Media Coverage of the

2016 Elections
January 2016 findings

BACKGROUND
Why monitor media coverage of elections?
The goal of ACME’s project is to contribute to accurate, fair, impartial and
balanced coverage of the 2016 elections. ACME’s specific objectives are:
 To monitor, document and share trends in media coverage of the 2016
general elections.
To monitor media compliance with election reporting guidelines and
regulations.
To influence journalists, editors and media owners to provide information
that is more accurate, impartial and fair.
To empower civil society and the public to demand adherence to
professional standards in media coverage of elections.

Methodology
Scope of study:
A purposive sample of print and electronic media.
January 2015 coverage of presidential and parliamentary elections by
newspaper, television and radio.
Media content types: news, current affairs, and commentary.
Data collection method:
Story/article is the unit of analysis.
Content analysis.
Key informant interviews.

Sampling (1)
9 newspapers
5 televisions channels
33 radio stations
Choice constitutes a purposive sample designed to capture all facets of
the election coverage to which the electorate is exposed.

Sampling (2)
PRINT PUBLICATIONS (9)

TELEVISION (5)

 Dailies - New Vision, Daily
 Public channels – UBC &
Monitor, Red Pepper, Bukedde
Bukedde
 Weeklies - The Independent,
Etop, Rupiny and Orumuri
 Tri-weekly - The Observer

 Private channels – NTV
Uganda, NBS & WBS

Sampling (3)
RADIO (33)

 Languages: English, Luganda, Ateso, Luo, Lumasaba, Lusoga,
Lugbara and Runyakitara
 Stations: UBC, Bukedde, Arua One, Baba FM, Buddu FM, Bushenyi
FM, Capital Radio, Central Broadcasting Services, Dokolo, Kagadi
Broadcasting Services, Kasese Guide, KFM, Kioga Veritus FM, Mighty
FM, Nenah, Nile, Open Gate FM, Radio Amani, Radio pacis, Radio
Rhino, Radio Sapienta, Radio West, Rock FM, Rukungiri FM, Signal
FM, Simba, Spice FM, Sun, Top Radio, Voice of Africa FM, Voice of
Kigezi, Voice of Life, Voice of Teso, Voice of Toro

Monitoring/Research Questions (1)
What topics do the media focus on in their coverage of the elections?
What type of reports do the media produce [news,
commentary/opinion, features/special reports, etc]?
What is the nature of the reporting [conventional, interpretative,
investigative, enterprise]?
Who are the sources in media coverage [ordinary people, party officials,
candidates, regulators, civil society, diplomats, religious leaders, central
government officials, local leaders, police/security, etc]?
What is the number and gender of the sources?
Which political parties are focused on in media coverage?

Monitoring/Research Questions (2)
Which presidential candidates are focused on in media coverage?
How much time or space is dedicated to each party?
How much time or space is dedicated to each presidential candidate?
What is the tone of coverage?
What is the frequency of personal attacks in media coverage?
Do media houses offer the right of reply?
How often do news stories interrogate candidate or party promises?
How often do news stories include background and context?

CUMULATIVE RESULTS

Cumulative number of election stories
Newspaper: Since September, newspapers have published a
total of 3,453 election stories. Daily Monitor has the highest
cumulative number of stories and Rupiny has the least.
Television: TV stations have aired a total of 1,562 election
stories since November. NTV Uganda tops in having the
highest number of election stories, while WBS TV has the least
number.
Radio: Since November, radio stations have aired a total of
2,587 election stories.

Cumulative No. of election stories - newspaper
Cumulative No. of election stories -newspaper (%) N=3,453
26.2

Monitor

20.8

New Vision

19.9

Red Pepper

12.8

Bukedde

10.5

The Observer

3.4

Etop

3.0

The Independent
Orumuri

1.7

Rupiny

1.7

Cumulative No. of election stories by newspaper
Cumulative No. of election stories by publication (%)
20.3

25.0

39.0

23.3

23.3

24.1

25.9

35.3

26.2

17.5
23.3

33.9
6.8

41.7
8.3
1.7

16.4
25.2
17.2
10.7

September

6.9

October

24.9

24.5

26.5

24.2

24.4

29.1

26.2

12.2
10.3

15.8
6.4

15.1

17.0
22.1

20.1

32.9

14.6

11.6

13.2

13.6

November

22.2

31.0

December

January

10.0

Cumulative No. of election stories - television
Cumulative No. of election stories - TV (%) N=1,562
30.0

NTV Uganda
25.4

NBS
18.1

Bukedde
14.1

UBC

WBS

12.4

Cumulative No. of election stories by TV station
Election stories by station (%) N=1,562
21.4
49.2

38.6

42.0
45.1

26.4

24.4

WBS

35.5

25.9

UBC

28.4

21.6

36.4

33.5

Bukedde
November

NBS
December

January

40.1

31.6

NTV Uganda

Cumulative space/time to election stories
Newspaper: Since September, newspapers have provided a
total of 2,493,564.45Cm2 space to election stories. New Vision
allocated more space to election stories while Orumuri
provided the least space.
Television: Since November, TV stations have allotted 9,354.37
minutes to election reporting. NBS TV provided more time to
election stories, while WBS came last.
Radio: Radio stations have dedicated 9,616.95 minutes to
election reporting since November.

Cumulative space to stories - newspaper
Space to elections (%) Area=2,493,564.45Cm2
25.1

New Vision
23.4

Monitor
16.5

Red Pepper
15.1

Bukedde
11.0

The Observer
4.6

The Independent
2.2

Etop
Rupiny

1.1

Orumuri

1.0

Cumulative space to stories by newspaper
Cumulative space to stories by publication (%)
18.7
28.6

30.8
15.0

18.8
27.5

20.0

12.8
26.6

28.1
31.1

57.3
39.8

18.5

17.9
21.1

26.2
17.1

35.0

22.8

45.6
25.2
7.1

15.7
3.6

5.6

September

4.8
13.2
16.4
8.3

October

25.6

34.8

19.4

18.9

10.8

19.2

8.8

10.5

8.5

15.1

22.5
13.5
4.2

November

December

January

28.8

Cumulative time to stories - television
Time by station (%) Time=9,354.37 minutes
32.7

NBS

30.2

NTV Uganda

16.2

UBC

12.4

Bukedde

WBS

8.5

Cumulative time to stories by TV station
Time to stories by station (%) Time=9,354.37 minutes

33.2

21.9

17.4

33.7

37.7

24.8

44.4

44.9

49.1

26.2

53.0

25.2
20.5
41.6
26.5

WBS

Bukedde

UBC
November

December

NBS
January

NTV Uganda

JANUARY RESULTS & TRENDS

Number of election stories - newspaper
Number of election stories (%) N=877
25.3

Monitor

24.3

Red Pepper
18.1

New Vision
12.5

Bukedde
10.7

The Observer

3.2

Etop

2.7

The Independent
Orumuri
Rupiny

1.7
1.4

Number of election stories - television
Election stories by station (%) N=517
25.7

NTV Uganda
23.0

Bukedde
18.4

WBS

UBC

16.4

NBS

16.4

Space to election stories - newspaper
Space to publications (%) Area=582,579.36
26.7

Monitor
21.5

New Vision
19.8

Red Pepper
11.4

The Independent
The Observer

8.4

Bukedde

8.3

Etop
Orumuri
Rupiny

1.8
1.3
0.9

Time to election stories - television
Time by station (%) Time=2,409.13 minutes
30.7

NTV Uganda

22.0

NBS

17.6

WBS

16.0

Bukedde

UBC

13.8

Most covered presidential candidate
Newspaper: In January, newspapers dedicated 476,382.52Cm2 space to
presidential candidates. Museveni was covered most and Bwanika least.
Television: In January, TV stations allotted 1,905.92 minutes to presidential
candidates. Museveni most covered and Mabirizi least covered.
Radio: A total of 1,898.96 minutes was dedicated to presidential candidates
by radio stations monitored in January. Museveni was most covered.
Overall trend: The general trend for newspaper, TV and radio shows a drop
in space and time allocated to Museveni, Besigye and Mbabazi between
December and January and a significant rise in coverage to Kyalya, Mabirizi,
Baryamureeba, Biraro and Bwanika. This is attributed to the presidential
debate in the middle of the month that gave them more media attention.

Most covered candidate - newspaper
Space to candidates (%) Area=476,382.52Cm2
39.7

Museveni
22.5

Mbabazi
16.4

Besigye
Mabirizi

4.6

Biraro

4.6

Kyalya

4.5

Baryamureeba

4.2

Bwanika

3.6

Most covered candidate by newspaper
Space to candidates (%) Area=476,382.52Cm2
16.8

23.5
40.8

43.0
7.6
66.7

9.0

63.9
77.1

5.9

35.3

33.9
10.8
11.2

0.5
0.5

0.8

10.7

5.7
1.8
1.0

13.7
24.8

17.3

1.1

1.1

13.3
1.8

1.2
13.4

14.1

7.4
10.7

8.3

0.8

8.3

16.3

2.1

1.7

2.1
2.1

20.2

0.9

14.6

27.0

0.5

1.1

1.4

14.6

0.8

0.8

64.7
2.1

42.3

10.9

1.3

9.6
28.9

2.1

2.1
10.4

0.4

15.5

Museveni
Kyalya
Mabirizi
Bwanika
Besigye
Biraro
Baryamureeba
Mbabazi

Most covered candidate - television
Time to candidates - TV (%) Time=1,905.92 minutes
45.2

Museveni
18.4

Mbabazi
14.8

Besigye
6.6

Baryamureeba
Biraro

4.6

Bwanika

4.5

Kyalya
Mabirizi

3.4
2.5

Most covered candidate by TV station
Time to candidates by stations (%) Time=1,905.90 minutes
23.9
43.3

51.9

0.4
2.6

20.3
3.1

2.8
4.2

16.6

0.9
5.8

2.7
2.9

21.3

81.1

3.3
7.5

14.4

24.4

12.4

NBS

Mabirizi
6.1

8.8

2.8

Bukedde

Kyalya

0.6
3.5

Museveni

Bwanika

1.2

25.2

53.2

4.9

NTV Uganda

2.2
1.9

5.2
0.6
2.3
6.2

UBC

Besigye
Biraro

7.8

Baryamureeba

2.7

Mbabazi

2.7
16.7

WBS

Most covered candidate - radio
Time to candidates (%)Time=1,898.96 minutes
37.3

Museveni
Besigye

24.4

Mbabazi

24.4
3.5

Biraro
Kyalya

3.1

Baryamureeba

2.6

Mabirizi

2.4

Bwanika

2.3

#Trends: Most covered candidate – newspaper (1)

44.2
39.7

39.0

28.0

25.7
21.1

22.5

19.8

16.4

November

December
Besigye

Mbabazi

January
Museveni

#Trends: Most covered candidate – newspaper (2)
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.2
3.6

3.4
3.0
2.9
2.6
2.3

2.5
2.1
1.6
1.5

0.3

November

December

Mabirizi

Baryamureeba

Bwanika

January

Biraro

Kyalya

#Trends: Most covered candidate – television (1)
53.4
45.2

32.8
24.2
19.1

20.2
18.9

November

December
Besigye

Mbabazi

18.4
14.8

January
Museveni

#Trends: Most covered candidate – television (2)
9.1

6.6
4.6
4.3
3.7
3.5
3.3

3.5

4.5
3.4

1.8

2.5

1.3
0.5
0.4

November

December

Mabirizi

Biraro

Kyalya

January

Bwanika

Baryamureeba

#Trends: Most covered candidate – radio (1)
46.7
37.3

39.3

28.2

27.5

24.4
24.4

20.8
17.4

November

December
Besigye

Mbabazi

January
Museveni

#Trends: Most covered candidate – radio (2)
4.7
4.6

3.5
3.1
2.6
2.4
2.3

3.0

1.7
1.7

1.7
1.3
0.7
0.5
0.1

November

December

Mabirizi

Biraro

Bwanika

January

Kyalya

Baryamureeba

Radio news coverage of elections per region
 Most election stories aired in January were by radio stations in
Kampala, while radios from western region had the least
number of election stories. Among the top 10 radio stations
monitored, KFM had more election stories while Capital Radio
had the least number.
 Similarly, radio stations in Kampala allocated the highest
percentage of airtime to election stories. Western region
provided the least time to election stories. Among the top 10
radio stations, Baba FM allocated more time to election
reporting while UBC Blue Channel allotted the least time.

Number of radio news stories per region
Number of radio news stories per region (%)
32.2

Kampala
26.5

Central
15.4

Eastern

7.6

South-Western
Northern

6.7

North-Western/West Nile

6.6

Western

5

Number of radio news stories by
top 10 radio stations
Number of news stories (%)
10.3

KFM
7.2

UBC Blue Channel
6.7

Sun

6.5

Baba FM

6.4

Voice of Africa FM
5.8

Central Broadcasting Service
5.5

Radio Sapientia

5.2

Simba
Kagadi Broadcasting Services
Capital Radio

5.1
4.8

Radio time to election coverage per region
Time to election coverage (%)
26.7

Kampala

25.9

Central

20.4

Eastern
9.5

South-Western
8.3

North-Western/West Nile
6.0

Northern

Western

3.2

Radio time to election coverage by
top 10 radio stations
Time to election coverage by top 10 radio stations (%)
11.8

Baba FM

10.0

KFM

6.4

Kagadi Broadcasting Services

6.1

Simba

5.9

Voice of Africa FM

5.8

Sun
Central Broadcasting Service

5.3

Radio Sapientia

5.3

Radio Amani
UBC Blue Channel

5.1
5.0

Type of election
In January, the presidential election was the most covered by
newspaper, TV and radio. The parliamentary polls received the
least coverage.
For instance, an analysis of New Vision, Daily Monitor, The
Observer and Red Pepper shows that the parliamentary elections
made the lead headline on front page only twice for all four
publications combined.
Overall trend: Since September, the general media trend shows
the presidential election getting more coverage.

Type of election by media type
Type of election (%)

100%
90%

11.4

15.5

17.3

5.2

80%

21.3
12.7

70%

Both

60%

Parliamentary

50%
40%

71.3

79.3

Presidential
66.0

30%

20%
10%
0%

Newspaper

TV

Radio

Type of election by newspaper
Type of election by newspaper (N=877)
12.6
8.8

7.7
10.8

16.0

11.7

25.0

5.3
28.6

78.6

26.7

21.8
35.7

81.5

4.2
4.2

8.3

12.7

75.0
91.7

78.7
59.6

73.3

65.5

Both
Parliamentary
Presidential

39.3
16.7

Type of election by television station
Type of election by TV station (%) N=517

22.7

12.9

9.8
0.8

9.4

15.3

16.8

5.9

3.2

8.4
Both
Parliamentary

89.5
68.9

Bukedde

78.8

77.6

NBS

NTV Uganda

UBC

80.0

WBS

Presidential

Front page coverage
 Museveni (NRM) had the most coverage on newspaper
cover in January. 30.2% front page coverage was dedicated
to him. He was followed by Mbabazi (Independent) and
Besigye (FDC).
Overall trend: Since November, Museveni has dominated the
front page. In September and October, Mbabazi was most
covered on front page.

Front page coverage - newspaper
Front page coverage (%) N=877, N1=100, n=212
30.2

Museveni

27.8

Mbabazi

20.8

Besigye
Biraro

4.7

Baryamureeba

4.7

Bwanika

4.2

Kyalya

3.8

Mabirizi

3.8

Front page coverage by newspaper
Front page coverage (%) N=877, N1=100, n=212

25.0

25.0

25.4

25.0

4.2
4.2
5.6

8.3
8.3

16.7

25.0

5.6
5.6

8.3

25.7

10.0

2.1
2.1
2.1

2.9
2.9
2.9

10.0

19.1

15.2

10.0

18.2

Etop

Monitor

New Vision

31.4

42.6
28.6

Red Pepper

Bwanika
Biraro
Baryamureeba
Mbabazi

10.0

Orumuri

Kyalya

Besigye
2.9

10.0

Museveni
Mabirizi

2.9

10.0

28.2

16.7

2.1
2.1

10.0

3.0

25.0

Bukedde

3.0
3.0
3.0

3.0

8.3

27.7

51.5

8.3
21.1

30.0

The Observer

#Trends: Front page coverage of candidates
JANUARY (%) N=877, N1=100, n=212
30.2
27.8

Museveni
Mbabazi

20.8

Besigye
Biraro
Baryamureeba
Bwanika
Kyalya
Mabirizi

DECEMBER (%) N=827, N1=94, n=144
Mbabazi
Kyalya
Mabirizi
Bwanika
Biraro
Baryamureeba

NOVEMBER (%) N=920, N1=186, n=295
28.8
21.0

Besigye

6.1

Baryamureeba
Kyalya

3.7

0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7

OCTOBER (%) N=493, N1=56, n=82
31.5

Mbabazi

20.8

Besigye

4.7
4.7
4.2
3.8
3.8

Museveni

39.6
36.1

Museveni

40.2

Mbabazi

32.9

Besigye

26.8

Museveni
Other

0.0

Mabirizi

3.1

Mabirizi

0.0

Biraro

3.1

Bwanika

0.0

Bwanika

2.7

Baryamureeba

0.0

Most pictured candidate
Museveni was the most pictured presidential candidate in
January by newspapers, while Bwanika was the least pictured.

Most pictured candidate - newspaper
Most pictured candidate - newspaper (%) n=680
37.6

Museveni

21.8

Mbabazi

20.3

Besigye

4.9

Baryamureeba

Mabirizi

4.3

Biraro

4.1

Kyalya
Bwanika

3.7
3.4

Camera angles for pictured candidates
Camera angle (%) n=680

40.7

32.5

28.4

3.1
3.1
3.7

6.3
6.3
4.2

7.4
7.4
6.3

22.4

15.7

18.9

34.8

Museveni

51.3

0.7

1.2
4.9
3.7
17.3

26.3

1.2
8.6

2.5
3.7

1.3
20.4

22.2

26.7

Panorama

Mugshot

Closeup

9.4
5.8

5.3
7.4

19.9

18.9

Wideshot

Fullshot

Kyalya
Mabirizi
Bwanika
Besigye
Biraro
Baryamureeba
Mbabazi

Most covered topic
 Politics was the most covered topic in January by
newspaper, television and TV.
Overall trend: The general media trend shows politics as the
most covered topic since September. Economy, infrastructure,
security and health have also been the top most covered topic
by all three media types since September.

Most covered topic – newspaper & TV
Newspaper (%) n=1,719
30.5

Politics
11.2

Economy

Radio (%) n=1,319

TV (%) n=1,114
28.0

Politics

11.4

Economy

40.4

Politics
12.8

Security

Infrastructure

8.6

Security

9.3

Economy

8.0

Security

8.1

Health

8.7

Infrastructure

7.9

Health

7.9

Infrastructure

8.4

Human rights

5.8

Education

7.4

Education

7.9

Health

5.8

Agriculture

6.9

Agriculture

Education

5.7

Human rights

4.8

6.0

Energy

5.0

Agriculture

4.7

Corruption

2.2

3.9

Natural resources

3.7

Human rights

Corruption

3.5

Natural resources

3.1

Natural resources

2.0

Energy

3.1

Land

3.1

Energy

1.8

Land

3.0

Corruption

2.8

Land

1.5

Other

0.8

Other

1.0

Foreign affairs

1.1

Foreign affairs

0.8

Foreign affairs

0.6

Other

1.1

#Trends: Most covered topic – newspaper
NOVEMBER (%) n=2,115
Politics

DECEMBER (%) n=1,720
28.1

11.4

Economy

9.3

Education

31.5

Politics

Economy

Health

10.0

Infrastructure

8.6

Security

8.1

Health

7.9

Education

7.4

Agriculture

6.9

Infrastructure

Security

8.3

Security

7.4

Education

7.4

Agriculture

7.0

6.7

Agriculture

5.4

Corruption

4.0

Human rights
Energy

3.3

Natural…

2.6

Land

2.25

Other

1.85

Foreign affairs

0.9

11.2

10.4

8.4
7.6

30.5

Politics

Economy

Infrastructure

Health

JANUARY (%) n=1,719

8.7

Human rights

4.5

Corruption

4.4

Energy

3.0

Land

2.3

Natural resources

2.3

other

0.9

Foreign affairs

0.4

Human rights

4.8

Natural resources

3.7

Corruption

3.5

Energy

3.1

Land

3.0

Other

0.8

Foreign affairs

0.8

#Trends: Most covered topic - television
NOVEMBER (%) n=1,155
29.7

Politics

10.9

Economy

DECEMBER (%) n=1,265
29.5

Politics
11.4

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

10

Economy

10.2

Education

8.9

Health

10.2

8.2

Security

Security

JANUARY(%) n=1,114

8.7

Security

9.3

Health

8.7

Infrastructure

8.4
7.9

7.3

Education

7.2

Education

Health

6.8

Agriculture

6.5

Agriculture

5

6.0

Energy

5.0
4.7

4.4

Natural resources

2.4

Human rights

3.7

Energy

2.4

Natural resources

3.1

Human rights
Energy

4.6

Human rights

11.4

Economy

Agriculture

Corruption

28.0

Politics

Natural resources

1.9

Corruption

2.4

Land

3.1

Land

1.5

Other

2.1

Corruption

2.8

Land

2.1

Other

1.0

Foreign affairs

0.6

Other
Foreign affairs

1
0.7

Foreign affairs

0.4

#Trends: Most covered topic - radio
NOVEMBER (%) n=1,990
41.8

Politics
Economy

8.1

Infrastructure

8.0

Security

7.2

Education

7.2

Corruption

5.5

Health

5.5

Agriculture

5.4

Human rights

5.0

Energy

1.8

Other

1.7

Natural…

1.1

Land

0.9

Foreign affairs

0.9

JANUARY(%) n=1,319

DECEMBER (%) n=1,328
44.8

Politics

40.4

Politics

12.8

Economy

7.9

Security

Security

7.8

Economy

8.0

Education

7.1

Infrastructure

7.9

Health

6.7

Human rights

5.8

Infrastructure

6.1

Health

5.8

Human rights

5.7

Education

5.7

Agriculture

5.0

Agriculture

3.9

Corruption

2.9

Corruption

2.2

Energy

1.7

Natural resources

2.0

Land

1.7

Energy

1.8

Natural resources

1.5

Land

1.5

Other

0.7

Foreign affairs

1.1

Foreign affairs

0.5

Other

1.1

Tone of coverage
 The general media tone has been neutral since September.
General trend: Other than radio, newspaper and TV registered
a drop in number of stories with neutral tone between
December and January.
 The positive tone on an upward trend, while negative tone
on a downward trend for all three media types.

Tone of coverage by media type
Tone of coverage (%)

100%

9

15.1

9.9

90%
80%
70%
60%

63.3

64.1

71.3

50%

Neutral
Positive

40%

30%
20%

Negative

21.6

26.9

10%

18.8

0%

Newspaper

TV

Radio

Tone of coverage by newspaper
Tone of coverage (%) N=877, N1=615
6.5

16.8

2.5

12.9

27.3

29.1
39.2

80.5

57.4

93.3

71.0

100.0

90.0
59.1

60.1

Neutral

58.2
13.0

25.8

16.1

10.8

Negative
Positive

6.7

10.0

13.6

Tone of coverage by TV station
Tone of coverage by TV station (%) N=517, N1=479
3.7

12.3

67.3
63.0

14.7

50.4

2.6

76.9

9.8

69.6

Negative
Neutral
Positive

29.0

Bukedde

24.7

NBS

34.9
20.5

NTV Uganda

UBC

20.7

WBS

Tone of coverage in newspaper by candidate
Tone of coverage (%) N=877, N1=554, n=938
19.5

10.5

9.8

55.3

63.4

18.0

8.3

12.8

69.4

56.4

5.7

62.9

61.1

64.4

66.1

17.2

Negative
Neutral
Positive

34.2
14.4

26.8

17.5

22.2

30.8

31.4

21.6

Tone of coverage in TV by candidate
Tone of coverage by candidate (%) n=620
16.7

5.7

51.4

3.1

12.6

2.7

11.1

46.9
62.2
62.2

61.4

51.9

7.7

4.5

46.2
66.4
Negative
Neutral

42.9
22.0

50.0
25.2

35.1

37.0

Positive

46.2
29.1

Tone of coverage in radio by candidate
Tone of coverage (%) n=832

70.7

6.3

9.0

11.5

81.6

80.4

74.6

82.2

78.1

8.2

82.5

73.6
Negative
Neutral
Positive

17.8

15.8

19.6

16.4

17.8

15.6

17.5

18.2

#Trends: Tone of coverage - newspaper
Tone of coverage (%)
80

66.7

70

63.3

60

50

58

58.2

56.4

40
30
20

30.4

28.2
21.4
20.5

10

13.6

17.7

21.6

15.6

15.1

December

January

13.2

0

September

October
Positive

November
Neutral

Negative

#Trends: Tone of coverage - television
Tone of coverage (%)
80
70

60

69.9

64.1

62.1

50
40
30

26.9

27.9
20.1

20
10

10

9.0

10.0

0
November

December
Positive

Neutral

January
Negative

#Trends: Tone of coverage - radio
Tone of coverage (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

71.3
63.5

60

32
24.3
12.2

8
November

9.9

December

Positive

Neutral

18.8

Negative

January

Reporting approach
 Conventional reporting approach dominant for all three
media in January.
General trend: The findings show an upward trend in
conventional reporting for newspaper, TV and radio between
December and January.

Reporting approach by media type
Reporting approach (%)
5.5
2
4.8

10.3
10.1

2.9
0.3
5.7

8.1
Enterprise
Investigative

87.7

91.1

71.5

Newspaper

Interpretive
Conventional

TV

Radio

Reporting approach by newspaper
Reporting approach (%) N=877, N1=774
11.3
8.5
5.0

9.4
8.3
8.3

16.4

9.6

1.9
1.9
1.9

8.0
4.0

14.8

16.4

28.0

6.2

13.3
26.1
44.4

13.3
21.7

13.4
11.1

94.3
75.2

73.9

69.4
53.7

11.1

Enterprise
73.3

30.4

60.0

Investigative
Interpretive

33.3

Conventional
21.7

Reporting approach by television
Reporting approach (%) N=517, N1=505
0.9
16.3

6.9
0.8
0.8

8.4

5.3
3.2
5.3

7.5
13.8
Enterprise
Investigative

99.1

91.5

91.6

86.3

Conventional

62.5

Bukedde

NBS

Interpretive

NTV Uganda

UBC

WBS

#Trends: Reporting approach - newspaper
Reporting approach (%)
75.3

70.2

69.8

71.5

61.5

21.4
12.3

11.9 14.7

4.8

3.1

September

October
Conventional

9.6

8.9

11.3
6.1

November
Interpretive

8.5

10.4

December
Investigative

Enterprise

8.1

10.1

January

10.3

#Trends: Reporting approach - television
Reporting approach (%)
87.7

84.9
76.6

8.5

4.1

2.4

November

9.0

6.4

8.0

4.8

December
Conventional

Interpretive

January
Investigative

Enterprise

2.0

5.5

#Trends: Reporting approach - radio
Reporting approach (%)
91.1
88.5
73.3

12.3
5.5

8.9

November

3.8

5.4

2.9

2.3

December
Conventional

Enterprise

January
Interpretive

Investigative

5.7

0.3

Issues vs. personalities
 Issue-based reporting dominant in January for newspaper,
TV and radio.
Overall trend:
Except for newspaper, the media registered significant
increase in the number of issue-based stories between
December and January.

Issues vs. personalities by media type
Issues Vs Personality (%)
100%
90%
80%

70%

63.1

71.8

77.6

60%
50%

Personality

40%
30%
20%

Issues

36.9

28.2

22.4

10%
0%

Newspaper

TV

Radio

Issues vs. personalities by newspaper
Issue Vs Personality (%) N=877, N1=477

40.9

41.2
60.0

66.7

58.2

54.4

86.2
100.0

100.0
Issues

58.8
40.0
13.8

33.3

41.8

45.6

59.1

Personality

Issues vs. personalities by television
Issue Vs Personality (%) N=517, N1=312

82.4

73.0

66.2

64.6

66.7
Issues
Personality

17.6
Bukedde

27.0

NBS

33.8

NTV Uganda

35.4

UBC

33.3

WBS

#Trends: Issues vs. personality - newspaper
Issue Vs Personality (%)
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0

60.5

39.5

57.2

59.7

42.8

40.3

66.5

33.5

63.1

36.9

30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
September

October

November
Issues

Personality

December

January

#Trends: Issues vs. personalities - television
Issue Vs Personality (%)
80.0
70.0

71.8

69.8

67.8

30.2

32.2

November

December

60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0

28.2

20.0
10.0
0.0

Personality

Issues

January

#Trends: Issues vs. personalities - radio
Issue Vs Personality (%)
90

77.6

80
70

69.6
61.7

60
50
40

38.3
30.4

30

22.4

20
10
0

November

December
Personality

Issues

January

Background and context
 The media to a large extent provided background and
context to election stories in January.
Overall trend: Findings show a sharp decline in provision of
background and context for newspaper, TV and radio between
December and January.

Background & context by media type
Background & context (%)
100%
90%

80%

54.9

50.3

41.0

70%
60%

Yes

50%

No

40%
30%

45.1

49.7

59.0

20%
10%
0%

Newspaper

TV

Radio

Background & context by newspaper
Background & context by publication (%) N=877, N1=486
18.2

38.2

42.3

54.7
83.7

57.1
85.1

Yes

77.8

No

100
81.8
61.8

57.7

45.3
16.3

42.9
14.9

22.2

Background & context by television
Background & context by TV (%) N=517, N1=364

38.0
61.8

53.8

47.5

52.3
Yes
No

62.0
38.2

Bukedde

NBS

46.2

NTV Uganda

52.5

UBC

47.7

WBS

#Trends: Background & context - newspaper
Background & context (%)
80
70

67.7

60

62.8

70.6

54.9

65.6

50
40

32.3

29.4

September

October

30

34.4

37.2

45.1

November

December

January

20

10
0

No

Yes

#Trends: Background & context - television
Background & context (%)
80
70
60

67.6

59.8

50
40.2

40
30

50.3
49.7

32.4

20
10
0
November

December
No

Yes

January

#Trends: Background & context - radio
Background & context (%)
70
60

61

59.0

47.6

39

41.0

November

December

January

52.4

50
40
30
20
10
0
No

Yes

Interrogation of claims
 Generally, the media did not interrogate claims and promises
by presidential candidates in January.
For instance, an analysis of New Vision, Daily Monitor, The
Observer and Red Pepper shows that only New Vision carried
front page lead stories on campaign promises (of
Museveni/NRM) in January. The other three publications did not.
Overall trend: Except for newspaper, the media registered a
notable increase in the number of stories that interrogated
claims and promises of presidential candidates between
December and January.

Interrogation of claims by media type
Interrogation of claims & promises (%)

34.9

23.8

29.2

Yes
64.1

Newspaper

76.2

TV

70.8

Radio

No

Interrogation of claims by newspaper
Interrogation of claims & promises (%) N=877, N1=421
32.7

34.5

33.3

10.0

16.7

25.3

55.6

58.6
100
67.3

65.5

66.7

83.3

74.7
41.4

90.0
Yes
44.4

No

Interrogation of claims & promises by television
Interrogation of claims (%) N=517, N1=323
5.9
24.2

14.5
35.0

44.9

Yes

94.1
75.8

65.0

55.1

Bukedde

NBS

NTV Uganda

No

85.5

UBC

WBS

#Trends: Interrogation of claims - newspaper
Interrogation of claims (%)
70.0
60.0

61.8
61.9

63.4

65.1

62.2

50.0
40.0

38.1
36.6

30.0

37.8

38.2

34.9

20.0
10.0
0.0
September

October

November
No

Yes

December

January

#Trends: Interrogation of claims - television
Interrogation of claims (%)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

76.2
81.5
70.8

23.8
29.2
18.5
November

December
No

Yes

January

#Trends: Interrogation of claims - radio
Interrogation of claims (%)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

76.2

70

70.8

29.2
30

November

23.8

December
No

Yes

January

Sourcing (Number)
 Most election stories by the media were single-sourced in
January.
Overall trend: The media has been largely relying on singlesourced stories since September.
 Except newspapers that have been registering a decline in
single-sourced stories since November, the media recorded
a rise in number of single-sourced stories between
December and January.

Number of sources by media type
Number of sources (%)
14.4

5.3
7

9.7

18.9

2.1
5.2
14.3

19.3

56.6

Newspaper
Single source

78.4

68.8

TV
Double sources

Radio
Triple sources

Multiple sources

#Trends: Number of sources - newspaper
Number of sources (%)
62.1

59.3

57.4

54.7

22.2
15.2

15.6
12.3

18.5

Single source

19.3

14.4

12.1
9.8

7.4
October

16.4

16.5

12.8

7.8
September

56.6

November
Double sources

December
Triple sources

Multiple sources

9.7

January

#Trends: Number of sources - television
Number of sources (%)
68.8

63.3

58.8

23.6

23.2
7.4

10.0

5.7

November
Single source

18.9

December
Double sources

7.0

8.0

Triple sources

January
Multiple sources

5.3

#Trends: Number of sources - radio
Number of sources (%)
78.1

78.4

77.4

14.8

14.3
4.7

5.4

2.8

November
Single source

14.3
2.4

December
Two sources

Three sources

5.2
January
Multiple sources

2.1

Sourcing (Type)
 Male sources dominant in election stories by newspaper,
TV and radio in January.
Overall trend: Dominance of male sources across all three
media since September.
 Rise in number of male sources for all three media between
December and January.

Gender of sources by media type
Gender of sources (%)

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%

85.3

88.5

87.8

50%

Female

40%
30%
20%
10%

Male

14.7

11.5

12.2

0%

Newspaper

TV

Radio

Gender of sources by newspaper
Gender of sources by newspaper (%) n=1,542

64.1
84.3

87.4

86.8

86.1

64.5

85.8

91.7

90.2
Male
Female

35.9
15.7

12.6

13.2

13.9

14.2

35.5
8.3

9.8

Gender of sources by TV station
Gender of sources by TV station (%) n=733

80.0

95.2

88.0

89.9

93.8

Male
Female

20.0
4.8
Bukedde

NBS

12.0
NTV Uganda

10.1
UBC

6.2
WBS

#Trends: Sourcing by gender - newspaper
Gender of sources (%)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

84.3

15.7

September

82.2

17.8

October

82.7

84.1

15.9
November
Male

Female

17.4

December

85.3

14.7
January

#Trends: Sourcing by gender - television
Gender of sources (%)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

88.5

87.4

84.0

12.6

16.0

November

December
Female

11.5

Male

January

#Trends: Sourcing by gender - radio
Gender of sources (%)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

87.8

88.6

86.7

11.4

13.3

12.2

November

December

January

Female

Male

Occupation of source by media type
NEWSPAPER (%) n=1,598
29.3

Presidential candidate

16.8

Ordinary person

TELEVISION (%) n=739

RADIO (%) n=964
42.9

Presidential candidate

10.7

Ordinary person

Parliamentary candidate

Parliamentary candidate

11.7

Parliamentary candidate

7.7

Party official

Party official

11.3

Party official

7.6

NGO/CSO official

Candidates agent

6.9

Electoral Commission official

5.7

Candidates agent

5.6

Candidates agent
Expert

4.2

NGO/CSO official

Police Representative

3.9

Expert

NGO/CSO official

3.1

4.2

Ordinary person

Electoral Commission…

4.1

Police Representative

3.0

Police Representative

2.7

Executive

Anonymous

2.8

Religious leader

2.6

Executive

2.1

Executive

1.9

2.0

Election observer

1.1

1.4

Judicial Official

0.7

Electoral Commission…

Religious leader
Business person

31.8

Presidential candidate

Expert
Religious leader
Election observer
Judicial Official
Army

Judicial Officer

1.1

Army

0.4

Election observer

0.9

Anonymous

0.4

Other

Army

0.6

Donor

0.3

Anonymous

Donor

0.1

Business person

0.3

Donor

Business person

12.9
12.2
8.8
7.9
6.7
5.1
4.6
2.9
1.9
1.8
1.5
0.7
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1

OBSERVATIONS & CONCLUSIONS

General observations & conclusions (1)
Ordinary persons among top five most quoted sources in
newspaper and TV stories since November. However, radio,
considered the true mass media in the country, has not
adequately sourced ordinary persons in election stories.
The media is focusing more on issue-based reporting as the
country inches closer to polling day.
Significant improvement in coverage (space & time allocation) of
presidential candidates Biraro, Mabirizi, Kyalya, Bwanika and
Baryamureeba by all three media between December and
January.

General observations & conclusions (2)
Male sources still the majority at more than 80% across all
media, with number of female sources declining between
December and January.
The parliamentary election has not been prominently and
adequately covered by the media since September. For instance,
despite the more localized nature of the parliamentary polls,
radio – which has more reach in up-country areas, has not dwelt
much in covering it.
A sharp decline in provision of background and context across all
three media between December and January.

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