INTRODUCTION

Recruitment and Selection
Recru it ment and select ion are t wo of t he mo st import ant funct ions of perso nne l management . Recruit ment precedes select ion and helps in select ing a r ight cand id at e. Recru it ment is a process t o disco ver t he sources o f manpower t o meet t he requ ir ement of t he st affing schedule and to emplo y effect ive measures for at t ract ing t hat manpo wer in adequat e number s t o facilit at e effect ive select ion o f efficie nt perso nnel. St affing is o ne basic funct io n of management . All managers hav e

respo nsib ilit y o f st affing funct io n by select ing t he chief execut ive and even t h e fo remen and super visors have a st affing responsibilit y when t hey select t he rank and file wo rkers. However, t he personnel manager and his personnel depart ment is main ly co ncer ned wit h t he st affing funct ion. Ever y organisat ion needs t o look aft er recruit ment and select ion in t he in it ia l per io d and t hereaft er as and when addit io nal manpower is required due t o exp ansio n and develo p ment of business act ivit ies. µRight person for the right job¶ is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Ever organisation should give attention to the selection of its manpower, especially its managers. The operative manpower is equally important and essential for the orderly working of an enterprise. Every business organisation/unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable candidates are essential. Human resource management in an organisation will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit.

RECRUITMENT
Recruit ment means t o est imat e t he ava ilable vacancies and t o make su it able arrangement s for t heir select ion and appoint ment . Recruit ment is underst ood as the pro cess o f searching for and obt aining applicant s for t he jo bs, fro m amo ng who m t he r ig ht peo p le can be select ed. A fo r mal definit io n st at es, ³It is t he process o f finding and at t ract ing cap able app licant s for t he emplo yment . The process begins when new recruit s are sought and ends when t heir applicant s are submit t ed. The result is a pool o f applicant s fro m which new emplo yees are select ed´. I n t his, t he available vacancies are given wide pub licit y and suit able candidat es are encouraged t o submit applicat io ns so as t o have a po o l o f elig ible candidat es for scient ific select io n. In r ecruit ment , infor mat io n is co llect ed fro m int erest ed candidat es. Fo r t h is d ifferent so urce such as newspaper advert isement , emplo yment exchanges, int ern a l pro mo t io n, et c.are used. In t he recruit ment , a pool of elig ible and int erested candidat es is creat ed fo r select io n o f most suit able candidat es. Recruit ment represent s t he fir st cont act t hat a co mpany makes wit h pot ent ial emplo yees Defin ition: Acco rd ing t o EDWIN FLIPPO, ³Recruitment i s the process of searchin g f or pro spect ive employees and stimulating them to apply f or jobs in the organi zation.´ Need fo r recruitment: The need fo r recruit ment ma y be due t o t he fo llo wing reasons / sit uat io n: a) Vacancies due t o promot ions, t ransfer, ret irement , t erminat io n, per manent

d isabilit y, deat h and labour t urnover. b) Creat io n o f new vacancies due t o t he gr owt h, expansio n and diversificat io n o f bu siness act ivit ies o f an ent erpr ise. I n addit io n, new vacancies are possible du e t o jo b specificat io n.

Pu rpo se and imp ortance of Recruit ment :

1. Det er mine t he present and fut ure requirement s of t he organizat io n o n co nju nct io n wit h it s personnel-planning and jo b analys is act ivit ies. 2. Increase t he pool o f jo b candidat es at minimum cost. 3. Help increase t he success r at e of t he select io n process by r educing t he nu mber o f vis ibly under qualified or overqualified job applicant s. 4. Help reduce t he probabilit y t hat job applicant s, once r ecruit ed and select ed, will leave t he organizat ion only aft er a short period of t ime. 5. Meet t he organizat ion¶s legal and social obligat ions regarding t he co mpo sit io n o f it s work force. 6. Beg in ident ifying and prepar ing pot ent ial jo b applicant s who will be

appro pr iat e candidat es.

7. Increase organizat ional and individual effect iveness in t he short t er m and lo ng t erm.

8. Evalu at e t he effect iveness o f var ious r ecr uit ing t echniques and sources fo r al l t yp es o f jo b applicant s.

Recruit ment is a posit ive funct ion in which public it y is given t o t he jo bs availab le in t he organizat ion and int erest ed candidat es ar e encouraged t o submit app licat io ns for t he purpose of select io n. RECRUITMENT PROCESS Recru it ment refer s t o t he process o f ident ifying and at t ract ing jo b seek ers so as t o bu ild a pool o f qualified jo b applicant s. T he process co mpr ises five int errelat ed st ages, viz, 1. P lann ing. 2. St rat egy development . 3. Searching. 4. Screening. 5. Evalu at ion and cont rol.

The ideal r ecruit ment programme is t he one t hat attract s a relat ively lar ger nu mber o f qua lified applicant s who will sur vive t he screening process and accept po sit io ns wit h t he organisat io n, when o ffered. Recruit ment programmes can miss t he id eal in many ways i. e. by fa iling t o at t ract an adequat e app licant po o l, b y und er/o ver selling t he organisat ion or by inadequate screening applicant s befo re t he y ent er t he select ion process. Thus, t o approach t he ideal, individuals respo nsib le fo r t he recru it ment process must know how many and what t ypes o f emplo yees ar e needed, where and how t o look for t he individuals wit h t he appropr iat e qualificat io n s and int erest s, what inducement t o use for var ious t ypes o f applicant s groups, ho w to d ist ingu ish applicant s who are qualified from t hose who have a reasonable chance o f success and how t o evaluat e t heir work. STAGE 1: RECRUITMENT PLANNING: The fir st st age in t he recruit ment process is planning. P lanning invo lves t he t ranslat io n o f likely jo b vacancies and informat io n about t he nat ure of t hese jo bs in to set o f o bject ives or t arget s t hat specify t he (1) Number s and (2) T ypes o f app licant s to be co nt act ed. Numbers o f contact: Organizat io n, near ly always, plan t o attract more applicant s t han t hey will hir e. So me o f t hose cont act ed will be unint erest ed, unqualified or bot h. Each t ime a recru it ment Programme is cont emplat ed, one t ask is t o est imat e the number o f app licant s necessar y t o fill all vacancies wit h t he qualified people. Types of contacts: It is basically concer ned wit h t he t ypes o f people t o be infor med about jo b opening s. The t yp e o f people depends on t he t asks and responsibilit ies invo lved and t he qualificat io ns and exper ience expect ed. These det ails are available t hroug h jo b descr ipt io n and jo b specificat io n. STAGE 2: STRATEGY DEVELO PMENT: When it is est imat ed t hat what t ypes o f recruit ment and how many are requ ir ed t hen o ne has concent rat e in (1). Make or Buy emplo yees. (2). Techno lo g ica l so phist icat ion o f recruit ment and select ion devices. (3). Geographical dist r ibut io n o f

labo ur market s co mpr is ing jo b seeker s. (4). Sources of recruit ment . (5). Sequencing t he act ivit ies in t he recruit ment process. µMake¶ o r µBuy¶: Organisat ion must decide whet her t o hir e le skilled emplo yees and invest o n t raining and educat ion programmes, or t hey can hir e skilled labour and professio nal. Essent ially, t his is t he µmake¶ or µbuy¶ decis io n. Organizat ions, which hire sk illed and pro fessio nals shall have t o pay more for t hese emplo yees. Techno logical Sophi stication: The second decis io n in st rat egy deve lopment relat es t o t he met hods used in recru it ment and select ion. This decisio n is mainly influenced by t he availab le t echno lo g y. T he advent of co mput ers has made it possible for emplo yers t o scan nat io nal and int er nat ional applicant qualificat ion. Alt hough imperso nal, co mput er s have g iven emplo yers and ob seekers a wider scope o f opt ions in t he init ial screenin g st age. Where to look: In o rder to reduce t he cost s, organisat ions look in t o labour market s mo st lik ely t o o ffer t he requ ir ed jo b seekers. Generally, co mpanies look in t o t he nat io na l mark et fo r manager ial and professio nal emplo yees, regio nal or local mark et s fo r t echnical emplo yees and local market s for t he cler ical and blue-co llar emplo yees. When to look: An effect ive recruit ing st rat egy must det ermine when t o look-decide o n t he t iming s o f event s besides knowing wher e and how to look for jo b applicant s. STAGE 3: SEARCH NG: Once a recruit ment plan and st rat egy are worked out, t he search process ca n beg in. Search invo lves t wo st eps A). Source acti vation and B). Selling. A). SOURCE ACTIVATION:

Typ ically, sources and sear ch met hods are act ivat ed by t he issuance o f a n emp lo yee requis it io n. T his means t hat no act ual recruit ing t akes p lace unt il lo n e manager s have ver ified t hat vacancy does exist or will exist . If t he organisat io n has planned well and done a good jo b of develo p ing it s so urces and search met hods, act ivat ion soon result s in a flood of applicat ions and/ o r resu mes. The applicat ion received must be screened. T hose who pass have t o be co nt act ed and invit ed for int er view. Unsuccessfu l applicant s must be sent let t er o f regret .

B). SELLING: A second issue to be addressed in t he sear ching process co ncer ns co mmu nicat ions. Here, organisat io n walks t ight rope. On one hand, t hey want to do what ever t hey can t o attract desir able applicant s. On t he ot her hand, t hey must resist t he t empt at io n of overse lling t heir virt ues. In selling t he organisat io n, bot h t he message and t he media deser ve at t ent io n. Message refer s t o t he emplo yment advert isement . Wit h regards t o media, it ma y be st at ed t hat effect iveness o f any recruit ing message depends on t he media. Med ia ar e sever al-so me have low credibilit y, while ot hers enjo y high credibilit y. Select io n o f med iu m o r media needs t o be done wit h a lot of care. STAGE 4: SCREENING: Screening of applicant s can be regarded as an int egral part of t he recru it in g pro cess, t hough many view it as t he fir st st ep in t he select io n process. Even t he defin it io n on recruit ment , we quot ed in t he beginning o f t his chapt er, exclud es screen ing fro m it s scope. However, we have included screening in recru it ment fo r valid reaso ns. T he select ion pro cess will begin aft er t he applicat io ns have bee n scrut inized and short -list ed. Hir ing o f professors in a univer sit y is a t yp ica l sit uat io n. Applicat ion received in response t o advert isement s is screened and o n l y elig ib le app licant s are called for an int er view. A select io n co mmit t ee co mpr is ing t he Vice-chancellor, Regist rar and subject expert s conduct s int er view. Here, t he

recru it ment process ext ends up t o screening t he app licat io ns. T he select ion pro cess co mmences only lat er.

Pu rpo se o f screen ing The purpose o f screening is t o remove fro m t he recruit ment process, at an ear ly st age, t hose applicant s who are vis ibly unqualified for t he jo b. E ffect ive screen ing can save a great deal o f t ime and mo ney. Car e must be exercised, ho wever, to assure t hat pot ent ially good emplo yees are not reject ed wit hout just ificat ion. In screening, clear jo b specificat ions are invaluable. It is bot h good pract ic e and a legal necessit y t hat applicant ¶s qualificat ion is judged on t he basis o f t heir kno wledg e, skills, abilit ies and int er est requir ed t o do t he jo b. The t echniques used t o screen app licant s var y depending o n t he cand idat e so urces and recruit ing met hods used. Int erview and applicat ion blanks ma y be u sed to screen walk- ins. Campus r ecruit er s and agency represent at ives use int er views and resu mes. Refer ence checks are also useful in screening. STAGE 5: EVALUATIO N AND CONTRO L: Evalu at io n and co nt rol is necessar y as considerable cost s are incurred in t he recru it ment process. The cost s generally incurred are: 1. Salar ies for recruit ers. 2. Management and pro fessio nal t ime spent on prepar ing jo b descr ipt io n, jo b spec ificat io ns, advert isement s, agenc y lia ison and so fort h. 3. The co st of advert isement s or ot her recruit ment methods, t hat is, agency fees. 4. Recru it ment over heads and administ rat ive expenses. 5. Co st s o f overt ime and out sourcing while t he vacancies remain unfilled. 6. Co st o f recruit ing unsuit able candidat es for t he select ion process. EVALUATIO N OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS

The recruit ment has t he object ive o f sear ching for and o bt aining applicat io ns fo r jo b seeker s in suffic ient number and qualit y. Keeping t his object ive in t he mind, t he evaluat io n might include: 1. Ret urn rat e of applicat io n sent out . 2. Nu mber of suit able candidat es for select ion. 3. Ret ent io n and per for mance o f t he candidat es select ed.

4. Co st o f t he recruit ment process 5. T ime lap sed dat a 6. Co mment s on image project ed.

Sources of Recruitment
SOURCES OF MANAGERIAL RECRUITMENT

INTERNAL SOURCES 1) Promotion 2) Transfers 3) Internal notification (Advertisement) 4) Retirement

EXTERNAL SOURCES 1) Campus recruitment 2) Press advertisement 3) Management consultancy service & private employment exchanges 4) Deputation of personnel or transfer from one enterprise to another 5) Management training schemes 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins 7) Miscellaneous external sources

5) Recall 6) Former employees

The so urces o f recruit ment can be broadly cat egor ized int o int er nal and ext ern a l so urces-

(I) Internal Recruitment ± I nt ernal r ecruit ment seeks app licant s for po sit io n s fro m wit hin t he co mpany. T he var ious int ernal sources inc lude 

Pro motion s and Tran sfers ± Promot io n is an effect ive means using jo b post ing and perso nnel reco rds. Jo b po st ing requires not ifying vacant posit ions by post ing not ices, cir cu lat ing pub licat io ns or announcing at st aff meet ings and invit ing emplo yees t o app ly. Perso nnel r ecords help discover emplo yees who are do ing jo bs be low t heir educat io nal qualificat io ns or skill levels. Promot io ns has many advant ages like it is go o d public relat io ns, builds mora le, encourages co mpet ent individuals who ar e amb it io u s, impro ves t he probabilit y o f good select io n since infor mat io n o n t he ind iv idual¶s per for mance is readily available, is cheaper t han go ing out side t o

recru it , t hose chosen int er nally are familiar wit h t he organizat io n t hus redu cin g t he o rient at io n t ime and energy and also act s as a t raining device for develo p in g midd le- level and t op-level managers. Ho wever, pro mot io ns rest r ict t he field o f select io n prevent ing fresh blood & ideas fro m ent er ing t he organizat ion. It also lead s to inbr eeding in t he organizat io n. Transfer s are also import ant in pro vid in g emp lo yees wit h a broad- based view o f t he organizat ion, necessar y for fut ure pro mo t io ns.  Emp loyee referralsEmplo yees can develop good prospect s for t heir families and fr iend s b y acquaint ing t hem wit h t he advant ages o f a job wit h t he co mpany, fur nishing t h e m wit h int roduct ion and encouraging t hem t o apply. This is a ver y effect ive mean s as many qualified people can be reached at a ver y low cost to t he company. The ot her ad vant ages are t hat t he emplo yees would br ing o nly t hose referrals t hat t he y feel wo u ld be able t o fit in t he organizat io n based on t heir own exper ience. T he o rganizat io n can be assured o f t he reliabilit y and t he char act er of t he referrals. I n t his way, t he organizat io n can also fulfill social o bligat io ns and creat e goodwill.  Fo rmer Emp loyeesThese include ret ired emplo yees who are willing t o work on a part -t ime basis, individuals who left work and are willing t o come back for hig her co mpensat io ns. E ven ret renched emplo yees are t aken up once again. T he ad vant age here is t hat t he people are alr eady known t o t he organizat ion and t her e is no need t o find out t heir past per for mance and charact er. Also, t here is no need o f an or ient at io n programme for t hem, since t hey ar e familiar wit h t he o rganizat io n.  Dependent s of deceased emp loyeesUsually, banks fo llo w t his po lic y. I f an emplo yee dies, his / her spo use o r so n o r daught er is recruit ed in t heir place. T his is usually an effect ive way t o fu lfill so cial obligat ion and creat e goodwill.  Reca lls: When management faces a proble m, whic h can be so lved only by a manager who has pro ceeded on lo ng leave, it ma y de decided t o recall t hat per sons aft er t he pro blem is so lved, his leave ma y be ext ended. 

Reti rement s: At t imes, management may not find suit able candidates in place o f t he one who had ret ired, aft er mer it or ious ser vice. Under t he cir cumst ances, management ma y decide t o call r et ired manager s wit h new ext ensio n.  Internal noti fication (advertisement): So met imes, management issues an int er nal not ificat io n for t he benefit o f exist ing emp lo yees. Most emplo yees know fr om t heir own exper ience abo ut t he

requ ir ement o f t he jo b and what sort of person t he co mpany is looking for. Oft e n emp lo yees have fr iends or acquaint ances who meet t hese requir ement s. Su it able perso ns are appo int ed at t he vacant post s.

(II) Ext ernal Recruit ment ± E xt erna l recruit ment seeks applicant s for po sit io n s fro m so urces out side t he co mpany. They have out numbered t he int er nal met hods. T he var io us ext er nal sources include  Pro fessional or Trade Association s :Many associat io ns provide placement ser vice t o it s member s. It co nsist s o f co mpiling jo b seeker¶s list s and providing access t o member s dur in g reg io nal or nat ional co nvent io ns. Also, t he publicat io ns o f t hese associat io n s carr y classified advert isement s fro m emplo yers int er est ed in recruit ing t heir members. T hese ar e part icular ly useful for at t ract ing highly edu cat ed,

exper ienced or skilled per sonnel. Also, the recruiter s can zero on in spec ific jo b seek ers, espec ially for hard-t o-fill t echnic al posts.  Adverti sement s :It is a popular met hod of seeking recruit s, as many recruit er s prefer ad vert isement s because o f t heir wide reach. Want ads descr ibe t he jo b benefit s, id ent ify t he emp lo yer and t ell t hose int erest ed how t o apply. Newspaper is t he mo st co mmo n mediu m but for highly specialized recruit s, advert ise ment s ma y b e p laced in pro fessio nal or business jour nals. Advert isement s must cont ain proper infor mat io n like t he jo b co nt ent , wo rking condit io ns, locat ion o f jo b, co mpensat ion including fr inge benefit s, jo b spec ificat io ns, growt h aspect s, et c. The advert isement has t o sell t he idea t hat t he co mpany and jo b are per fect for t he candidat e. Recruit ment advert isement s ca n

also ser ve as corporat e advert isement s to build co mpany¶ image. It also co st effect ive.  Emp loyment Exchan ges:Emplo yment E xchanges have been set up all o ver t he count r y in deference to t he provisio n of Act , t he E mplo yment The Act Exchanges applies t o (Co mpu lso r y all indu st r ia l

Not ificat io n o f Vacancies)

1959.

est ablishment s having 25 workers or more each. The Act requir es all t he ind ust r ial est ablishment s t o not ify t he vacancies before t hey are filled. T he ma jo r fu nct io ns o f t he exchanges ar e t o increase t he poo l o f possible applicant s and t o do t he preliminar y screening. T hus, employment exchanges act as a link bet wee n t he emp lo yers and t he prospect ive emplo yees. These o ffices are part icu lar l y usefu l t o in recruit ing blue-co llar, whit e collar and t echnical workers.  Campu s Recruitments:Colleges, univer sit ies, research laborat ories, sport s fie ld s and inst it ut es are fert ile ground for recruit ers, part icular ly t he inst it ut es. Campu s Recru it ment is go ing glo bal wit h co mpanies like HLL, Cit ibank, HCL-HP, ANZ Gr ind lays, L&T, Motorola and Reliance looking for glo bal mar ket s. So me co mpanies recruit a given number o f candidat es fro m t hese inst it ut es ever y year . Campu s recruit ment is so much sought aft er t hat each co llege; universit y depart ment or inst it ut e will have a placement o fficer t o handle recru it ment fu nct io ns. However, it is o ft en an expensive process, even if r ecruit ing pro cess pro duces jo b o ffers and accept ances event ually. A ma jor it y leave t he organ izat io n wit hin t he fir st five years o f t heir emplo yment . Yet , it is a ma jor source o f recru it ment for prest igious co mpanies.  Walk-in s, Write-ins and Talk-in sThe most commo n and least expensive approach for candidat es is d irect app licat io ns, in which jo b seekers submit unso lic ited applicat ion let t ers o r resu mes. Dir ect applicat io ns can also provide a pool o f pot ent ial emplo yees t o meet fut ure needs. Fro m emplo yees¶ viewpo int , walk- ins ar e preferable as t h e y are fr ee fro m t he hassles associat ed wit h ot her met hods o f recruit ment . Whi le d irect applicat io ns are part icular ly effect ive in filling ent r y- level and unsk illed vacancies, so me organizat io ns co mpile pools o f pot ent ial emplo yees fro m d irect app licat io ns for skilled posit io ns. Write-i ns are t hose who send wr it t en enq u ir ies.

These jo bseeker s are asked t o complet e applicat io n for ms for furt her processing . Talk-ins invo lves t he jo b aspir ant s meet ing t he recruit er (on an appropr iat ed dat e) fo r det ailed t alks. No applicat ion is requir ed to be submit t ed t o t he recruit er.  Cont ractors:They are used t o recruit casual workers. T he names o f t he workers are no t ent ered in t he co mpany records and, t o t his ext ent ; d ifficult ies exper ienced in maint ain ing per manent workers are avo ided.  Consu ltants:They are in t he professio n for recruit ing and select ing manager ial and execut ive perso nnel. T hey ar e useful as t hey have nat io nwide cont act s and len d pro fessio nalis m t o t he hir ing process. They also keep prospect ive emplo yer and emp lo yee anonymous. However, t he cost can be a det errent fact or.  Head Hunters:They are useful in specialized and sk illed candidat e working in a part icu lar co mpany. An agent is sent t o represent the recruit ing co mpany and o ffer is made t o t he candidat e. This is a useful source when bot h t he co mp anie s invo lved are in t he same field, and t he emplo yee is reluct ant t o t ake t he o ffer since he fears, t hat his co mpany is t est ing his lo yalt y.  Radio, Televi sion and Internet:Radio and t elevis io n are used t o reach cert ain t ypes o f jo b app licant s such as skilled workers. Radio and t elevis io n ar e used but spar ingly, and t hat t oo, by go ver nment depart ment s only. Co mpanies in t he pr ivat e sect or are hesit ant t o use t he media because of high cost s and also because t hey fear t hat such ad vert ising will make t he co mpanies look desperat e and damage t heir

co nser vat ive image. However, t here is not hing inherent ly desperat e about usin g rad io and t elevis io n. It depends upon what is said and how it is deliver ed. Int er net is beco ming a popular opt ion for recruit ment today. Ther e are specialized sit es lik e naukr i. co m. Also, websit es o f co mpanies have a separat e sect ion wherein ; asp irant s can submit t heir resumes and applicat ions. This provides a wider reach.  Comp etitors:This met hod is popular ly known as ³poaching´ or ³raiding´ whic h invo lves ident ifying t he r ight people in r ival co mpanies, o ffer ing t hem bet t er

t erms and lur ing t hem awa y. For inst ance, several execut ives o f HMT left t o jo in T it an Wat ch Co mpany. There are legal and et hical issues invo lved in raid ing r iv a l fir ms fo r pot ent ial candidat es. Fro m t he legal po int o f view, an emplo yee is expect ed t o jo in a new organizat ion only aft er obt aining a µno object io n cert ificat e¶ fro m his/ her present emplo yer. Vio lat ing t his requirement shall b in d t he emp lo yee t o pay a few mo nt hs¶ salar y t o his/ her present emplo yer as a pun ishment . However, t here are many et hical issues at t ached t o it .  Merg ers and Acquisition s:When organizat io ns co mbine, t hey have a pool o f emplo yees, o ut o f who m so me may not be necessar y any lo nger. As a result , t he new organizat io n has, in effect , a pool o f qualified jo b applicant s. As a result , new jo bs may b e creat ed. Bot h new and o ld jo bs may be readily st affed by drawing t he best qualified applicant s fro m t his emplo yee poo l. This met hod facilit at es t h e immed iat e imple ment at ion o f an organizat io n¶s st rategic plan.

Evaluation of External Recruitment:
Ext ernal so urces o f recruit ment have bot h mer it s and demer it s. The merit s are The organizat io n will have t he benefit o f new skills, new t alent s and new exper iences, if people are hired fro m ext ernal sources.  The manage ment will be able t o fulfill r eser vat ion requir ement s in favo ur o f t he disadvant aged sect ions o f t he societ y.  Scope for resent ment , heart bur n and jealousy can be avo ided by recru it in g fro m out side. The demerit s are Bet t er mot ivat io n and increased morale associat ed wit h promot ing o wn emplo yees re lo st t o t he organizat ion.  Ext ernal recruit ment is cost ly.  I f recruit ment and select io n processes are not proper ly carr ied out , chances o f r ight candidat es being reject ed and wrong applicant s being select ed o ccur.  High t raining t ime is associat ed wit h ext ernal recruit ment .

98% of organizational success depends upon efficient employee selection SELECTION
SELECTION PROCESS The fo llowing chart gives an idea about selection p rocess: -

External Environment

Internal Environment

Preliminary Interview

Selection Tests

Rejected Application

Employment Interview Reference and Background Analysis

Selection Decision

Physical Examination Job Offer

Employment Contract

Evaluation

Select io n is defined as t he process o f different iat ing bet ween applicant s in o rder t o id ent ify ( and hire) t hose wit h a great er lik elihood of success in a jo b. Select io n is basically pick ing an applicant fro m (a pool o f applicant s) who has t he appro pr iat e qualificat io n and co mpet ency to do t he job.

Envi ron ment factor affecting selection: Select io n is influenced by sever al fact ors. More prominent amo ng t he m ar e supp l y and d emand o f specific skills in t he labo ur market , unemplo yment rat e, labo ur- market co nd it io ns, legal and po lit ical consider at io ns, co mpany¶s image, co mpany¶s p o lic y, hu man r eso urces planning and cost of hir ing. T he last t hree const it ut e t he int erna l enviro nment and t he remaining for m t he ext er nal environment of select io n process. STEP 1: PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW The applicant s received fro m jo b seeker s would be subject to scrut in y so as t o eliminat e u nqualified applicant s. T his is usually fo llo wed by a preliminar y int er view t he purpo se o f which is more or less t he same as scrut iny o f applicat io n, t hat is, elimin at e o f unq ualified applicant s. Scrut iny enables t he HR specia list s t o eliminat e u nqu alified jo bseeker s based on t he infor mat ion supplied in t he ir applicat ion for ms. Preliminar y int er view, o n t he ot her hand, helps reject mis fit s for reason, which d id not appear in t he app licat io n for ms. Besides, preliminar y int er view, o ft en called µcourt esy int er view¶, is a goo d public relat io n exer cise. STEP 2: SELECTION TEST: Jo b seekers who pass t he screening and t he preliminar y int er view are ca lled fo r t est s. Different t ypes o f t est s may be administ ered, depending on t he jo b and t he co mpany. Generally, t est s are used t o det ermine t he applicant ¶s abilit y, apt it ude and perso nalit y.

The fo llowing are the type of tests taken : 1). Ability test s: Assist in det er mining how well an individual can per for m t asks relat ed t o the jo b. An excellent illust rat io n of t his is t he t yping t est s given t o a pro spect ive emp lo yer for secret ar ial jo b. Also called as µACHEIVE MENT TESTS¶. It is co ncer ned wit h what one has acco mplished. When applicant claims t o know so met hing, an achievement t est is t aken t o measur e how well t hey know it . Trade t est s are t he mo st co mmo n t ype o f achievement t est given. Quest ions have been prepared and t est ed for such t rades as asbest os worker, punch-pr ess o perat ors, elect r icians and machinist s. Ther e are, of course, many unst andardised achievement t est s g iven in indust r ies, such as t yping or dict at ion t est s for an applicant fo r a st eno graphic posit io n. 2). Aptitude test: Apt it ude t est s measure whet her an individuals has t he capacit y or lat ent abilit y t o lear n a g iven jo b if given adequat e t raining. T he use o f apt it ude t est is advisable when an app licant has had lit t le or no exper ience alo ng t he line o f t he jo b opening. Apt it udes t est s he lp det er mine a person¶s pot ent ial to lear n in a given area. An examp le o f such t est is t he general management apt it ude t est s (GMAT), which many business st udent s t ake pr io r to gaining admiss io n t o a graduat e business school programme. Apt it ude t est ind icat es t he abilit y or fit ness o f an individual t o engage successfu lly in any nu mber o f specia lized act ivit ies. T hey cover such areas cler ical apt it ude, nu mer ical apt it ude, mechanical apt it ude, mot or co-ordinat ion, finger dext er it y and manua l

dext er it y. T hese t est s he lp t o det ect posit ive negat ive po int s in a person¶s senso r y o r int ellect ual abilit y. They focus at t ent ion on a part icular t ype o f t alent such as lear ning o r reaso n ing in r espect of a part icular fie ld of work.

Fo rms of aptitude test: 1. Mental or intelligen ce tests: They measur e t he over all int e llect ual abilit y o f a per son and enable to know whet her t he person has t he ment al abilit y to deal wit h cert ain problems. 2. Mechanical aptitude tests: They measure t he abilit y o f a per son t o lear n a part icular t ype o f mechanical work. These t est s helps t o measure specialized t echn ical knowledge and proble m so lving abilit ies if t he candidat e. They are usefu l in select ion o f mechanics, maint enance workers, et c. 3. Psychomotor or ski lls tests: They are t hose, which measure a person¶s abilit y t o do a specific jo b. Such t est s are conduct ed in respect of semi- skilled and repet it ive jo bs suc h as packing, t est ing and inspect ion, et c.

3). Intellig ence test: This t est helps t o evaluat e t rait s o f int elligence. Ment al abilit y, presence o f mind (alert ness), numer ical abilit y, memor y and such ot her aspect s can be measur ed. The int ellig ence is probably t he mo st widely administ ered st andardized t est in ind ust r y. It is t aken t o judge numer ical, skills, reasoning, memor y and such ot her abilit ies. 4). Interest Test: This is co nduct ed to find out likes and dislikes of candidat es t owards occupat io ns, ho bb ies, et c. such t est s indicat e which occupat ions are more in line w it h a p erso n¶s int erest . Such t est s also enable t he company t o provide vocat io nal guidance to t he select ed candidat es and even t o t he exist ing emp lo yees. These t est s ar e used t o measure an individual¶s act ivit y prefer ences. T hese t est s ar e part icu lar ly usefu l for st udent s consider ing many career s or emplo yees decid ing upo n career changes. 5). Persona lity Test: The impo rt ance o f perso nalit y t o job success is undeniable. Oft en an indiv id ual who po ssesses t he int elligence, apt it ude and exper ience for cert ain has failed because o f inab ilit y t o get alo ng wit h and mot ivat e other people.

It is co nduct ed t o judge mat ur it y, social or int erper sonal skills, behavior und er st ress and st rain, et c. t his t est is ver y much essent ial on case o f se lect io n o f sales fo rce, p ublic relat io n st aff, et c. where perso nalit y pla ys an import ant role. Perso nalit y t est s are similar t o int erest t est s in that t hey, also, invo lve a ser iou s pr o ble m o f o bt ain ing an honest answer. 6). Projective Test: This t est requir es int erpret at ion o f problems or sit uat io ns. For example, a pho t o graph o r a p ict ure can be shown t o t he candidat es and t hey are asked t o give t heir views, and o pin io ns about t he pict ure. 7). Genera l knowledge Test: No w days G. K. Test s ar e ver y co mmo n t o find gener al awareness o f t he candid at es in t he field o f spo rt s, polit ics, wor ld affa irs, cur rent affair s. 8). Perception Test: At t imes p ercept ion t est s can be conduct ed to find out beliefs, at t it udes, and ment al sharp ness.et c. 9). Grapho logy Test: It is desig ned t o analyze t he handwr it ing o f individual. It has been said t hat an ind iv idual¶s handwr it ing can suggest t he degree o f energy, inhibit io n and spo nt aneit y, as well as d isclo se t he idio syncrasies and ele ment s o f balance and cont rol. For examp le, big let t ers and emphasis o n capit al let t ers indicat e a t endency t owards do minat io n and co mpet it iveness. A slant to t he r ight , moderat e pressure and good legib ilit y sho w leader ship pot ent ial. 10). Polyg raph Test: Po lygr ap h is a lie det ect or, which is designed t o ensure accuracy o f t he info r mat io n g iven in t he applicat io ns. Depart ment st ore, banks, t reasur y o ffices and jeweller y sho ps, t hat is, t ho se highly vulner able t o t heft or swindling ma y find po lygraph t est s usefu l.

11). Medical Test: It reveals p hys ical fit ness o f a candidat e. Wit h t he development of t echno log y, med ical t est s have beco me diver sified. Medic al ser vicing helps measure and mo nito r a

cand id at e¶s physical res ilience upon exposure t o hazardous chemicals.

CHOOSING TESTS: The t est must be chosen in t he cr it er ia o f r eliabilit y, validit y, object ivit y and st and ard izat io n. The y are: 1. RELIABILITY: It refers t o st andardizat io n o f t he procedure o f administ er ing and scor ing t he t est resu lt s. A per son who t akes t est s one day and makes a cert ain score should be able t o t ake t he same t est t he next day or t he next week and make mor e or less t he same sco re. An ind iv idual¶s int elligence, for example , is gener ally a st able char act er ist ic. So if we ad min ist er an int elligence t est , a perso n who scores 110 in March would sco re clo se t o 110 if t est ed in July. Test s, which produce wide var iat io ns in result s, ser ve lit t le p urpo se in select io n. 2. VALIDITY: It is a test, which helps predict whether a person will be successful in a given job. A test that has been validated can be helpful in differentiating between prospective employees who will be able to perform the job well and those who will not. Naturally, no test will be 100% accurate in predicting job success. A validated test increases possibility of success. 3. OBJECTIVITY: When t wo or more people can int erpret the result o f t he same t est and der ive t he same co nclu sio n( s), t he t est is said t o be object ive. Otherwise, t he t est evaluat ors¶ su bject ive o pin io ns may r ender t he t est useless. 4. STANDARDRIZATIO N: A t est t hat is st andardized is adminis t ered under st andard condit io n t o a larg e gro up o f p erso n who are represent at ives o f t he individuals for who m it is int ended . The purpo se o f st andardizat io n is t o obt ain norms or st andard, so t hat a specific t est sco re can be meaningful when co mpar ed t o ot her score in the group. STEP 3: INTERVIEW: The next st ep in t he select ion process is an int erview. I nt erview is for mal, in- dept h co nver sat io n conduct ed t o evaluat e t he applicant ¶s accept abilit y. It is co nsid ered to be excellent select ion device. It is face-t o-face exchange o f view, ideas and o p inio n

bet ween t he candidat es and int er viewer s. Basically, int erview is not hing but an o ral examinat io n of candidat es. Int erview can be adapt ed to unskilled, skilled, manager ia l and pro fessio n emp lo yees. Objectives of interview: Int erview has at least t hree object ives and t hey are a fo llows: 1) Helps obt ain addit io nal infor mat io n fro m t he applicant s 2) Facilit at es g iving general infor mat io n t o t he applicant s such as co mpan y po licies, jo b, product s manufact ured and t he like 3) Helps bu ild t he co mpany¶s image amo ng the applicants. Types of interview: Int erviews can be o f different t ypes. There int er views emplo yed by t he co mpanies. Fo llo wing are t he var ious t ypes o f int er view: 1) Info rmal Interview: An infor mal int er view is an oral int erview and may t ake place anywhere. The emp lo yee or t he manager or t he personnel manager may ask a few almo st

inco nsequ ent ial quest io ns like name, place of birt h, names o f relat ives et c. eit her in t heir resp ect ive offices or anywhere out side t he plant of co mpany. It id no t planned and no bo dy pr epares for it . T his is used widely when t he labour market is t ig ht and when yo u need workers badly. 2) Fo rmal Intervi ew: Fo rmal int er views may be held in t he emplo yment office by he emplo yment o ffice in a mo re for mal at mosphere, wit h t he help o f well st ruct ured quest ions, t he t ime and p lace o f t he int er view will be st ipulat ed by t he emp lo yment office.

3) Non-di rective Interview: No n-d irect ive int er view or unst ruct ured int er view is designed t o let t he int er viewee speak his mind free ly. T he int er viewer has no for mal or dir ect ive quest ions, but his all att ent io n is t o t he candidat e. He encourages t he candidat e to t alk by a lit t le pro dd ing whenever he is silent e.g. ³Mr. Ray, please t ell us about yourself aft er yo ur gradu at ed fro m hig h school´. The id ea is o give t he candid at e co mplet e freedo m to ³sell´ himself, wit ho ut t he encu mbrances o f t he int er viewer ¶s quest io n. But t he int er viewer must be o f hig her

caliber and must guide and relat e t he infor mat io n given by t he applicant t o t he o bject ive of t he int er view. 4) Depth Intervi ew: It is d esigned t o int ensely exa mine t he candidat e¶s background and t hinking and t o go int o co ns iderable det ail o n part icular subject s of an import ant nat ure and o f specia l int erest t o t he candidat es. For examp le, if t he cand idat e sa ys t hat he is int erest ed in t ennis, a ser ies o f quest ions may be asked t o t est t he dept h o f under st and ing and int erest o f t he candidat e. T hese probing quest io ns must be asked wit h t act and t hro ug h exhau st ive analys is; it is possible t o get a good pict ure of t he candidat e. 5) Stress Interview: It is d esigned t o t est t he candidat e and his conduct and behavior by him u nder co nd it io ns o f st ress and st rain. The int er viewer may st art wit h ³Mr. Joseph, we do no t t hink yo ur qualificat ions and exper ience are adequat e for t his posit io n, ¶ and wat ch t he react io n o f t he candidat es. A good candidat es will not yie ld, on t he cont rar y he ma y su bst ant iat e why he is qualified t o handle t he jo b. This t ype o f int er view is borrowed from t he M ilit ar y organisat ion and t his is ver y usefu l t o t est behaviour o f individuals when t hey ar e faced wit h disagreeable and t rying sit uat io ns. 6) Group Interview: It is designed t o save bus y execut ive¶s t ime and t o see how t he candidat es may be bro ug ht t oget her in t he emplo yment office and t hey ma y be int er viewed. 7) Panel Intervi ew: A panel or int er viewing board or select io n co mmit t ee ma y int er view t he cand idat e, usually in t he case o f super visor y and ma nager ial posit io ns. This t ype o f int er view poo ls t he co llect ive judgment and wisdom o f t he panel in t he assessment o f t he cand id at e and also in quest ioning t he facult ies o f t he candidat e. 8) Sequential Interview: The sequent ial int er view t akes t he one-t o-one a st ep furt her and invo lves a ser ies o f int er view, usually ut ilizing t he st rengt h and knowledgebase of each int er viewer, so t hat each int er viewer can ask quest ions in relat io n to his or her subject area o f each cand id at e, as t he candidat e moves fro m room t o room.

9) Structu res Interview: In a st ruct ured int er view, t he int er viewer uses preset st andardized quest io ns, which are put to all t he int er viewees. This int er view is a lso called as µGu ided ¶ o r µPat t erned¶ int er view. It is useful for valid result s, especia lly when dealing wit h t he larg e number o f applicant s. 10) Unst ructu red Interview: It is also known as µUnpat t erned¶ int er vie w, t he int er view is largely unp lanned and t he int er viewee does most of t he t alking. Unguided int er view is advant ageo us in as mu ch as it leads t o a fr iendly conver sat ion bet ween t he int er viewer and t he int er viewee and in t he process, t he lat er reveals more o f his or her desire and pro blems. But t he Unpat t erned int er view lacks unifor mit y and worse, t his appro ach ma y o ver look key areas o f t he applicant ¶s skills or background. It is u sefu l when t he int er viewer t r ies t o probe perso nal det ails o f t he candidat e it analyse why t hey are no t right for t he job. 11) Mixed Interview: In pract ice, t he int er viewer while int er viewing t he jo b seekers uses a blend o f st ruct ured and st ruct ured and unst ruct ured quest io ns. T his approach is called t he Mixed I nt erview. The st ruct ured quest ions provide a base of int er view mo re co nvent io nal and per mit great er insight s int o t he unique differences bet ween app licant s. 12) Imp ro mptu Interviews: This int er view co mmo nly occurs when emplo yers are approached direct ly and t end s to be ver y infor ma l and unst ruct ured. Applicant s should be prepared at all t imes fo r o n-t he-spot int erviews, especia lly in sit uat ions such as a jo b fair or a co ld call. It is an ideal t ime for emplo yers t o ask t he candidat e so me basic quest ions t o det ermin e whet her he/ she may be int erest ed in for mally int er viewing t he candidat e. 13) Dinner Interviews: These int er views may be st ruct ured, informal, or socially sit uat ed, such as in a rest aurant . Decide what to eat quickly, some int er viewer s will ask you t o o rder first (do no t appear indecis ive). Avo id pot ent ially messy foods, such as spag het t i. Be prepared for t he co nver sat ion t o abrupt ly change fro m fr iendly chat t o direct int er view quest io ns, however, do not underest imat e t he value of casual d iscussio n,

so me emplo yer s place a great value on it . Be prepar ed t o swit ch gear s rap id ly, fro m fu n t alk t o business t alk. 14) Telephon e Intervi ews: Have a copy of your resume and any po int s you want to remember t o say near by. I f yo u are on your ho me t elepho ne, make sure t hat all roommat es or family me mber s are aware o f t he int er view (no loud st ereos, barking dogs et c.). Speak a bit slo wer t han usual. It is crucia l t hat you convey your ent husiasm ver bally, since t he int er viewer cannot see yo ur face. I f t here are pauses, do not worry; t he int er viewer is lik ely just t aking so me not es. 15) Second Interviews: Jo b seeker s are invit ed back aft er t hey have passed t he fir st init ial int er view. Midd le o r senio r management generally conduct s t he second int er view, t oget her or separat ely. Ap p licant s can expect more in-dept h quest ions, and t he emplo yer will be expect ing a great er level o f preparat ion o n t he part of t he candidat es. Applicant s should co nt inu e to research t he emplo yer fo llowing t he first int er view, and be prepared t o use any in fo r mat io n STEP 4: REFERENCE CH ECK :Many emp lo yer s request names, addresses, and t elephone nu mbers o f refer ences for t he purpose o f ver ifying informat io n and per haps, gaining add it io na l background infor mat ion o n an applicant . Alt hough list ed o n t he applicat io n fo r m, refer ences are not usually checked unt il an applicant has successfully reached t he fo urt h st age o f a sequent ia l select ion pr ocess. When t he labour market is ver y t ig ht , organisat ions so met imes hir e applicant s befor e checking references. Previous emplo yers, known as public figures, univer sit y pro fesso rs, gained t hrough t he previous int er view to t heir ad vant age.

neig hbours or fr iends can act as refer ences. Previous emplo yers ar e preferable becau se t hey are alr eady aware o f t he applicant ¶s per for mance. But , t he pro blem wit h t his refer ence is t he t endency o n t he part of t he pr evious emp lo yer s t o o verrat e t he applicant ¶s per for mance just to get rid of t he perso n. Organisat ions nor mally seek let t ers o f r eference or t elepho ne r eferences. The lat t er is advant ageous because of it s accuracy and low cost . The t elep ho ne refer ence also has t he advant age o f so licit ing immediat e, relat ively cand id

co mment s and at t it ude can so met imes be inferred fro m hesit at ions and in flect io ns in speech. It may be st at ed t hat t he infor mat ion gat hered t hrough references hard ly in flu ence select ion decis io ns. The reasons are obvious: 1. The candidat e approaches only t hose persons who would speak well abo ut him o r her. 2. People may wr it e favorably about t he candidat e in order to get rid o f him o r her. 3. People may not like t o divulge t he t rut h about a candidat e, lest it mig ht damage o r ruin his/ her career. STEP 5: SELECTION DECIS ION:Aft er obt aining infor mat io n t hrough t he preceding st eps, select io n decis io n- t he mo st cr it ical o f all t he st eps- must be made. T he ot her st ages in t he select io n pro cess have been used t o narrow t he number o f t he candidat es. T he fina l decisio n has t o be made t he pool o f ind ividuals who pas t he t est s, int er views and refer ence check s. The view o f t he line manager will be generally considered in t he final select io n becau se it is he/she who is responsible for t he per for mance o f t he new emp lo yee. The HR manager plays a crucial ro le in t he final select ion.

STEP 6: -

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: Aft er t he select io n decisio n and before t he jo b o ffer is made, t he cand id at e is requir ed t o undergo a phys ical fit ness t est . A jo b o ffer is, o ft en, cont ingent upo n t he candidat e being declared fit aft er t he phys ical examinat io n. The resu lt s o f t he medical fit ness t est are recorded in a st at ement and are preser ved in t he personnel records. T here are several object ives behind a phys ical t est .

Obviously, o ne reaso n for a phys ical t est is t o det ect if t he individu al carr ies any infect ious disease. Seco ndly, t he t est assist s in det er mining whet her a n applicant is phys ically fit to perform t he work. Thirdly, t he p hys ica l

examinat io n infor mat ion can be used t o det er mine if t here are cert ain p hys ica l

capabilit ies, which different iat e successful and less successful emp lo yees. Fo urt h, medical check-up prot ect s applicant s wit h healt h defect s fro m

und ert aking work t hat could be det riment al t o t hem or might ot herwise endang er t he emplo yer ¶s propert y. Finally, such an examinat io n will prot ect t he emp lo yer fro m workers co mpensat ion claims t hat are not valid because t he in jur ies o r illness were present when t he emp lo yee was hired.

STEP 7: -

JOB OFFER: The next st ep in t he select io n process is job o ffer t o t hose applicant s who have crossed all t he previous hurdles. Job o ffer is made t hrough a let t er o f appo int ed. Such a let t er generally cont ains a dat e by which t he appo int ee mu st report on dut y. T he appo int ee must be given reasonable t ime for report ing. Tho s is part icular ly necessar y when he or she is already in emplo yment , in wh ich case t he appo int ee is requir ed t o obt ain a relieving cert ificat e fro m t he previo u s emplo yer. Again, a new jo b may requir e mo vement to anot her cit y, which mean s co nsiderable pr eparat io n, and mo vement of propert y. The co mpany may also want t he individual t o delay the dat e of repo rt ing o n dut y. I f t he new emp lo yee¶s fir st job upon jo ining t he co mpany is t o go o n co mpany unt il per haps a week befor e such t raining begins. Nat urally, t his pract ice cannot be abused, especially if t he individual is unemp lo yed and do es no t have suffic ient finances. Decency de mands t hat t he reject ed applicant s be infor med about t heir no nselect ion. T heir applicant s may be pr eserved for fut ure use, if any. It need s no emphasis t hat t he applicat ions o f select ed candidates must also be preser ved fo r t he fut ure references. STEP 8: CONTRACT O F EMPLOYMENT: Aft er t he jo b o ffer has bee mad and candidat es accept t he offer, cert ain do cument s need t o be execut ed by t he emplo yer and the candidat e. One suc h do cument is t he at t est at ion for m. This for m cont ains vit al det ails abo ut t he

candidat e, which are aut hent icat ed and att est ed by him/ her. At t est at io n fo r m will be a valid record for t he fut ure reference. There is also a need for prepar ing a cont ract of emplo yment . The basic in for mat io n t hat should be inc luded in a wr it t en cont ract of emplo yment wil l var y according to t he level o f t he jo b, but t he fo llowing checklist set s o ut t he t yp ical headings: 1. Job t it le 2. Dut ies, including a par se such as ³T he emplo yee will per fo r m su ch dut ies and will be responsible t o such a person, as t he co mpany ma y fro m t ime t o t ime dir ect ´. 3. Dat e when co nt inuous emplo yment st arts and t he basis for calcu lat ing ser vice. 4. Rat e of pay, allowance, overt ime and shift rat es, met hod of payment s. 5. Hours of work including lunch break and overt ime and shift

arrangement s. 6. Holiday arrangement s: i.) ii.) iii.) iv.) v.) vi.) vii.) viii.) ix.) Paid ho lidays per year. Calculat io n o f ho liday pay. Qualifying per io d. Accrual o f ho lidays and ho lida y pay. Det ails o f ho liday year. Dat es when ho lidays can be t aken. Maximum ho liday t hat can be t ake at any one t ime. Carr y o ver of ho liday ent it lement . Public ho lida ys.

7. Lengt h of not ice due to and fro m emp loyee. 8. Grievances procedure (or reference t o it ). 9. Disciplinar y procedur e (or any refer ence to it ). 10. Work rules (or any reference t o t hem) . 11. Arrangement s for t er minat ing emplo yment . 12. Arrangement s for unio n me mber ship ( if applicable). 13. Special t er ms relat ing t o right s t o pat ent s and designs, co nfid ent ial infor mat io n and rest raint s on t rade aft er ter minat io n o f emplo yment .

Alt er nat ively called emplo yment agreement s or simply bo nds, co nt ract s o f emp lo yment ser ve many useful purposes. Such cont ract s seek t o rest rain jo bho ppers, t o prot ect knowledge and infor mat io n t hat might be vit al t o a co mpany¶ s healt hy bott om line and t o prevent compet it ors fro m poaching highly valued emp lo yees. Great care is t aken t o draft t he cont ract forms. Oft en, ser vices of law fir ms (pro minent fir ms in t his cat egor y inc lude Mulla, Craigie, B lunt and Caro e, Crawford Bailey, Amarchand Mangaldas Hira lal, et c.) are engag4d t o get t he fo r ms draft ed and finalized. Most emplo yer s insist on agr eement s being signed by newly hir ed

emp lo yees. But high t urno ver sect ors such as so ft ware, advert ising and med ia ar e mo re prone t o use cont ract s. The drawback wit h t he cont ract s is t hat it is almo st to enforce t hem. A det er mined emplo yee is bound t o leave the organisat ion, cont ract or no co nt ract. The emp lo yee is prepared t o pay t he penalt y for breaching t he agreement o r t he new emplo yer will provide co mpensat ions. It is t he reason t hat severa l co mp anies have scrapped t he cont ract s alt oget her.

STEP 9: CONCLUDING TH E SELECTION PRO CESS: Cont rary t o popular percept ion, t he select ion process will not end wit h execut ing t he emplo yment cont ract . There is anot her st ep ± amore sensit ive o ne reassur ing t hose candidat es who have not select ed, not because o f any ser io u s defic iencies in t heir per so nalit y, but because t heir pro file did not mat ch t he requ ir ement of t he organisat ion. T hey must be t old t hat t hose who were select ed were done pure ly o n relat ive mer it .

STEP 10: EVALUATIO N OF SELECTION PROG RAMME: The broad t est of t he effect iveness of t he select io n process is t he qualit y o f t he per sonnel hir ed. An organisat ion must have co mpet ent and co mmit t ed perso nnel. T he select ion process, if proper ly do ne, will ensure ava ilabilit y o f such emp lo yees. How to evaluat e t he effect iveness o f a select io n programme? A

per io dic aud it is t he answer. People who work independent of HR depart ment mu st co nduct audit . T he t able below cont ains an out line t hat highlight s t he areas and quest io ns t o be covered in a syst emat ic evaluat ion. PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE S ELECTION: The ma in object ive o f se lect io n is t o hir e people having co mpet ence and co mmit ment . This o bject ive s o ft en defeat ed because of cert ain barr ier s. The impediment s, which check effect iveness o f select io n, are percept io n, fair ness, validit y, reliab ilit y and pressure. Perception: Our inabilit y t o under st and ot hers accurat ely is pro bably t he most fu nda ment a l barr ier to select ing t he r ight candidat e. Select io n demands an ind ividual or a gr oup of people t o assess and co mpare t he respect ive co mpet encies o f ot hers, wit h t he aim o f choosing t he r ight perso ns fo r t he jo bs. But our views are highly per sona lized. We all per ceive t he wor ld d ifferent ly. Our limit ed percept ual abilit y is o bviously a st umbling block t o t he object ive and rat io nal select io n of t he people. Fai rn ess: Fair ness in select ion requires t hat no individual should be discr iminat ed ag ainst o n t he basis o f religio n, regio n, race or gender. But t he low number s o f wo men and ot her less pr ivileged sect io ns o f t he societ y in middle and senior manag ement po sit io ns and open discr iminat io n on t he basis o f age in jo b advert isement s and in t he select io n process would suggest t hat all t he effort s t o minimize inequit y have n ot been effect ive. Validity: Valid it y, as explained ear lier, is a t est t hat helps predict jo b per for mance o f an incu mbent . A t est t hat has been validat ed can different iat e bet ween t he emp lo ye es who per for m we ll and t hose who will not . However, a validat ed t est does no t pred ict jo b success accurat ely. It can only increase possibilit y o f success.

Reliabi lity: A reliable met hod is one, which will pr oduce consist ent result s when rep eat ed in similar sit uat ions. Like validat ed t est , a reliable t est may fa il t o pred ict jo b per fo r mance wit h pr ecis io n. Pressu re: Pressure is brought on t he select ors by polit ic ians, bureaucrat s, relat ives, fr iend s and peers t o select part icular cand idat es. Candidat es select ed because of co mpu lsio ns are o bv io us ly not t he r ight ones. Appo int ment s to public sect ors undert akings generally t ake p lace under such pressures.

INFOSYS

Wo rk at Infosys:

A feeling o f energy and vit alit y, o f freshness, o f a place where people work in a campus lik e facilit y and cult ure, are unafraid t o vo ice new ideas, o f a place where t here is min ima l h ierarchy. Ro bu st peo ple management pract ices enable I nfos ys to creat e t his environment fo r it s emp lo yees. T his is what dist inguishes Infos ys amo ng ot her t echno logy co mpanies, enabling I nfo scio ns t o excel and inno vat e in what they do for t heir client s and in what t hey st and for as a co mpany.

Continuous learning: The sp ir it of lear nabilit y amo ng I nfosys people and an organizat io nal co mmit ment to co nt inuo us per sonal and pro fess io nal development keeps I nfo sys at t he forefro nt in a fast -chang ing indust r y. Their framework for cont inuous lear ning at Infosys is bu ilt aro und a number o f focused programs for t heir emplo yees. These range fro m majo r

in it iat ives such as t he Info sys Leader ship I nst it ute to var ious ongo ing manag ement develo p ment and personal impro veme nt programs. They co mple ment a ho st of

t echno lo g y advancement and ongo ing t raining opt ions.

Ded icat ed organizat io ns or gro ups wit hin I nfo sys lead t hese init iat ives. Info sys invest ment in people and infr ast ruct ure to build a ho list ic lear ning framewo rk demo nst rat es t heir co mmit ment t o cont inuous lear ning and building int ellect ual cap it a l fo r t heir emplo yees. T his lear ning fr amework is co nt inuously enhanced wit h new pro grams and t he lat est lear ning t echniques - and clo se-knit coordinat ion acro ss t hese in it iat ives ensures t hat it meet s t he different lear ning needs of t heir emp lo ye es in spec ific areas o f t echno logy, management , leadership, cult ural and co mmunicat io n sk ills, and o t her soft skills.

Ap art fro m for mal programs - a t ypical example o f an infor mal emplo yee-dr iven pro gram is t he I nfo sys Toast mast ers Club, for med in 2000. The miss io n o f t his club is t o pro vide a mut ually support ive and posit ive lear ning environment t o develop co mmunicat io n and leader ship skills t o fost er self-co nfidence and perso nal growt h. The club has bee n reco gnized by Toast mast ers I nt er nat ional and jo ins t he rost er of ot her reco g nized Co rpo rat e Clubs around t he wor ld ( including t hose o f Microsoft , Boeing, Cit ico rp and Sun Micro syst ems). Fun and cultu re: Life at Info sys is full o f event s - where emplo yees can pur sue t heir int erest s in areas as var ied as art s, cult ur e, or sport s. The object ive is t o ensure t hat emplo yees are no t co nfined t o t heir desks. E mplo yees expr ess t heir var ious skills and int erest s t hr o ugh fo ru ms t hat include an "Art Galler y" on campus dedicat ed t o displa ying t he wo rks o f Info scio ns, daily quiz co mpet it ions, and regular music meet ings t hat keep t he p lace abuzz wit h creat ivit y. Incu lco m is t he base organizat io n t hat host s cult ural programs for I nfosc io ns. Each event emp hasizes a specific area like music, dance, or quiz. T hese programs are genera lly no t co mpet it ive, but a compet it ive element is so met imes added t o enhance ent husiasm and t o br ing o ut t he best in our people. Under Inculco m, there are sub groups like t he IQ Cir cle (Qu izzes), S hrut hi (t he classical music club), Dr amat ix (t he drama clu b), and

Vakchat ur ya ( forum for self development ).

Insyn c:

The ke y t o emplo yee invo lve ment in organizat io ns is t he shar ing o f infor mat io n abo ut bu siness per for mance, plans, goals, and st rat egies. What happens by a shout acro ss t he co rrido r in a sma ller organizat ion, calls for a more syst emat ic process in a larg e o rganizat io n like I nfos ys.

InS ync is I nfosysµs int er nal co mmunicat ion program focused on keeping t he I nfo scio n abreast o f lat est corporat e and business development s, and equipping him or her t o be a "brand a mbassador" for t he co mpany. T his program co mbines a co mmunicat io n po rt al wit h wo rkshops, mont hly newslet t ers, art icles, daily cart oons and braint easers to synchro nize each I nfoscio n wit h t he organizat ion.

³In fosys beli eves in an organi zation wit h less hierarchy and faster decision- ma king. In o rd er to make that happen, every Infoscion need s to know h ow the org ani zation wo rks, h ow decision are mad e, and what d rives In fosys. S o it i s i mpo rta nt fo r Infosy s to communi cate this to everyone" -S. Gopala kri shnan Co-founder & Member o f Boa rd Ca reers: Info sys has a vis io n o f where t hey want to go, and it 's really excit ing Wit h an annual co mpounded growt h rat e of around 60% in t he last 5 year s, and branches acro ss t he wor ld, Info sys is forging ahead in t he glo bal market . To achieve t heir vis io n, t hey ar e always looking out for t alent ed, lear nable individuals who are ambit io u s, who lo ve challenges and who have a passio n t o excel! To wards t his object ive, I nfosys part icipat es in campus hir ing programs and also co ndu ct s a nu mber o f o ff-campus init iat ives t hroughout t he year at var ious lo cat io ns. Apar t fro m co llege hir ing, t he y also hire exper ienced professio nals fro m t he indust r y at var io u s midlevel and senior posit io ns. Infosy s ² grooming global talent:

Last year, over 1.3 millio n people applied for a jo b at Infosys. Only 1% o f t hem were hired. In co mpar ison, Har vard Co llege t ook in 9% of candidat es. Info sys has always focused on induct ing and educat ing t he best and t he br ight est . Wit h g lo bal h ir ing pract ices, coupled wit h ever-expanding univer sit y programs su ch as Campu s Co nnect and deve lopment cent ers across t he glo be, Info sys is able t o so urce and nurt ure t alent while deliver ing last ing value to client s. Info sys, wh ich t rains over 15,000 new recruit s ever y year, is well prepared t o win t he bat t le fo r top-not ch t alent . At t he heart of t his educat ion program is a fully equ ipp ed $120 millio n facilit y in Mysore, about 90 miles fro m Bangalore. Infosy s in the spot light: In 2005, Co mput erwor ld magazine, while ranking I nfos ys amo ng t he 100 best p laces t o wo rk in IT, placed it at t he ver y t op of t he list of best places for educat ion and t raining. In it s March 2006 issue, Fort une magazine st epped ins ide t he gat es o f µI nfo sys ¶ and emerged w it h t he impr essio n t hat gaining admissio n t o t he µTaj Mahal o f t rain ing cent ers¶ is harder t han get t ing int o Har var d.

SOURCES ON MAN POWER SUPPLY: INTERNAL: Info sys up grades fro m wit hin only for manager ia l posit io ns, but only t o so me ext ent . Because upgr ading fro m wit hin is co nsid ered bet t er as t he emplo yee is alread y familiar wit h t he o rganizat io n, reduces t raining cost , helps in building morale and pro mo t es lo ya lt y. I f no o ne capable for manager ial posit io n is found in it s int er nal source, it loo ks o ut fo r ext ernal so urces. It select s only t he best emplo yee for t he organizat io n

TYPES:  Fo rmer Emp loyeesThey ask t he ret ired emplo yees who are willing t o work on a part -t ime basis, ind iv iduals who left work and are willing to come back for higher co mpensat io ns. Even ret renched emplo yees are t aken up once again.  Reti rement s: I f it ¶s not able t o find suit able candidat es in place o f t he one who had ret ired, aft er mer it o r ious service. Under t he cir cumst ances, management decides t o call ret ir ed manager s wit h new ext ensio n.  Internal noti fication (advertisement): Mo st emplo yees know fro m t heir own exper ience about t he requir ement o f t he jo b and what sort of perso n t he co mpany is looking for. Oft en emp lo yees have fr iend s o r acquaint ances who meet t hese requireme nt s. Suit able persons are appo int ed at the vacant post s.

EXTERNAL:

Fo r t he po st s of t echnicians, engineer s, floor manager s et c, it looks out fo r ext erna l so urces which include. y y Ag encies: T APL Inst it ut ions: Like B Schoo ls, co lleges, Management Inst it ut es, et c.

y

Webs it es: www. indiat imesjo b.co m www. monst er.com www.naukr i.co m

Of t he abo ve t hree web sit es given most widely used by t he I nfo sys is t he www. mo nst er.co m wit h t he success rat e of 80% fo llowed by www. indiat imesjo b.co m at 60% and www. naukr i.co m at t he success rat e of 50%.

Ext ernal recruit ment enables t he co mpany to get t he best candidat e.

Info sys prefer s ext er nal r ecruit ment and mainly t akes he lp fro m agenc ies and inst it ut io ns as it ¶s a g iant co mpany and int er na l recruit ment proves t o be inadequat e as it s year ly t arget s are ver y high.

Recruit ment Target s for In fosys: Yea r No. of emp loyees (per year)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006  CAMPUS:

10000 11000 13000 15000 18000 25000

Campus r ecruit ment is so much sought aft er t hat each co llege; u niver sit y depart ment or inst it ut e will have a placement o fficer t o handle r ecru it ment fu nct io ns. However, it is o ft en an expensive process, even if recruit ing pro cess

pro duces jo b offer s and accept ances event ually. A major it y leave t he organizat io n wit hin t he first five year s o f t heir emplo yment . Yet , it is a major so urce o f recru it ment for prest igious co mpanies.

Info sys is t he co mpany o f cho ice for campus recruit ment programs in mo st ma jo r eng ineer ing inst it ut es such as IITs, RECs et c. and at premier management inst it ut es such as t he IIMs.

Engineering In stitutes: Campus hir ing at engineer ing inst it ut es t ypically st art s in May and co nt inues t hro ugh Sept ember. Senior manager s and officers fro m I nfo sys act ively part icip at e in t h is hir ing, t o br ing on board t he next generat io n o f br ight , young and t alent ed leader s for t he co mpany. We encourage current st udent s at t he campuses we vis it to use t his opport unit y t o int eract wit h the Info sys recruit ment t eams dur ing t he hir ing process t o under st and t he co mpany and our people philo sophy. We hire eng ineer ing graduat es and post -graduat es fro m all disciplines, and MCA st udent s at t he campuses.

Management In stitutes: Campus hir ing at management inst it ut es t ypically st art s in December and in so ft ware or ot her field s. co nt inues t hrough March. We hire management graduates fro m all discip lines, wit h or wit hout prior work exper ience

All applicat io ns are pre- screened based on academic cr edent ials. S ho rt -list ed cand idat es are usually invit ed for an int erview as part of t he select ion pro cess.  OFF CAMPUS: It is t he event for t hose candidat es who do not get select ed dur ing campu s recru it ment . The process r emains t he same; it just aims at giving t hose cand id at es a chance t hat were not able t o go t hrough t he process befor e. These cand id at es also go t hrough t he same t wo rounds, her e only t he scale and basis on which t hey are evaluat ed changes. 

JOB FAIRS:

PROCESS FO LLOWED BY INFOSYS:  Init ia lly t hey advert ise about t he jo b fair in t he local newspapers o f all t he st at es specifying t he venue and dat e of t he job fair.  On t he specified dat e, Info sys banners are put up at t he venue. T hey have around 3 t o 4 count ers. Init ially t hese count ers ar e used for regist rat io ns. Once t he number o f regist rat ions is equal t o t he tot al capacit y o f all t he co u nt ers, t he regist rat io ns ar e st opped and t he regist ered candidat es fill t he applicat io n fo r ms at t he count er. 

Next a logic t est of 45 minut es is conduct ed and an E nglish t est of 15 minut es is co nduct ed where in o ne is suppose to wr it e an essay, t o check t heir handwr it ing, vocabular y and sent ence fr aming abilit y.  Once t he t est is over, regist rat ions for the next group st art . At t he same t ime t he previous papers ar e evaluat ed and t he candidat es are select ed for int er view based on t he cut -off marks.  The candidat es who are select ed in t he int erview are infor med t hen and t here by d ispla ying t he list and are given t he o ffer.  The process is repeat ed for t he next set of candidat es. 

ADVERTISEMENTS:-

Infosys advert ises in: NEWS PAPERS:  T imes of I ndia  The econo mic t imes 

Indian express  Hindust an t imes  The financial express  E mplo yment papers MAGAZINES:  Business wor ld  Business Today  India Today  capit al market  Business jour na ls  IT magaz ines  Co mput er and t echnical jour nals WEB:  www. infosys.co m  www. indiat imesjo b.co m  www. mo nst er.co m  www. naukr i.co m  WALK -INS, WRITE-INS AND TALK -INS: Walk-in s are t he mo st commo n and least expensive approach for cand id at es is d irect applicat io ns, in which jo b seekers submit unso lic it ed applicat ion let t ers o r resu mes. Direct applicat ions provide a pool o f pot ent ial emplo yees t o meet fut ure need s. W rite-ins are t hose who send wr it t en enquir ies. T hese jo bseekers are asked t o co mp let e applicat ion for ms for furt her processing. Ta lk-ins invo lves t he jo b asp ir ant s meet ing t he recruit er (on an appropr iat ed dat e) fo r det ailed t alks. No applicat io n is requir ed to be submit t ed t o t he recruit er. 

CONSULTANTS: Infosys also seeks t he help of consult ant s who are in t he pro fessio n fo r recru it ing and select ing manager ial and execut ive perso nnel. They are usefu l as t he y have nat ionwide co nt act s and lend pro fessio nalis m to t he hir ing process. T he y also keep pro spect ive emplo yer and emplo yee anonymous. 

INDUS TRIES: Info sys also hires exper ienced pro fessio nals fro m t he indust r y at var ious mid- level and senior posit io ns. THE SELECTION PROCESS O F INFO SYS: Steps: 1. Initia l screenin g of interviews: Init ia l Screening is done on t he basis o f applicants and applicat ions. A pr eliminar y int er view is conduct ed so as t o select the su it able candidat e who can go t hro ugh furt her st ages o f int er views. No rmally for t he post s o f engineer s degree cut off is dec ided like say 60% o n an averag e. I f t he cand idat es do not meet t he requirement t hey ar e reject ed. And fo r higher post s applicat ions and applicant s bot h play a major ro le in t he screen ing process.

2. Comp letion of app lication forms: Ap p licat io n for m est ablishes t he candidat e¶s general det ails like name, address, t elep ho ne number, educat io n, job- rela t ed t raining, work-exper ience wit h d at es, co mpany names, and jo b det ails, pro fessional or indust r ial invo lvement , ho bbies and recreat io nal pursu it s. The co mpany est ablishes as many hypot heses about t he cand idat e fro m t he det ails pro vided in t he applicat io n for m. It t hen decides what areas o f infor mat ion it need s to exp lo re or invest igat e more specifically dur ing t he int er view. Co mpan y sees t o it t hat no judgment is passed about t he candidat e based o nly at this level. What drawn here is hypo t heses and not conclusio ns. Ap p licat io n for ms ar e such fr amed t hat , t hey provide t he necessar y det ails t o the o rganisat ion wit hout affect ing t he sent iment s and feelings o f t he candidat e.

3. Emp loyment test s:   logi cal test English test  Vocabu lary  Reasoning  Essay writing VARIO US TES TS:

Mental o r intelligen ce tests: They measure t he over all int ellect ual abilit y o f a per son and enable t o know whet her t he perso n has t he ment al abilit y t o deal wit h cert ain proble ms. Mechanica l aptitude tests: They measure t he abilit y o f a per son t o learn a part icular t ype of mechanical wo rk. These t est s help s t o measure specialized t echnical knowledge and problem so lving abilit ies if t he cand id at e. They are useful in select io n of mechanics, engineers, et c. Intelligen ce test: This t est helps t o evaluat e t rait s o f int elligence. Ment al abilit y, presence o f mind (alert ness), numer ical abilit y, memor y and such ot her aspect s can be measured. It is t aken t o judge numer ical, skills, reasoning, memor y and such ot her abilit ies. Persona lity Test: It is co nduct ed t o judge mat ur it y, social or int erper sonal skills, behavior und er st ress and st rain, et c. t his t est is ver y much essent ial on case o f se lect io n o f sales fo rce, p ublic relat io n st aff, et c. where perso nalit y pla ys an import ant role. Grapho logy Test: It is desig ned t o analyse t he handwr it ing o f individual. It has been said t hat an ind iv idual¶s handwr it ing can suggest t he degree o f energy, inhibit io n and spo nt aneit y, as well as d isclo se t he idio syncrasies and ele ment s o f balance and cont rol. For examp le, big let t ers and emphasis o n capit al let t ers indicat e a t endency t owards do minat io n and

co mpet it iveness. A slant to t he r ight , moderat e pressure and good legib ilit y sho w leader ship pot ent ial. Medical Test: It reveals p hysical fit ness o f a candidat e. Medical ser vicing helps measure and mo nit o r a cand id at e¶s physical res ilience upon exposure business hazards. 4. Intervi ew:

Fo rma l Intervi ew: Int erviews are held in t he emplo yment o ffice in a mor e for mal at mosphere, wit h t he he lp o f well st ruct ured quest ions. Pattern ed Intervi ew: A p at t erned int er view is a lso a planned int erview, but it is mor e carefully pre-p lann ed to a hig h degree of accuracy, precis io n and exact it ude. Wit h t he help o f jo b and ma n spec ificat io ns, a list of quest ions and areas are car efully prepar ed which will act as t he int er viewer¶s guide. Non-di rective Interview: Here t he int er viewee is allowed t o speak his mind freely. T he int er viewer has no fo rmal o r direct ive quest io ns, but his all at t ent io n is t o t he candidat e. He enco urag es t he cand id at e to t alk by a lit t le prodding whenever he is silent e.g. ³Mr. Ray, please t ell us abo ut yo urself aft er you¶re graduat ed from high school´. The idea is t o give t he candidat e co mplet e freedo m t o ³sell´ himself, wit ho u t t he encu mbrances o f t he int er viewer ¶s quest io n. Depth Intervi ew: It is desig ned t o int ensely examine t he candidat e¶s background and t hinking and to go int o co nsiderable det ail on part icular subject s o f an import ant nat ure and o f sp ecial int erest to t he candidat es. For examp le, if t he candidat e says t hat he is int erest ed in t ennis, a ser ies o f quest io ns may be asked to t est t he dept h o f underst anding and int erest o f t he cand idat e. Stress Interview: It is desig ned t o t est t he candidat e and his conduct and behavior by him und er co nd it io ns o f st ress and st rain. The int er viewer may st art wit h ³Mr. Joseph, we d o not t hink yo ur qualificat io ns and exper ience are adequat e for t his posit io n,¶ and wat ch t he react io n o f t he candidat es. A good candidat es will not yield, o n t he cont rar y he ma y su bst ant iat e why he is qualified t o handle t he jo b.

What INFOSYS pract ice is t hat if int er view is planned at 5pm, it will st art cand idat e¶s int er view at 6.30pm and wat ch t he candidat e¶s behavior and st ress level. Panel Intervi ew: A panel o r int er viewing board or select ion co mmit t ee int er views t he candidat e, u sually in t he case of super visor y and manager ial posit ions. Mixed Interview: In pr act ice, t he int er viewer while int er viewing t he jo b seeker s uses a blend o f st ruct ured and st ruct ured and unst ruct ured quest io ns. This approach is called t he Mixed int er view. The st ruct ured quest ions provide a base of int er view more convent ional and per mit great er insight s int o t he unique differ ences bet ween applicant s. Second Interviews: Jo b seek ers are invit ed back aft er t hey have passed t he first init ia l int er view. Midd le o r senio r management gener ally co nduct s t he second inter view, t oget her or separ at ely. Mo re in-dept h quest io ns are asked to t he candidat e and t he emplo yer expect s a gr eat er level o f preparat io n on t he part of t he candidat es.

5. Backg round In formation: INFOS YS request s names, addresses, and t elepho ne number s o f references fo r t he purpo se of ver ifying infor mat io n and per haps, gaining addit io nal backg ro und

in fo r mat io n on an applicant . References ar e not usually checked unt il an applicant has successfully reached t he fo urt h st age o f a sequent ial select ion process. Previo us emp lo yer s are preferable because t he y are already aware o f t he app licant ¶s per fo r mance. It no r mally seeks let t ers of reference or telephone references. The lat t er is advant ageo us becau se o f it s accuracy and low cost .

6. Physica l Examin ation: Aft er t he select io n decis io n and before t he jo b o ffer is made, t he candidat e is r equ ired t o und ergo a phys ical fit ness t est . A jo b o ffer is, o ft en, depends upon t he candid at e being declared fit aft er t he physical examinat ion. The result s o f t he medical fit ness t est are reco rded in a st at ement and are preser ved in t he personnel records.

There a re several objectives behind a p hysical test: 1. One reason for a phys ical t est is to det ect if t he individual carr ies an y infect ious disease. 2. Secondly, t he t est assist s in det er mining whet her an applicant is p hys icall y fit t o per for m t he work. 3. Thirdly, t he phys ical examinat io n infor mat io n can be used t o det ermine i f t here are cert ain physical capabilit ies, which different iat e successfu l and less successful e mplo yees. 4. Fourt h, medical check-up prot ect s applicant s wit h healt h defect s fro m undert aking work t hat could be det r iment al t o t hem or might ot herwise endanger t he emplo yer¶s propert y. 5. Fina lly, such an examinat io n will prot ect t he emplo yer fro m wo rkers co mpensat io n cla ims t hat are not valid because t he injur ies or illness were present when t he emp lo yee was hir ed.

7. Fina l Emp loyment decision: It is a final st ep. In t his st ep co mpany makes a ver y import ant decisio n. Aft er all t hese processes fo llow up is do ne i.e., t he select ed per son is induced and p laced at t he r ig ht job. Training is provided on regular basis t hat is mo nt hly, quart er ly. These t rainers have t he exper ience o f about 15-20 yr s. In o ne bat ch t her e are 60 emplo yees who are sent to Banga lore for t raining.

REFERENCES:
1. K Ashwat happa, (1997) Human Resource and Personnel Management , Tata McGraw- Hill 131-176

2. Chr is Dukes, (2001) Recruit ing t he Right St aff 3. Jo hn M. Ivancevich, Human Resource Management , Tat a McGraw- Hill, 2004 n 4. St eve Kneeland, (1999) Hir ing People, discover an effect ive int erviewing syst em; avo id hir ing t he wrong person, recruit out st anding performers

5. Sto ne, Harold C and Kendell, W.E Effect ive Personnel Select ion Procedures, 1956

BIBLIOGRAPHY
WEB: ww w. goo g le.c o m ww w.so op le. co m ww w. in fos ys.c o m

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