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See how I broke down the massively complicated topic of Security Council reform into

more easily digestible issues? Thats framing. There may be countless other things that
could be considered issues, but Im not trying to break up the topic into every single
issue. Im simply trying to emphasize the most important ones. Essentially, framing is
about coming up with a structure. In a speech, framing helps both the speaker and the
A cohesive structure helps the speaker stay within the typical one minute time limit. It
also helps him look like he knows what hes talking about. Someone who knows how to
analyze a topic, i.e. breaking up one big thing into many smaller things, looks like
theyve done their research. And, framing helps the speaker transition from point to
point and improvise parts of their speech.
For my speech above, I basically wrote down three words on a notepad: Membership,
Veto, Practices. I knew that I wanted to outline my countrys position, and I remembered
a bunch of stuff from my research, but for the most part, I improvised a minute-long
speech based on these three words. See my post on Making It Up.
A logical structure helps the listener follow what youre saying, which also means that
theyre more likely to listen. Have you ever fallen asleep listening to another delegate
drone on and on? You probably thought of this other delegates speech as boring. There
are likely 3 three reasons for this: 1) you didnt care anyway, 2) you didnt like listening
to the other delegate, i.e. he or she had poor delivery, or 3) you couldnt follow what
theyre saying, i.e. the speech lacked structure.
Let the power delegate speak for a little bit and let him make his point, listening politely
like you would for any other person. As soon as hes done with his point, hell most likely
to attempt to keep rambling on and make additional incoherent points without listening
to other people. This is his attempt to assert dominance. Power delegate: The US
believes we should send in troops. And then hold elections. And then start an education
program. Education, education, education, blah blah blah
But before he can launch into a one-man show that wastes everyone elses time, cut him
offby asking him a question. (Huh? Wont this make talk more? Keep reading) Direct it
specifically at him; ask him to rephrase or clarify something he said. He might not expect
this; hes most likely used to just plowing ahead. But hell most likely take this as an
opportunity to keep talking; you asked him a question, after all. You: Excuse me, US, but
what kind of education program did you have in mind?
As soon as hes done with his response, and before he can launch into a new, unrelated
point, direct a new question at someone else in the caucus bloc. You can ask this other
person if he agrees with the power delegate. Or, you can ask a rhetorical question to
another delegate, in order to let this other delegate speak. You: Ghana, didnt you have
a similar idea about an education program?
Soon, youve asked everyone in the caucus bloc a question, and given everyone a
chance to speak. Assuming theres time left in the committeeand there might not be,
which is the risk to this techniquenow its your time to speak. And you can either use
this time to give your countrys position, or, even better, use it to start writing the
resolution. You: Well, I think we all agree that education should be part of the resolution.

I think everyone likes this part of Indias program, and this part of Ghanas idea. Lets
write them down. Booyahnow youre the author of the resolution.
The best delegate though, knows how to turn a rule into a strategy. The rule is, in order
for an amendment to be considered friendly, all sponsors must agree. Conversely (and
this is often left unexplained), it also means that if any one sponsor disagrees, the
amendment becomes unfriendly and is subject to voting by the committee, which is a
situation the power delegate would rather not face due to the potential for rejection.
Therefore, at any point, you can disagree and essentially veto the power delegate from
asserting control over your draft resolution. If your disagreement is considerate to your
loyal bloc allies and principled (on policy), you will have striped the power delegate of
his/her source of power, the agreeing but exhausted group of sponsors.
Regardless, here are some basic tips for talking about your resolution:
1. State whether you are in favor or against the resolution.
2. In 1 sentence or 1 word, explain why you do or do not favor the resolution.
3. Pick 3 operative clauses to support your argument.
4. Encourage the committee to vote in favor or against the resolution.
For example: The Netherlands favors this resolution because it is comprehensive. Look
at clauses x, y, and z. [Explain what x, y, and z does] The resolution addresses all of the
major points that were brought up in debate. We encourage the committee to vote in
favor of the resolution.
Another example: The Netherlands is against this resolution because it is vague. Look at
clauses x, y, and z. [Explain what x, y, and z fail to do] The resolution does nothing. We
urge the committee to vote against the resolution.
I am assuming that you dont have a lot of time to talk about the resolution, so you need
to focus your speech. Using 1 sentence and 3 operative clauses to describe the
resolution makes it easier for the audience to remember what youre saying.
If you have time remaining, I think it is a good idea to yield to points of information
unless you have a very good reason not to; for example, you said something unpopular
so delegates will use their questions to attack you. But if you wrote the resolution or are
one of its primary sponsors, then you need to answer questions from the delegates. If
you wont defend your resolution, no one else will.
Its very simple: dont try to answer the delegates question at least not yet. The
animated and long-winded question is just the delegate venting out negativity, just like
how the angry customer vented some steam to the salesperson. Instead, ask the
delegate to please repeat (or clarify) the question.
* Good question!
* Im glad you asked
* Another delegate asked me that earlier.
* Interesting point.

* I havent heard that argument made yet.

* I understand, but
* I understand, and
* Thats a legitimate concern.
* I can see why your country would agree/disagree with this policy/idea/operative clause/etc.
Think for a moment that youre a delegate with a real question or concern. Wouldnt you feel at
least a little more respected or heard if another delegate replied with one of those Cushioning
Statements before launching into his/her response? I sure would.

Resolution GA/3/1.1
General Assembly Third Committee
Sponsors: United States, Austria and Italy
Signatories: Greece, Tajikistan, Japan, Canada, Mali, the Netherlands and Gabon
Topic: "Strengthening UN coordination of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies"
The General Assembly,
Reminding all nations of the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights, which recognizes the inherent dignity, equality and inalienable rights of all global
citizens, [use commas to separate preambulatory clauses]
Reaffirming its Resolution 33/1996 of 25 July 1996, which encourages Governments to work with UN
bodies aimed at improving the coordination and effectiveness of humanitarian assistance,
Noting with satisfaction the past efforts of various relevant UN bodies and nongovernmental

Stressing the fact that the United Nations faces significant financial obstacles and is in need of reform,
particularly in the humanitarian realm,
Encourages all relevant agencies of the United Nations to collaborate more closely with countries at
the grassroots level to enhance the carrying out of relief efforts; [use semicolons to separate
operative clauses]
Urges member states to comply with the goals of the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs to
streamline efforts of humanitarian aid;
Requests that all nations develop rapid deployment forces to better enhance the coordination of relief
efforts of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies;
Calls for the development of a United Nations Trust Fund that encourages voluntary donations from
the private transnational sector to aid in funding the implementation of rapid deployment forces;
Stresses the continuing need for impartial and objective information on the political, economic and
social situations and events of all countries;
Calls upon states to respond quickly and generously to consolidated appeals for humanitarian
assistance; and
Requests the expansion of preventive actions and assurance of post-conflict assistance through
reconstruction and development. [end resolutions with a period]

Preambulatory Clauses
The preamble of a draft resolution states the reasons for which the committee is addressing the topic
and highlights past international action on the issue. Each clause begins with a present participle
(called a preambulatory phrase) and ends with a comma. Preambulatory clauses can include:
References to the UN Charter;
Citations of past UN resolutions or treaties on the topic under discussion;
Mentions of statements made by the Secretary-General or a relevant UN body or agency;
Recognition of the efforts of regional or nongovernmental organizations in dealing with the issue;
General statements on the topic, its significance and its impact.
Sample Preambulatory Phrases
Alarmed by
Expressing its appreciation
Bearing in mind
Fully aware
Expressing its appreciation
Deeply concerned
Fully aware
Deeply conscious
Further deploring
Deeply convinced
Further recalling
Deeply Disturbed
Guided by
Deeply Regretting
Having adopted
Having considered

Having examined
Having received
Keeping in min
Noting with deep concern
Nothing with satisfaction
Noting further
Taking into consideration
Taking note
Viewing with appreciation

Operative Clauses
Operative clauses offer solutions to issues addressed earlier in a resolution through the
perambulatory section. These clauses are action oriented and should include both an underlined
verb at the beginning of your sentence followed by the proposed solution. Each clause should follow
the following principals:
Clause should be numbered;
Each clause should support one another and continue to build your solution;
Add details to your clauses in order to have a complete solution;
Operative clauses are punctuated by a semicolon, with the exception of your last operative clause
which should end with a period.
Sample Operative Phrases
Expresses its appreciation
Expresses its hope
Further invites
Calls upon

Further recommends
Further requests
Further resolves
Has resolved

Declares accordingly
Draws the attention

Draws the attention

Expresses its appreciation
Expresses its hope
Further invites
Further proclaims
Further reminds

Solemnly affirms
Strongly condemns
Takes note of