Strength of MaterialFormulas Short Notes

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Strength of MaterialFormulas Short Notes

Strength of MaterialFormulas Short Notes

© All Rights Reserved

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Material

(Formula & Short Notes)

Stress = Force / Area

Tension strain(et )

L Changeinlength

L

Initial length

D

2

P

( D D2 d 2 )

where, P = Standard load, D = Diameter of steel ball, and d = Diameter of the indent.

Elastic constants:

STRAIN ENERGY

Energy Methods:

(i) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to axial loads ( tension):

U = P / ( 2AE ) dx

limit 0 to L

Where, P = Applied tensile load, L = Length of the member , A = Area of the member, and

E = Youngs modulus.

(ii) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to bending:

U = M / ( 2EI ) dx

limit 0 to L

Where, M = Bending moment due to applied loads, E = Youngs modulus, and I = Moment of

inertia.

(iii) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to torsion:

U = T / ( 2GJ ) dx

limit 0 to L

moment of inertia

(iv) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to pure shear:

U =K V / ( 2GA ) dx

Where,

limit 0 to L

V= Shear load

G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity

A = Area of cross section.

K = Constant depends upon shape of cross section.

(v) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to pure shear, if shear stress is given:

U = V / ( 2G )

Where,

= Shear Stress

G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity

V = Volume of the material.

(vi) Formula to calculate the strain energy , if the moment value is given:

U = M L / (2EI)

Where,

M = Bending moment

L = Length of the beam

E = Youngs modulus

I = Moment of inertia

(vii) Formula to calculate the strain energy , if the torsion moment value is given:

U = T L / ( 2GJ )

Where,

T = Applied Torsion

L = Length of the beam

G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity

J = Polar moment of inertia

(viii) Formula to calculate the strain energy, if the applied tension load is given:

U = PL / ( 2AE )

Where,

P = Applied tensile load.

L = Length of the member

A = Area of the member

E = Youngs modulus.

(ix) Castiglianos first theorem:

= U/ P

Where, = Deflection, U= Strain Energy stored, and P = Load

(x) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with point load at centre:

= - wl3 / 192 EI

This defection is times the deflection of a simply supported beam.

(xi) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with uniformly distributed load:

= - wl4 / 384 EI

This defection is 5 times the deflection of a simply supported beam.

(xii) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with eccentric point load:

= - wa3b3 / 3 EI l3

Fixed end moments for a fixed beam with the given loading conditions:

Type of loading (A--B)

MAB

MBA

-wl / 8

wl / 8

-wab2/ l2

wab2/ l2

-wl2 / 12

wl2 / 12

12 l2

-wa2 (4l-3a)/ 12 l2

-wl2 / 30

-wl2 / 30

-5 wl2/

M/4

96

-5 wl2/ 96

M/4

1. Both ends fixed:

PE = 2 EI / ( 0.5L)2

2. Both ends hinged :

PE = 2 EI / (L)2

3. One end fixed ,other end hinged:

PE = 2 EI / ( 0.7L)2

4. One end fixed, other end free:

PE = 2 EI / ( 2L)2 where L = Length of the column

Rakines formula:

PR =

where,

fC = yield stress

A = cross sectional area

a = Rakines constant

leff = effective length

r = radius of gyration

max = P /A + ( Mmax / Z )= P/ A + P a / ( 1- ( P / PE ))Z

Where,

P = axial load

PE = Eulers load

a = constant

Z = section modulus

max = P /A+( M max /Z) = P/A + ( P e Sec(leff /2 ) (P/EI) )/((1- (P / PE )) Z )

Where, P = axial load

A = cross section area

PE = Eulers load

e = eccentricity

Z = section modulus

EI = flexural rigidity

General expressions for the maximum bending moment, if the deflection curve

equation is given:

BM = - EI ( d 2y / dx 2 )

Maximum Principal Stress Theory ( Rakines theory):

1 = f y.

where 1 is the maximum Principal Stress, and f y is elastic limit stress.

Maximum Principal Strain Theory ( St. Venants theory):

e1 = fy/ E

In 3D,

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Trescas theory) :

In 3D, ( 1 - 3) / 2 = f y /2 ( 1 - 3) = f y

In 2D, ( 1 - 2) / 2 = f y /2 1 = f y

Maximum Shear Strain Theory (Von Mises- Hencky theory or Distortion energy

theory):

In 3D, shear strain energy due to distortion:

U = (1/ 12G)[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ]

U = f y 2 / 6G

(1/ 12G)[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ] = f y 2 / 6G

[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ] = 2 f y 2

In 2D, [ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 0) 2 + ( 0 - 1) 2 ] = 2 f y 2

Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Beltrami Theory):

In 3D, strain energy due to deformation:

U = (1/ 2E)[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(1/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )]

Strain energy due to simple tension:

U = f y 2 / 2E

(1/ 2E)[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(2/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )] = f y 2 / 2E

[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(2/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )] = f y 2

In 2D, [ 12 + 22 - (2/m)( 1 2 )] = f y 2

Failure theories and its relationship between tension and shear:

1. Maximum Principal Stress Theory ( Rakines theory):

y = fy

2. Maximum Principal Strain Theory( St. Venants theory):

y = 0.8 f y

3. Maximum Shear Stress Theory ( Trescas theory):

y =0.5 f y

4. Maximum Shear Strain Theory ( Von Mises Hencky theory or Distortion energy

theory):

y= 0.577 f y

4. Maximum Strain Energy Theory ( Beltrami Theory):

y= 0.817f y .

Volumetric strain per unit volume:

f y 2 / 2E

Relation between torque, power and speed of a rotating shaft:

Tn

63000

In SI units:

H T

Where H is power in Watts, T is torque in N-m, and

The shear stress:

Tr

J

J is the area polar moment of inertia and for a solid (di=0) or hollow section,

32

(d o4 d i4 )

TL

GJ

The spring constant is:

EA

L

48 EI

L3

3EI

L3

Kt

GJ

L

If a load (a force or force couple) is applied to two members in parallel, each member takes

a load that is proportional to its stiffness.

Kt2

Kt1

K1

K2

F1

K1

F

K1 K 2

F2

K2

F

K1 K 2

T1

Kt 1

T

K t1 K t 2

T2

Kt 2

T

K t1 K t 2

F

2A

The clevis is also under tear-out shear stress as shown in the following figure (top view):

F

4A

In this formula A= (Ro-Ri) is approximately and conservatively the area of the dotted

cross-section. Ro and Ri are the outer and inner radii of the clevis hole. Note that there are

4 such areas.

Shear stresses in beams under bending forces:

F

VQ

IZb

Q A1 y1

A1

y1

y1

Shear stress:

T

2 At

TSL

4 A 2 Gt

Where S is the perimeter of the midline, L is the length of the beam, and G is shear modulus.

Stress in Thin-Walled Cylinders

The tangential or hoop stress is:

Pdi

2t

Pdi

4t

The tangential stress:

P P

Pi ri 2 Po ro2 ri 2 ro2 o 2 i

r

t

2

2

ro ri

The radial stress is:

P P

Pi ri 2 Po ro2 ri 2ro2 o 2 i

r

r

ro2 ri 2

When the ends are closed, the external pressure is often zero and the axial stress is:

Pi ri 2

a 2 2

ro ri

Stresses in rotating rings

ri2 ro2 1 3 2

3 2

2

t (

)(ri ro 2

r )

8

3

r

2

3 2 2 ri2ro2

r (

)(ri ro 2 r 2 )

8

r

2

where

The interface pressure for same material cylinders with interface nominal radius of R and

inner and outer radii of ri and ro:

E r (ro2 R2 )( R2 ri2 )

P

R 2R2 (ro2 ri2 )

Impact Forces

For the falling weight:

2hk

Fe 1 1

W

W

2h

Fe 1 1

W

st

IF h=0, the equivalent load is 2W. For a moving body with a velocity of V before impact, the

equivalent force is:

Fe V mk

Failure of columns under compressive load (Buckling)

The critical Euler load for a beam that is long enough is:

Pcr C

2 EI

L2

The following end-condition numbers should be used for given cases:

When one end is fixed (prevented from rotation and lateral movement) and the

other is free, use C= 1/4 .

When one end is fixed and the other end can pivot, use C=2 when the fixed end is

truly fixed in concrete. If the fixed end is attached to structures that might flex

under load, use C=1.2 (recommended).

When both ends are fixed (prevented from rotation and lateral movement), use C=4.

Again, a value of C=1.2 is recommended when there is any chance for pivoting.

Slenderness ratio:

An alternate but common form of the Euler formula uses the slenderness ratio which is

defined as follows:

L

Slenderness Ratio where k

k

I

A

Range of validity of the Euler formula

Euler formula is a good predictor of column failure when:

L

2 2 EC

k

Sy

If the slenderness ratio is less than the value in the RHS of the formula, then the better

predictor of failure is the Johnson formula:

2

SyL 1

Pcr AS y

2k CE

Determinate Beams

Equations of pure bending:

M E

=

=

I

R y

Where,

M: Bending Moment

[N*m]

: normal stress

[N/m2]

E: Modulus of elasticity

[N/m2]

R: Radius of Curvature

[m]

[m]

I: Moment of inertia

[m4]

d2y

EI

=M

dx2

Indeterminate Beams

Macaulays Method (Singularity functions):

n

+

1

n 1

x

a

> x

d

x

=<

<

x

a

>

>

a

n

+

1

If positive then the brackets (< >) can be replaced by parentheses. Otherwise the

brackets will be equal to ZERO.

n

<

x

a

>

=

0

n

<

x

a

>

=

(

x

a

)

0

<

x

<

a

x

>

a

Hooke's Law stated that within elastic limit, the linear relationship between simple

stress and strain for a bar is expressed by equations.

,

E

P

l

E

A

l

Where, E = Young's modulus of elasticity

P = Applied load across a cross-sectional area

l = Change in length

l = Original length

Poissons Ratio:

Volumetric Strain:

eV

Changeinvolume V

Initial volume

V

Modulus of rigidity:

G

E

2(1 )

Bulk modulus:

E

9KG

or E

3(1 2 )

3K G

3K 2G

6K 2G

pd

pd

c

2t

2t

d = Diameter of the shell

t = Thickness of shell

= Efficiency of joint

Longitudinal stress

pd

pd

l

4t

4t

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