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Strength of

Material
(Formula & Short Notes)

Stress and strain


Stress = Force / Area

Tension strain(et )

L Changeinlength

L
Initial length

Brinell Hardness Number (BHN)

D
2

P
( D D2 d 2 )

where, P = Standard load, D = Diameter of steel ball, and d = Diameter of the indent.

Elastic constants:

STRAIN ENERGY
Energy Methods:
(i) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to axial loads ( tension):
U = P / ( 2AE ) dx

limit 0 to L

Where, P = Applied tensile load, L = Length of the member , A = Area of the member, and
E = Youngs modulus.
(ii) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to bending:
U = M / ( 2EI ) dx

limit 0 to L

Where, M = Bending moment due to applied loads, E = Youngs modulus, and I = Moment of
inertia.
(iii) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to torsion:
U = T / ( 2GJ ) dx

limit 0 to L

Where, T = Applied Torsion , G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity, and J = Polar


moment of inertia
(iv) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to pure shear:
U =K V / ( 2GA ) dx
Where,

limit 0 to L

V= Shear load
G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity
A = Area of cross section.
K = Constant depends upon shape of cross section.

(v) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to pure shear, if shear stress is given:
U = V / ( 2G )
Where,

= Shear Stress
G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity
V = Volume of the material.

(vi) Formula to calculate the strain energy , if the moment value is given:
U = M L / (2EI)
Where,

M = Bending moment
L = Length of the beam
E = Youngs modulus
I = Moment of inertia

(vii) Formula to calculate the strain energy , if the torsion moment value is given:
U = T L / ( 2GJ )
Where,

T = Applied Torsion
L = Length of the beam
G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity
J = Polar moment of inertia

(viii) Formula to calculate the strain energy, if the applied tension load is given:
U = PL / ( 2AE )
Where,
P = Applied tensile load.
L = Length of the member
A = Area of the member
E = Youngs modulus.
(ix) Castiglianos first theorem:
= U/ P
Where, = Deflection, U= Strain Energy stored, and P = Load
(x) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with point load at centre:
= - wl3 / 192 EI
This defection is times the deflection of a simply supported beam.

(xi) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with uniformly distributed load:
= - wl4 / 384 EI
This defection is 5 times the deflection of a simply supported beam.
(xii) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with eccentric point load:
= - wa3b3 / 3 EI l3
Fixed end moments for a fixed beam with the given loading conditions:
Type of loading (A--B)

MAB

MBA

-wl / 8

wl / 8

-wab2/ l2

wab2/ l2

-wl2 / 12

wl2 / 12

-wa2 (6l2 8la + 3a2)/


12 l2

-wa2 (4l-3a)/ 12 l2

-wl2 / 30

-wl2 / 30

-5 wl2/

M/4

96

-5 wl2/ 96

M/4

Eulers formula for different end conditions:


1. Both ends fixed:
PE = 2 EI / ( 0.5L)2
2. Both ends hinged :
PE = 2 EI / (L)2
3. One end fixed ,other end hinged:
PE = 2 EI / ( 0.7L)2
4. One end fixed, other end free:
PE = 2 EI / ( 2L)2 where L = Length of the column
Rakines formula:
PR =

f C A / (1+ a (l eff / r)2 )

where,

PR = Rakines critical load


fC = yield stress
A = cross sectional area
a = Rakines constant
leff = effective length
r = radius of gyration

Eulers formula for maximum stress for a initially bent column:


max = P /A + ( Mmax / Z )= P/ A + P a / ( 1- ( P / PE ))Z
Where,

P = axial load

A = cross section area


PE = Eulers load
a = constant
Z = section modulus

Eulers formula for maximum stress for a eccentrically loaded column:


max = P /A+( M max /Z) = P/A + ( P e Sec(leff /2 ) (P/EI) )/((1- (P / PE )) Z )
Where, P = axial load
A = cross section area
PE = Eulers load
e = eccentricity
Z = section modulus
EI = flexural rigidity
General expressions for the maximum bending moment, if the deflection curve
equation is given:
BM = - EI ( d 2y / dx 2 )
Maximum Principal Stress Theory ( Rakines theory):
1 = f y.
where 1 is the maximum Principal Stress, and f y is elastic limit stress.
Maximum Principal Strain Theory ( St. Venants theory):
e1 = fy/ E
In 3D,

e 1 = 1/E[ 1 (1/m)( 2 + 3) ] = f y / E [ 1 (1/m)( 2 + 3) ] = f y

In 2D, 3 = 0 e 1 = 1/E[ 1 (1/m)( 2 ) ] = f y / E [ 1 (1/m)( 2 ) ] = f y


Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Trescas theory) :
In 3D, ( 1 - 3) / 2 = f y /2 ( 1 - 3) = f y
In 2D, ( 1 - 2) / 2 = f y /2 1 = f y
Maximum Shear Strain Theory (Von Mises- Hencky theory or Distortion energy
theory):
In 3D, shear strain energy due to distortion:
U = (1/ 12G)[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ]

Shear strain energy due to simple tension:


U = f y 2 / 6G
(1/ 12G)[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ] = f y 2 / 6G
[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ] = 2 f y 2
In 2D, [ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 0) 2 + ( 0 - 1) 2 ] = 2 f y 2
Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Beltrami Theory):
In 3D, strain energy due to deformation:
U = (1/ 2E)[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(1/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )]
Strain energy due to simple tension:
U = f y 2 / 2E
(1/ 2E)[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(2/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )] = f y 2 / 2E
[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(2/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )] = f y 2
In 2D, [ 12 + 22 - (2/m)( 1 2 )] = f y 2
Failure theories and its relationship between tension and shear:
1. Maximum Principal Stress Theory ( Rakines theory):
y = fy
2. Maximum Principal Strain Theory( St. Venants theory):
y = 0.8 f y
3. Maximum Shear Stress Theory ( Trescas theory):
y =0.5 f y
4. Maximum Shear Strain Theory ( Von Mises Hencky theory or Distortion energy
theory):
y= 0.577 f y
4. Maximum Strain Energy Theory ( Beltrami Theory):
y= 0.817f y .
Volumetric strain per unit volume:
f y 2 / 2E

Torque, Power, and Torsion of Circular Bars:


Relation between torque, power and speed of a rotating shaft:

Tn
63000

Where H is power in Hp, T is torque in lb-in, and n is shaft speed in rpm.


In SI units:

H T
Where H is power in Watts, T is torque in N-m, and

is shaft speed in rad/s.

The shear stress in a solid or tubular round shaft under a torque:


The shear stress:

Tr
J

J is the area polar moment of inertia and for a solid (di=0) or hollow section,

32

(d o4 d i4 )

The angle of rotation of a shaft under torque:

TL
GJ

Axial deflection of a bar due to axial loading


The spring constant is:

EA
L

Lateral deflection of a beam under bending load:

48 EI
L3

3EI
L3

For cantilevered beams of length L:

Torsional stiffness of a solid or tubular bar is:

Kt

GJ
L

The units are pounds per radians.

Load Distribution between parallel members:


If a load (a force or force couple) is applied to two members in parallel, each member takes
a load that is proportional to its stiffness.

Kt2
Kt1
K1

K2

The force F is divided between the two members as:

F1

K1
F
K1 K 2

F2

K2
F
K1 K 2

The torque T is divided between the two bars as:

T1

Kt 1
T
K t1 K t 2

T2

Kt 2
T
K t1 K t 2

Direct shear stress in pins:

F
2A

The clevis is also under tear-out shear stress as shown in the following figure (top view):

Tear-out shear stress is:

F
4A

In this formula A= (Ro-Ri) is approximately and conservatively the area of the dotted
cross-section. Ro and Ri are the outer and inner radii of the clevis hole. Note that there are
4 such areas.
Shear stresses in beams under bending forces:
F

VQ
IZb

Q A1 y1
A1

Torsion of Thin-walled Tubes:

y1

y1

Shear stress:

T
2 At

TSL
4 A 2 Gt

Where S is the perimeter of the midline, L is the length of the beam, and G is shear modulus.
Stress in Thin-Walled Cylinders
The tangential or hoop stress is:

Pdi
2t

The axial stress is:

Pdi
4t

Stresses in Thick-walled Cylinders


The tangential stress:

P P
Pi ri 2 Po ro2 ri 2 ro2 o 2 i
r

t
2
2
ro ri
The radial stress is:

P P
Pi ri 2 Po ro2 ri 2ro2 o 2 i
r
r
ro2 ri 2
When the ends are closed, the external pressure is often zero and the axial stress is:

Pi ri 2
a 2 2
ro ri
Stresses in rotating rings

ri2 ro2 1 3 2
3 2
2
t (
)(ri ro 2
r )
8
3
r
2

3 2 2 ri2ro2
r (
)(ri ro 2 r 2 )
8
r
2

where

is the mass density and

is the Poissons ratio.

Interface pressure as a result of shrink or press fits


The interface pressure for same material cylinders with interface nominal radius of R and
inner and outer radii of ri and ro:

E r (ro2 R2 )( R2 ri2 )

P
R 2R2 (ro2 ri2 )
Impact Forces
For the falling weight:

2hk
Fe 1 1
W
W

2h
Fe 1 1
W

st

IF h=0, the equivalent load is 2W. For a moving body with a velocity of V before impact, the
equivalent force is:

Fe V mk
Failure of columns under compressive load (Buckling)
The critical Euler load for a beam that is long enough is:

Pcr C

2 EI
L2

C is the end-condition number.


The following end-condition numbers should be used for given cases:

When both end are free to pivot use C=1.


When one end is fixed (prevented from rotation and lateral movement) and the
other is free, use C= 1/4 .
When one end is fixed and the other end can pivot, use C=2 when the fixed end is
truly fixed in concrete. If the fixed end is attached to structures that might flex
under load, use C=1.2 (recommended).
When both ends are fixed (prevented from rotation and lateral movement), use C=4.
Again, a value of C=1.2 is recommended when there is any chance for pivoting.

Slenderness ratio:
An alternate but common form of the Euler formula uses the slenderness ratio which is
defined as follows:

L
Slenderness Ratio where k
k

I
A

Where k is the area radius of gyration of the cross-sections.


Range of validity of the Euler formula
Euler formula is a good predictor of column failure when:

L
2 2 EC

k
Sy
If the slenderness ratio is less than the value in the RHS of the formula, then the better
predictor of failure is the Johnson formula:
2

SyL 1

Pcr AS y

2k CE

Determinate Beams
Equations of pure bending:


M E
=
=
I
R y
Where,
M: Bending Moment

[N*m]

: normal stress

[N/m2]

E: Modulus of elasticity

[N/m2]

R: Radius of Curvature

[m]

y: Distance from neutral surface

[m]

I: Moment of inertia

[m4]

d2y
EI
=M
dx2

Indeterminate Beams
Macaulays Method (Singularity functions):
n
+
1
n 1
x
a
> x
d
x
=<
<
x
a
>
>
a
n
+
1

If positive then the brackets (< >) can be replaced by parentheses. Otherwise the
brackets will be equal to ZERO.
n

<
x
a
>
=
0
n

<
x
a
>
=
(
x
a
)

0
<
x
<
a
x
>
a

Hooke's Law (Linear elasticity):


Hooke's Law stated that within elastic limit, the linear relationship between simple
stress and strain for a bar is expressed by equations.

,
E
P
l
E
A
l
Where, E = Young's modulus of elasticity
P = Applied load across a cross-sectional area
l = Change in length
l = Original length
Poissons Ratio:

Volumetric Strain:

eV

Changeinvolume V

Initial volume
V

Relationship between E, G, K and :

Modulus of rigidity:
G

E
2(1 )

Bulk modulus:

E
9KG
or E
3(1 2 )
3K G

3K 2G
6K 2G

Stresses in Thin Cylindrical Shell

Circumferential stress (hoop stress)

pd
pd
c
2t
2t

Where, p = Intensity of internal pressure


d = Diameter of the shell
t = Thickness of shell
= Efficiency of joint

Longitudinal stress

pd
pd
l
4t
4t