikd. and " wresting the Scripture. and all cer- make the when it to teach in appears to us too clear to admit of either denial or doubt. B. and having thus informed himself. hence contend that any Christian man. but on the contrary." as Dr. that under the old dis- was expressly permitted by divine command. acknowledged to be consistent with the Christian character and profession. that the Scriptures do sanction slave-holding pensation of principles . consistent with justice. will right for the preacher. and neither can innocently intrude herself into the province of the other. whom the one to vote for he believes will best discharge the But duties of the office." to be a heinous crime "When is a Southern Chris- tians are told that they are guilty of a heinous crime. holiness. to discuss the claims of and the Church. worse than 7 .

uncommon schools . pp. but the authors of the religion of the Bible. — in their way. — " Thirty nor was it slaves to these nor did such acts excite attention or alarm.) This course has led not a few. into open "blasphemy. once fair and promis- ing members of the Church." and untouched by affect not them Hodge's Essays Eevicivs. we occasionally had schools for negro children for masters to send their favorite young . that such have no doom. never denounced slave-holding as to renounce it as a condition of admis- sion into the Church. * In illustration of this remark. and an experiment which is it. or to We 4. to (See § 12. they are shocked and offended without being convinced." and Paul teaches natural tendency. to say the least of it that Christ and his Apostles a crime. must only. is its desire to walk Fourth. 146 Church doctrines which we are forbidden the teach under the most solemn sanctions. their method of dealing with slavery which has worked well in time past — all of real advantage to the slave that has ever been done by the Church has been done substitute for has wrought nothing but harm — and to to the slave^ thus far piracy. because tliey hold know way a mere experiment. . and even ministers. 503. at the same time. and. robbery. (1 Tim. never called upon men when they slaves. we quote from Fletcher years ago. 484.) meet It requires us to quit a us.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. or murder. denunciations which they and know if their consciences are well founded. They are sure that their accusers cannot be wiser or bet- ter than their Divine Master. any missionary had free access to that class of our population. YI. in this a method which.

mentally too insignificant to foresee the result of their conduct." Ministers of the Gospel. {Assemhly's Digest^ pp." Studies on Slavery^ p. all its of operation during in God's provi- it.) . But when we found. S. deeply laden with the most abusive falsehoods. spent in a slave-holding state. " the Head. consequences. until he who bid us gird on our armor shall give us leave to put banner and under that banner do we . 41. dence. after watching a ministry of twenty years. understand that these results. "We could add much of similar character. with astonishment. way we can never adopt the Church at the South. 0. land knows whereabout careless of the little great was the cry.. in 1845. and the mouths of Dr.* have inscribed upon their mean to fight the " Lord's battles. and to spread assassination and bloodshed through the land . 811-813. with some por- at the IS^orth also. * See the paper adopted by the General Assembly of the Presbylerian Church. Churches of God it off. whether for the benefit or injury of the slave. in tions of the Church m God's work proposed. from our own observation. have been brought about by the work of their hand. were closed. or wholly preaching the same doctrines —these him and lies his coadjutors well And schools. with Christ. Way- the wickedness of these our acts! Let these missionaries. when we found these transient missionaries. that our country was flooded with abolition prints." grace assisting us. with the obvious design to excite rebeUion among the slaves. For all second these reasons.— ' 147 — and we say this. may cut us off They cannot break our union from their communion. common this God's way.

77-l ^ . if we though in opposition to all the world." conscience void of offence before God. 14:8 whom we from may revile us have a right to expect better things. we mean preach what they preached it is JN'orth. THE END 3li. — wc " fear God rather than man.THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF SLAVERY. if loe must. as they governed and brotherhood with and in faithfulness to Christ." price. With to deal just this as — govern the —in Christian to : — A all his Apostles dealt — —to labor as they labored Christ and to Church of God fellowship God's people at the MAY " above whole subject of slavery. in other lands.