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# Strength of

Material
(Formula & Short Notes)

## Stress and strain

Stress = Force / Area

Tension strain(et )

L Changeinlength

L
Initial length

## Brinell Hardness Number (BHN)

D
2

P
( D D2 d 2 )

where, P = Standard load, D = Diameter of steel ball, and d = Diameter of the indent.

Elastic constants:

STRAIN ENERGY
Energy Methods:
(i) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to axial loads ( tension):
U = P / ( 2AE ) dx

limit 0 to L

Where, P = Applied tensile load, L = Length of the member , A = Area of the member, and
E = Youngs modulus.
(ii) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to bending:
U = M / ( 2EI ) dx

limit 0 to L

Where, M = Bending moment due to applied loads, E = Youngs modulus, and I = Moment of
inertia.
(iii) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to torsion:
U = T / ( 2GJ ) dx

limit 0 to L

## Where, T = Applied Torsion , G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity, and J = Polar

moment of inertia
(iv) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to pure shear:
U =K V / ( 2GA ) dx
Where,

limit 0 to L

G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity
A = Area of cross section.
K = Constant depends upon shape of cross section.

(v) Formula to calculate the strain energy due to pure shear, if shear stress is given:
U = V / ( 2G )
Where,

= Shear Stress
G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity
V = Volume of the material.

(vi) Formula to calculate the strain energy , if the moment value is given:
U = M L / (2EI)
Where,

M = Bending moment
L = Length of the beam
E = Youngs modulus
I = Moment of inertia

(vii) Formula to calculate the strain energy , if the torsion moment value is given:
U = T L / ( 2GJ )
Where,

T = Applied Torsion
L = Length of the beam
G = Shear modulus or Modulus of rigidity
J = Polar moment of inertia

(viii) Formula to calculate the strain energy, if the applied tension load is given:
U = PL / ( 2AE )
Where,
L = Length of the member
A = Area of the member
E = Youngs modulus.
(ix) Castiglianos first theorem:
= U/ P
Where, = Deflection, U= Strain Energy stored, and P = Load
(x) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with point load at centre:
= - wl3 / 192 EI
This defection is times the deflection of a simply supported beam.

(xi) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with uniformly distributed load:
= - wl4 / 384 EI
This defection is 5 times the deflection of a simply supported beam.
(xii) Formula for deflection of a fixed beam with eccentric point load:
= - wa3b3 / 3 EI l3
Fixed end moments for a fixed beam with the given loading conditions:

MAB

MBA

-wl / 8

wl / 8

-wab2/ l2

wab2/ l2

-wl2 / 12

wl2 / 12

## -wa2 (6l2 8la + 3a2)/

12 l2

-wa2 (4l-3a)/ 12 l2

-wl2 / 30

-wl2 / 30

-5 wl2/

M/4

96

-5 wl2/ 96

M/4

## Eulers formula for different end conditions:

1. Both ends fixed:
PE = 2 EI / ( 0.5L)2
2. Both ends hinged :
PE = 2 EI / (L)2
3. One end fixed ,other end hinged:
PE = 2 EI / ( 0.7L)2
4. One end fixed, other end free:
PE = 2 EI / ( 2L)2 where L = Length of the column
Rakines formula:
PR =

where,

## PR = Rakines critical load

fC = yield stress
A = cross sectional area
a = Rakines constant
leff = effective length

## Eulers formula for maximum stress for a initially bent column:

max = P /A + ( Mmax / Z )= P/ A + P a / ( 1- ( P / PE ))Z
Where,

## A = cross section area

a = constant
Z = section modulus

## Eulers formula for maximum stress for a eccentrically loaded column:

max = P /A+( M max /Z) = P/A + ( P e Sec(leff /2 ) (P/EI) )/((1- (P / PE )) Z )
A = cross section area
e = eccentricity
Z = section modulus
EI = flexural rigidity
General expressions for the maximum bending moment, if the deflection curve
equation is given:
BM = - EI ( d 2y / dx 2 )
Maximum Principal Stress Theory ( Rakines theory):
1 = f y.
where 1 is the maximum Principal Stress, and f y is elastic limit stress.
Maximum Principal Strain Theory ( St. Venants theory):
e1 = fy/ E
In 3D,

## In 2D, 3 = 0 e 1 = 1/E[ 1 (1/m)( 2 ) ] = f y / E [ 1 (1/m)( 2 ) ] = f y

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Trescas theory) :
In 3D, ( 1 - 3) / 2 = f y /2 ( 1 - 3) = f y
In 2D, ( 1 - 2) / 2 = f y /2 1 = f y
Maximum Shear Strain Theory (Von Mises- Hencky theory or Distortion energy
theory):
In 3D, shear strain energy due to distortion:
U = (1/ 12G)[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ]

## Shear strain energy due to simple tension:

U = f y 2 / 6G
(1/ 12G)[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ] = f y 2 / 6G
[ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 3) 2 + ( 3 - 1) 2 ] = 2 f y 2
In 2D, [ ( 1 - 2)2 + ( 2 - 0) 2 + ( 0 - 1) 2 ] = 2 f y 2
Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Beltrami Theory):
In 3D, strain energy due to deformation:
U = (1/ 2E)[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(1/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )]
Strain energy due to simple tension:
U = f y 2 / 2E
(1/ 2E)[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(2/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )] = f y 2 / 2E
[ 12 + 22 + 32 -(2/m)( 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 )] = f y 2
In 2D, [ 12 + 22 - (2/m)( 1 2 )] = f y 2
Failure theories and its relationship between tension and shear:
1. Maximum Principal Stress Theory ( Rakines theory):
y = fy
2. Maximum Principal Strain Theory( St. Venants theory):
y = 0.8 f y
3. Maximum Shear Stress Theory ( Trescas theory):
y =0.5 f y
4. Maximum Shear Strain Theory ( Von Mises Hencky theory or Distortion energy
theory):
y= 0.577 f y
4. Maximum Strain Energy Theory ( Beltrami Theory):
y= 0.817f y .
Volumetric strain per unit volume:
f y 2 / 2E

## Torque, Power, and Torsion of Circular Bars:

Relation between torque, power and speed of a rotating shaft:

Tn
63000

## Where H is power in Hp, T is torque in lb-in, and n is shaft speed in rpm.

In SI units:

H T
Where H is power in Watts, T is torque in N-m, and

## The shear stress in a solid or tubular round shaft under a torque:

The shear stress:

Tr
J

J is the area polar moment of inertia and for a solid (di=0) or hollow section,

32

(d o4 d i4 )

## The angle of rotation of a shaft under torque:

TL
GJ

The spring constant is:

EA
L

48 EI
L3

3EI
L3

Kt

GJ
L

## Load Distribution between parallel members:

If a load (a force or force couple) is applied to two members in parallel, each member takes
a load that is proportional to its stiffness.

Kt2
Kt1
K1

K2

F1

K1
F
K1 K 2

F2

K2
F
K1 K 2

T1

Kt 1
T
K t1 K t 2

T2

Kt 2
T
K t1 K t 2

## Direct shear stress in pins:

F
2A

The clevis is also under tear-out shear stress as shown in the following figure (top view):

## Tear-out shear stress is:

F
4A

In this formula A= (Ro-Ri) is approximately and conservatively the area of the dotted
cross-section. Ro and Ri are the outer and inner radii of the clevis hole. Note that there are
4 such areas.
Shear stresses in beams under bending forces:
F

VQ
IZb

Q A1 y1
A1

## Torsion of Thin-walled Tubes:

y1

y1

Shear stress:

T
2 At

TSL
4 A 2 Gt

Where S is the perimeter of the midline, L is the length of the beam, and G is shear modulus.
Stress in Thin-Walled Cylinders
The tangential or hoop stress is:

Pdi
2t

Pdi
4t

## Stresses in Thick-walled Cylinders

The tangential stress:

P P
Pi ri 2 Po ro2 ri 2 ro2 o 2 i
r

t
2
2
ro ri

P P
Pi ri 2 Po ro2 ri 2ro2 o 2 i
r
r
ro2 ri 2
When the ends are closed, the external pressure is often zero and the axial stress is:

Pi ri 2
a 2 2
ro ri
Stresses in rotating rings

ri2 ro2 1 3 2
3 2
2
t (
)(ri ro 2
r )
8
3
r
2

3 2 2 ri2ro2
r (
)(ri ro 2 r 2 )
8
r
2

where

## Interface pressure as a result of shrink or press fits

The interface pressure for same material cylinders with interface nominal radius of R and
inner and outer radii of ri and ro:

E r (ro2 R2 )( R2 ri2 )

P
R 2R2 (ro2 ri2 )
Impact Forces
For the falling weight:

2hk
Fe 1 1
W
W

2h
Fe 1 1
W

st

IF h=0, the equivalent load is 2W. For a moving body with a velocity of V before impact, the
equivalent force is:

Fe V mk
Failure of columns under compressive load (Buckling)
The critical Euler load for a beam that is long enough is:

Pcr C

2 EI
L2

## C is the end-condition number.

The following end-condition numbers should be used for given cases:

## When both end are free to pivot use C=1.

When one end is fixed (prevented from rotation and lateral movement) and the
other is free, use C= 1/4 .
When one end is fixed and the other end can pivot, use C=2 when the fixed end is
truly fixed in concrete. If the fixed end is attached to structures that might flex
When both ends are fixed (prevented from rotation and lateral movement), use C=4.
Again, a value of C=1.2 is recommended when there is any chance for pivoting.

Slenderness ratio:
An alternate but common form of the Euler formula uses the slenderness ratio which is
defined as follows:

L
Slenderness Ratio where k
k

I
A

## Where k is the area radius of gyration of the cross-sections.

Range of validity of the Euler formula
Euler formula is a good predictor of column failure when:

L
2 2 EC

k
Sy
If the slenderness ratio is less than the value in the RHS of the formula, then the better
predictor of failure is the Johnson formula:
2

SyL 1

Pcr AS y

2k CE

Determinate Beams
Equations of pure bending:

M E
=
=
I
R y
Where,
M: Bending Moment

[N*m]

: normal stress

[N/m2]

E: Modulus of elasticity

[N/m2]

[m]

## y: Distance from neutral surface

[m]

I: Moment of inertia

[m4]

d2y
EI
=M
dx2

Indeterminate Beams
Macaulays Method (Singularity functions):
n
+
1
n 1
x
a
> x
d
x
=<
<
x
a
>
>
a
n
+
1

If positive then the brackets (< >) can be replaced by parentheses. Otherwise the
brackets will be equal to ZERO.
n

<
x
a
>
=
0
n

<
x
a
>
=
(
x
a
)

0
<
x
<
a
x
>
a

## Hooke's Law (Linear elasticity):

Hooke's Law stated that within elastic limit, the linear relationship between simple
stress and strain for a bar is expressed by equations.

,
E
P
l
E
A
l
Where, E = Young's modulus of elasticity
P = Applied load across a cross-sectional area
l = Change in length
l = Original length
Poissons Ratio:

Volumetric Strain:

eV

Changeinvolume V

Initial volume
V

## Relationship between E, G, K and :

Modulus of rigidity:
G

E
2(1 )

Bulk modulus:

E
9KG
or E
3(1 2 )
3K G

3K 2G
6K 2G

pd
pd
c
2t
2t

## Where, p = Intensity of internal pressure

d = Diameter of the shell
t = Thickness of shell
= Efficiency of joint

Longitudinal stress

pd
pd
l
4t
4t