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AP CALCULUS BC

MR. CAMPOS
LAP 10
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SLOPE FIELDS, EULERS METHOD,
AREA BETWEEN CURVES, VOLUME, AND ARC LENGTH
Objectives:
1. Students will solve differential equations.
2. Students will solve applications involving differential equations.
3. Students will draw slope fields and solution curves.
4. Students will estimate the solution to a differential equation by using Eulers method.
5. Students will find the area between two curves.
6. Students will find the volume of a solid with known cross sections.
7. Students will find the volume of a solid of revolution by the disc method.
8. Students will find the volume of a solid of revolution by the shell method.
9. Students will find the length of an arc of a curve.
Monday

Tuesday

Jan. 26

Jan. 27

7.1 Area between


Two Curves

7.2 Volume by Cross


Sections

HW #1
Worksheet

HW #2
Worksheet
Formula Quiz

Feb. 2

Feb. 3

7.1 7.3
Area and Volume

7.4 Arc Length, Area,


and Volume

HW# 6 - Worksheet

HW #7Worksheet

Wednesday

Jan. 28
7.2 Volume by Discs
HW #3
P.465: 5, 9, 11, 13, 17,
and 21. Work 5, 9, and 11
out without calculator.
On the rest, set up and
then evaluate on your
calculator.

Thursday

Friday

Jan. 29

Jan. 30

7.2 Volume by Discs


Continued
HW #4 Worksheet

7.3 Volume by Shells


HW #5
P.474: 5,9,15,17,25,29,
30,45
Work 5,9,15 out.
Just set up 17, 25, 29, 30.
Use calc on 45.

Feb. 4
TEST
7.1-7.4

HW #8 Make a review

Look at the following Geogebra animations for volume by cross sections, disks/washers, and shells:
For cross sections:
http://web.monroecc.edu/manila/webfiles/pseeburger/secure/MyLarson/ch7/LC7_2xsection1.htm
For disks/washers:
http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/anton/0470183454/applets/ch6/figure6_2_13/washer_ex4.
htm
For shells:
http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/anton/0470183454/applets/ch6/figure6_3_7/shell.htm

7.1 Area of a Region Between Two Curves


To find the area bounded by two functions
y f x and y g x on the interval [a, b]:
Area =

To find the area bounded by two functions


x f y and x g y on the interval [a, b]:
Area =

______________________________________________________________________________________
Ex. Find the area bounded by the following graphs. Draw a figure, and shade the bounded region.
(a) y 3 x 2 and y x 1

2
(b) x 5 y and x y 1

(c) f x x 6 and g x x 2 . Use your calculator.

______________________________________________________________________________________
Ex. Set up the integrals needed to find the area of the shaded region.

f x

g x

Homework: Worksheet

7.2 Volumes of Solids with Known Cross Sections

Today we will find the volume of a solid whose cross sections are familiar geometric shapes, such as
squares, rectangles, triangles, and semicircles.
For cross sections of area A x taken perpendicular to the x-axis, Volume =
For cross sections of area A y taken perpendicular to the y-axis, Volume =

There are some great Calculus applets using Geogebra that can help you see these solids. Unfortunately you
cannot see them on your tablet because it cant do Java, but you can look at them on your computer at home.
I especially like the ones on Paul Seeburgers Dynamic Calculus Site, at
http://web.monroecc.edu/manila/webfiles/pseeburger/secure/MyLarson/ch7/LC7_2xsection1.htm

Ex. Set up the integrals needed to find the volume of the solid whose base is the area bounded by
the lines y x 2 and y 2 x 3 and whose cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are the
following shapes.

(a) Rectangles of height 4

(b) Semicircles

_______________________________________________________________________________________
Ex. Set up the integrals needed to find the volume of the solid whose base is the area bounded by the
circle x 2 y 2 9 and whose cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are equilateral triangles.
(Area of an equilateral triangle =

s2 3
, where s = side of a triangle)
4

_______________________________________________________________________________________
2
Ex. The base of a solid is bounded by y x , y 0, and x 2. For this solid, each cross section
perpendicular to the y-axis is square. Set up the integral needed to find the volume of
this solid.

Homework: Worksheet

7.2 Volume: The Disc Method


If we revolve a figure about a line, a solid of revolution is formed. The line is called the axis of revolution.
The simplest such solid is a right circular cylinder or disc.

To find the volume of the


solid, we partition it into
rectangles, which are
revolved about the axis of
revolution.

Each disc is a thin cylinder standing on its side.


Volume of cylinder =
Volume of disc =
Adding the volumes of all of the discs together,
Volume of solid
To get the exact volume,
Volume of solid =

Volume about horizontal axis by discs: V =


Volume about vertical axis by discs: V =

The disc method can be extended to cover solids of revolution with a hole in them.
This is called the washer method.
If R x is the outer radius and r x is the inner radius:

Volume about horizontal axis by washers: V =


Volume about vertical axis by washers: V =

Things to remember:
In the disc or washer method:
1) The representative rectangle is always perpendicular to the axis of revolution.
2) If the representative rectangle is vertical, you will work in x's.
If the representative rectangle is horizontal, you will work in y's.
See the Calculus applet on volume by discs and washers at Paul Seeburgers Dynamic Calculus Site, at
http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/anton/0470183454/applets/ch6/figure6_2_13/washer_ex4.htm

Ex. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the given
equations about the indicated axis.

y 9 x 2 , x 0, y 0
(a) about the x-axis

(b) about the line y 2

_______________________________________________________________________________________
(c) about the y-axis
(d) about the line x 2

_______________________________________________________________________________________
Ex. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of
y 2 x x 2 and y x 2 about the line y = 3.

Homework: P.465: 5, 9, 11, 13, 17, and 21


Work 5, 9, and 11 out to find the answer (no calculator)
On the rest of the problems, set up the integral(s) needed and use your
calculator to evaluate.

7.3 Volume by the Shell Method


To find the volume as y f x is revolved around
the y-axis by discs, we sliced a horizontal rectangle
and looked at the cylinder formed.

To find the volume of this same solid by the shell


method, we look at a vertical rectangle revolved
around the y-axis. It would form a hollowed-out
cylinder or shell.

If we flattened out the shell, we


would have a thin rectangular
solid.

Length of the solid =


Height of the solid =
Width of the solid =
Volume of the solid =

Volume about a vertical axis by shells: V =


Volume about a horizontal axis by shells: V =
The radius, r x , is the distance between the rectangle and the axis of revolution.
The height, h x , is the height or length of the rectangle.
With the disc method, the representative rectangle is always perpendicular to the axis of revolution.
With the shell method, the representative rectangle is always parallel to the axis of revolution.
It is usually easiest to use discs about a horizontal axis and shells about a vertical axis. If you do
this, you will work in x's. If you use discs about a vertical axis or shells about a horizontal axis,
you will work in y's.
See the Calculus applet on volume by discs and washers at Paul Seeburgers Dynamic Calculus Site, at
http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/anton/0470183454/applets/ch6/figure6_3_7/shell.htm

Ex. Set up an integral expression that can be used to find the volume when the region bounded
by y x 2 1 and y 0 is rotated about the given axis over the interval [0, 2] by using
shells.
(a) y-axis
(b) x 1

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Ex. Set up an integral expression that can be used to find the volume when the region bounded
by y x , y 0, and x 4 about the given axis by using shells.
(a) x = 7
(b) y = 5

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Ex. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region between

y x 2 and y x
(a)

1
3

about the y-axis. Use: (a) shells, (b) discs.


(b)

Homework: P.474: 5, 9, 15, 17, 25, 29, 30, 45


Work 5,9,15 out (no calculator).
Just draw and set up the integrals on 17,25,29,30. Do not evaluate.
Use your calculator on 45.

7.4 Arc Length


Arc length of f x from x = a to x = b:

b
a

1 f x dx
2

Arc length of f y from y = c to y = d:

d
c

1 f y dy
2

Ex. Find the arc length of the graph of the given function over the indicated interval.
(a) y x

(b) y 3 x

10

0, 4

8, 27

Homework: Worksheet

CALCULUS BC
WORKSHEET ON 7.1
Work the following on notebook paper.
Find the area bounded by the given curves. Draw and label a figure for each problem, and show all work. Do not
use your calculator on problems 1 - 3.
1. f x x 2 2 x 1, g x 3x 3
2. y x3 3x 2 3x, y x 2 (see figure on the right)
3. x y 2 , x y 2
Figure for prob. 2
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Find the area bounded by the given curves. Draw and label a figure for each problem, set up the integral(s) needed,
and then evaluate on your calculator.
y

4. f x x 4 , g x 3x 4
5. f x x 2 , g x 2 x (see figure on the right)

6. y ln x 2 1 , y cos x

Figure for prob. 5

____________________________________________________________________________________________
7. (No calculator)
Let R be the region in the first quadrant bounded by the
(4, 2)
x-axis and the graphs of y x and y 6 x as shown
in the figure on the right.
R
(a) Find the area of R by working in xs.
(b) Find the area of R by working in ys.
(c) When you found your answers to (a) and (b), was it less work to work in terms of x or in terms of y?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
8. (Calculator)
Let R be the region bounded by the graphs of
1
x
x
R
y 2 , y 4 , and y , as shown in the figure
x
on the right. Find the area of R

CALCULUS BC
WORKSHEET ON VOLUME BY CROSS SECTIONS
Work the following problems on notebook paper. For each problem, draw a figure, set up an integral, and then
evaluate on your calculator. Give decimal answers correct to three decimal places.
1. Find the volume of the solid whose base is bounded by the graphs of y x 1 and y x 2 1 , with the
indicated cross sections taken perpendicular to the x-axis.
(a) Squares
(b) Rectangles of height 1
(c) Semiellipses of height 2 (The area of an ellipse is given by the formula A ab , where a and b
are the distances from the center to the ellipse to the endpoints of the axes of the ellipse.)
(d) Equilateral triangles
2. Find the volume of the solid whose base is bounded by the circle x 2 y 2 4 with the indicated cross
sections taken perpendicular to the x-axis.
(a) Squares
(b) Equilateral triangles
(c) Semicircles
(d) Isosceles right triangles with the hypotenuse as the base of the solid
3. The base of a solid is bounded by y x 3 , y 0, and x 1. Find the volume of the solid for each of the
following cross sections taken perpendicular to the y-axis.
(a) Squares
(b) Semicircles
(c) Equilateral triangles
(d) Semiellipses whose heights are twice the lengths of their bases

CALCULUS
WORKSHEET ON 7.1 7.2
Work the following on notebook paper.
On problems 1 2, use your calculator, and give your answers correct to three decimal places. Each answer must
have supporting work.
1. (2004 Form B)
Let R be the region enclosed by the graph of y x 1 , the vertical line x = 10, and the x-axis.
(a) Find the area of R.
(b) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the horizontal line y = 3.
(c) The region R is the base of a solid. For this solid, the cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are
equilateral triangles. Find the volume of this solid.
2. (2003) Let R be the shaded region bounded by the graphs of y x and y e 3 x and the vertical line x = 1,
as shown.
(a) Find the area of R.
(b) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the
horizontal line y = 1.
(c) The region R is the base of a solid. For this solid, each cross section
perpendicular to the x-axis is a rectangle whose height is 5 times the length
of its base in region R. Find the volume of this solid.
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Do not use your calculator on problems 3 4.
3. Let R be the region enclosed by the graphs of y x 2 and y 12 x.
(a) Find the area of R.
(b) The region R is the base of a solid. For this solid, the cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are squares.
Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression that gives the volume of this solid.
(c) The region R is revolved about the x-axis. Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression that gives the
volume of the solid formed.
4. Let R be the region enclosed by the graphs of y

1
x

, y x , and y 4.

(a) Find the area of R.


(b) The region R is the base of a solid. For this solid, the cross sections
perpendicular to the y-axis are semicircles. Write, but do not evaluate,
an integral expression that gives the volume of this solid.
(c) The region R is revolved about the vertical line x 3. Write, but do not
evaluate, an integral expression that gives the volume of the solid formed.

CALCULUS
WORKSHEET ON AREA AND VOLUME
Work the following on notebook paper. Do not use your calculator.
1. Let R be the region bounded by the graphs of y 4 x 2 and y x 2.
(a) Find the area of R.
(b) The region R is the base of a solid. For this solid, the cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are squares.
Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume of this solid.
(c) Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume of the solid generated when R is rotated
about the horizontal line y = 6.
(d) Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume of the solid generated when R is rotated
about the vertical line x 3.

2. Let R be the region in the first quadrant bounded by the graphs


of y 2 x , the horizontal line y = 6, and the y-axis, as shown
in the figure on the right.
(a) Find the area of R.
(b) Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume
of the solid generated when R is rotated about the vertical line
x = 12.
(c) Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume
of the solid generated when R is rotated about the horizontal line
y = 7.
(d) Region R is the base of a solid. For each y, where 0 y 6, the cross section of the solid taken
perpendicular to the y-axis is a rectangle whose height is 3 times the length of its base in region R.
Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression that gives the volume of the solid.
3. Let R be the region bounded by the x-axis, the graph of y x , and the line x = 4.
(a) Find the area of the region R.
(b) Find the value of h such that the vertical line x = h divides the region R into two regions of equal area.
(c) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the x-axis.
(d) The vertical line x = k divides the region R into two regions such that when these two regions are revolved
about the x-axis, they generate solids with equal volumes. Find the value of k.
4. Let R be the region in the first quadrant bounded by the graphs of y x, y

1
x

, the x-axis and the

vertical line x = 3.
(a) Find the area of the region R.
(b) The region R is the base of a solid. For this solid, the cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are
rectangles with height five times the length of the base. Find the volume of this solid.
(c) Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume of the solid generated when R is
rotated about the horizontal line y = 2.

CALCULUS BC
WORKSHEET ON ARC LENGTH AND REVIEW
Work the following on notebook paper.
On problems 1 3, find the arc length of the graph of the function over the indicated interval. Do not use your
calculator on problems 1 - 3.
2 3
3 2
3
1. y x 2 1, 0, 1
2. y x 3 , 1, 8
3. y ln sin x , ,
3
2
4 4
__________________________________________________________________________________________
On problems 4 7, sketch the graph of the given function, set up an integral that represents the arc length of the
graph of the function over the indicated interval, and evaluate it on your calculator. Give your answers correct to
three decimal places.
4. y 4 x 2 , 0 x 2
5. y

, 1 x 3

6. y sin x, 0 x
7. x e y , 0 y 2

x
__________________________________________________________________________________________
On problems 8 9, sketch the graphs of the given functions, and find the area bounded by the graphs of the
functions. Do not use your calculator.

8. f x x 2 4 x 1, g x x 1
9. f y y 2 , g y y 6
__________________________________________________________________________________________
10. (Modified version of 2009 AB 4) (No calculator)
Let R be the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the graphs of y 2 x and y x 2 .
(a) Find the area of R.
(b) The region R is the base of a solid. For this solid, at each x, the cross section perpendicular to the x-axis

has area A x sin x . Find the volume of the solid.
2
(c) Another solid has the same base R. For this solid, the cross sections perpendicular to the y-axis are squares.
Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume of the solid.
(d) Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume of the solid generated when R is rotated
about the horizontal line y 3.
(e) Write, but do not evaluate, an integral expression for the volume of the solid generated when R is rotated
about the vertical line x 3.
11. (2001 AB 1) (Use your calculator.)
Let R and S be the regions in the first quadrant shown
in the figure. The region R is bounded by the x-axis
and the graphs of y 2 x 3 and y tan x . The region
S is bounded by the y-axis and the graphs of y 2 x 3
and y tan x .
(a) Find the area of R.
(b) Find the area of S.
(c) Find the volume of the solid generated when S
is revolved about the x-axis.
(d) The region S is the base of a solid. For this solid,
each cross section perpendicular to the x-axis is
a semicircle. Find the volume of this solid.

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HW #3 P.465: 5, 9, 11, 13, 17, and 21.


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HW #5 P.474: 5,9,15,17,25,29, 30,45


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