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C H A P T E R 3 Pharmokinetics: The Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of Drugs

5. Elimination of drugs from the body is dependent on which of the following?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Biotransformation in the liver


Filtration or secretion in the kidney
Sufficient blood flow to the liver and kidneys
Only a and b
a, b, and c

True/False
6. Enzymes facilitate chemical transformation reactions in drug metabolism.

a. True
b. False
7. After oral administration, drugs pass through the liver before they ever reach the circulation, with the potential for significantly reducing the amount of drug to reach the
site of action.

a. True
b. False
8. Body weight is more important than age when determining the appropriate dose of a
drug because a 6-month-old is just a smaller version of a 16-year-old child.

a. True
b. False
9. Before a tablet can be absorbed through the GI tract it must dissolve.

a. True
b. False
10. Half-life is defined as the time it takes for the serum concentration of a drug to drop
to 0.

a. True
b. False

Matching
Match each numbered phrase to the best corresponding answer listed below.
11. Oral absorption
12. Distribution
13. Protein binding
14. Enzyme catalyzed metabolism
15. Excretion

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Albumin
Carrier-mediated transport
Blood flow
Small intestine
Kidneys
Cytochrome p450
Serum concentration

Short Answer
16. Compare the two mechanisms of drug transfer across cell membranes, passive diffusion, and carrier-mediated transport.

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Practical Pharmacology for the Pharmacy Technician

17. How might the physiology of brain capillaries affect the choice of antibiotics for treatment of meningitis, an infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord?
18. Briefly describe the process of metabolism and explain how individual patient differences can affect metabolism and, therefore, drug selection.
19. Drug P is an experimental drug that is known to be 98% eliminated as the active, unmetabolized drug in the urine. How would a significant loss of renal function likely affect the elimination, t12, and dose of this drug?
20. Describe two mechanisms for drug interactions.

FOR FURTHER INQUIRY


Consider what you have learned about the ADME processes, and use additional references
if necessary, to answer one of the following questions:
1. How do the absorption characteristics and rate of elimination (t1/2) of a drug affect
patient acceptability and compliance with the physicians instructions for use of that drug?
2. Do you think it is important for pharmacists to have access to specific patient information when reviewing prescriptions for appropriateness of the drug and dose? What kind
of information should the patient profile contain?