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ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY
By Sarang Wadyalkar As part of the interview Date-27th Mar 2010
The pulp and paper industry is comprised of three primary types of producers: (1) pulp mills, which manufacture pulp from wood and other materials (such as wastepaper); (2) paper mills, which manufacture paper from wood pulp and other fiber pulp; and (3) paperboard mills, which manufacture paperboard products from wood pulp and other fiber pulp. Electricity is used throughout the typical pulp and paper mill to power motors and machine drives, conveyors, and pumps, as well as building operations such as lighting and ventilation systems. The largest use of fuels is in boilers to generate steam for use in pulping, evaporation, papermaking, and other operations. Black liquor is the dominant fuel for boilers in the pulp and paper industry, followed by hog fuel and natural gas, and to a lesser extent, coal (EEA 2005). Natural gas and oil are typically used in lime kilns Energy costs are a sizeable fraction of operating costs, equal to roughly 20% of the industry’s total cost of materials in 2006.
Breakdown of pulp and paper industry motor-system electricity use by Application
5% 5% 22%
Compressed Air Pumps 32% Material Handling Miscellaneous Fans Material Processing Refrigeration
Source: U.S. DOE (2002a)
The major operations in the pulp and paper mill provide enough scope/opportunities for energy saving as all of those consume huge amounts of electricity and steam to run a lot of process equipments such pumps, motors, valves, compressors, dryers, digesters, cutters, etc.
ELECTRICITY HOG FUEL (Bark)
Debarking & Chipping
WASTE PAPER PULPING
THICK BLACK LIQUOR
FORECASTING In energy demand according to Grades of paper Seasonal variation in prices and weather conditions Price of electricity Lot size
CHALLENGES IN IMPLIMENTATION:
Energy is a critical and often unpredictable production factor; many know that but very few people act to manage it. In paper industry where a machine is run by a team consisting manager, executive, supervisors, operators & their helpers. Each one’s role is defined but when it comes to energy consumption they look at others or simply ignore because they don’t own the responsibility or probably they think they don’t. But the real crunch goes to the owner of the production firm who has to pay the energy consumption bills. There are some challenges while implementing energy management in paper industry 1. Many mills still use old equipments which are not energy efficient and a replacement of capital equipments is huge cost 2. The current set up needs to be re-engineered to accommodate new energy saving technology 3. The workforce needs to be convinced and trained to accept and run new practices 4. Raw material should be of high yield so that energy utilized/ton of paper is lower 5. Resistance to “Change” has to be dealt with at every stage in organization 6. Sense responsibility ownership by each employee towards his role 7. Self driven zeal to contribute towards energy management 8. Reach to the grass root level so that each one in the paper mill knows the purpose
CHALLENGES FOR THE OWNER:
A. Estimating the future energy needs of the firm keeping in mind the expansion and type of technology available at present and in future. B. Allotment of dedicated budget and other resources as no business activity could be brought into practice unless it is budgeted or funded for. C. Establishing a dedicated human resource team working towards energy savings and management D. Identifying the leader and right people to drive the Energy Management Dept/Cell. The owner has to find a team leader who understands the energy saving needs and is able to drive people to match up with the organization’s goal. E. Making sure that the energy management cell’s purpose is clear to everybody working in the organization; right from the top to bottom in the hierarchy. F. Coordinating with energy suppliers for the Demand & Supply according to production schedule and seasonality. G. Commitment to the cause leading by example, so that everyone in the organization follows and gets to see the owner’s commitment. H. Setting target and taking frequent review. I. Reward the best performers.
ROADMAP & STRATEGY:
At the component and equipment level, Energy efficiency can be improved through regular preventative maintenance, proper equipment loading and operation, and replacement of older components and equipment with higher efficiency models (e.g., high efficiency motors) whenever feasible. At the process level, Process control and optimization can be pursued to ensure that production operations are running at maximum efficiency so as to make full use of available energy supplies. Note down avg. energy needs and patterns for each variety in ideal conditions. Use those as metrics for future references. At the facility level, The efficiency of space lighting and ventilation can be improved while total facility energy inputs can be minimized through process integration, where feasible. Plant location should be such that all future needs of energy are fulfilled and where energy costs are lower. Factory layout should be made according to the flow of raw materials for each process. Appoint an Energy Manager: Energy Manager – Role & Importance Energy manager will occupy an important position and be the focal point of all the activities pertaining to energy management in the organization. The energy manager will provide leadership in the development of policy on Energy Management Action Plan and play a key role in the formulation of corporate energy policy. He’ll also prepare the information to be submitted to the Designated Agency with regard to the energy consumed and action taken on the recommendation of the Accredited Energy Auditor. Responsibilities and Duties of Energy Manager will be: • Establish an energy conservation cell & prepare an annual activity plan • Develop and manage training programme for energy efficiency at operating levels • Develop integrated system of energy efficiency and environmental improvement • Initiate activities to improve monitoring and process control to reduce energy costs • Co-ordinate implementation of energy audit/efficiency improvement projects through external agencies
• Establish / participate in information exchange with other energy managers of the same sector through association Lastly, At the level of the organization, energy management systems should be implemented to ensure a strong corporate framework exists for energy monitoring, target setting, employee involvement, and continuous improvement. So the correct picture should be,
This process should be made a continuous practice in the firm.
The total solution includes planning and scheduling tools to optimize energy use and supply at every stage in paper making, use energy balance management tools to support the real-time monitoring and control of the energy balance in processes like, Wood Preparation, Pulping, Beaching, Chemical Recovery, Pulp Drying, Paper machine and reporting tools to evaluate and report energy consumption, costs, efficiency and other energy-related information. Opportunities for cost reduction are greatest when both electricity consumption and prices vary over time, which is common in process industries. Typically, the overall cost reduction can be 2 to 5 per cent of the total energy cost. The savings result from various sources, for instance: ■ Lower electricity purchase prices due to accurate consumption forecasting ■ Avoiding price peaks and penalty charges ■ Employing optimal resources in the supply of electric power ■ Enhanced awareness of energy consumption and energy costs ■ Early detection of poor performance based on real time monitoring of performance against set targets
Payback from reduced energy consumption and price ■ Savings = Energy bill * drop (%) in energy (price + consumption) ■ Total savings 2-5% of the energy bill depending on the initial level
The planning tools include, (source-ABB energy management solutions) 1. 2. 3. 4. Load Forecasting module to predict energy consumption, Contract and Balance Management module to balance energy consumption and supply, Resource Optimization module to calculate optimal supply resources and What-If Simulation module to evaluate and compare alternative operating scenarios.
The energy management system analyzes the use of energy and utilities and supports energy efficiency improvement by quickly and accurately indicating actual performance and comparing it with set targets. Some examples of the performance reports are:
■ Consumption and cost of utilities per hour/day/month/year, by individual and aggregated users ■ Consumption and cost of utilities per end product unit ■ Analysis of load profile and peak demand ■ Benchmarking (comparing current performance against the past) ■ Best practices performance ■ Budget performance
The mill level systems collect real-time data from the process, calculate and report electricity, steam, water and natural gas balances and predict energy consumption. Energy balance data and consumption forecasts are consolidated in control centers. Apart from the owner’s commitment and the set up of the energy management cell the execution of the whole idea is the key. A paper manufacturing firm may go for specialist in this area to achieve energy savings effectively. Vendors like ABB has energy saving solutions specifically designed to match the needs of the paper industry.
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