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Appendix I

The Old Testament and the Modern Episcopalian and Christian – A Thesis Project

Fall, 2002

The Rev. Nicholas A. Marziani, Jr.

St. Joseph’s Episcopal Church
Grand Prairie, TX

Dear Doctoral Thesis Project Participant:

Thank you for your gracious participation in this thesis project. It is my hope and desire that
you will find this experience both educationally and spiritually edifying. The purpose of this
pre-project questionnaire is to establish a baseline of understanding as concerns the Old
Testament – its themes and content – as we begin the project. Please take now some time to
respond to the following eight questions. In most cases, a brief answer will suffice – please
give yourself plenty of time to think through and consider what you really believe about
these topics. Please also realize that there are no “wrong” or “right” answers at this point of
the project – it is important that each idea you wish to express be your honest opinion. When
you really cannot answer, just skip on to the next item. I guarantee that your individual
answers will be anonymous and held in the strictest confidence. When you have completed
the survey, deposit it in the special box designated for the purpose. I hope you enjoy filling
out the questionnaire. After the results are tallied and analyzed, my final thesis project write-
up will be made available next Spring to all who wish a copy. Thank you for your
participation, and God bless you.

1. What does the term “Authenticity” or relevance mean for you as you think about the
Christian faith?
2. What does the term “Community” mean for you as you think about the Christian faith?
3. Please reflect on the following two questions: “Is there a God?”; and, “Which God is
4. What is the place of emotional experience in the practice of the Christian faith?
5. What do you believe is the difference between the cultural and spiritual asepcts of the
Christian faith?
6. What is the place of the Old Testament law, as you understand it, in the life of the
modern Christian?
7. What is the place of Old Testament stories, as you recall them, in the life of the modern
8. What place do the Old Testament prophets and their message have for you as you life
your Christian Life?
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Appendix II
Liturgical and Community Activities

The study cohort attended three liturgical events at Baruch ha Shem Messianic synagogue,

the third event also including, by tradition and design, a significant social and community-

building focus. The three liturgies were: A Service of Kol Nidre, A Morning Shabbat

Service, and a Service of Havdalah. The Kol Nidre service is observed on the evening of

Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), and is one of the most singularly solemn liturgies in the

Jewish worship tradition. Shabbat morning services are conducted every Saturday, and the

service of Havdalah closes out the Shabbat and is conducted as late Saturday afternoon turns

into evening (traditionally when two or three stars appear in the dusk sky). The service of

Havdalah is relatively short, but is followed at Baruch ha Shem by an extended time of food

and fellowship that includes traditional dancing.

The Order of Service for each of these liturgies was adapted from traditional Jewish

prayerbooks, augmented by periods of singing and praiseful worship very similar to what

occurs in contemporary Christian congregations. Under “Selected List of Works Consulted”

will be found the Siddur for Messianic Jews, which, though not followed slavishly by all

Messianic congregations, nevertheless provides a very good liturgical standard for the

majority of the observances of these groups. In addition, there is a Mahzor for Messianic

Jews, prepared by the same authors of the Siddur, that contains material for the observance of

Yom Kippur and Kol Nidre. The Siddur also contains a section entitled “Singable Praise

Selections,” but insofar as the state of Messianic Jewish, no less than Gentile Christian,

worship music is constantly under development, it is impossible to specify, nor should it be

relevant to specify, hymnody and such in this appendix.

The Basic Order of Service for the core observance of Messianic Jews, the Saturday

Shabbat morning service consists of the following elements (from pages one and two of the

Siddur for Messianic Jews):

Preparation for Worship

Opening anthem “He Being Merciful”

Kindling the Shabbat Lights
Half Kaddish (traditional praise anthem)
L’khoo N’ran’nah (from Psalm 95)
Bar’khoo (“Bless the LORD who is blessed”)
V’shamru (exhortation to observe the sabbath)
Magen Avot (“Shield of our Fathers” – “Before His Face we shall serve with
reverence and fear”)
L’chah Dodi (“Come beloved friend, to meet the bride”)

Worshipping the God of the Universe

Attah Hoo Ad (“You were the same” – a declaration of God’s worth)

Kaddish (extended traditional praise anthem)
Shema (“Hear O Israel” – most famous Jewish declaration of the Faith)
HaElohim Asher (Hebrew text of Hebrews 1:1-3, from The New Testament in
Modern Hebrew, United Bible Societies, 1976, Israel)
Amidah Prayers (daily and sabbath prayers, adapted from traditional material)
Other Material, focusing on the graces available through the Messiah Yeshua

Receiving God’s Instructions

Torah Service (Lectionary reading from the books of Moses), including a time
of commentary, and at Baruch ha Shem, the sermon is delivered at the end;
the Torah service includes a ceremonial procession of the scrolls
Prayer for Faithfulness to God and Torah
“There is None Like You”
Alenu (“Let us now praise the L-ORD of All”)

Concluding Our Worship

Yigdal (“Exalt the Living God and Praise Him”)

Kiddush (Ceremonial blessing over challah bread and wine), including
distribution through congregation (not considered a Lord’s Supper)
Adon Olom (“Lord of the Universe”)
Aaronic Benediction
The above outline will serve also as a basic format for Jewish worship in general. The

Kol Nidre evening service for Yom Kippur utilizes most of the elements listed above, but it

is supplemented by material specifically designed for the day, including the “All Vows” (Kol

Nidre) section, which is radically reinterpreted and adapted according to a theology that

recognizes the Messiahship of Jesus (the original purpose of Kol Nidre is to recall and

renounce vows made by way of false conversion to Christianity on the part of persecuted

Jews in the past!). All of the liturgies of Yom Kippur (evening, morning and following

evening) also include litanies of penitence (“The Great Litany” in the Book of Common

Prayer is in many ways an eviscerated version of the Hebrew prayers of penitence).

Finally, the liturgy of Havdalah, Conclusion of the Sabbath, consists of a simple

recollection of the division of the sabbath from the rest of the week to follow, and utilizes a

spice box denoting the special character of the sabbath and hopefully its lingering influence

into the new week. At Baruch ha Shem the Havdalah service is done monthly in a public

manner followed by a chavurah, an extended time of food and fellowship. This is a true

expression of the konoinia that the New Testament enjoins on the community of faith, and it

is uniquely practiced by Messianic Jews.

Appendix III

De-Brief and Reflection Curriculum

The study cohort first met just prior to the Kol Nidre service they attended at Baruch

ha Shem, and then met between each of the two services following, concluding with a final,

private meeting with one of the leaders of Baruch ha Shem at my home. The following is a

brief summary of the themes and highpoints discussed at these meetings. It should be

emphasized that with the exception of the initial orientation meeting, these sessions were

rather informal in nature, highly interactive, and therefore had a life of their own. In

considering the question of replicability, it is best to consider that aside from the researcher

asking open-ended questions about the project theme elements under study at each meeting,

the “curriculum” actually consisted of allowing study participants to ask questions and offer

commentary based on what they observed and experienced at Baruch ha Shem. With this in

mind, the following is a brief outline summary record of the meetings.

Meeting #1 – September 10, 2002

* Introductions and Ice-Breakers

* Instructions concerning the conduct of the study
* Overall theme introduction: “What (really) is the place of the Old Testament scripture in
the life of modern day Christians?” – The notion of “Worldview” as formed by scripture,
including the relationships between and among people, God and nature
* Presentation of study hypothesis
* Historical Overview of the place of Jews and the Hebrew canon in the church
* Orientation to Jewish liturgical practice and invitation to attend Kol Nidre
* Closing comments and questions

Meeting #2 – October 8, 2002

* Reflection on the place of Torah in Jewish life; scripture and Jesus Christ as incarnated
realities; the semi-sacramental nature of scripture in Jewish life

* The tone of the Kol Nidre service – not overly solemn, but focused on lostness of the
unredeemed; depth of the litany of penitence and its effect on the worshipper
* Invitation to offer commentary on study elements – reflections on internal shifts in thought
and understanding in light of experience at Baruch ha Shem
* Reflections on the nature of Jewish community, a “koinonia” of its own, a comprehensive
society of faith; perceived links between the people and the scripture, the implicit worldview
contained therein
* “Who is God”? - reflection on meaning of God Talk. Unique and personal God in Old
Testament. The idea of “scandal of particularity” and application to Old Testament themes
* Place of Law in Old Testament and New (keeps the Christian from presumption in his/her
faith); ordinances or instructions? Nuances in concept of “Law” in Old Testament
* Place of stories in Old Testament – Baruch ha Shem service like a “story being told out;”
Baruch ha Shem folks “instinctively know how to act out a story in their lives”
* Miscellaneous questions; invitation to attend next service at Baruch ha Shem

Meeting #3 – November 12, 2002

* Continuation of study of variety of Old Testament literature, including apocrypha

* Continuation of focus on the Law and possible applications today; the Law as descriptor of
God’s order in creation
* Appropriation of the Law in Christian discipleship - how done? Modern Christian anti-
nomialism, especially effect on youth
* Judaism as critiqued by Paul; his concerns and nuances of thought
* Continuation of focus on narrative – Story of Offering of Isaac (the Akedah)
* Faith and progressive revelation; God as the Great Rabbi/teacher
* Continuation of focus on the prophets; type and antitype; an ongoing, living witness
* Miscellaneous questions; invitation to attend final session with Messianic leader

Final Meeting #4 – December 14, 2002

* Focus on story of the Maccabees and Festival of Dedication/Chanukah

* Applications to New Covenant people: “We are all temples, carrying dedicated light”
* Christmas and cultural paganism: A Jesus devoid of his Jewish context
* Rationale for keeping biblical (Old Testament) feasts
* Community – “God created a culture where community lingers”; One New Man
* Orthodox Jewish apologetic; Jewish evangelism – what works
* An issue of genealogy – Conaniah’s curse, Talmudic insight on his repentance and the
lifting of the curse! Application to New Testament genealogy of Jesus
* Torah and Grace in Old and New Testaments; reality of sin and the mercy of God

Appendix IV
Terminal Investigative Instrument

Appendix IV
Terminal Investigative Instrument
The Rev. Nicholas A. Marziani, Jr.
344 Clayton Street
Grand Prairie, TX 75052
23 December, 2002

A Few Quick Additional Instructions:

1) Please realize there are no “right” or “wrong” answers here. Do be as honest and as open
as you can; what is important is to ascertain what YOU think and feel and believe about
the questions posed.
2) Mentally review and re-experience your time with the folks at Baruch ha Shem as you
answer these questions. Both THINK AND FEEL into the questions, and then provide as
long or as short an answer as you believe appropriate.
3) As with the first project assessment instrument you completed, there are two sections of
the questions that follow: first, five questions that relate to general issues associated with
how modern people approach religious topics, and secondly, three specific questions
relating to the three major divisions of the Hebrew scriptures. All of these questions have
relevance to what I am studying, but you are free to skip over any question you’d just
rather not engage.


1. How relevant to our age do you believe the Old Testament (O.T.) scripture to be? Might
you describe it as foundational, or as merely interesting in certain places, and perhaps
irrelevant in others (you might want to also think about Matthew 5:18 as you answer
2. As you think about the topic of religious “community” and fellowship, in what way has
your understanding of this subject possibly changed and developed since September?
(Has it changed?).
3. Just Who or What is God? How does this God relate to humanity?
4. Do you sense any shift in your understanding of the place of emotional experience in the
practice of the Christian faith?
5. How do you now believe the cultural and spiritual aspects of the faith interact? Can there
be such a thing as a purely “spiritual” faith, abstracted from a concrete context?
6. O.T. laws can sometimes seem strange to us; just what might be the place of the O.T.
Legal material in the life of the modern Christian?
7. O.T. stories were fun in Sunday school, and later in adult bible studies. What application
do you believe these stories have for us today?
8. O.T. prophets prophesized many things, some having some direct application to Jesus’
life and ministry and death, many having little to do with that topic. What place does (or
could) the prophetic literature have in your Christian walk?
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