Preface Muslim world is passing through criticaljunctions. It has witnessed unprecedented waves of violence, sabotage andterrorism.

As a consequence, it has attracted world attention on the need tograpple the problem of terrorism. Anti-Islamic elements, however, havemanipulated the situation to exploit. They have given derogatory projection tothe magnanimity of Islam. They have advanced open accusation that Islam is areligion of terrorism. This is indeed unfortunate and tragic. For, theaccusation reflects sheer ignorance of Islamic teachings. Also, it is tantamountto the refutation of Islamic tenets. Islam, on the other hand, is the pioneerchampion of humanism and benevolence. An illegitimate murder of any human soulis forbidden in unequivocal and categorical terms. Inaddition, Islam had enshrined superb and supreme values, affection, cooperation,justice and moderation in words and actions. The presentbook represents a modest endeavor to project Islamic values and teachings. Inparticular, it demonstrates that Islam is identifiable with peace. Terrorism isa concept alien to Islam. To understand Islam in terroristic context is, infact, an absolute misunderstanding of Islam. This bookincorporates impelling evidences based on the most important two sources ofIslamic teachings, the Glorious Quran and Sunnah of Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) and the precedents of the rightfully-guidedCaliphs. Islam is the champion of peace. It advocates noterrorism in any form or manifestation. To provide illuminations to themultifarious ideas expressed in this work, the author

provided neededinformation with scholastic skills. Brevity and comprehensiveness are blended.Their presentation attracts the interests of the common reader. Jihad or waging war for the sake of Allah I and to raise thebanner of Islam is a doctrine of crucial importance. In no event, however, it isexplicable in terms of terrorism. The author has made fine analysis on thevariance of the two concepts, Jihad and terrorism. He has highlighted the superbexcellence of Jihad. Likewise, he has castigated the viciousness of terrorism. The work is indeed penetrating. The objective-mindedWesterners will find it useful. They will find in it an inspiration towardsIslam. May Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) bless the author andaccept his endeavor to spread the cause of Islam. Dr. Mohammed SaidDabas Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Dabas47@islamtoday.net

Introduction All Praise is due to Allah Almighty. Peaceand blessings be upon our Prophet and Messenger; Mohammed (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him), his beloved family, and his rightly-guided Companions. Terrorism is one of the harshest terms, and an unpleasantexpression used in world dictionaries. Islam and Muslims, who are completelyinnocent of such accusations, have been allegedly accused with terrorism. Infact, the term terrorism became a parallel Companion for Islam. This is veryunfortunate and highly unfair. We believe that persons with ignorance with thereality of Islam would dare to label Islam and Muslims with such inaccurateaccusations. There is a group of people, however, who areactive in launching such alleged accusations against Islam and Muslims.Terrorism has appeared with certain reasons. Terrorism did not come from vacuumor from nowhere. Terrorism is the product of accumulated strong pressures thatcould no longer be borne or controlled. Terrorism is very much like a balloon,which has been filled up with hot air, to the point that made the balloon readyto explode. We all are aware of the fact that, 'too much pressure would, surely,produce an explosion'. A terrorist is the one who terrorizespeople, causing injustices to them, forces them to do thing against their will,confiscates their territories, wealth or bans their freedom. A terrorist is theone who exploits other people's national wealth, land, natural resources andefforts, and employ all of that for his purposes and to serve his objectives. Assuch, an

exploiter is a Pharaoh, with a new style or name. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Ghafir [The Forgiver] 40:29, which reads asfollows:“ O my People! Yours is the dominion this day: ye have the upperhand in the land: but who will help us from the Punishment of Allah, should itbefall us? Pharaoh said: I but point out to you that which I see (myself); nordo I guide you but to the Path of Right!”. Man-madelaws, all over the world, are following the same pattern. The real objective ofthe governments, in most countries of the world, is not to bring peace andtranquility to their people. The actual objective is to ensure happiness andprosperity to a selected group of people at the cost of the rest of the people.The national applicable laws are not comprehensive and do not serve theinternational community. National laws and regulations would serve a specificcountry, nations, people, race, region, specific era or regime. The underlyingreasons are the shortcomings in the national system itself, as it is not gearedfor the international community in the first place, or for the humanity atlarge. Islam, on the other hand, is a comprehensivereligion. It is meant to serve all types of international communities. Islam ismeant for all races and classes of people. Mohammed, the Messenger of Allah(subhanahu wa ta'ala), received the Divine message to address the needs of theentire humanity, and not Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula only. Therefore,Mohammed's relationships with all types of peoples and systems that surroundedhim was amicable. His faith had a great result in absorbing their hatred andanimosity at the time. All parties appreciated the truthfulness, the frankness,the decency and the honesty in the method of treatment of Mohammed (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him). Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allahbe upon him) was remote from any type of hypocrisy, falsehood and two-facedness.Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was truthful in establishingjustice, even against his closest kin or closest friend. Mohammed (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him), wholeheartedly, hated all types of oppressionand injustices. In fact, Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) wasextremely successful in obtaining the respect and reverence even from his justand impartial enemies, masses and intellectuals. Mohammed (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him) aimed to serve the entire human race with his moral,social, spiritual and economic systems. His mission was not oriented to serve aspecific category or group of people. Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him) founded the ideal human society, which maintained best of fraternalties, friendly relationships and peace with their enemies. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Momtahina [The Tried One] 60:9, whichreads as follows:“ Allah only forbids you, with regard to those who fightyou for (your) Faith, and drive you out, of your homes, and support (others) indriving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It issuch as turn to them (in these circumstances) that do wrong”. As such, Islam is a universal, comprehensive, Divine, humanand natural faith and way of life. Islam is meant for every soul. Allah(subhanahu wa ta'ala) degraded such blind followers, as Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Zukhruf 43:22, which reads asfollows:“ Nay! They say: We found our fathers following a certainreligion, and we do guide ourselves by their footsteps”.

The truth is that Islam has the best of morals, values.Islam is a Divine religion and a human, It is understood, because of its'clarity, simplicity, frankness and direct method, by all classes and categoriesof people, regardless of education, culture, social and economic status. Man is,indeed, an enemy of what he does not know. It is truly fantastic to see thatverdicts are based on thorough study and investigation. Itis hoped that this short introduction stirs the motivations of the researchersand unbiased scholars who are keen to understand Islam. Of course, the beautyand awesomeness of Islam is only vividly evident to those who live by it andpractice it. One of the simple evidences of the greatness of this Divine faithis its' resistance to changes for the last fourteen centuries. This isregardless of the weak support extended by the followers of Islam, and the vastwar waged against it by its vicious critics. Besides all these odds, we noticethat the Divine religion of Islam is widely spreading in the various parts ofthe world, on its own merits and values and for no other reasons. It isinspiring to see multitudes of people are embracing Islam as a way of life andas a religion. What is behind all this vast expansion of Islam all over theworld? It is the honesty, the clarity, the simplicity, the openness, the logicalconcepts and the fulfillment of all wants and desires of the simple as well asthe sophisticated intellectuals who find in Islam a full satisfaction. Thissatisfaction includes all their spiritual, moral, practical and logicalexpectations of both lives. Islam, beyond doubt, is the Divine religion thatprotects man against falling into the celibacy. Similarly, Islam protects thehuman-being against indulging in full state of materialism. If an intelligentperson became so indulgent with such selfish needs. In fact, Allah (subhanahu wata'ala) described such group of people as follows in the Glorious Quranal-An'aam [The Cattle] 7:179, which reads as follows:“ Many are the Jinnsand men We have made for Hell: they have hearts wherewith they understand not,eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are likecattle, nay more misguided: for they are heedless (of warning)”. This, in brief, is the contents of this booklet. I do hopeand pray that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) would benefit us all from what weread, hear and say. This is a humble effort presented with a pure intent tocontribute to the wealth of human information. In addition,the writer offers an open invitation to all those who are interested in learningmore about Islam to communicate with him at the given address. He would be moredelighted to answer questions and inquiries about Islam and provide additionalliterature on Islam to the possible extent. The authorexpresses his deep gratitude to Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). By the same token,he is himself responsible for all shortcomings, commissions and omissions inthis booklet. Therefore, the author requests all the readers to forgive all thecommissions and omissions, which he over-sighted, and seeks the pardon andforgiveness from Allah, the Almighty. May Allah's Blessingsand Mercy be upon Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), HisProphet and Messenger to mankind, and may Allah's blessings also be

upon thosewho rightly follow the guidance and the footprints of the Messenger of Allahuntil the Day of Judgment. Abdur-Rahman A. Al-Sheha P.O. Box59565, Riyadh 11535, Saudi Arabia. What Does Islam Mean? The word Islam means, 'peace', whichimplies the total submission to Allah, the Almighty, and the Lord of all worlds.It is He, Who enjoined all good things and warned against all evils. A Muslim,therefore, is a person who complies with all what Allah, the Almighty, our Lordenjoined, and quits all what Allah, the Almighty, refrained. In fact, a Muslimis a person who fully adheres to the Commandments of Allah, the Almighty, andall what Allah predestined for man on earth. Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura al-Baqarah [The Cow] 2:131, which reads as follows:“Behold! His Lord said to him: Bow (thy will to Me): he said: I bow (my will) tothe Lord and Cherisher of the Universe”. "Peace", furthermore, is one of the Attributes of Allah, the Almighty,blessed be His Names and Attributes. Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura al-Hashr, [The Gathering] 59:23, which reads as follows:“Allah is He, than Whom there is no other god; the Sovereign, the Holy One, theSource of Peace (and Perfection), the Guardian of Faith, the Preserver ofSafety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible, the Supreme: Glory to Allah!(High is He) above the partners they attribute to Him”. "Peace"is also one of the names of Jannah, Paradise.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-An'am, [The Cattle],6:127, which reads as follows:“ For them will be a Home of Peace in thepresence of their Lord: He will be their Friend, because they practiced(righteousness)”. "Peace"is also the greetingexchanged by the dwellers of Jannah, Paradise when they all meet their Lord,Allah, the Almighty. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Ahzab, [the Confederates], 35:44, which reads as follows:“ Theirsalutation on the Day they meet Him will be Peace!: and He has prepared for thema generous Reward”. "Peace"is the greetingsexchanged by the believing Muslims when they meet one another, or when onepasses by another, or when one calls another, or even when one enters his ownhome and finds no one there, he offers the greeting of peace unto the angels whoare present in that place, and upon his own soul. Muslims greet one another asfollows, 'May the Peace be upon you, the Blessings of Allah (subhanahu wata'ala) and His Mercy'. It is, indeed, a beautiful and fascinating to greet oneanother; those whom one knows in person, and also those whom one does not know,per se. Such a greeting brings people closer together, removes any type ofill-feelings, hatred and disdain from the hearts

of people and it increaseslove, affection, respect and closeness between the community members. In fact,such affection would bring peace of mind, tranquility to the life and happinessto the society. The greeting of "peace" helps establish security and increasesmutual trust. This kind of affection was practiced by the Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He (subhanahu wa ta'ala) consideredit as an act that completes a Believer's faith, as he (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) declared, which reads as follows:“ You would not enterJannah, Paradise until you acquire [full] faith. You would not acquire [full]faith until you love one another. Should not I guide you to an action, which ifyou maintain you would love one another? [Then] Salaam spread the greeting of"peace" Salaam [as much as you could] amongst you [in the community]”This Hadith is reported by Muslim. Additionally, Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to haveanswered as follows, when he was asked, 'What is the best type of Islam?' He(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) answered, which reads asfollows:“ Offer food generously to others, initiate the greeting of'peace' [in the community], to those whom you know and also to those whom youknow not”This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim. The essential purpose of embracing Islam and accepting it asa way of life is to gain the Pleasure of Allah, the Almighty. Through submissionto Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) a Believer will acquire tranquility and peace ofmind, live a decent, clean and obedient life and look forward for a sound,secure and happy life in the Hereafter. A Believer always attempts to seek thepath that pleases Allah, the Almighty, in all his affairs. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Maedah, [The Table], 5:15-16, which readsas follows:“ O People of the Book! There hath come to you Our Messenger,revealing to you much that ye used to hide in the Book, and passing over much(that is now unnecessary): There hath come to you from Allah a (new) light and aperspicuous Book. Wherewith Allah guideth all who seek His good pleasure to waysof peace and safety, and leadeth them out of darkness, by His Will, unto thelight, guideth them to a Path that is Straight”. Islam, therefore, is the Divine religion of "Comprehensive Peace", in allconnotation of the term. Within the community, Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said, which reads asfollows:“ A Muslim is the person from whom other Muslims feel securedagainst [attacks] of his tongue and hands. An immigrant, [on the other hand] isa person who [fully] forsakes what Allah, the Almighty, has declared as banned[and unlawful to practice]”This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari andMuslim. In fact, Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) is further reported to have declared, which reads asfollows:“ A Believer is a person who is [fully] trusted by otherpeople”This Hadith is reported by both, Tirmithee, No. 11726, 6:530. Islam, on the international level, urged to establish"peace" on mutually agreed terms that are based on mutual respect, honor, andno-war pacts. This, in general, is Islam, and it is

more candid in inter-stateinteractions. This, of course, is based on the verse revealed in the GloriousQuran al-Baqarah, [The Calf] 2:208, which reads as follows:“ O ye whobelieve! Enter into Islam whole-heartedly; and follow not the footsteps of theEvil One; for he is to you an avowed enemy”. In orderto maintain such "Peace" in the community at all levels and in all arenas, Islamcommanded its Believers to stop all types of aggression, and resist all types ofoppression. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Baqarah,[The Calf] 2:194, which reads as follows:“ The prohibited month, for theprohibited month, and so for all things prohibited, there is the law ofequality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, transgressye likewise against him. But fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those whorestrain themselves”. As a substantial evidence ofits "Peace", mission, Islam exhorts upon its Believers to respond favorably topeace treaty if offered by the enemies during the course of war. In turn, itsuggests that Islam rejects terrorism and genocide. Allah, the Almighty, statesin the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Anfal, [The War Booties] 8:61, which reads asfollows:“ But if the enemy inclines towards peace, do thou (also) inclinetowards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is the One that Heareth and Knoweth(all things)”. We may also note here that thoughIslam is very keen for "Peace", it does not accept or even condone, that Muslimsare humiliated, or their pride is injured in maintaining peace. However, Muslimsare commanded to cherish peace. Nevertheless they are equally commanded topreserve their pride, honor and integrity. Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura Mohammed 47:35, which reads as follows:“ Be not wearyand faint-hearted, crying for peace, when ye should be uppermost: for Allah iswith you, and will never put you in loss for your (good) deeds”.

Did Islam Spread by Force? The basic Islamic teachings defy such aclaim. This is a false accusation, which is repeated, blindly, by enemies ofIslam. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Baqarah, [TheCow] 2:256, which reads as follows:“ Let there be no compulsion inreligion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects Evil and believesin Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. AndAllah heareth and knoweth all things”. Allah, theAlmighty, further states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Yunus, [Jonna], 10:99,which reads as follows:“ If it had been thy Lord's Will, they would allhave believed, all who are on earth! Wilt thou then compel mankind, againsttheir will, to believe!”. Allah, the Almighty,further states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Kahf [The Cave] 18:29, which reads asfollows:“ Say, The Truth is from your Lord: Let him who will, believe,

andlet him who will, reject (it): for the wrong-doers We have prepared a Fire whose(smoke and flames), like the wall and roof of a tent, will hem them in: if theyimplore relief they will be granted water like melted brass, that will scaldtheir faces: How dreadful the drink! how uncomfortable a couch to reclineon!”. Allah, the Almighty, also, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura al-Nahl, The Bees 16:82, which reads as follows:“ Butif they turn away, thy duty is only to preach the Clear Message”. Allah, the Almighty, also, states in the Glorious Quran,Sura al-Ghashiyah [The Overcoming Burden], 88:21-22, which reads asfollows:“ Therefore do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish.Thou art not one to manage (men's) affairs”. Allah,the Almighty, further states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Al-Noor, [The Light],24:54, which reads as follows:“ Say: Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger:but if ye turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and yefor that placed on you. If ye obey him, ye shall be on right guidance. TheMessenger's duty is only to preach the clear (Message)”. Allah, the Almighty, further states in the Glorious Quran,Sura al-Tawbh [The Repentance], 9:6, which reads as follows:“ If oneamongst the pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to him, so that he may hear theword of Allah; and then escort him to where he can be secure. That is becausethey are men without knowledge”. As noted above,there are multiple proofs from the Divine revelation of the Glorious Quran todefy such a false accusation against the Divine religion of Islam. Islam is a"Faith" and "Belief". Faith and belief must be fully dwelt in the heart and mindof a Believer, and must not be, by any means, a lips service only. Uttering thewords that indicate faith is, in no way, a satisfactory act according to thefaith of Islam. In fact, Allah, the Almighty, exposes heinous and wicked intentsunderlying the declaration of faith. Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura al-Hujurat, [The Chambers] 48:14, which reads as follows:“ Thedesert Arabs say, We believe. Say, Ye, have no Faith, but ye (only) say, We havesubmitted our wills to Allah, for not yet has Faith entered your hearts. But ifye obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not belittle aught of your deeds: forAllah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful”. As such, apure faith and belief, by no means, can enter by force, against the free-will ofa person. Any person may utter one thing by his tongue, but hide another thingdeep in his heart. For this very reason, Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura alNahl, [The Bees] 16:106, which reads as follows:“Anyone who, after accepting Faith in Allah, utters Unbelief, - except undercompulsion, his heart remaining firm in Faith but such as open their breast toUnbelief, on them is Wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a dreadfulPenalty”. Any system, regardless of its source,requires a protective force to preserve its values, spread its principles,ensure a fair application of such principles, monitor the execution

ofrespective penalties against those who reject the system, or even parts thereof.Force, in reality and in essence, is the executive authority of any system.Force ensures, as pointed out earlier, the application of all laid values andprinciples of any system in order that such system to prosper, continue, andlast in effect. Allah's Messenger (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported tohave declared, which reads as follows:“ Truly, Allah, the Almighty, warnspeople with the authority [or the power of the ruler/governor] more than what Hedoes with the Divine revelation of the Glorious Quran”(Kanzul-'Ummal[The Workers' Treasure]). Historically, Allah's Messenger(may Allah be pleased with him) stayed in the sacred city of Makkah thirteenyears, calling and inviting his people, the dwellers of Makkah, and the visitorsof Makkah, to Islam. He preached Islam to them in every possible way. Heencountered all types of harassment, hatred, boycott, threats, attacks,oppression, physical aggression and false accusation from his people. In fact,Allah's Messenger (may Allah be pleased with him) was not alone in his sufferingand afflictions. All those who believed in the Message of Islam and followed itshared his sufferings. In fact, Allah's Messenger (may Allah be pleased withhim) passed, helplessly, by the people who were being tortured for their faithin Islam and believing in the Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) , and heremarked which reads as follows:“ Be patient, the family of Yaser! Jannah,Paradise is your permanent abode [God Willing]”(Al-Hakim, alMostadrak,3:432). The enemies of Allah's Messenger (may Allah bepleased with him) and His Message of Islam, even reached to the point of makinga serious conspiracy to assassinate him, in order to stop his preaching ofIslam. Yet, though he was informed about their conspiracy to kill him, he onlycommented, which reads as follows:“ O Allah! Please guide my people asthey know no better!”. Allah, the Almighty, inreality, commanded His Messenger; Mohammed (may Allah be pleased with him) , tobe patient, forbearing and tolerant to his people, as the road of propagation ofthe Message of Islam is rather long, thorny, tough, and extremely difficult.Islam represents a war against all types of falsehood, evil, tyranny, anddeception. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Ahqaf46:20, which reads as follows:“ Therefore patiently preserve, as did (all)Messengers of inflexible purpose; and be in no haste about the (Unbelievers). Onthe Day that they see the (Punishment) promised them, (it will be) as if theyhad not tarried more than an hour in a single day (Thine but) to proclaim theMessage: but shall any be destroyed except those who transgress”. Allah's Messenger (may Allah be pleased with him) continuedto approach visiting tribes, who came to Makkah, every year, and in everypossible occasion, toaccept Islam and give their pledge of allegiance tosupport him. Nonetheless, finally, a group of the people of the city of Yathrib,nowadays known as the Madinah of the Prophet, believed in the Message ofMohammed (may Allah be pleased with him), and gave him their pledge ofallegiance to fully support him, and defend him in the same way as they defendtheir own wealth, valuables, honor, integrity and household. These peoplepromised to honor their pledge if

Allah's Messenger (may Allah be pleased withhim) immigrated to their hometown and settle there with them, along with therest of the Believers. Thus, we note here that Allah's Messenger (may Allah bepleased with him), after thirteen years of his commission as a Messenger ofAllah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), and the deliverer of the Message of Islam, nevershed a drop of blood throughout these long years in the city of Makkah. Quraish,the Prophet's (may Allah be pleased with him) tribe, confiscated his wealth andproperties, as well as the wealth and properties of his Companion immigrants.Yet, the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with him) was not commanded to fightagainst them until two years after his immigration to Madinah. The Prophet's(may Allah be pleased with him) enemies, however, increased. Again, the Prophet(may Allah be pleased with him) at his own, disliked war against his compoundenemies. The city of Madinah was in route of the merchants'caravan to Syria. Allah's Messenger (may Allah be pleased with him) intended toimpose a type of economic sanction on the tribe of Quriash. He intended to applyforce on them to let him propagate his faith to others. He aimed at protectingthe innocent, gullible, and poor Believers. The Prophet (may Allah be pleasedwith him) also intended to compensate to the Believers this confiscated wealthand properties in Makkah. The commercial caravan, led by a leader of Quraishtribe, namely Abu Sofyan, prior to his embracing Islam, escaped the ambush andsurvived of the attack. The leaders of Quraish, however, on learning about theincident, prepared a sizable army and all war equipment they had, and headed tofight against Islam and Muslims. Consequently, the battle took place. It was thefirst battle in Islam. Mohammed (may Allah be pleased with him), and hisBelievers utterly victorious. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran,Sura al-Hajj, [The Pilgrimage] 22:4041, which reads as follows:“ (Theyare) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right, (for nocause) except that they say, Our Lord is Allah. Did not Allah check one set ofpeople by means of another there would surely have been pulled down monasteries,churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated inabundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid His (cause); for verilyAllah is Full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will). (Theyare) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer andgive regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests theend (and decision) of (all) affairs”. Furthermore,Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Nisa, [The Women]4:75, which reads as follows:“ And why should ye not fight in the cause ofAllah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)? Men, women,and children, whose cry is: Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people areoppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for usfrom thee one who will help!”. In essence, allvictories that Allah's Messenger (may Allah be pleased with him) achieved,rendered the entire Arabian Peninsula within a period of twenty three years tothe rule of Islam. During this period, approximately, only three hundred andseventy five people were killed in the fighting that took place during hisleadership. This indeed is a great achievement.

It is alsoimportant to know that his rightly-guided Companions and Caliphs followed hislead after his demise. The leading Companions of Allah's Messenger (may Allah bepleased with him) conquered countries, replaced governments, and spread Islam bytheir best morals, and standards. These individuals were, by no standards, equalin number or war equipment, preparations, and skills to the people of thevanquished lands. One of the new reverting people [converts] to Islam, in ourtime, namely Basheer Ahmad said, 'One of the most puzzling questions to me, andone of my most serious concerns, prior to accepting Islam and embracing it as away of life is, we, Christians, claim that Islam spread by the edge of sword.'Therefore, I posed the following question to myself, 'If that claim is true,why, then, we notice that many people, in every corner of the world, stilladhere to Islam and embrace it, join it, and accept as a way of life? Why do wenotice people come to join Islam daily, without any compulsion or force by anyone?' (Dr.Imaddu-Deen Khalil, 'What Do They Say about Islam?', p.295). Let's examine whether Islam is the only religion that isknown to spread by the use of force? Of course, this is the way Islam isdescribed by some of biased enemies. In fact, it is totally devoid of such afalse accusation, as it would be determined and established through thefollowing arguments. Let's take a comparative look at whatis stated in the Glorious Quran and in both the New Testament; the Bible, andthe Old Testament, the Torah. In the Book of Deuteronomy: 23:10, and after, weread the following:Let's take a comparative look at what is stated in theGlorious Quran and in both the New Testament; the Bible, and the Old Testament,the Torah. In the Book of Deuteronomy: 23:10, and after, we read the following:

" 10. And I stayed in the mount, according to the first time, forty days andforty nights; and the Lord hearkened unto me at that time also, and the Lordwould not destroy thee. 11. And the Lord said unto me, Arise, take thy journey before the people,that they may go in and possess the land, which I sware unto their fathers togive unto them."

Additionally, in Mathew 10:25, we comeacross the following:"It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master,and the servant as his lord. If they have called the master of the houseBe-elze-bub, how much more shall they call them of his household?" Moreover, Jostaf Lopond, in his book, The ArabsCivilization, states, ' Force was never a factor in the spread of the GloriousQuran. In fact, Arabs left the freedom of choice to the people they overcome andconquered. Some of the Christians, who converted to Islam and took the Arabiclanguage as a medium of communication, were merely impressed with the Arabsconquerors' justice. Such people never noticed any such astounding justice fromtheir previous masters. Secondly, such converts noticed a great ease in dealingwith the Islamic life, faith and principles.' (Ibid, page 314).

Was Worldly Gains the Aim of the Islamic Conquests? For many, who do not know much about theessential Islamic principles, it is easy to be swayed and think that earlyMuslims and Arabs, participated in wars against other nation for expansions,lust for fame, worldly gains and luxuries. This is, of course, a purematerialistic approach. Let's present some facts about the Islamic life andprinciples. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), at thebeginning of his life as a Prophet and Messenger of Allah, was approached by hispeople, lured in every possible way and by every possible means, to back off hisCall to Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) wasoffered to attractive worldly gains, but he declined. The Prophet (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) was literally asked, which reads asfollows:“ If you need masterhood over all the Arabian Peninsula, we wouldensure this for you. If you need marriage, we would offer you, free, to marrythe most beautiful [virgin] girl in the Arabian Peninsula. The Prophet (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him) was offered excess of wealth that no oneever possesses in the Arabian Peninsula, but he denied this offer as well. TheArab leaders of the tribe of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him) made all such offers to Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) with one condition, to quit and stop the call to his religionand faith and stop castigating of pre-Islamic Arabs' pagan beliefs in the idols.The Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) simple, direct andhonest reply to all such luring and lucrative human offers was "No". Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) declared full rejection toall these tempting offers. The response, in the words of the Prophet (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) was as follows, By Allah! If they were able toplace the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand in order to pressureme to abandon the call for this mission, I would not. I would not surrender andaccept their requests until either this Call [the religion of Islam] becomespredominant and widely accepted and practiced in the Arabian Peninsula, or else,my head is removed of my body”Ibn Hisham, The Biography of Mohammed(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), vol.1, p.170. Itis worth noting here that, if the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim) was eager to fulfill his human needs and materialistic ambitions, he couldhave easily accepted such irresistible materialistic offers. He could haveeasily accepted their offers, fulfilled his earthly and worldly needs and closethat chapter in his favor. Of course the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allahbe upon him)did not entertain any of those lucrative offers of the pagans. Infact, the letters of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) tothe kings, governors and rulers, which he sent to the neighboring countries andprominent world's leaders, were very clear. He (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him) stated in his letters to them, which reads as follows:“ You maykeep your leadership and ownership of all what you possess, The only thing herequires them to do is to accept Islam as a way of life and obey the Commands ofAllah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). In his letter to Heraciouls, the renowned Romanleader and ruler, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, Most Merciful. From Mohammed; theMessenger of Allah, to Heraciouls, the renowned Roman leader and ruler. Peaceunto him, who follows the guidance. Thereafter, I

would like to call you toaccept Islam and practice it as a way of life. Surrender yourself to Allah, bysubmitting to Islam, you would [surely] salvage yourself [and be safe]. AcceptIslam as a way of life and I assure you that you would get a double reward. Ifyou chose not to accept Islam, then you shall bear all the sins of the peopleunder your leadership”. Allah, the Almighty, statesin the Glorious Quran, Sura Al-Imran, [The Family of Imran] 3:64, which reads asfollows:“ Say: O People of the Book! come to common terms as between usand you: that we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with Him;that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah. Ifthen they turn back, say ye. Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowingto Allah's Will)”. Anas (may Allah be pleased withhim), one of the Companions of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allahbe upon him), once reported that, which reads as follows:“ Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was never approached forreward to a person who accepts Islam, but condoned it. Once, a man came andasked for reward if he accepted Islam, and the Prophet (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) offered him [from the Islamic treasury] a [huge] herd ofsheep that was grazing in a valley between two mountains [at Madinah]. As such,the man who received the reward went back to his folks and told them, O Mypeople! Accept Islam, as Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)gives a reward that the recipient never fears poverty. [All the people relatedto this man accepted Islam and joined Muslims]. Anas (may Allah be pleased withhim) continued in his report, A man would accept Islam only for materialisticgains, but as soon as he feels the sweetness of Islam the faith would becomedearer to the heart of such person, more than the entire world and itspossessions”This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim. Let's also examine the actual inheritance of the Prophet(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), which he left behind after hisdeath. Amr bin al-Harith (may Allah be pleased with him) reported, which readsas follows:“ the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), upondeath, left no Dirham, Dinar, slave, maid or anything else, other than his whitemule, his weapon, and a piece of land that was declared as a charity forMuslims”This Hadith is reported by Muslim. In fact,the Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) own armor, at the timeof his death, was bonded against a pawn with a Jew for a measurement of barleyfor his family's food. How could any sensible person, then, accuse Mohammed(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) with the love and charms ofmaterialistic gains and possessions?
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There is, yet, another example: Omar bin Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleasedwith him), the second rightly-guided Caliph and Companion of the Prophet (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him), during whom rein Islamic conquests reacheda vast area in the known world then, his stomach made a rattling noise due tolack

of proper diet. Upon hearing the rattling of his own stomach, Omar (mayAllah be pleased with him) exclaimed,“ [O My dear stomach], rattle or donot rattle! By Allah! You would not get properly filled until all Muslims haveenough to eat [and enjoy a proper diet]”(Baihaqi, 9:42).
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During the Battle of Uhud, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim) commented,“ Get up to gain [as a result of your fight for the causeof Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) Heaven [paradise,] which is as spacious as theheavens and earth put together!”A man named Omair bin al-Hemam (mayAllah be pleased with him) heard the Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him) statement. As such, this man raised the question to Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ O Prophet of Allah! Did yousay [the reward is] Heaven [paradise,] which is as wide as the heavens and earthput together! The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) answeredpositively. The Companion said, Blessed be it! Blessed be it! [i.e. the reward].The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked the man, What urgedyou to say what you said? The man replied, O Prophet of Allah! The only hope Ientertain is to be one of the dwellers of this Paradise! The Prophet (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) commented, Surely, you are one of the dwellersof this Paradise. Upon hearing such a word from the Prophet (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him) , the man got few dates out of his bag to eat before thefight began. But, the man threw the dates in the air and uttered, By Allah! If Ilived to finish eating these dates it would be a very long life! He rushed tofight the enemies of Islam with all his might until he was killed”(Muslim reported this Hadith). The booties of the early Muslims of the wars were sufficient to let them tolead a very prosperous and gracious life. But, we notice that Muslims did notstop at that point. The real motive behind all the wars and conquests was,truly, to call other peoples to the Word of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and thereligion of Islam. This is evident, of course, by the freedom of choice offeredto the conquered people, whether they would like to accept Islam as a religionand way of life, and if they do, they would be entitled to all the rights ofborn Muslims. Such conquered people would also be required to do the same asMuslims do. If the conquered people rejected Islam, but they do not declare waragainst Islam and Muslims, they would be required to pay, what is called, 'HeadTax' [Jizyahh]; a meager amount of tax in exchange for the protection of theirlives, properties and wealth, secured by the Islamic state. Additionally, headtax payers would enjoy all public facilities

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offered and maintained by theIslamic state as well. Head tax payers are not required to pay any additionaltaxes. Muslims, on the other hand, are required to pay Zakah; charity, the sumof two and half percent of their annually accumulated funds. This, in general,is much more than what the head tax payers have to pay annually. However, if thenon-Muslims in a conquered land refuse to accept either option, war would bewaged against them in order to deliver the Message of Islam to the people ingeneral. The essential reason for waging a war against other non-Muslims is thefact that, some inhabitants of such non-Islamic countries may, embrace Islam,have they known its principles and mission. For this essential and nobleobjective, Allah Knows best, Islam imposes on Muslims to wage wars in order todeliver the Message of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) to the non-Muslims.
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One of the greatest generals of Islam, namely, Khalid bin AlWaleed (mayAllah be pleased with him); a resolute general throughout his career, beforeIslam and after embracing it, expired while he owned only a horse, a sword, anda servant. Where could any one find a trace of materialistic life in theinheritance of such a great Muslim general and warrior? A man called Shaddad bin al-Hadi (may Allah be pleased with him), reportedthat a Bedouin came to Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim) and expressed interest in Islam. The Bedouin soon embraced Islam. TheBedouin expressed his interest to Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) to immigrate with him to Madinah. As such, Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked Muslims to take care of theBedouin, [which they did]. The Muslims fought a battle against the pagans and asa result, they won some war booties. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) distributed the booties among his Companions. The Bedouin wasgiven a share of the booties, due to his participation in the fight. The Bedouinasked, 'What is this for?' Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him) stated, 'This is a share of the booties for your participation in thefight.' The Bedouin uttered, 'I did not give you my pledge of allegiance forworldly gains. In fact, I followed you and embraced Islam hoping that an arrowof a fighting enemy would hit my throat, then I die, then I would be rewardedwith Jannah, Paradise.' Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim) commented on the statement of the Bedouin, 'If you are truthful with Allah(subhanahu wa ta'ala) , surely, Allah would fulfill your desire.' Muslims stayedwithout war for a while. Later on, a battle was fought, and the Muslims foughtagainst the enemies of Islam. Not before long, the Bedouin was found dead, withan arrow in his throat. He was

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carried forward and brought before the Prophet(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him)inquired, 'Isn't he the same Bedouin?' The peopleanswered affirmatively. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim)said, 'This man was, truly, truthful with Allah. Therefore, Allah (subhanahuwa ta'ala) is Truthful with him.' Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) gave his cloak to be used as a shroud for the martyr Bedouin.The funeral was brought forward. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allahbe upon him) offered a funeral prayer onto the soul of this Bedouin. The Prophet(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said the following in hissupplication for the soul of the martyr,“ O Allah! This is Yourslave-servant, who immigrated for Your cause. He was killed as a martyr. I am awitness for that”(This Hadith is reported by Nasaiee). The incident isself-expressive. The Bedouin refused to accept his entitled share of the warbooties, as he wanted the reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) alone.
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The books of the Islamic history are replete with numerous narratives ofpeople with such caliber. All such incidents confirmed that there was nointerest in the worldly gains by the early Muslims. Their main concern was tocall people to join the Divine religion of Muslims. They expected rewardpromised by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), as he saidwhich reads as follows:“ If a single soul, male or female, is guidedthrough you [i.e. a Muslim] to Islam, it is best for you than the entire [red]cattle [of the world]”(Sharh Ma'ani al-Athar [The Explanation of theReports] 3:207). In fact, many Muslims willingly gave up their entire wealth andlife savings upon their conversion to Islam. Some early Muslims were deprived oftheir own wealth because their families boycotted them in anger of embracingIslam. Others were extremely involved and indulged with Islamic propagation.Thus, they gave up all other worldly engagements. For instance, in the Battle ofNahawand, one of the major and decisive battles in Islam, a prestigiousCompanion of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), al-No'manbin Moqren al Mozani (may Allah be pleased with him), offered the followingsupplication, 'O Allah! Please, honor Your Divine religion, and make YourBelievers victorious. 'O Allah! Please, let me be the first martyr in thebattle. O Allah! Please, grant my eyes the true pleasure to see the bestconquest that grants honor anddignity to Islam. O people! Put faith in Allah,He would shower you with His Mercy'. Can any objective person note any charm ofmaterialistic life in such a "war speech". The main objective is surely to seekthe Pleasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), and the sincere wish to call othersto accept Islam.

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The Muqawqis, the Ruler of Egypt, sent his messenger to the Muslim General,Amr bin al-Aas (may Allah be pleased with him), who conquered Egypt. The MuslimGeneral was holding the Babylon fortress in siege. The Egyptian Ruler asked hisspying messengers to report on what they observed. They all had a consensus ontheir observation. They said, 'We have noticed that they prefer death over life.They prefer to be modest and humble, rather than proud and arrogant. We havenoticed no interest among them in worldly gains and possessions. They sit on thefloor and their leader sits like one of them. No one could differentiate betweenthe leader and the led, the master and the slave. They are almost alike,irrespective of their ranks.' Thomas Carlyle, in his book, The Heroes, declinedto accept that Islam spread with the edge of the sword, as enemies of Islam liketo make a big propaganda. Mr. Carlyle comments in his book as follows: ' Theattackers of Islam claim that Islam would not have spread, if it was not for theuse of the sword and force. But, let us ask, 'What is the thing that brought thesword to existence?' The sword is the force and the power of this religion. Thereligion is a true one. In fact, any new ideas come to any society are createdor conceived in the mind of one single person. As such, this man's belief isopposed by the rest of the world. Therefore, if such a person was capable ofholding a sword and fight, alone, against the entire world, by God, the chancesfor such a fighter to loose are very rare. In general, I feel that the Truth mayspread itself in every possible way and by using every possible means availablefor it to be spread. Can't we all notice that Christianity, at times, didhesitate to use the sword? Charlemagne fought against Saxons tribes to spreadhis faith. I, personally and truly, do not care whether the truth is spread bysword, tongue or any other tool or weapon. Let's permit the truth to use speech,media or fire arms, in order to spread and establish its authority over people.Let's permit the truth to fight and struggle using every possible meanavailable; hands, feet, legs, nails or else. Surely, only what is not worthy ofvictory would be defeated'.

Islamic Principles are Based on Humanism and Non-Violence The Divine religion of Islam is a religionof mercy, kindness and benevolence. In fact, Islam is against brutality,violence and viciousness. Allah, the Almighty, urged all Muslims to follow thepattern of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Allah,the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran addressing Mohammed (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him), as in Sura Al-Imran, [The Family of Imran]3:159, which reads as follows:“ It is part of the Mercy of Allah that thoudost deal gently with them. Wert thou severe or harsh-hearted, they would havebroken away from about thee: so pass over (their faults), and ask for (Allah's)forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs of moment). Then, when thouhast taken a decision, put thy trust in Allah. For Allah loves those who puttheir trust (in Him)”. The teachings of Islam exhortupon every Muslim to show mercy, and kindness to every gullible and poor person.Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to havesaid, which reads as follows:“ The merciful and kind people would get theMercy of the Merciful Lord, Allah, the Almighty. Be merciful to those [people]on earth, and Allah, the Almighty, Who is in Heaven, would grant you [His]Mercy”(This Hadith is reported by Tirmithee). Furthermore, Islam requires that mercy and kind treatment should be meted out toall people, including the fighting enemies of Muslims. Allah's Messenger (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said, which reads asfollows:“ Be kind and merciful to the captives”(Al-Mu'jamal-Kabeer [The Grand Dictionary of Hadith] 22:393). If thus was the Prophet(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) command to Muslims concerning theenemies who are fighting against them, what would be the treatment towards thepeaceful people? Islamic mercy is not limited to human being only. Rather, itcovers also to animals as well. In fact, several reports confirm the blessedreward for individuals who are kind to animals in general, and suffering animalsin particular. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) isreported to have said, which reads as follows:“ While a man was on a trip[in the wilderness], he felt very thirsty. He searched for water, and found awell. He managed to go to the bottom of the well in order to get to the water,as he had no equipment to reach the water from the surface. He suffered a greatdeal to reach to the bottom of the well. The man managed to quench his thirstand came out of the well. Upon reaching the surface he noticed a dog with histongue stretched out because of severe thirst and inability to reach the waterat the bottom of the well. The man thought to himself, Surely, this dog issuffering the same hardship I suffered because of severe thirst. Thus, the manwent down the well again, with a great difficulty, and holding one of his shoesby his teeth, filled the shoe with water and brought it back up to the thirstydog. The dog drank and went away. Allah, the Almighty, appreciated the action ofthis man and forgave his entire previous sins. One of the audience, who heardthe statement of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)inquired, O Messenger of Allah! Would we be rewarded for being kind and mercifulto animals? Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)asserted, truly, there is a blessed reward for being kind and merciful to everyliving creature that has a wet liver [i.e. alive animal]”(This Hadith

isreported by Bukhari). In fact, a woman deserved the penaltyand the wrath of Allah, the Almighty, and was to become one of the dwellers ofthe Fire of Hell, as a result of her cruelty to a cat. Allah's Messenger (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said, which reads asfollows:“ A woman would become a dweller of the Fire of Hell, as a resultof ill and cruel treatment of a cat. The woman locked the cat up and tied her.She did not offer proper food for the cat, and neither let it fetch for her ownfood in the surrounding”(This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari andMuslim). The list of the Prophet's (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) commands to Muslims to be kind, merciful, and kindheartedeven to animals is endless. We only cited above few examples. Some otherexamples are as under:

Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported tohave said, while passing by a donkey that was tattooed on his face,“ MayAllah's Curse descends on the person who placed this tattoo on the face of thedonkey”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim). Ibn Omar (may Allah bepleased with him) is reported to have passed by a group of young men from thetribe of Quraish who set up a bird as a shooting target. They were shootingtheir arrows on that bird, as a target. Ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with him)inquired, 'Who placed this bird as a shooting target? May Allah's Curse descendon the person who did. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim) is reported to have said, which reads as follows:“ Allah, theAlmighty, curses the person who sets any living creature as a shooting targetaiming to shoot it”(This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari andMuslim). Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported tohave said while passing by a camel who appeared to be extremely thin of hunger,“ Be mindful and honor the Commandments of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala)concerning these animals, which can't express its needs by speech. Ride themwhile they are in good shape. Eat them while they are also in good shape”(This Hadith is reported by Abu Dawood). Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) commandsMuslims to show kindness in every action, even at slaughtering an animal.Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to havesaid, which reads as follows:“ Allah, the Almighty, prescribes perfectionin every action. If you kill, be perfect in your killing. If you slaughter ananimal for meat, perfect your act of slaughtering. Sharpen your knife and begood, kind, and merciful to the animal you are about to slaughter. Give theslaughtered animal the best comfort

you can while being slaughtered”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim).

Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported tohave said, on noticing someone shooting, for fun, a little bird, and leaving itto die for no reason,“ This little bird would argue, before Allah, theAlmighty, on the Day of Judgment, O My Lord! This man killed me for no reason ofbenefit to him”(This Hadith is reported by Ahmad and Nasaiee).

If such was the mercy and kindness to animals and livingcreatures, what about the human being, who is given full preference, honor andrespect over all other creatures? Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura Isra [The Night Journey] 17:70, which reads as follows:“ Wehave honored the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea;given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them specialfavors, above a great part of Our Creation”.

War Operation in Islam Basically, Islam calls for peacefulinteractions with all peoples of all the countries. Islam, as we explainedearlier, is a Divine religion of peace, submission and mercy. Though Allah, theAlmighty commands to wage war at times as a final remedy. He limited theapplication of such Command in the following five situations: 1. Defense against life, property, wealth of the nation and nationalborders.This is based on the verse revealed in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Baqarah [The Cow] 2:190,“ Fight in the cause of Allah those who fightyou, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors”(This is called Jihad according to Islamic terminology. The essential differencebetween war and Jihad is the latter's main objective is to deliver and spreadthe Divine Word of Allah, the Almighty, and spread the divine religion of Islamand not for any materialistic and worldly gains. As for war, in broad andgeneral terms, it is waged for personal, governmental and expansionist purposes,or for colonization purposes, or for exploitation purposes, or even to bragabout the force and power of one country, government, or nation against another.Islam does not condone any of the above objectives and purposes). 2. Redress the oppression of persons oppressed or assisting thedefenseless.This makes war a humanitarian need. Allah, the Almighty, statesin the Glorious Quran, Sura Nisa [The Women] 4:75,“ And why should ye notfight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (andoppressed)? Men, women, and children, whose cry is: Our Lord! Rescue us

fromthis town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who willprotect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!”. This is based onthe verse revealed in the Glorious Quran, Sura Anfal [War Booties] 8:72,“Those who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the Faith, with theirproperty and their persons, in the cause of Allah, as well as those who gave(them) asylum and aid, these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another.As to those who believed but came not into exile; ye owe no duty of protectionto them until they come into exile; but if they seek your aid in religion, it isyour duty to help them, except against a people with whom ye have a treaty ofmutual alliance. And (remember) Allah seeth all that ye do”. 3. Breach of covenants, pacts and treaties.This is based on the verserevealed in the Glorious Quran, Sura Al-Tawbeh [The Repentance] 9:12-13,“But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for yourFaith, fight ye the chiefs of Unfaith: for their oaths are nothing to them: thatthus they may be restrained. Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths,plotted to expel the Messenger, and took the aggressive by being the first (toassault) you? Do ye fear them? Nay, it is Allah Whom ye should more justly fear,if ye believe!”. 4. Disciplinary action against obstinate and unjust aggressors.Allah,the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Hujurat [The Chambers] 49:9,“ If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel, make ye peacebetween them: but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other,then fight ye (all) against the one that transgresses until it complies with theCommand of Allah; but if it complies, then make peace between them with justice,and be fair: for Allah loves those who are fair (and just)”. 5. Defending against Islam as a religion and its propagation.Islam isan universal faith and religion. Islam is not for a specific people only. Allpeoples must learn about Islam and comply with its commandments. FollowingIslam, or converting to it, however, is not an objective Muslims seek. Finaldestiny is only in the Hands of Allah. All people must learn about the goodness,justice, brotherhood, love, equality and peace for all that Islam teaches.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Anfal [War Booties]8:39,“ And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, andthere prevails justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere; but if theycease, verily Allah doth see all that they do”.

Ifthe enemies of Islam stop the war and accept peace, Muslims are obliged to stopthe war as well, and it becomes unlawful for them to pursue war any more. Allah,the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Nisa [The Women] 4:90,“Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (Of peace),or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as wellas fighting their own people. If Allah had pleased, He could have given thempower over you, and they would have fought you: therefore if they withdraw fromyou but fight you not, and (instead) send you (guarantees of) peace, then Allahhath opened no way for you (to war against them)”. Asfor other types of wars, such as pursued for colonization, expansionism andvengeance resulting in destruction and great losses are banned and declaredunlawful in Islam. Wars waged to demonstrate force are also prohibited in Islam.War, in Islam, is a means to spread the Word of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala).Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Anfal [The War booties],8:47,“ And be not like those who started from their homes insolently andto be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the path of Allah: for Allahcompasseth round about all that they do”. Additionally, Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) isreported to have declared, which reads as follows:“ He, who fights inorder to make the Word of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) the most supreme, is theone who is fighting for the cause of Allah”(This Hadith is reported byboth, Bukhari&Muslim). Although Islam permits fightingfor necessary reasons, it directs the fighters to observe certain manners andethics. Islam does not permit fighters to kill indiscriminately. It commands tokill those who fight against them, or assist other fighters in a battlefield. Asfor the elderly people, minors, women, sick, wounded, or even people who secludethemselves in worship, all such categories of people are not to be killed, oreven bothered, by Muslim fighters. A wounded individual, in a battle field,fighting against Muslims, is banned to be killed as well. Islam even bansmutilation of the bodies and cadavers of killed enemies. Furthermore, Islam bansthe killing of the enemies' animals, the destruction of the homes and dwellingsof the enemies. Additionally, Islam bans to pollute the potable water of theenemies and their wells. Islam also does not permit Muslim fighters to chase thefleeing enemies' fighters. Islam considers all the aforementioned items as actsleading to the disruption of the society. Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura al-Qasas [The Stories] 28:77,“ But seek, with the(wealth) which Allah has bestowed on thee, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forgetthy portion in this World: but do thou good, as Allah has been good to thee, andseek not (occasions for) mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who domischief”. Furthermore, Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said, which reads asfollows:“ Begin your fight with the Name of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala)against those who declare the state of apostasy in Allah. Fight [against theenemies], but do not breach your contracts or covenants. Do not mutilate thebodies of the fighters killed. Do not kill a newly born baby”(ThisHadith is reported

by Muslim). Abu Bakr (may Allah bepleased with him), the first Muslim Caliph, gave the following advice to thedispatched Muslim army, which was heading to a battle against the enemies ofIslam, 'Wait before you leave. I would like to give you the following tenadvices: 1. Do not betray [your enemies]. 2. Do not steal from the war booties before its proper and lawful distribution. 3. Do not breach your pledges and covenants with your enemies. 4. Do not mutilate the bodies of the killed fighters. 5. Do not kill a little, minor child, a woman, or an elderly man. 6. Do not cut or burn a palm tree [or any other tree for any reason]. 7. Do not cut a fruit bearing tree. 8. Do not slaughter a sheep, a cow or a camel, except for your food. 9. You may come across people who seclude themselves for the worship of God.Leave them alone. Do not bother them or cause any disruption to their lives.(Tabari, Vol.3, p.226). Similarly, Muslims must declarewar prior to the beginning of the fight. This is because Muslims are neitherbetrayers, nor dishonest fighters. Islam imposes some of the best of war ethicsand morals onto the Muslim fighters. Islam requires full adherence to justiceand no oppression to the fighting enemies. Omar bin ABudulAziz (may Allah bepleased with him), one of the Muslim Caliphs, was approached by a delegation offighters of the city of Samarqand. They complained about the Muslim leader;Qutaibah, who took them by chance. The Caliph sent a letter to the governor ofSamarqand commanding him to assign a judge to investigate this matter, and ifthe judge sentenced that Muslims should get out of the city and leave it, theymust comply with. The governor of Samarqand assigned a judge named Jomai' binHader al-Baji, who passed his verdict that Muslims should leave the city, whichthey opened and conquered. The Muslim army commander must first declare warproperly against the people of Samarqand, prior to invading it. The Muslim armyleader must warn the people of Samarqand prior to launch an attack. This wouldgive them a chance to prepare themselves for the fight. This is the Islamicethical approach towards fighting. The attacked must not be taken by a suddenattack. The people of Samarqand, however, hated to restart another war andaccepted the Islamic rules' ("Fotuhul-Buldan" [Countries Conquest], Balathuri,p.428). As for captives and prisoners of war, Islamprohibits torturing, humiliating, terrorizing, intimidating, mutilation of theirbodies or starving them to death. Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura Insan [The Human Being], 76:8-9,“ And they feed, for the loveof Allah, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive, (Saying), We feed you forthe sake of Allah alone: no reward do we desire from you, nor thanks”. The Islamic state has the full freedom to either release theprisoners of war without any ransom, or to set ransom, or else release them inexchange for the release of Muslim prisoners of war. This is based on the verserevealed in the Glorious Quran, Sura

Mohammed 47:4,“ Therefore, when yemeet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; at length, when ye havethoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the timefor) either generosity or ransom: until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (areye commanded): but if it had been Allah's Will, He could certainly have exactedretribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you,some with others. But those who are slain in the way of Allah, He will never lettheir deeds be lost”. As for the defeated non-Muslimsresidents of the conquered countries, i.e. Christians and Jews, they should betreated with respect. Their women must not be mingled with. Their wealth andproperties must be preserved and honored. Their integrity, dignity and honormust be maintained. They must not be humiliated by any way or means. Their homesand dwellings must remain unharmed. They should be dealt with fairly and justly.They should be offered equal to the treatment to the Muslims. Their Divine faithmust be preserved, honored and dignified, so long as they respect and obey theIslamic tenants and Divine religion. This is based on the verse revealed in theGlorious Quran, Sura al-Haj [The Pilgrimage] 22:41,“ (They are) thosewho, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give regularcharity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (anddecision) of (all) affairs”. The best proof ofevidence reflecting this situation with the example set by Omar bin alKhattab(may Allah be pleased with him), the second Muslim Caliph, to the inhabitants ofJerusalem upon entering it as a conqueror. He has written to them as follows,'In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, Most Merciful. The following is thepledge of allegiance given by Omar bin al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased withhim), the Chief of the Believers to the dwellers of Jerusalem. Their lives,wealth, properties, churches and crosses are secured. None of them should beforced to leave their faith. None of them is to be hurt'. Surely, there is nothing comparable recorded in the history of mankind. Webelieve that this is the best form of nobility, justice and tolerance from theconqueror's side towards the vanquished. Others have stripped the defeatedpeople from all rights, including the right to a decent life. Omar binal-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), could have easily dictated all histerms and conditions against the defeated Christians and Jews at the time. Buthe did not. In essence, this is the real justice, tolerance, and beauty ofIslam; the Divine religion of peace, justice and tolerance. The laws of Allah,the Almighty, must apply to all people without any exception. Non-Muslims living under the Islamic rule must pay a headtax called Jizyah; a minimal tax imposed on the non-Muslim residents in anIslamic country, or in a country conquered by Muslims. They, however, are theindividuals who, willingly, chose to maintain their faith. This tax is of threetypes as follows:

Head tax of the rich and the affluent people. This is estimated, then, asforty-eight Dirhams of silver, taken annually, from each individual.

Head tax of the middle-class individuals such as merchants, businessmen, andfarmers. This is estimated, then, as twenty four Dirhams of silver, taken fromeach individual, annually. Head tax taken from the laborers and craftsmen who are in business. This isestimated, then, as twelve Dirhams of silver, taken from each individual,annually.

Head tax is imposed for the protection of thenon-Muslims, living under Islamic governed state. The honor, integrity, wealthand life of such persons would be protected by the Islamic government againstall possible encroachments. Such protection includes all rights which areenjoyed by the Muslims. Khalid bin al-Waleed (may Allah bepleased with him), one of the most renowned Muslim war generals, in one of hispledges of allegiance to the non-Muslims living in the Islamic state says, ' Ihave given you my pledge of allegianceto accept your head tax and in return,protect you against all possible odds [that we generally protect ourselvesagainst]. If we succeed in offering you the protection we would take the headtax. If not, then you would not pay it until we can provide you such protection' (Balathuri's history). L. Veccia Vaglieri, in her booktitled Defending Islam, says: ' Conquered people by Islamic governments weregiven full freedom to maintain and preserve their faith and traditions providedthat individuals who elect this option and do not accept Islam as a way of life,would pay a fair head tax to the Islamic government. Head tax was less than whatMuslims pay to their government. Non Muslims, residing under Islamic ruledstate, paid such tax in exchange for the general blanket protection offered bythe Islamic government extended for its' own people ' (L. Veccia Vaglieri,Defending Islam, p.). Another evidence of the justice andfairness of the Islamic system is the following: There are certain classes ofpeople who were exempted from the payment of the head tax. They were: the poorand needy, the minor, the women, the monks, priests, or rabies, the permanentlydisabled individuals and the blinds. In fact, Islam imposed the protection rightunto the Islamic government and proper welfare system to be provided for theirneeds from the Islamic Treasury. In Khalid bin al-Waleed t, pledge of allegianceto the nonMuslims of al-Heerah, in Iraq, the following was written, 'Anynon-Muslim living under the protection of the Islamic state grows old andbecomes unable to work, or becomes a terminal patient, or becomes broke andbankrupt in such a manner that he would be entitled for charity by his ownpeople's faith, would no longer be required to pay the head tax. Such individualwould be provided for his essential needs from the Islamic Treasury, along withhis family' (Abu Yousef, in his book Al-Kharaj, p. 144). Omar bin al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), was sitting once and an oldJew passed by asking people to give him a charity. Omar (may Allah be pleasedwith him) inquired about the welfare of such individual. He was informed thatthe man was living as a non-Muslim under the rule of the Islamic state andprotection, paying head tax. Omar (may Allah be pleased with him) declared, 'Wehave not been fair to you! We have

imposed head tax on you and charged you suchtax when you were young and able, and now we are not providing you with theproper social care and welfare.' As a result, Omar (may Allah be pleased withhim) took the man to his own home, fed him and offered him proper clothing. Omar(may Allah be pleased with him) further, commanded the Muslim Treasurer, 'Lookinto the case of this man, and those of similar situation, and give them asufficient income form the Islamic Treasury, along with their families. Allah,the Almighty, stated in the Glorious Quran Sura Tawbah [The repentance] 9:60,“ Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administerthe (funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to thetruth); for those in bondage and in debt; in the cause of Allah; and for thewayfarer: (thus is it) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full of knowledge andwisdom”. The poor are the Muslims. The needy are the People of the Book'(Abu Yousef, in his book Al-Kharaj, p.126). LiseLictenstadter; a German scholar, in her book titled, Islam and the Modern Age,states, 'The option given to the people of Persia and Rome or the West, duringthe time of the spread of Islam, was not to be killed by the sword, or acceptIslam. In fact, the option was either to accept Islam as a way of life, or elseto pay the head tax [in exchange for the protection]. This is a praiseworthyplan which was applied later on in England during the rein of Queen Elizabeth'(Islam and Modern Age, p. 67. See also, Ahmad Shalabi, Comperative ReligiousStudies, Vol 3, p.174). In regards to the treatment of thenon-Muslims living under the rule of the Islamic state, they are fully entitledfor full protection and respect for all rights. Allah, the Almighty, states inthe Glorious Quran, Sura Momtahinah [The Tried ne] 60:8,“ Allah forbidsyou not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive youout of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveththose who are just”. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said, which reads asfollows:“ I would be defending, on the Day of Judgment, any oppressednon-Muslim who was given a pledge of security to be properly protected under therule of the Islamic State, but was not given the proper full protection, or elsehe was charged over his abilities [to do or pay], or forced [against his willand acceptance] to pay any unnecessary amount [of money]”(This Hadith isreported by Abu Dawood).

Islamic Champions Total and Comprehensive Peace A close examination of the Islamicteachings shows the following: 1. Respect for the human soul.Islam values the human soul a great deal.For this reason, Islam imposes death penalty [Qisas] against intentional killingof an innocent soul. As for unintentional killing, it has a different penalty,which is called [Deyyah] blood-money, which is a sizable sum of money, given tothe heirs of the person killed. It is like substitution money. This blood-moneyis by no means an equal for the loss of the person killed, but it is rather afinancial substitution for the harm they suffer as a result of the loss of theirloved one.Kaffarah, atonement, on the other hand, is an emancipation ofan owned slave. If the unintentional killer does not have the means to possess aslave and emancipate him for the cause of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), as anatonement for his sin, such a killer is required to observe a continuous fastfor two months period. If the murderer cannot observe this fast for a legitimatereason he is obliged to feed sixty poor people [a sufficient meal]. Thisatonement, however, is an act of worship by which the sinner seeks pardon andforgiveness from Allah, the Almighty, for his unintentional sin of killing ahuman soul. All this is done to demonstrate the importance of the human soul inIslam. Surely, it is too grave to resort to acts of killing, threatening, oreven attacking a human soul for no legitimate reason. Moreover, Islam prescribesa severe penalty for killing a human soul. If a killer realizes that he/she willbe killed in retaliation and penalty for his crime, they would surely thinktwice before committing a crime of killing an innocent soul. It is believed ifthe penalty is anything less that being killed in just retribution for thecrime; the criminals would never quit committing their crimes. The same appliesto all capital punishmentsHudoodin Islam. Capital punishments in Islamare most decisive, efficient, and effective penalties ever known to man onearth. All types of capital punishments in Islam are imposed and prescribed byAllah, the Almighty, for a very essential and noble reason: the preservation andmaintenance of the human life. Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura al-Baqara [The Cow] 2:179,“ In the Law of Equality there is(saving of) Life to you, O ye men of understanding; that ye may restrainyourselves”. Furthermore, Islam does not rest with physicalpenalties. In fact, there is, yet, a harder and an everlasting penalty in theFire of Hell; where a criminal would have a permanent abode with humiliation andendless tortures. Criminals in this world would suffer the Wrath of Allah, theAlmighty, in the Hereafter. Allah, the Almighty, states

in the Glorious Quran,Sura al-Nisa [The Women] 4:93,“ If a man kills a Believer intentionally,his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (forever): and the wrath and the curseof Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him”. 2. Islam believes in equality of human status.This, of course, appliesto both, male and female alike. When Allah, the Almighty, first created ourgreat grandfather, Adam (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him); the fatherfor the entire humanity, he created his wife; our grandmother Eve (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him), and from both of them the progeny of Adam(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was generated and produced. Thishonorable couple, Adam and Eve (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),represent the essential roots of the entire human race. Therefore, all humansare created equal in Islam. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran,Sura al-Nisa [The Women] 4:1,“ Mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord, whocreated you from a single Person, created, of like nature, his mate, and fromthem twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women; fear Allah, throughWhom ye demand your mutual (rights), and reverence the wombs (that bore you):for Allah ever watches over you”. Furthermore, Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“[All] people are the children of Adam (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim). Adam (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is created fromsoil”(This Hadith is reported by Ahmad). As such, every humansoul forms the progeny of the first reverend couple; Adam and Eve (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him). Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura al-A'raf [The Heights] 7:27,“ O ye Children of Adam! let notSatan seduce you, in the same manner as he got your parents out of the Garden,stripping them of their raiment, to expose their shame: for he and his tribewatch you from a position where ye cannot see them: We made the Evil Onesfriends (only) to those without Faith”. Initially, the entirehuman race believed in the common faith and spoke the common language. AsMuslims we believe this tenant. The vast reproduction of the human race and therapid multiplication of their numbers covered wide areas of the earth. As aresult, the human race witnessed many splits in the population of the world andthe initiation of many dialects and languages. The colors of the human race wereidentical to the new environment they lived in. The environment where peoplelived affected their

traits, manners and characters. As such, different people,with different colors, and different natures were founded. Consequently, thethinking style, the life style, and the faith have also reflected variations.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Younus [Joanna] 10:19,“ Mankind was but one Ummah, but differed (later). Had it not been for aWord that went forth before from thy Lord, their differences would have beensettled between them”. Islam regards each human being, regardlessof race, color, language, creed, faith, religion, or home country on an equalfooting with other human beings. All human beings are equal before Allah, theAlmighty; the Creator. The different categories appear at the application andexecution of the Laws of Allah, the Almighty. Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura al-Hujurat [The Chambers] 49:13,“ O mankind! Wecreated you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you intonations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise eachother). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) themost righteous of you. And Allah has full Knowledge and is well-acquainted (withall things)”. All human beings are also equal in terms offreedom. Omar bin alKhattab (may Allah be pleased with him), initiated thiscall some fourteen centuries ago. Omar bin al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased withhim), declared, 'When did you enslave people to you, though their own mothersgave birth to them free?' Therefore, every human being, in the sight ofIslam, is entitled to the following: • Freedom of thinking and freedom of opinion.Allah's Messenger (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him) commanded his rightly-guided Companions, andin fact, every Muslim, to declare the truth, express honest opinion and refrainfrom intimidating others. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him) is reported to have said,“ A person who knows the truth anddoes not declare it is a mute devil”(Reported by Tirmithee). Additionally, once, Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) passed a verdictas a sentence during the Caliphate of Omar bin al-Khattab (may Allah be pleasedwith him). Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) passed the sentence based on hispersonal views. Omar (may Allah be pleased with him) was asked his opinion onthe verdict of Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). Omar (may Allah be pleasedwith him)

was told, 'We are sure your verdict regarding the same issue isdifferent. Why you do not abrogate the verdict of Ali (may Allah be pleased withhim)?' Omar bin al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), commented, 'If theverdict that Ali passed was concerning the meaning of the Glorious Quran or aninterpretation of Hadith, I could have abrogated it. But, Ali's verdict is amatter of mere opinion. Opinion is, in fact, an open and public issue. No one ofus knows for sure which is the best opinion in the Sight of Allah (subhanahu wata'ala)'.

Freedom of access to lawful income and ownership.Islam urges,encourages, and permits access to lawful income. Allah, the Almighty, states inthe Glorious Quran, Sura al-Nisa [The Women] 4:7,“ From what is left byparents and those nearest related there is a share for men and a share forwomen, whether the property be small or large, a determinate share”. Freedom of learning and teaching.Islam supports, encourages andadvocates the freedom of learning for every member in the society. Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Seeking knowledge is an obligatory duty unto every Muslim”(ThisHadith is reported by Baihaqi). In fact, Islam classifies the act ofmonopolizing essential, useful and Islamic knowledge, concealing it from others,and unsharing it with them, that renders the doer to be the recipient of theWrath of Allah, the Almighty, and His Penalty. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Aknowledgeable person who is asked to share his knowledge with others but refusesto do so and hides his information would suffer a harness of fire on the Day ofJudgment”(This Hadith is reported by Abu Dawood and Tirmithee). Every body is entitled to benefit from the wealth, minerals, and naturalresources of the earth.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran,Sura al-Molk, [The Kingship] 67:15,“ It is He Who has made the earthmanageable for you, so traverse ye through its tracts and enjoy of theSustenance which He furnishes: but unto Him is the Resurrection”. Every body is entitled for leadership position in the society, if hepossesses the necessary qualifications.Ability and efficiency are the maincriteria

required for holding leadership positions in the Islamic society, asopposed to color and race, for instance. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ If a person is assignedthe charge of the Muslim affairs, he appoints a person because of favoritism,irrespective of his qualifications, he would deserve the Wrath and Curse ofAllah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) . Allah, the Almighty, would not accept any of hisactions. Such a person would be in the Fire of Hell”(This Hadith isreported by al-Hakim).

3. The unity and inviolability of the religion.Islam considers thebasis of religion as intact. Religious teachings are, essentially, the same fromProphet Adam (may Allah be pleased with him) until Mohammed (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him). The religions of all Prophets of Allah (subhanahu wata'ala) are basically the same. All Divine religions are based on monotheism.All Divine religions are revealed by Allah, the Almighty. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Shura [Consultation], 42:13,“ Thesame religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah -that which We have sent by inspiration to thee - and that which We enjoined onAbraham, Moses, and Jesus: namely, that ye should remain steadfast in Religion,and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah,hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself thosewhom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him)”. Allah, the Almighty, also states in the Glorious Quran, Sura alNisa[The Women] 4:163-5,“ We have sent thee inspiration, as We sent it toNoah and the Messengers after him: We sent inspiration to Abraham, Isma'il,Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and toDavid We gave the Psalms. Of some Messenger We have already told thee the story;of others We have not, and to Moses Allah spoke direct. Messengers who gave goodnews as well as warning, that mankind, after (the coming) of the Messengers,should have no plea against Allah: for Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise”. Allah, the Almighty, also states in the Glorious Quran, Sura AlAna'am[The Cattle] 6:83-6,“ That was the reasoning about Us, which We gave toAbraham (to use) against his people: We raise whom We will, degree after degree:for thy Lord is full of wisdom and knowledge. We gave him Isaac and Jacob: all(three) We

guided: and before him, We guided Noah, and among his progeny, David,Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron: thus do We reward those who do good: AndZachariah and John, and Jesus and Elias: all in the ranks of theRighteous”. Allah, the Almighty, also states in the GloriousQuran, Sura AlImran [The Family of Imran] 3:33,“ Allah did choose Adamand Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of Imran above allpeople”. Allah, the Almighty, also states in the Glorious Quran,Sura Hud 11:50,“ To the 'Ad People (We sent) Hud, one of their ownbrethren. He said: "O my people! Worship Allah! ye have no other god but Him.(Your other gods) ye do nothing but invent!”. Allah, theAlmighty, also states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Hud 10:61,“ To theThamud People (We sent) Salih, one of their own brethren. He said: O my People!Worship Allah: ye have no other god but Him. It is He Who hath produced you fromthe earth and settled you therein: then ask forgiveness of Him, and turn to Him(in repentance): for my Lord is (always) near, ready to answer”. Allah, the Almighty, also states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Hud 10:84,“ To the Madyan people (We sent) Shu'aib, one of their own brethren: hesaid: O my people! Worship Allah: ye have no other god but Him. And give notshort measure or weight: I see you in prosperity, but I fear for you the Penaltyof a Day that will compass (you) all round”. Allah, the Almighty,also states in the Glorious Quran, Sura alBaqarah [The Cow] 2:136,“ Sayye: We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham,Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, andthat given to (all) Prophets from their Lord: we make no difference between oneand another of them: and we bow to Allah (in Islam)”. Islam aimsat eliminating all aspects of racism and dislikes prejudiced-oriented partygatherings. Islam, equally, disapproves all acts leading to disputes, fights,among individuals and peoples. Islam requires its followers to believe in theDivine Messages and Scriptures of all previous nations [community] in order toeliminate any hatred or biased feelings. Islam considers such an act as one ofthe essential tenants of faith. Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura al-Anbiya [The Prophets] 21:85,“ And (remember) Isma'il,Idris, and Zul-kifl, all (men) of constancy

and patience”. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reportedto have said, when he was asked about the reality of faith in Islam,“Faith is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Divine Books/Scriptures, the FinalDay of Judgment, and the fate, good and evil”(This Hadith is reported byMuslim).
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The Glorious Quran presents Prophet Moses (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him) as a an example of the Prophets and Messengers of Allah, the Almighty.He was privileged to speak directly with Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Ahzab [The Confederates] 33:69,“ O ye who believe! be ye not like those who vexed and insulted Moses, butAllah cleared him of the (calumnies) they had uttered: and he was honorable inAllah's sight”. Islam treats the original unadulterated Torah as a source of Guidance andLight for people. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Maidah [The Table] 5:44,“ It was We who revealed the Law (to Moses):therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, bythe Prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah's Will, by the Rabbis and theDoctors of Law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's Book, andthey were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear Me, and sell notMy Signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) whatAllah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers”. The Glorious Quran commends the people of Prophet Moses (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him) who followed his teachings as an honorable Ummah [people].Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Baqarah [The Cow]2:122,“ O Children of Israel! Call to mind the special favor which Ibestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all others (for MyMessage)”. The Glorious Quran mentions, with commendation, Prophet Jesus (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) as it does to Prophet Moses (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him) and all other Prophets and Messengers of Allah, theAlmighty. In upholding his honor, the Glorious Quran regards Jesus (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) as the Word of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), andthe Rouh [Spirit] that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) created. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Al-Imran [The Family of Imran] 3:45-6,“ Behold! The angels said: O

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Mary! Allah giveth Thee glad tidings of aWord from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus. The son of Mary, held in honor inthis world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah, Heshall speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. And he shall be (of thecompany) of the righteous”. The Glorious Quran regards Virgin Mary [Mariyam], the mother of ProphetJesus (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as a truthful, honorable, andhighly vitreous woman. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Maidah [The Table] 5:75,“ Christ, the son of Mary, was no more than aMessenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother wasa woman of truth. They had both to eat their (daily) food. See how Allah dothmake His Signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away fromthe truth!”. The Glorious Quran commends the original undistorted Bible as equal to theTorah; it is a source of Guidance and Light for people. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Maidah [The Table] 5:46,“ And intheir footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had comebefore him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, andconfirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonitionto those who fear Allah”. The Glorious Quran praises the faithful believers who believed and followedthe teachings of Prophet Jesus (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) askind people (Ummah). Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Hadid [The Iron] 57:27,“ Then, in their wake, We followed them up with(others of) Our Messengers: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, andbestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followedhim Compassion and Mercy, but the Monasticism which they invented forthemselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking forthe Good Pleasure of Allah; but that they did not foster as they should havedone. Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, butmany of them are rebellious transgressors”.

As such, eachMuslim is duty bound, by faith, to believe in all the Prophets and Messengers ofAllah, the Almighty. He is equally commanded to believe in the Divine Books andScriptures revealed and sent down to them. He is also

commanded to respect,cherish, honor and every Divine Law revealed by Allah, the Almighty, to anyprevious people (Ummah). A Muslim is obliged to believe in the brotherhood ofthe previous followers of the Book, who certainly believed and welcomed theMission of Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Muslims believealso that the Message of Allah's Messenger, Mohammed (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) is the Final Divine Message to mankind on earth. The Divinerevelation ceased after the departure of Allah's Messenger, Mohammed (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him). Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura al-Ahzab [The Confederates], 33:40,“ Muhammad is not thefather of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal ofthe Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things”. Muslims believe that the Divine Message of Mohammed (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him) abrogates all previous Divine Messages. Abrogation, by nomeans, is denying the message totally or even partially. It rather means thatMuslims are to believe in the essence of the previous Divine Messages, but theyare not demanded to execute their teachings. Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura Al-Imran 3:85,“ If anyone desires a religion otherthan Islam (submission to Allah), never will it be accepted of him; and in theHereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritualgood)”. Islam urges the followers of previous Divine Faiths tobelieve in the Divine Message of Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim). Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Baqarah [TheCow] 2:137,“ So if they believe as ye believe, they are indeed on theright path; but if they turn back, it is they who are in schism; but Allah willsuffice thee as against them, and He is the All-Hearing, theAll-Knowing”. Allah, the Almighty, has explained the situation ofthe Disbelievers who fully deny the Divine Message of any previous Prophet.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Nisa 4:150-1,“Those who deny Allah and His Messengers, and (those who) wish to separate Allahfrom His Messengers, saying: We believe in some but reject others. And (thosewho) wish to take a course midway. They are in truth (equally) Unbelievers; andWe have prepared for Unbelievers a humiliating Punishment”. Secularism in matters of Faith and skepticism towards Divine Messagesare categorically castigated by Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Ana'm [The Cattle] 6:159-163,“ As for those who divide their religionand break up into sects, thouhast no part in them in the least: their affair is with Allah: He will in theend tell them the truth of all that they did. He that doeth good shall have tentimes as much to his credit: he that doeth evil shall only be recompensedaccording to his evil: no wrong shall be done unto (any of) them. Say: "Verily,my Lord hath guided me to a Way that is straight, a religion of right, the Path(trod) by Abraham the true in faith, and he (certainly) joined not gods withAllah. Say: Truly, my prayer and my service of

sacrifice, my life and my death,are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds; No partner hath He: this am Icommanded, and I am the first of those who bow to His Will”. Infact, the approach that Islam pursued to call people of other Faiths is anobjective dialogue that brings people together to the Word of Allah, theAlmighty, and His Divine Message and Teachings. Allah, the Almighty, states inthe Glorious Quran, Sura Al-Imran [The Family of Imran] 3:64,“ Say: OPeople of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you: that we worshipnone but Allah; that we associate no partners with Him; that we erect not, fromamong ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah. If then they turn back, sayye. Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah'sWill)”. Islam also urges its followers to respect the feelings ofthose who differ with them in religion. Islam condemns the offensive languageagainst those who differ with Muslims in faith. Allah, the Almighty, states inthe Glorious Quran, Sura al-Ana'm [The Cattle] 6:108,“ Revile not yethose whom they call upon besides Allah, lest they out of spite revile Allah intheir ignorance. Thus have We made alluring to each people its own doings. Inthe end will they return to their Lord, and we shall then tell them the truth ofall that they did”. Islam exhorts upon its followers to have ameaningful and sincere dialogue with those who differ with their religion.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-'Ankabut [The Spider]29:46,“ And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with meansbetter (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflictwrong (and injury); but say, We believe in the Revelation which has come down tous and in that which came down to you; our God and your God is One; and it is toHim we bow (in Islam)”. Therefore, conversion by force has nobasis in Islam. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Baqarah [The Cow] 2:256,“ Let there be no compulsion in religion:Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects Evil and believes in Allahhath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold that never breaks. And Allah hearethand knoweth all things”. Allah, the Almighty, also states in theGlorious Quran, Sura Yunus [Joanna] 10:99,“ If it had been thy Lord'sWill, they would all have believed, all who are on earth! Wilt thou then compelmankind, against their will, to believe!”. Islam, therefore,commands Muslims to attract the non-Muslims towards their Faith with the beautyof its percepts. This approach is known in Islam as the guidance by example, asopposed to the Guidance of Allah, the Almighty. Allah, the Almighty, states inthe Glorious Quran, Sura al-Kahf [The Cave] 18:29,“ Say, The Truth isfrom your Lord: Let him who will, believe, and let him who will, reject (it):for the wrong-doers We have prepared a Fire whose (smoke and

flames), like thewall and roof of a tent, will hem them in: if they implore relief they will begranted water like melted brass, that will scald their faces: How dreadful thedrink! how uncomfortable a couch to recline on!”. Islamenunciates justice and dispenses it even to its Non-believers. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Shura [The Consultation] 42:15,“ Now then, for that (reason), call (them to the Faith), and standsteadfast as thou art commanded, nor follow thou their vain desires; but say: Ibelieve in the Book which Allah has sent down; and I am commanded to judgejustly between you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord: for us (is theresponsibility for) our deeds, and for you for your deeds, there is nocontention between you and us. Allah will bring us together, and to Him is (our)final goal”. Islam gave man the full freedom of choice in termsof faith. Islam believes in the freedom of the human beings. They may accept orreject any faith or belief. Islam gave the freedom to the People of the Book andprevious Scriptures to maintain their faith and practices. Islam forbids thedismantling of the churches and synagogues. Islam prohibits the breaking anddestruction of the cross of the Christians. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said, concerning the peopleof the previous Scriptures and other faiths,“ Leave them alone in termsof faith”(This tradition is reported by Tabri, vol 3, p.226). Islam gavethe people of the previous Scriptures to eat, drink and wear what their religionpermits them to do. Islam prohibits destroying the pigs of the people ofprevious Scriptures. Islam also forbids spilling the wines and liquors of suchpeople. Islam also entitles the people of the previous Scriptures to practicethe practices of their religion insofar as marriage, marital relationships,divorce and lawful financial transactions are concerned. To demonstratea practical example, Omar bin al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), thesecond Caliph, applied such provisions. While Omar (may Allah be pleased withhim) was inside the Resurrection Church in Jerusalem, the time for Muslims'prayer entered. Omar (may Allah be pleased with him) left the Church, wentoutside, and offered the prayer outside the Church. Omar (may Allah be pleasedwith him) informed the priest of the church, 'Have I offered my prayer insidethe Church, some Muslims may claim in the future, 'The Church is a place whereOmar (may Allah be pleased with him) offered his prayer. Thus, they might havean excuse to destroy the Church, and erect a Mosque, in its' place [A thing thathe despised to do], (from the History of Tabari). Similarly, Omar (mayAllah be pleased with him) offered a pledge of allegiance as follows, This is apledge of security offered by Omar bin al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased withhim); the Leader of the Believers, to the inhabitants of Ilea, in terms ofPeace. Omar (may Allah be pleased with him)gave them his pledge to have securityand peace against their lives, wealth, churches, crosses and all theirdenominations. Their churches are not to be occupied [i.e. by Muslims],destroyed, reduced in size, or to limit the Christian owned

propertiessurrounding the churches. The crosses are not to be tampered with. The wealth ofthe Christians should not be encroached or possessed unlawfully [by Muslims],and that Christians would not force or compelled against their own will [i.e. toaccept Islam], (from the History of Tabari).
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Islam calls for a fruitful cooperation with the Christians.Suchcooperation is based on mutual interest. It is also oriented to serve the bestinterests of the human society at large. Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura al-Maidah [The Table] 5:2,“ Help ye one another inrighteousness and piety, but help ye not one another in sin and rancor: fearAllah: for Allah is strict in punishment”. Furthermore, theProphet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ All human beings are [like] children of Allah, the Almighty. The mostbeloved to Him is that who is most beneficial to His children”(Reportedby Bazzar). Islam, in order to achieve this objective, followed thefollowing measures:

Islam calls for intermingling with other peoples and nations, based on theDivine teachings. As such, Islam admits and accepts all previous Messengers andScriptures, but, Islam emphasizes the concept of Monotheism of God. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura alHujurat [The Chambers] 49:13,“ O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female,and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that yemay despise each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is(he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full Knowledge and iswell-acquainted (with all things)”. Islam calls upon its followers to love good things for all other people,regardless of creed, color, or national origin. The Prophet (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him) is reported, narration of Abu Hurairah (may Allah bepleased with him), to have said,“ Allah's Messenger (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him), once inquired, 'Who, amongst you, would carry thefollowing words [of wisdom], act upon them, and teach them to others who wouldalso act upon them?' Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him), answeredpositively. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), uponthat, held the hand of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased

with him), and countedfive items as follows: '1) Avoid all items declared by Allah (subhanahu wata'ala) and Islam as restricted, thus, you become the best worshipper of Allah,the Almighty. 2) Accept what had been predestined for you by Allah, theAlmighty, you would be the richest man. 3) Be good to your neighbor, you wouldbe characterized as a Believer. 4) Like for others what you like for yourself,you would be characterized as a Muslim. 5) Lessen your laughter, since too muchlaughter would cause the heart to die”(This Hadith is reported byTirmithee).

Islam calls upon all Muslims to tender a meaningful, and sincere free adviceto all people. This point is based on a statement of Allah's Messenger (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him),“ Islam is the religion of advice.People inquired, O Prophet of Allah! To whom advice should be offered? Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)is reported to have said,[Offer your pure and full advice] to Allah, the Almighty, to His Book, to HisProphet, to the Muslims' leaders, and to the general body of Muslims”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim). i. A pure advice to Allah, the Almighty:This is to fully commit to Hisfaith and religion. To worship Him Alone, wholeheartedly. To decline, reject anddiscard any rival set up to Allah, the Almighty. To remember Allah, theAlmighty, to have any liking to Him, His Unique Attributes and Blessed Names. Toaccept fully and wholeheartedly that Allah, the Almighty, Alone, Who is incharge of all the affairs of all creatures, forever, until the Day of Judgment.To believe that whatever Allah, the Almighty, wills, would happen and whateverHe does not, would never take place. To, fully follow the Commandments of Allah,the Almighty, and avoid all engagements that He restricted and forbade us to getinvolved or practice. A pure advice about Allah's Book:This is to firmly believe that theBook is a Divine Scripture, revealed by Allah, the Almighty, to His Messenger,Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Also, it implies to believethat the Glorious Quran is the last Divine Book revealed from Allah, theAlmighty, to mankind. Additionally,

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it means to accept all items listed aslawful in the Divine Book [i.e. the Glorious Quran] and declare them as lawful,and vice versa. Also, it means to accept all items listed therein as unlawfuland prohibited. Furthermore, it connotes to accept, apply and follow theteachings and instructions of the Glorious Quran as an obeyed constitution andFull Guide rules. iii. A pure advice about Allah's Prophet:This is to obey what heenjoined, shun away from what he refrained, believe his statements, love andrespect him, and respond to his call, practices and instructions, and propagatethem amongst people at large. A pure advice about Muslims' leadership:This is to obey them, solong as they do not call for, or impose any rules that tend to disobey thecommands of Allah, the Almighty, His Divine Glorious Quran, His Prophet (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him) and the teachings of Islam in general. Toassist them by guiding them to all the good points. To be cautious not to berebel and fight against them, so long as they apply Islam and its rulesthroughout their government agencies. To offer them matured and most pureadvice, kindly and gently. To remind them with the general body of Muslims'rights and entitlements. A pure advice for general Muslims:This is to guide them to the bestin terms of religion and worldly affairs. To assist them achieve their goals, ifand when possible. To prevent any inconvenience against them, if and whenpossible. To like for them what one likes for himself, and to hate to cause themany harm as one hates to cause harm to his own soul. To treat them as one likesto be treated.

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Enjoin good and forbid evil.Muslims are commanded to pursue everyappropriate means that lead to enjoining good and forbidding evil, based onone's ability, knowledge, and authority. This action is, indeed, a safety valvefor securing peace, tranquility and stability in any society or community. Acommunity where this practice is vogue would be safe against oppression,corruption and the spread

and application of the "Law of the Jungle". Bymanifestation an unlettered person would be educated, an un-thoughtful personwould be guided and become matured, a delinquent person would be corrected, anda straightforward person, who is on the Straight Path, would be aided andsupported. This is based on the verse revealed in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Maedah [The Table] 5:2,“ Help ye one another in righteousness andpiety, but help ye not one another in sin and rancour: fear Allah: for Allah isstrict in punishment”. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ He, amongst you, who sees avice being practiced [condoned, or promoted] should correct it by hand. If oneis not capable to correct it by hand, let him use his tongue [and declare suchpractice as un-acceptable and not condoned]. If one is not even capable to raisehis voice, and use his tongue to reject the ill practice, the least one could dois, to disapprove by heart, such an ill practice [by asking Allah, the Almighty,to help remove such an ill, un-condoned, intolerable, and unacceptedpractice]”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim). Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also is reported to have said,“ The example of the person who observes the restraints of Allah, theAlmighty, and that who does not, is like a group of people who travel in a ship.The owners of the ship decide to split the ownership. As such, a portion of thegroup got the upper deck, while the other portion got the lower deck.Consequently, whenever the people of the lower deck wanted to get water from theriver, they had to go to the upper deck and cause botheration to the people ofthe upper deck. As such, the occupants of the lower deck of the ship decide todrill a hole in the wall of their portion of the ship. However, if the people ofthe upper deck permit them to execute their plan and condone it, they would allsink and drown in the water. But, if the people of the upper deck refused to letthem drill a hole in the wall of their, and restricted them to do so,they wouldall be sound and safe of sinking”(This Hadith is reported by Bukhari). Furthermore, Allah, the Almighty, declared in the Divine revelation, theGlorious Quran, that His Wrath descended unto certain previous nations[peoples], as a result of their negligence to enjoin good and forbid evil.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Maedah [The table]5:79,“ Nor did they (usually) forbid one another the iniquities whichthey committed: evil indeed were the deeds which they did”.

Islam urges to seek beneficial knowledge.Furthermore, Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Zmar [The Groups] al-Zumar [TheGroups], 39:9,“ Is one who worships devoutly during the hours of thenight prostrating himself or standing (in adoration), who takes heed of theHereafter, and who places his hope in the Mercy of his Lord, (like one who doesnot)? Say: Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know? It isthose who are endued with understanding that receive admonition.' Also, Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,Seeking knowledge is obligatory for every Muslim”(This Hadith isreported by Ibn Majah&Baihaqi). Islam ensures environment preservation.Islam warns againstenvironmental hazards. It ensures the protection of the lives and/or propertiesof others in the community as a result of purposeful pollution. In fact, Islamis serious and adamant on this point. For instance: Islambans all types of environmental pollutions such as: waterresources and else. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)is reported to have said,“ Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) forbids people to urinate in stagnant water”(ThisHadith is reported by Muslim). 2. Islamforbids people to urinate or place garbage in the middle of thepublic passages, or in the shady places, which people use for rest andrecreation. 3. Islamwarns against all actions that result in environmental hazards.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-A'raf [The Heights]7:56,“ Do no mischief on the earth, after it hath been set in order, butcall on Him with fear and longing (in your hearts): for the Mercy of Allah is(always) near to those who do good”. Also, Allah, the Almighty, states inthe Glorious Quran, Sura al-Baqarah [The Cow] 2:204-5,“ There is the typeof man whose speech about this world's life may dazzle thee, and he calls Allahto witness about what is in his heart; yet is he the most contentious ofenemies. When he turns his back, his aim everywhere is to spread mischiefthrough the earth and destroy crops and cattle. But Allah loveth notmischief”.
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2. Islam calls Believers to engage in productive works for publicinterest.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Molk[The Kingship] 67:15,“ It is He Who has made the earth manageable foryou, so traverse ye through its tracts and enjoy of the Sustenance which Hefurnishes: but unto Him is the Resurrection”. 3. Islam wages war against all types of intoxicants for the protection ofhealth and preservation of private wealth.Allah, the Almighty, states inthe Glorious Quran, Sura al-Maedah 5:90,“ O ye who believe! Intoxicantsand gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are anabomination of Satan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye mayprosper”. 4. Islam is emphatic on upholding human dignity and family honor.Allah,the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura alIsra [Night Journey] 17:32,“ Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil,opening the road (to other evils)”. Furthermore, Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Noor [The Light] 24:23.“Those who slander chaste women, indiscreet but believing, are cursed in thislife and in the Hereafter: for them is a grievous Penalty”. Furthermore, Allah stated in the Glorious Quran Sura al-Noor [TheLight], 24:19,“ Those who love (to see) scandal published broadcast amongthe Believers, will have a grievous Penalty in this life and in the Hereafter:Allah knows, and ye know not”. Also, Allah stated in the GloriousQuran Sura al-Baqarah [The Cow], 2:188,“ And do not eat up your propertyamong yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intentthat ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people'sproperty”. Furthermore, Allah stated in the Glorious Quran Suraal-Isra [Night Journey] 17:35,“ Give full measure when ye measure, andweigh with a balance that is straight; that is the most fitting and the mostadvantageous in the final determination”. Additionally, Allah,the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Ana'm [The Cattle] 6:152,“ And come not nigh to the orphan's property, except to improve it, untilhe attains the age of full strength; give measure and weight with (full)justice; no burden do We place on any soul, but that which it can bear, wheneverye speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned; and fulfill theCovenant of Allah: thus doth He

command you, that ye may remember”. Additionally, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) isreported to have said,“ A sinner only monopolizes [the food of thepublic]”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim). 5. Islam exhorts upon donation, on a permanent basis, in the form ofendowment for the public interest.Endowment in Islam has two types, asfollows: 1. Private endowment: This type is dedicated to the progeny of the person whooffers such endowment. The progeny and family members of the grantor would bewell off, and they would not need to ask others to donate to them. This type hasa stipulation, however, that the funds of the endowment would be given to thepublic interest charitable work upon the death of the last person of the progenyof the donor. 2. General endowment: This type is dedicated to charitable works, such as:building hospitals, schools, roads, public libraries, mosques, communitycenters, orphanages, elderly homes and other beneficial projects of generalpublic interest for the community and the society at large.

6. Islam stresses financial, social and spiritual support of orphans, anddestitute.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Baqarah [The Cow] 17:35,“ Give full measure when ye measure, and weighwith a balance that is straight; that is the most fitting and the mostadvantageous in the final determination”. Additionally, Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ The orphan's sponsor and I are in Jannah, Paradise, like these [twofingers; the index and the middle fingers, indicating how close they are, whichis a great honor]”(Reported by Tirmithee). Furthermore, Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ [By Allah!] One would not become a Believer until he likes for his[believing] brother what he likes for his own”(This Hadith is reportedby Muslim). 7. Islam calls to wage war against all types of famine and starvation.Muslims are urged to employ all types of available resources to handlecatastrophic situations. Islam calls upon Believers to emancipate helplessslaves and maids. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Balad [The City (of

Makkah)] 90:12-14,“ And what will explain to theethe path that is steep? (It is:) freeing the bondman; Or the giving of food in aday of privation”.

Islamic Morals Stand for Peace The entire code of Islamic ethics ensureshappiness of the society at large. This code forbids all types of actions thatinstigate evil and implant hatred in the hearts and minds of people.Accordingly, if the members of the society apply Islamic code of ethics theywould, surely, enjoy peace, security, tranquility and happiness in the society.All values of the Islamic morality produce a better person and an upright humanbeing; generous, patient, perseverant, kind, loving, and courteous individual.The essential criterion of the Islamic morality is to eradicate harmful actions,attitudes and behaviors." All acts that displease Allah, the Almighty, areunlawful. If a Muslim practices any of the forbidden acts, he would exposehimself to the dislike or, the Wrath of Allah, the Almighty, both in this worldand in the Hereafter. In fact, the Arab poet declares, nations are but theirmorals. If the morals of the nations are bygone, nations would be also bygone!' Examples of Acts Prohibited in Islam Islam has denounced vehemently thefollowing acts. At the same time, it has strictly prohibited their practice.

Sorcery and magic of all types. This is based on the statementreported in the Hadith of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him),“ Avoid the seven killing items. People inquired, O Prophet ofAllah! What are these killing items? Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) said, [These are], 1) Associating others in the worship ofAllah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). 2) Sorcery and magic of all types. 3) Killing aninnocent soul, without any legitimate reason. 4) Accepting, giving and dealingwith usury. 5) Eating up [abusing] the [guarded] orphan's funds. 6) Backing outand fleeing away from the battlefield [upon facing the enemies]. 7) Falselyaccusing innocent female Believers [with fornication, adultery, or moralcorruption]”(This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim). Islam condemns aggression and oppression. Islam, in reality,castigates all acts of aggression against others, by word, hand, instrument orelse. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) states in the Glorious Quran Sura Shura [TheConsultation] 42:42,“ The blame

is only against those who oppress menwith wrong-doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land,defying right and justice: for such there will be a Penalty grievous”. Additionally, Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-A'raf [The Heights] 7:33,“ Say: The things that my Lord hath indeedforbidden are: shameful deeds, whether open or secret; sins and trespassesagainst truth or reason; assigning of partners to Allah, for which He hath givenno authority; and saying things about Allah of which ye have noknowledge”. Moreover, Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala)inspired me [to say the following]: Be humble so as no one oppresses another andno one brag with pride over another”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim). Allah, the Almighty, also, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura alTawbeh[The Repentance], 9:6,“ If one amongst the Pagans ask thee for asylum,grant it to him, so that he may hear the Word of Allah; and then escort him towhere he can be secure. That is because they are men without knowledge”. Islam disapproves to deprive people of their assets, infringe upon theirfreedoms, and hurt their feelings, even if they are nonBelievers. Islam urgesto support both the oppressed and the oppressor. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Support [andcome to the aid of] your brother whether being oppressed, or if he is theoppressor. A man [who heard this statement from Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him)] and inquired, I would support my brother if heis oppressed, but what about if he is the oppressor? Allah's Messenger (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him)asserted, [You support him by] stopping himfrom being an oppressor. That is the way to support an oppressor”(ThisHadith is reported by Bukhari). Islam does not differentiate the victim,Muslim or non-Muslim. All members of the society, regardless of creed or faithare entitled to full protection of their rights to life, property and wealth.This is based on the statement reported in the Hadith of Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ He who [unlawfully] kills anon-Muslim, residing under Islamic rule, [and given a pledge of security to beprotected], would not smell the fragrance of Jannah, Paradise. The fragrance ofJannah, Paradise would be smelled at a distance of forty years

travel”(This Hadith is reported by Bukhari).

Islam denounces unkind treatment towards parents. This is based onthe verse revealed in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Isra [The Night Journey]17:23-4,“ Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none but Him, and that yebe kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life, saynot to them a word of contempt, nor rebel them, but address them in terms ofhonor. And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: MyLord! Bestow on them thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood”. This is based on the statement reported of Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) that,“ Allah's Happiness [in a person]stems from the parents' happiness [with their child], and the Dismay of Allah(subhanahu wa ta'ala), also stems from the unhappiness and dismay of parents[from their own children]”(This Hadith is reported by Tirmithee).

Islam teaches benevolence towards the kindred. This is based on theverse revealed in the Glorious Quran, Sura Mohammed (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) 47:22-3,“ Then, is it to be expected of you, if yewere put in authority, that ye will do mischief, in the land, and break yourties of kith and kin? Such are the men whom Allah has cursed for He has madethem deaf and blinded their sight”. Additionally, this is basedon the report of the Hadith of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allahbe upon him),“ A person breaking family ties will not enter Jannah,Paradise”(This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim). Breaking ties with family and the kindred implies many things: 1. absence of mutual exchange of visits, 2. carelessness towards the needy relatives; 3. and indifference to extend financial and social assistance to the destitutefamily members.

Islam appreciates the charitable donation from a richperson to a destitute. However, a charitable donation from a rich family memberto a needy family member carries a double reward. It is a charity, on the onehand, to the poor and needy person. At the same time, however, it is a type ofreunion between family members that is also rewarded by Allah, the Almighty.Similarly, if a person is poor and is unable to extend financial support torelatives, his visit, care and affection, are also rewarded by Allah, theAlmighty. This is based on the statement reported in the Hadith of Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ Establish a goodrapport with your family members and immediate

relatives, even by [as little as]greeting them and asking about them”(Reported by Bazzar, Tabaranee andIbn Haithami in Majma Al-Zawaid).

Islam prohibits misusing the wealth and the assets of an orphan.Orphans are weak and incapable of managing their funds. An orphan guardian is,therefore, responsible, to the best of his abilities, to manage wisely thefinance and the affairs of his guarded orphan. This is based on the verserevealed in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Nisa [The Women] 4:10,“ Those whounjustly eat up the property of orphans, eat up a fire into their own bodies:they will soon be enduring a blazing fire”. Islam despises abuse of authority and the brutality of the governingelite. A Muslim ruler must be honest with his people and must not betraythem in any way. This is based on the verse revealed in the Glorious Quran, SuraIbrahim 14:42-3,“ Think not that Allah doth not heed the deeds of thosewho do wrong. He but giveth them respite against a Day when the eyes willfixedly stare in horror”. Additionally, this is based on thestatement reported in the Hadith of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him),“ If Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) entrusted a personwith an authority but the person entrusted did not offer his best possibleadvice to his constituents, such person would be disallowed to enter Jannah,Paradise”(This Hadith is reported by Bukhari).

Islam castigates all false testimonies. In fact, false testimonies areconsidered major sins. In fact, if a person intentionally insists on doingon a regular basis, he would be considered out of the realm of Islam. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Furqan [The Criterion] 25:72,“ Those who witness no falsehood and, if they pass by futility, they passby it with honorable (avoidance)”. This is based on the Hadith ofAllah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ Should Iinform you about the most heinous sins? The Companions [who were in the presenceof Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)] said, Pleasedo. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) continued, [Themost heinous sins are] to associate others in worshipping Allah, and to be a badand disobedient to your parents. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allahbe upon him) was leaning on the floor, but he sat straight [i.e. to demonstratethe importance of the following statement he was about to say]. Then he said, togive a

false statement and a false testimony. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) repeated the last statements several times. TheCompanions wished that Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim) quit repeating it”(This Hadith is reported by Bukhari).

Islam prohibits taking a deliberate and false oath. This type of oathis intentional and oriented to secure some unlawful gains. This oath is calledGhamoos [immersing] oath, as it would immerse the oath taker in the Fire ofHell. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Al-'Imran [TheFamily of Imran] 3:77,“ As for those who sell the faith they owe to Allahand their own plighted word for a small price, they shall have no portion in theHereafter: nor will Allah (deign to) speak to them or look at them on the Day ofJudgment, nor will He cleanse them (of sin): they shall have a grievousPenalty”. Also, this is based on the Hadith of Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ Whosoever takes, by hisright hand [i.e., falsely and intentionally] the right of another Muslim wouldbe entitled for the Fire of Hell and would be deprived the entry of Jannah,Paradise. A man raised a question as follows: [would the doer be subjected tosuch punishment] even if the thing that he abuses from his Muslim brother'srights is negligible? Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim)commented, [Yes. It is so.] Even if the right of the Muslim brother was abranch of Arak [a wooden branch tooths brush]”(This Hadith is reportedby Muslim). The punishment of such a minor sin is so severe due to sizeof the heinous sin. Taking the rights of others falsely and abusing other'srights is such a significant sin in Islam.

Islam denounces betrayal and breach of mutually agreed contracts.Islam enjoins upon Muslims to be truthful. Islam commands to fulfill promisesand warns against breaking promises and dishonoring contracts. Islam stresses onfulfilling all trusts to the right people and warns against denying even aninsignificant amount entrusted to a person as a trust. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Anfal [The War Booties] 8:27,“ O yewho believe! Betray not the trust of Allah and the Messenger, nor misappropriateknowingly things entrusted to you”. Islam declares 'keepingsecrets' as one of the acts of trust. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him)is reported to have said,“ If a person said somethingto another person, then turned around [to make sure that there was no one elseto hear

what he said to his Companion], such statement becomes a trust [secret]to the listener”(This Hadith is reported by Tirmithee and Abu Dawood). Similarly, Islam categorized seeking a consultation, as a trust as well.Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to havesaid,“ A consulted person is entrusted [with whatever he hears from theperson seeking his consultation and honest opinion and advice]”(Ibid). In fact, Islam reflects a blend of faith and good trust. Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ There is no faith for a person who is not trustworthy. There is no[principle] religion for a person who breaches his pledge of allegiance”(This Hadith is reported by Baihaqi and Ahmad). Moreover, the Prophet(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Ifa person possesses four vices he would be categorized as a full hypocrite. Ifone possesses one vice [of those four] he would be [one forth] hypocrite unlesshe cures himself from such a poor vice. These vices are as follows: 1) To liewhenever he speaks. 2) To break the promise. 3) To betray the trust. 4) Tobreach a covenant”(This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim).According to another narration of Muslim,“ A person would be categorizedas such even if he maintains his daily prayers, observes the fast of Ramadan,and claims that his is a Muslim”.

Islam prohibits backbiting. Backbiting is to mention things aboutpeople that they hate to be known by among people, even if such points are true.This kind of act breeds hatred and disdain among people. Also, it jeopardizesthe honor and dignity of the person attacked. This is based on the Hadith ofAllah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ Do youknow what is backbiting? The Companions present at the time said, Allah(subhanahu wa ta'ala) and His Messenger know best! Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) commented, [backbiting] is to mention something,in the back of a person, who despises for others to know about him. One of theCompanions inquired, O Prophet of Allah! What about if the point raised in theback of another person truly exists in him, would this still be categorized asan act of backbiting? Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim)commented, Backbiting is a vice that exists in the character of an absentperson. However, if the absent person does not possess such a bad quality, thenyou are committing a worst

mistake and sin by deforming his character andpersonality [which is a grievous sin and accusation]”(This Hadith isreported by Muslim).

Islam condemns hatred, contempt and resentment against others. Suchvices provoke to act in revenge in any possible way. Once, Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was asked,“ O Prophet ofAllah! Who is the best type of men? Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) asserted, Every warm hearted person and true person. TheCompanions who were present raised a question to Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) saying, O Prophet of Allah! We know the trueperson. But, what about the warm hearted person? Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) commented, He is the pious, pure person, the[almost] sinless, with no oppression [or transgression on the rights of others],a person who possesses no hatred or envy in his heart for others”(Reported by Tirmithee). Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim) illustrated to Muslims the results of envy as follows,“ Envy [andjealousy] eats up the good deeds as the fire eats up [burns] wood”(ThisHadith is reported by Abu Dawood). Islam disallows social boycott. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Do not boycottone another, do not turn your backs to each other, do not hate one another, donot envy one another and be all, slaveservants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala),like brethrens. A Muslim is not allowed to part with his Muslim brethren[purposely, as a result of a quarrel, anger or dispute] for more than three[nights]”(This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim). Islam refrains from cursing. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessingsof Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ People who cuss andcurse would not be permitted to be witnesses or interceders on the Day ofJudgment”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim). In fact, Islambans cussing and cursing even against enemies. Rather, Islam rather encouragesMuslims to pray for the guidance of such people to the Right and Straight Path.This is based on the Hadith of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allahbe upon him), Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) wasonce asked,“ O Prophet of Allah! Should I pray against pagans and idolsworshippers? Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)commented, I am only

commissioned as a mercy [for mankind] and I was notcommissioned as a cursor of others”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim).

Islam condemns the practices of misery and being stingy with money.Islam considers wealth as a trust. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) entrusted manwith handling for a specific period of time; the lifetime duration. Man is toemploy this gift, trust and wealth to spend wisely for his living expenses andessential needs. He is commanded to abstain from being lavish on unnecessary orluxurious items. A Muslim is also obliged to spend on his immediate familymembers, and other poor and needy relatives, neighbors and community members.Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to havesaid,“ A treacherous, stingy and miser person who talks time and again,in every occasion and in every potential opportunity about his donation andassistance to other needy and poor individuals, would never enter Jannah,Paradise”(This Hadith is reported by Tirmithee). Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is also reported to havewarned on disastrous consequences of a society where misery becomes a commonpractice saying,“ Be mindful of oppression. Oppression will representmultiple layers of darkness on the Day of Judgment. Be mindful of misery, as itdestroyed people before you. Misery compelled people [before you] to shed theblood of their own people [for nor legitimate reason], and pushed them to breakthe laws set for them as banned and forbidden”(This Hadith is reportedby Muslim).

Islam disapproves lavish spending. Allah, the Almighty, states it inthe Glorious Quran, Sura al-Isra [The Night Journey], 17:2627,“ Andrender to the kindred their due rights, as (also) to those in want, and to thewayfarer: but squander not (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verilyspendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones; and the Evil One is to his Lord(Himself) Ungrateful”. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him), also, is reported to have said,“ Allah, the Almighty,restricts you to be disobedient to your mothers, to decline giving the poor andneedy for the cause of Allah, to ask people charity if you do not truly need it,and to bury girls alive. He (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also,dislikes for you to tattle-tale, to often ask people to give you, and to wasteyour funds foolishly”(This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari andMuslim).

Islam disdains exaggeration. Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura al-Baqarah [The Cow] 2:185,“ Allah intends everyfacility for you; He does not want to put you to difficulties. (He wants you) tocomplete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you;and perchance ye shall be grateful”. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is also, reported to have said,“ Offerglad tidings and do not chase people away. Ease the life of people and do notmake it difficult [and unbearable for them]”(This Hadith is reported byboth, Bukhari and Muslim).

Islam castigates arrogance and false demonstration. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Luqman 31:19,“ And bemoderate in thy pace, and lower thy voice; for the harshest of sounds withoutdoubt is the braying of the ass”. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said, concerning arrogance,“ A person, whose heart contains an atom weight of arrogance, would notenter Jannah, Paradise”. One of the Companions who was present at thetime, asked Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ O Prophet of Allah! If one of us likes to wear good clothes and goodshoes, [how would he be looked at?]. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) commented, Arrogance is to deny the truth and eat up therights of others and despise them”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim). Furthermore, Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim) also said,“ He, who drags his clothes [behind him] in arrogance,Allah, the Almighty, would not look at him on the Day of Judgment”(ThisHadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim).

Islam prohibits all acts leading to dispute, quarrel and feud amongstpeople. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Al-Imran[The family of Imran], 3:103,“ And hold fast, all together, by the Ropewhich Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; andremember with gratitude Allah's favor on you; for ye were enemies and He joinedyour hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were onthe brink of the Pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make HisSigns clear to you: that ye may be guided”. Similarly, Islam bansall forms of suspicion and evil thoughts about

others. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura alHujurat [The Chambers] 49:12,“ O yewho believe! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible): for suspicion in some casesis a sin: and spy not on each other, nor speak ill of each other behind theirbacks. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye wouldabhor it. But fear Allah: for Allah is Oft Returning, Most Merciful”. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is alsoreported to have said,“ Avoid suspicion [and evil thoughts at any cost],as suspicion is the worst conversation one could ever make”(This Hadithis reported by Bukhari).

Islam commands Muslims to be accurate in reporting. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Hujurat [The Chambers], 49:6,“ O ye who believe! if a wicked person comes to you with any news,ascertain the truth, lest ye harm people unwittingly,and afterwards become fullof repentance for what ye have done”. Islam suggests control over temper and the use of offensive language.This is based on the statement reported in the Hadith of Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ A Believer is not a personwho attacks the integrity of others, curses others, uses foul language and beunpleasant in his speech with others”(This Hadith is reported byTirmithee). Islam forbids showing happiness over the sufferings of others.Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)is reported to havesaid,“ Do not demonstrate any happiness upon seeing your brethren'stragedy [or catastrophe]. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala)would be Merciful to thelatter and afflict you with such problems”(This Hadith is reported byTirmithee). Islam advises Muslims not to interfere with things that do not concernthem. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) isreported to have said,“ One of the signs of being a good Muslim is tobecome unconcerned with areas that do not concern him”(This Hadith isreported by Tirmithee). Islam suggests control over anger. Allah, the Almighty, states in theGlorious Quran, Sura al-Shura [Consultation], 42:37,“ Those who avoid thegreater crimes and shameful deeds, and, when they are angry even thenforgive”. Islam despises attitudes of contempt and depreciation towards others.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-

Hujurat 49:11,“ O ye who believe! let not some men among you laugh at others: it may bethat the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh atothers: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame norbe sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames:illseeming is a name connoting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he hasbelieved: and those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong”.

Islam does not condone to acquire the assets of others. Such an actis bound to create hatred and provoke evil in the society and it would stirchaos in the community. This is based on the statement reported in the Hadith ofAllah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),“ Whoevertakes, by force, a right of a Muslim, Allah, the Almighty, would cause him todwell in the Fire of Hell on the Day of Judgment and restrict him to enterJannah, Paradise. One of the Companions who was present at the time inquired, 'OProphet of Allah! What about if the item that a person takes by force was littleand negligible? Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)commented, [that is the punishment] even of the item was as little andinsignificant as a wooden tooth brush from an Arack tree-roots”(ThisHadith is reported by Muslim). Islam rejects unjust ruling and sentences. A judge, in Islam, is anexecuting agent and not a legislature. If a judge becomes unjust in hisverdicts, then the judge is, actually, betraying the trust he is entrusted.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Maedah [The Table]5:44,“ If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hathrevealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers”. This is alsobased on the Hadith of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim),“ The judges [in general] are three [classes], two of which are thedwellers of the Fire of Hell, and one is in Jannah, Paradise. A judge who knowsthe truth and judges accordingly would be dwelling in Jannah, Paradise. A judgewho knows the truth, but purposely deviates from it would be dwelling in theFire of Hell. [The third type of judges is a] judge who passes his sentencewithout possessing appropriate knowledge, such a judge would be dwelling in theFire of Hell as well”. One of the Companions, who was present atthe time raised the following question,“ What is the sin of the judge whowas not truly aware of the truth and reality of the case? Allah's Messenger(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

commented, His [serious] sin is, heshould not function at the post of the judge until he is truly knowledgeable ofhis area”(This Hadith is reported by al-Hakim).

Islam forbids talking ill about others and making fun of them. Allah,the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Humazah [Mocking], 104:1,“ Woe to every (kind of) scandal-monger and backbiter”. Islam forbids calling others with bad names. This is based on theverse revealed in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Hujurat [The Chambers] 49:11,“ O ye who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may bethat the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh atothers: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame norbe sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames:illseeming is a name connoting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he hasbelieved: and those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong”. Islam restricts spying on others.Islam bans tapping on others by allmeans. This is based on the verse revealed in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Hujurat [The Chambers] 49:12,“ O ye who believe! Avoid suspicion asmuch (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin: and spy not on eachother, nor speak ill of each other behind their backs. Would any of you like toeat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it. But fear Allah: forAllah is Oft-Returning, Most-Merciful. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) is reported to have said, A person who listens to the chat ofothers, who hate him doing so, would have heated liquidated lead in his ears onthe Day of Judgment”(This Hadith is reported by Bukhari). Islam bans tattle telling and warns the doer with a severe punishment onthe Day of Judgment. A tattle-teller breaks up amiable relationships betweenpeople and breeds animosity, and creates a situation of chaos in the society.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Qalam [The Pen]68:10-11,“ Heed not the type of despicable man, ready with oaths, aslanderer, going about with calumnies”. Allah's Messenger (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Atattle-teller would not be allowed to enter Jannah, Paradise”(ThisHadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim). One of the sure resultsof tattle-telling is the spread of rumors,

hatred and anger among members of thecommunity. As such, this may lead to murders or a disorder in the community.Islam neither accepts nor condones such situation. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ A Muslim isnot permitted to part his Muslim brethren [angrily] for a period exceeding threenights. If upon meeting one another every one goes in a different direction,shunning away from his Muslim brethren. The best of the two [disputing persons]is the one who initiates the greeting to the other”(This Hadith isreported by both, Bukhari and Muslim).

Islam forbids the exploitation of others like destitute or theelderly. Islam is concerned to cement a well integrated society. Islam aimsat establishing an affectionate, loving, and fraternal community. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Nisa [The Women] 4:36,“Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good to parents,kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbors who are near neighbors who arestrangers, the Companion by your side, the way-farer (ye meet) and what yourright hands possess: for Allah loveth not the arrogant, the vainglorious”. Islam refrains from causing any inconveniences to neighbors in any formpossible. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)isreported to have said,“ By Allah! A person would not become a [full]Believer! By Allah! A person would not become a [full] Believer! [Repeating thesame phrase twice.] The Companions asked, 'O Prophet of Allah! Who is thisperson?' Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) commented,He is the one with whom a person whose neighbor is neither safe nor secureagainst [all of his] harms and evils”(This Hadith is reported by both,Bukhari and Muslim).

Islam Urges Believers to Observe the Following

Islam ensures full justice by actions and statements. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Nahl [The Bees], 16:90,“Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and liberality to kith and kin, andHe forbids all shameful deeds, and injustice and rebellion: He instructs you,that ye may receive admonition”. Justice and fairness arecommanded and required in all situations,

when one is happy and satisfied, andwhen one is upset and unsatisfied, with Muslims and with non-Muslims alike.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Maedah [The Table],5:8,“ O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fairdealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong anddepart from justice. Be just: that is next to Piety: and fear Allah. For Allahis well-acquainted with all that ye do”.

Islam enjoins altruism and urges Muslims to practice it. Philanthropyand benevolence are some of the results of altruism, if practiced by the membersof the society. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Hashr[The Gathering] 59:9,“ But those who, before them, had homes (in Medina)and had adopted the Faith, show their affection to such as came to them forrefuge, and entertain no desire in their hearts for things given to the(latter), but give them preference over themselves, even though poverty wastheir (own lot). And those saved from the covetousness of their own souls; theyare the ones that achieve prosperity”. Islam urges to maintain righteous company. Muslims are advised tostay aloof from bad company. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah beupon him) is reported to have said,“ The example of good and evilcompanions is like that of a person who is carrying musk and the blacksmith whois blowing his blower over the fire to get it going. A musk carrier would eithergive you a bit of it, or you may buy a little from him or at the least, youwould smell good perfume from him. As for the blacksmith who is blowing hisblower over the fire you may either burn your clothes [if you sit by him], orelse you would be disturbed with the sparkles of his fire, or the least [harmyou may get] is to get disturbed with the bad odor coming from him [and hisplace]”(This Hadith is reported by both, Bukhari and Muslim). Islam enjoins to assist people in making up better relationships.This is especially so when there is a rift in the relationship between people.Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Nisa [The Women]4:114,“ In most of their secret talks there is no good; but if oneexhorts to a deed of charity or justice or conciliation between men, (secrecy ispermissible): to him who does this, seeking the good Pleasure of Allah, We shallsoon give a reward of the highest (value)”. Islam suggests maintaining a good character and morals. Good moralsand virtues are essential for a better society. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him)is reported to

have said,“ Amongst thebest Believers are the persons with the best of morals and characteristics andthose who are most kind to their family members”(This Hadith is reportedby Tirmithee).

Islam enjoins on Muslims to offer their help and assistance to othersfree of charge and for the Pleasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Do favors for those who deserve to be done for them, and also for thosewho do not deserve to be done for them. If the doer did the favor for those whodeserve it [and they are worthy of it] it is fine and good, and if not, the doer[of the favor] himself is one of those who are worthy for favors”(Reported by Tirmithee). Islam enjoins on Muslims to be generous. Generosity brings peoplecloser to each other and enables the generous to gain the love and affection ofothers. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reportedto have said,“ Allah, the Almighty, loves two traits; to be good toothers and to be generous to them. Similarly, Allah, the Almighty, hates twotraits; to be mean to others and to be miser to people. [On the other hand,] IfAllah, the Almighty, favors a person, He would employ him to assist othersachieve their goals and fulfill their needs”. There is acriterion, however, for generosity in Islam. The criterion of generosity inIslam is the verse of the Glorious Quran Sura alIsra [The Night Journey],17:29,“ Make not thy hand tied (like a niggard's) to thy neck, norstretch it forth to its utmost reach, so that thou become blameworthy anddestitute”. The generosity criterion is set in Islam in order tocontrol it, so as it would not exceed limits set out by Islam. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Isra [The Night Journey],17:26-7,“ And render to the kindred their due rights, as (also) to thosein want, and to the wayfarer: but squander not (your wealth) in the manner of aspendthrift. Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones; and the Evil Oneis to his Lord (Himself) Ungrateful”.

Islam enjoins Muslims to be kind and benevolent to others. Allah'sMessenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Allah, the Almighty, would be [extremely] Kind and Merciful to the kindand merciful people to others. Be kind to those on earth, the One in Heavenwould be Kind and Merciful to you”(This Hadith is reported by Tirmitheeand Abu Dawoud).

Islam commands Muslims to be kind and accommodating to others andencourages people to do so. Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allahbe upon him) is reported to have said,“ Being kind to others is good inevery matter and if kindness is removed [from the hearts of people], thesituation becomes worst”(This Hadith is reported by Muslim). Islam enjoins on Muslims to hide omissions of others, and help each otherto achieve their decent and honest goals. Allah's Messenger (peace andblessings of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said,“ Whosoeveralleviates a Believer's hardship of this world, Allah, the Almighty, wouldalleviate his hardship and difficulty of the Day of Judgment. Whosoever easesthe terms on [a financially] stranded person, Allah, the Almighty, would easehis difficulties in both this world and the Hereafter. Whosoever hides thedefects of a Muslim in this world, Allah, the Almighty, would hide the defectsof that person both in this world and in the Hereafter. Allah, the Almighty,would continue to assist a slave-servant so long as such person is extending hishelp and assistance to his Muslim brethren”(This Hadith is reported byMuslim). Islam enjoins upon patience. Patience is good in all situations.People are encouraged to be patient in order to perform their religious duties.People are equally urged and encouraged to practice patience in order toavoidall evils. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Tur 52:48,“ Now await in patience the Command of they Lord: for verily thou art inOur eyes: and celebrate the praises of they Lord the while thou standestforth”. Islam also urges and encourages Muslims to be patient onwhat they have been predestined for such as: poverty, hunger, lack of resources,terminal illness or else, and fear. Allah, the Almighty, states in the GloriousQuran, Sura al-Baqarah [The Calf] 2:155-7,“ Be sure We shall test youwith something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (ofyour toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere. Who say,when afflicted with calamity: To Allah we belong, and to Him is our return. Theyare those on whom (descend) blessings from their Lord, and Mercy, and they arethe ones that receive guidance”. In fact, Allah, the Almighty,illustrates the reward of the patient people as follows in the Glorious QuranSura al-Zumar [The Groups], 39:10,“ Say: O ye My servants who believe!Fear your Lord. Good is (the reward) for those who do good in this

world.Spacious is Allah's earth! Those who patiently persevere will truly receive areward without measure!”.

Islam enjoins Muslims to control their temper and forgive others, thoughone is capable to take revenge. Such attitudes, of course, strengthen therelationships and ties amongst people and create a better atmosphere within thesociety. Islam promised a great reward for controlling one's temper. Allah, theAlmighty, praises in the Glorious Quran the individuals who maintain such anoble character. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, SuraAl-'Imran [The Family of Imran] 3:133-4,“ Be quick in the race forforgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that (of the whole)of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous. Those who spend(freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon(all) men; for Allah loves those who do good”. Also, Allah, theAlmighty, commands to do well, even though they have done unwell and weremistreated with evil acts. All this is done with the hope that people would getcloser to each other and mane forge affection towards to each other. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura Fussilat, 41:34,“ Nor canGoodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: then will hebetween whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend andintimate!”.

The above stated are glimpses of what Islamcommands Muslims to comply with in their life for the Pleasure of Allah, theAlmighty. Both Quran and Sunnah of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him) provide additional commands related to high morals.

Conclusion In conclusion, we would like to point outhere that by no means we are able to cover all the aspects of such a vast topicin such brevity. However, the topic is very important and sensitive. We havesimply provided an outline summation. We have also presented guidelines to thosewho differ with Islam. We also alluded to the relationships with such peoplefrom an Islamic viewpoint. Islam builds its foundations of relationships on theprinciples of public and mutual interests of all the parties concerned. Islam isa "Well Wisher" for all, so long as the Laws of Allah, the Almighty, arerespected and the Divine Word is delivered to all individuals of the society.Islam postulates no compulsion or force for its acceptance. Islam wishes wellfor all regardless of color, creed, geographic location and nationality. Islambelieves that the tightest grip of faith is, 'to love for the

cause of Allah,the Almighty, and to hate for the same cause, and not for any other specialinterests, worldly desires and whims.' As a Muslim, if you hate someone, you donot hate him for his own person. Rather, you hate the evil you see in him whichshows his negligence to the Commandments of Allah, the Almighty. Allah, theAlmighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-'Araf [The Heights], 7:199,“ Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn away from theignorant”. To dislike someone does not entitle aMuslim to attack the person he dislikes or assaults on his wealth or properties,unless Islam permits such an attack. This, of course, is the true and genuinebeauty of Islam. Islam, as many people know, is a Divine religion, complete codeof ethics and practices that brings people out of other deities' worship to thefold of the true worship of Allah, the Almighty, alone. Islam brings people fromthe darkness to the true light of guidance. Islam brings people out of theinjustices done to them in various systems, to the vast, comprehensive and truejustice of Islam. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Quran, Suraal-Baqarah [The Calf] 2:257,“ Allah is the Protector of those who havefaith: from the depths of darkness He will lead them forth into light. Of thosewho reject faith the patrons are the Evil Ones: from light they will lead themforth into the depths of darkness. They will be Companions of the Fire, to dwelltherein (forever)”. Islam educates Muslims to bepeaceful, forgiving and caring. As such, Islam establishes social justice in thesociety. Islam exhorts upon Muslims to be good to others without expecting itsreturn reward. Consequently, the honor and integrity of the recipient would bemaintained. Islam educates Muslims to respect and honor the Divine instructions.As such, every member in the society feels secure, safe and peaceful. No one, inthe true sense of Islamic society, fears to be attacked, killed, destroyed orstolen. Islam educates Muslims to be selfless and to like for others, and wishfor them what he likes and wishes for his own soul. As such, the entire societywould feel a mutual spirit of social system and welfare. The old would be kindto the young and minor. The young would be merciful and helpful to the old,helpless and needy, with honor, love and respect demonstrated at all times. Therich would be inclined to help the poor and needy for the reward from Allah, theAlmighty, and to gain the Pleasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), not forworldly gains and reputation. As such, the statement of Allah's Messenger (peaceand blessings of Allah be upon him) would be fulfilled,“ the example ofthe Believers in their love and affection of one another is like that of theorgans of one body. If one organ aches, the rest of the body would becomefeverish and the person would not be able to sleep [until the aching organ feelsbetter and healthy]”. We wish that this booklet wouldserve as a guide for the seekers of the truth, those who would seek to achievethe bliss in Jannah, Paradise, and for those who seek the true salvation fromthe Fire of Hell and its everlasting and humiliating tortures. The point is, truly, a serious one; especially as everyoneknows that death is the final destiny of every living being. However, if deathis the end of torture; it would be still be tolerable and acceptable, but, whatis after death? That is a crucial question.

Muslims, as wellas others, believe in the Resurrection after death. Muslims believe in rewardand punishment after Resurrection. Muslims also believe in eternity and eternallife, either in the bliss of Eden, or in the blaze of the Fire of Hell. As forthose who truly accept Islam as a way of life; they surely took the safe paththat leads to happiness and the bliss after death. As for those who commit evilacts in this world against innocent people and without any just basis, theywould be punished and penalized for what they have committed against innocentpeople. However, if one commits any acts of disobedience against theCommandments of Allah, the Almighty; it is totally up to the Will and Mercy ofAllah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). If Allah Wishes to torture the evil-manger, thereis no one to intercede on behalf of the evil doer, unless Allah permits.Otherwise, if Allah, the Almighty, wishes to pardon such evil doer, He would doso out of His Mercy, Kindness and Generosity. As for thosewho turn away to Islam, or turn their backs to it and die as Non- Muslims, we dobelieve that such people would be stay in eternity in the Fire of Hell. Therefore, we urge every sensible, thoughtful and respectivehuman being to seek true salvation for his soul by his actions, and based on theMercy of Allah, the Almighty. We encourage every person to seek the Right andStraight Path that leads to Jannah, Paradise; that is the Path of Allah, theAlmighty; the Path of Islam; the total submission to Allah. This is the Paththat leads to a sure permanent happiness for eternity. Allah, the Almighty,states in the Glorious Quran, Sura al-Saff [The Line] 61:8,“ Theirintention is to extinguish Allah's Light (by blowing) with their mouths: butAllah will complete (the revelation of) His Light, even though the Unbelieversmay detest (it)”. May Allah's Peace and Blessings beunto His slave servant Messenger, Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim), his rightly-guided Companions, and those who follow the same path whichthey took until the Day of Judgment, amen.