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CHAPTER - 31

SAFETY OF ENVIRONMENT
1 Concept of Environment.
1.1 Environmenta Visible Form of the God.
1.2 Environment or Safe Environment ?
1.3 First Preservation and then Control.
1.4 First CP and then PC.
1.5 Safety of Environment - A Global Issue.
2 Terminology.
175 terms defined.
3 Preservation of Resources.
3.1 Need to Preserve Resources
3.2 Types of Resources
3.3 Depletion and Conservation of Resources
3.4 Management of Resources
4 Cleaner Production (CP) Techniques.
4.1 Meaning, Examples & Methodology of CP
4.2 Energy Conservation
4.3 Green Chemistry
4.4 Green Energy
4.5 Environmental Technology
4.6 Waste Minimization

THEME
5

6
7
8

1. CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT

organism and property etc and also supporting


infrastructure of land, river, sea, air, forests, flora
and fauna etc.

Let us first begin with a question What is


environment ? First, we will see the concept
explained in our Indian philosophy.

1.1 Environment a Visible Form of


the God :
As per our Indian philosophy, environment is
nothing but the visible form of the God. In Gita
Bhagvan Krushna explains two forms of the God
atma i.e. soul which is invisible by us and
prakruti i.e. environment or paryavaran which is
visible by us.
Following stanza clarifies this

U U h U
UU UC U H ( 7-4)
The panchmahabhut i.e. five basic elements that
created this world and sustaining it are Bhoomi
(land), Jal (water), Agni (fire or energy), Vayu (air),
and Akash (space). These are called Prakruti of the
God.

This makes it clear that the visible form of the


God i.e. environment is for worship and to keep
always clean and beautiful. We cannot make it dirty
or polluted by any means. God dislikes dirtiness.
He lives in cleanliness. Therefore, it is our moral
duty to keep the environment clean, green and fully
safe.

1.2 Environment or Safe Environment ?


Environment has become a vital and larger
issue attracting the worlds attention. Particularly
with the increasing pollution level at many places
and increase in global warming and its adverse
consequences, the subject of environment is gaining
more importance and everybody says that the
environment must be kept safe, clean and green.
The word safety is also important. For its
detail discussion see Chapter-1. If we ask a simple
question, What is more important? Environment or
Safe environment? Then naturally reply will be Safe
environment. Difference between environment and
safe environment is clear. Environment is
important, but it must be safe, livable and
comfortable. Therefore, the word safe environment
indicates our duty to keep the environment safe
everywhere. If it is not safe, then the words clean
and green have also no meaning. Cleanliness and
greenness are required to make the environment
safe. No body likes dirty, contaminated or unsafe
environment.

The modern definition of the word


environment as given in Section 2(a) of the
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, uses the words
land, water and air as the basic constituents or
attributes of environment.
Thus environment, nature, paryavaran or prakruti
is the visible form of the God and also a root cause
of birth and existence of all bio-organism including
human beings, animals, birds, plants, microFundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

4.7 Pollution Prevention (P2)


4.8 Cleaner Production Options
Pollution Control (PC) Measures.
5.1 Land (Soil) Pollution Control
5.2 Water Pollution Control
5.3 Air Pollution Control
5.4 Noise Pollution Control
5.5 General Guidelines for Pollution Control
Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)
6.1 Meaning and Objective of EIA
6.2 EIA Guidelines
Statutory Provisions
National and International Standards
8.1 National Standards
8.2 International Standards
8.3 Foreign Standards
Pollution Control Boards
9.1 Addresses of Boards Offices
9.2 Duties of Boards Officers
9.3 Information Required from Industry

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Safety of Environment

The Statement of Objects and Reasons given


with the Environment (Protection) Bill in 1986, uses
the following words

Environmental hazards.
Industrial and environmental safety.
Hazardous substances.
Emergency situations
environment.

threatening

the

Accidents threaten environment and


Endanger human environment, safety and
health.
All these words emphasize the legal intention
of law that safety is required in the areas of
environment too.

1.3

First Preservation
Control.

and

then

God has given us all dead and live resources


(see Part-1 of Chapter-1) for reason of our birth,
growth, existence and utility and to do all activities
including acquiring knowledge to know the God
and the whole universe (his visible form) for our
enjoyment and usefulness. He has given basic
resources of land, water, air, energy and
space(panchmahabhut) for the livelihood of all living
being and growth in all directions.
The efforts of growth by human beings utilize
these resources and they are being reduced day by
day. Human efforts to make new resources from
the natural resources are not only resulting in
reduction of resources but also in polluting the
remaining resources. The polluted environment
creates problems of safety and has created the
current problems of ozone depletion, global
warming, climate change and pollution of land,
water and air.
Therefore, immediate brake is required to
preserve, conserve or protect the natural and other
resources first and then to fill the gap of loss as
far as possible. Consuming all resources and
polluting the remaining resources is nothing but
madness. We are cutting our own feet.
Preservation of resources and control of pollution,
both are necessary but the step of preservation of
clean or fresh resources is most desired. Some basic
steps are as under:1. Do afforestation instead of deforestation. Plant
and encourage to plant maximum trees during
life.
2. Not only forest, but preserve and protect flora
and fauna, aquatic lives and birds in the sky.
Indian culture tells us to worship all such
living friends. The whole ecosystem or nature
is to be observe and protected. Biodiversity is
to be maintained. No species should be
endangered.
All activities must be ecofriendly.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 2

3. Preserve water. Dont draw water more than


required. Bore wells should be as less as
possible. Lakes, check-dams and reservoirs
should be created to store water. Water recharge
wells and rain water harvesting should be
encouraged. All water consuming units should
return atleast equal amount of clean water (after
treatment of waste water or otherwise) back to
the earth to become water neutral.
4. Keep air clean for preserving its cleanliness
and due oxygen content. Trees suck CO2, give
O2 and also trap flying particles of gas and
dusts during their emission and dispersion.
Therefore, tree plantation and gardening are
encouraged.
5. We have to preserve soil and landfilled
resources, oil, water, metals, nonmetals and gases
inside the earth to prevent earthquake, tsunami
and similar land disorders. They are
meaningfully buried there. Their excess
excavation disturbs the balance.
Our desire to get more and more must be
curtailed. More requirement makes more damage to
environment. Therefore, practice of reducing desires
and preservation of nature is always preferred over
subsequent control.

1.4

First CP and then PC

CP means Cleaner Production and PC means


Pollution Control. Cleaner production technology or
technique aims at minimizing generation of wastes
at all stages of production and thus reducing
pollution at source. Therefore, it is also called
wasteless processing.
To achieve these objectives, strive to work on
principles of green chemistry (greenchem) and green
technology (greentech). It searches for less hazardous
and less polluting fuels, raw materials, equipments,
processes, procedures and methodology. It puts
stress on 4 Rs i.e reduce, reuse, recycle and recover
wastes as far as possible. If this is practiced, there
will be no or less generation of pollution and
therefore no need of much effort for Pollution
Control (PC).
Pollution control is costly affair and many
times not fully achievable or affordable. If PC is not
successful; efforts for CP will be costly and result
will be damage to environment i.e. public, property
and ecosystem.
CP is like preventive maintenance while PC
is like breakdown or corrective maintenance. CP
is proactive treatment while PC is reactive
treatment. Their difference is of timing also. CP
is a forward-looking, anticipate and prevent
philosophy. PC is an after-the-event, react and
treat approach.
Which is more preferable is easy to understand.
Therefore, all industrial and other activities
must first practice CP option and then PC option.
Safety of Environment

1.5

Safety of Environment - A Global


Issue

Protection of environment has become a global


issue. First developed countries (north) generated
pollution, learnt lessons from adverse effects, lost
lives and suffered great damage to plants and
properties and reached up to a stage of global
warming and climate change. As a result, they left
many such polluting products and activities and
invented CP and PC technology as mentioned in
Part 1.4 above.
But underdeveloped and developing countries
have to achieve growth and therefore they have
accepted such cheap, polluted and discarded
technology, plant and machinery, products, processes
and practices and are being adversely affected. They
are facing problems of pollution and accidents.
Pollution should also be considered as accident
because it creates health hazard and in larger
perspective, it creates issues of public health.
World disasters have noticed loss of many
lives and great damage to environment and have
compelled us to search and apply many control
measures (see Chapter-30). This is not fully
discontinued and zero risk is also not practically
possible. Therefore, safety of environment has
remained a global issue.
We should see pollution or environment
problems as public health problems and strive to
maintain safe or clean environment.

2. TERMINOLOGY

A cid

any air pollutant

6. Air Pollution Control Equipment : Any


apparatus, device, equipment or system to
control the quality and manner of emission of
any air pollutant and includes any device used
for securing the efficient operation of any
industrial plant.

7. Algae: Rootless plants that grow in sunlit

waters in relative proportion to the amounts of


nutrients available. They can affect water
quality adversely by lowering the dissolved
oxygen in the water. They are food for fish
and small aquatic animals. However, when
algae exists in excess, it takes away oxygen
from the water, thus killing all life.

8. Alternative energy: Usually environmentally


friendly, this is energy from uncommon sources
such as wind power or solar energy, not fossil
fuels.

9. Alternative fuels: Similar to above. Not petrol


or diesel but different transportation fuels like
natural gas, methanol, bio fuels and electricity.

10. Aquifer: A porous, water-saturated layer of

11. Arid: Regions where precipitation is insufficient


in quantity for most crops and where
agriculture is impractical without irrigation.

12. Atmosphere: The envelope of air surrounding

rain: When strong acids fall from the

atmosphere in the form of rain, snow, fog or dry


particles. The acid is the result of pollution
caused mostly by sulphur oxides and nitrogen
oxides that are discharged into the atmosphere
by industry. It also is created by burning coal
and oil, from the operation of smelting
industries and from transportation. In the
atmosphere, these gases combine with water
vapour to form acids, which then fall back to
Earth. The result often kills forests and sterilizes
lakes.
2. Afforestation: Planting trees where there were
none before.
3. Agroforestry: The integration of tree growing
with
crop
and
livestock
production.
Agroforestry offers a way of tackling the
combined problems of wood storages, poor
agricultural production and environmental
degradation.
4. Air Pollutant: Any solid, liquid or gaseous
substance (including noise) present in the
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

5. Air Pollution : Presence in the atmosphere of

sediment and bedrock under the Earths surface;


also described as artesian (confined) or water
table (unconfined).

See Part 3 of Chapter 2 for 100 terms defined.


See Part 10 of Chapter 28 for 83 legal terms
under the Environment Laws.
Some 175 terms concerned with the subject of
environment are explained below.

1.

atmosphere in such concentration as may be or


tend to be injurious to human beings or other
living creatures or plants or property or
environment.

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the Earth. Most of the total mass of the


atmosphere lies within the troposphere and the
stratosphere. Most weather events are confined
to the troposphere, the lower 8 to 12 km of the
atmosphere. The ozone layer is found in the
stratosphere which typically extends from 10 to
40 km above the Earth.

13.

Biodegradable:

Something when left alone


break down and be absorbed into the ecosystem. Capable of being broken down by living
organisms into inorganic compounds. Ideally all
waste should be biodegradable.

14. Biological diversity (biodiversity): The


variety of different living organisms from all
sources including terrestrial, marine and other
aquatic ecosystems and the variety of different
ecosystems that they form. This includes
diversity within species, between species and of
ecosystems, and the genetic variability of each
species.
Safety of Environment

15. Biological

resources: Includes genetic


resources, organisms or parts thereof,
populations, or any other biotic component of
ecosystems with actual or potential use or value
for humanity.

28. Carbon tetrachloride: A solvent which is

16. Biomass: The total amount of living organisms

29. Cataracts: Damage to the eye lens, which

17. Biosphere: The global ecosystem; that part of

impairs vision. It is often caused by UV-B


radiation, which is usually filtered out by the
ozone layer.

considered toxic and can cause cancer in


humans. It is used primarily as a feedstock
material for the production of other chemicals,
including CFCs.

in a given area.

the earth and atmosphere capable of supporting


living organisms.

30. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons): Any of the

18. Blackwater : The wastewater generated by


toilets.

19. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) :


The most widely used parameter of organic
pollution applied to both wastewater and
surface water is the 5-day BOD (BOD5 ). This
determination involves the measurement of the
dissolved oxygen used by microorganisms in
the biochemical oxidation of organic matter.
BOD test results are now used (1) to
determine the approximate quantity of oxygen
that will be required to biologically stabilize
the organic matter present, (2) to determine the
size of waste treatment facilities, (3) to measure
the efficiency of some treatment processes, and
(4) to determine compliance with wastewater
discharge permits.

31. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): The


COD test is used to measure the oxygen
equivalent of the organic material in wastewater
that can be oxidized chemically using
dichromate in an acid solution.

20. Carbon dioxide: A colorless, odorless, non-

32. Cleaner Production: It is a preventive,

poisonous gas, which results from fossil fuel


combustion and is normally a part of the air.
CO2 is a naturally occurring greenhouse gas in
the atmosphere. However the amount of it
increases when we burn fossil fuels, leading to
global warming.

company-specific environmental protection


initiative. It is intended to minimize wastes and
emissions and maximize product output.

33. Climate: The long term average condition of


the weather in a given area.

21. Carbon footprint: A measure of the impact

34. Climate change: A change in temperature

on the environment in terms of the amount of


greenhouse gases produced, measured in units
of carbon dioxide.

22. Carbon monoxide: A colorless, odorless and


highly toxic gas commonly created during
combustion.

23. Carbon neutral: A company, person or action


either not producing any carbon emissions or if
it does have been offset elsewhere.

24. Carbon offsetting: See offsetting.


25. Carbon rationing: Limiting the amount of

and weather patterns due to human activity


like burning fossil fuels. It is the slow
variations of climatic characteristics over time at
a given place. Usually refers to the change of
climate which is attributed directly or indirectly
to human activity that alters the composition of
the global atmosphere and which is, in
addition to natural climate variability, observed
over comparable periods.

35. Climate

carbon you use each year. Carbon rationing


action groups (crags) help you reduce your
carbon footprint. Find out more here.

26. Carbon sink: Carbon dioxide is naturally

system: The totality of the


atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and
geosphere and their interactions that
characterize the average and extreme conditions
of the atmosphere over a long period of time at
any one place or region of the earths surface.

36. Composting: A process whereby organic

absorbed by things such as oceans, forests and


peat bogs. These are called carbon sinks.

wastes, including food and paper, decompose


naturally, resulting in a produce rich in
minerals and ideal for gardening and farming
as a soil conditioner, mulch, resurfacing
material, or landfill cover. It is the natural

27. Carbon tax: A charge on fossil fuels based on


their carbon content.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

various compounds consisting of chlorine,


hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon. They were first
invented by DuPont Corporation in 1928 and
have been widely used as refrigerants, as
aerosol propellants, as cleaning solvents and in
the manufacture of plastic foam. In 1972,
scientists discovered that gaseous CFCs can
deplete the ozone layer when they slowly rise
into the stratosphere and their chlorine atoms
react with ozone molecules. Efforts are now
underway through the Montreal Protocol to
reduce and then eliminate production of this
substance worldwide.

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Safety of Environment

47. Drought: A naturally-occurring phenomenon

biological decomposition of organic material in


the presence of aerobic bacteria to form a rich,
dark soil fertilizer.

that occurs when precipitation is significantly


below normal levels, causing water levels to
drop and vegetation to die. This extended
period of dry weather usually lasts longer than
expected and leads to measurable losses for a
human community (crop damage, water supply
shortage).

37. Conservation: Preserving and renewing, when


possible, human and natural resources. It is the
long-term
protection
and
sustainable
management of natural resources in accordance
with principles that ensure long-term economic
and social benefits.

48.

38. Conservation biology: It is the scietific


study of the nature and status of Earths
biodiversity with the aim of protecting species,
their habitas, and ecosystems from execessive
rates of extinction. It is an interdisciplinary
subject drawing all sciences, ecnomics, and the
practices of natural resource management.

An evaluation of your home


or workplace with the aim of cutting your
energy and water usage.

49. Eco-bag: A ethically, organically made bag to


use instead of plastic carrier bags.

50. Eco-bus: A bus which uses a combination of


diesel and electric power.

39. Consequence Assessment : A calculation

or estimate of the nature and extent of the


damage caused by all specified hazardous
events, including the influence of environmental
factors and the probability of exposure of
individuals, populations or ecosystems.

40. Contaminant: Any biological, chemical,

51. Ecosphere: Refers to the entire global


ecosystem
that
comprises
atmosphere,
lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere as
inseparable components.

52. Ecosystem: It is the whole biotic community


in a given area plus its abiotic environment.

53. Effluent: The discharge of industrial or urban

physical or radiological substance that has an


negative effect on air, soil or water.

41.

Eco-assessment:

waste material into the environment; the


outflow from a lake or river.

D DT:

An organochloride used as an
insecticide. It has been banned since 1969 in
most developed countries because it is a
probable cause of cancer. However, it is still
widely used in developing countries.

54. Emission: Any solid or liquid or gaseous


substance coming out of any chimney, duct or
flue or any other outlet.

55. Endangered : That have a high likelihood of


going extinct in the near future.

42. Deforestation: The cutting of trees, usually for


commercial purposes.

56. Endangered species: A species threatened


with extinction.

43. Desertification: Land degradation in arid,


semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting
from various factors, including climatic
variations and human activities.

57. Energy efficiency: Ways and technology that


can reduce the amount of electricity or fuel
used to do the same work. Such as keeping a
house warm using less energy.

44. Developed World: Those countries that have


industrialized through possessing the means
and the technology to do so.Also referred to as
the North or the Industrialized World.

58. Energy saving grant: Money awarded to

45. Developing World: Those countries that are

59. Energy saving light bulbs: Light bulbs

you to help improve the efficiency of your


home and use less energy.

underdeveloped and are not industrialized to


the extent of the developed world.Characterized
by high infant mortality rates, lack of proper
sanitation, low literacy rates, poverty, etc. Most
organizations, including the United Nations,
estimate that 60 to 80 per cent of the world fits
into this category. Also referred to as the
South, Underdeveloped or Third World.

60. Environment: All of the external factors,


conditions, and influences which affect an
organism or a community. Also, everything that
surrounds an organism or organisms, including
both natural and human-built elements.
Environment includes water, air, land and
the inter-relationship which exists among and
between water, air, land, human beings, other
living creatures, plants, micro-organism and
property.

46. Dioxin: Any of a family of compounds known


chemically as dibenzo-p-dioxins. Concern about
them arises from their potential toxicity and
contamination in commercial products.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

which use far less energy than conventional


bulbs.

31 - 5

Safety of Environment

61. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):

73. Global warming: An increase in the average

The critical appraisal, both positive and


negative, of the likely effects of a proposed
project, ,development, activity or policy on the
environment.

temperature of the earth, attributed to the


burning of fossil fuels. Strictly speaking, global
warming and global cooling refer to the natural
warming and cooling trends that the Earth has
experienced all through its history. However,
the term usually refers to the gradual rise in
the Earths temperatures that could result from
the accumulated gases that are trapped in the
atmosphere.

62. Environmentally preferable: Products or


services that have a lesser or reduced effect on
the environment.

63. Environmentally Sound: That which does

74. Gray water: See Grey water.

not harm the environment in any way.

75. Green building: It is a sustainable or high-

64. Erosion: The wearing away of land surface by

performance building, means a significantly


reduced impact on the Earths resources
compared to conventional building design,
construction, operations and maintenance. It
also provides a healthier and more comfortable
buildings for occupants, consequently enhancing
their productivity and sense of well-being.

wind, water, glaciers, chemicals, and exposure


to the atmosphere. Erosion occurs naturally but
can be intensified by land-clearing practices
related to farming, residential or industrial
development, road building or deforestation.

65. Eutrophication: Over-enrichment of a water


body with nutrients, resulting in excessive
growth of organisms and depletion of oxygen
concentration.

76. Green

design:
A design, usually
architectural, conforming to environmentally
sound principles of building, material and
energy use. A green building, for example,
might make use of solar panels, skylights, and
recycled building materials.

66. Extinct species: A species that no longer


survives anywhere in the world.

67.

Fauna:

Species content of animals present in


any area.

77. Green energy: It includes natural energetic

68. Flora: It is the species content of the regain


irrespective of the numerical strength of each
species thus vegetation is described where as
flora is listed.

69. Fossil fuel: Coal, oil and natural gas. A fuel


thats been made by the decomposition of
fossilized plants and animals. Coal, oil,
petroleum, and natural gas and other
hydrocarbons are called fossil fuels because
they are made of fossilized, carbon-rich plant
and animal remains. These remains were buried
in sediments and compressed over geologic
time, slowly being converted to fuel.

70. Fuel

cell: A technology that uses an


electrochemical process to convert energy into
electrical power. Often powered by natural gas,
fuel cell power is cleaner than grid-connected
power sources. In addition, hot water is
produced as a by-product.

71.

Geothermal

energy: Heat that comes from

the earth.

72. Glass recycling: Glass bottles and jars can


be recycled endlessly. That means that unlike
some other recycled products, a recycled bottle
can be recycled into another glass bottle. And
another, and so on forever.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 6

processes that can be harnessed with little


pollution. Anaerobic digestion, geothermal
power, wind power, small-scale hydropower,
solar energy, biomass power, tidal power, wave
power and some forms of nuclear power
(which is able to burn nuclear waste through
a process known as nuclear transmutation) and
therefore belong to the Green Energy. Some
definitions may also include power derived
from the incineration of waste.

78. Greenhouse effect: Explains global warming.


Its the process that raises the temperature of air
in the lower atmosphere due to heat trapped by
greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide,
chlorofluorocarbons, and ozone. It is the
warming of the Earths atmosphere caused by
the presence in the atmosphere of certain heattrapping gases (e.g., water vapor, carbon
dioxide, methane). These gases absorb radiation
emitted by the Earth, thereby retarding the loss
of energy from the system to space. The
greenhouse effect has been a property of Earths
atmosphere for millions of years and is
responsible for maintaining the Earths surface
at a temperature that makes it habitable for
human beings. An Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
is when the increased concentrations of these
gases are enhancing the natural greenhouse
effect. It is the enhanced greenhouse effect
that is expected to cause a large and rapid rise
in average global temperatures.
Safety of Environment

79. Greenhouse

gases: Those gaseous


constituents of the atmosphere, both natural
and artificial, that absorb and reemit infrared
radiation and that are responsible for global
warming. The most potent greenhouse gas,
carbon dioxide, is rapidly accumulating in the
atmosphere due to human activities.

89. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs): Chemicals with


fluorine but no chlorine, and therefore likely not
damaging to the ozone layer. However, HFCs
are potent greenhouse gases.
Used as solvents and cleaners in the
semiconductor industry, among others; experts
say that they possess global warming potentials
that are thousands of times greater than CO2.

80. Grey water: Waste water that does not

contain sewage or fecal contamination (such as


from the shower) and can be reused for
irrigation after filtration.

90. Hydroelectric energy:

Electric energy
produced by moving water. It is an electric
energy produced by water-powered turbine
generators.

81. Ground-level ozone (tropospheric


ozone): Ozone (O 3) that occurs near the

91. Hydrologic cycle: The cycle that water

82. Groundwater: The supply of fresh water

through its natural process of evaporation and


precipitation: from the sea, through the
atmosphere, to the land and back to the sea.

surface of the Earth. In pollution it causes


concern because of its toxic effects.

found beneath the earths surface (usually in


aquifers) which is often accessed through wells
and springs.

83.

92.

93. Industrial Revolution: The Industrial


Revolution began in the early 1800s and
heralded the birth of the modern times. After
the Industrial Revolution, work that was done
by hand was accomplished through the use of
machines. It brought on the advent of the steam
engine, cotton gin, sewing machine, paper,
telegraph, and railroad and it saw the
beginnings of many of our present industries.
While it occurred in the North, the effects of the
Industrial Revolution have affected the entire
world. Cars, planes, many objects made of
metal, telephones, televisions and many other
products are the result of this revolution.

Habitat includes land, water, or vegetation


which is the natural home of any wild animal;

84. Habitat

conservation: It is a land
management practice that seeks to conserve,
protect and restore, habitat areas for wild
plants and animals, especially conservation
reliant species, and prevent their extinction,
fragmentation or reduction in range.
Identification:
Systematic
investigation of the possible hazards associated
with an installation, particularly identification
of the hazards of the chemical(s) that can cause
injury or death to people or damage to property
by the release of the chemical or by the release
of energy in the event of an accident.

85. Hazard

94. Inorganic: Matter other than plant or animal,

and not containing a combination of carbon,


hydrogen and oxygen, which all living things
contain.

86. Hazardous Substance: Any substance or


preparation which, by reason of its chemical or
physico-chemical properties or handling; is
liable to cause harm to human beings, other
living creatures, plants, micro-organism, property
or the environment.

95. Integrated

resource planning: T h e
management of two or more resources in the
same general area, such as water, soil, timber,
grazing land, fish, wildlife and recreation.

96. IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on

87. Hazardous waste: Refuse that could present

Climate Change is a UN-commissioned


international working group formed in 1988. It
assesses climate change and its human causes.

dangers through the contamination and


pollution of the environment. It requires special
disposal techniques to make it harmless or less
dangerous.

88. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons

97.

(HCFCs):

Organic substances composed of hydrogen,


chlorine, fluorine, and carbon atoms. These
chemicals are less stable than CFCs, and are
therefore less damaging to the ozone layer.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

halocarbons: A group of

synthetic chemical compounds containing


carbon and one or more of chlorine, fluorine, or
bromine. Only those industrial halocarbons
containing chlorine or bromine pose a threat to
the ozone layer.

Habitat:

The geographical location(s) and the


associated set(s) of environmental conditions
that are necessary for the flourishing of a
particular type of plant or animal. In other
words, their home.

I ndustrial

31 - 7

Land

degradation: The reduction or loss of

the biological or economic productivity from


rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range,
pasture, forest and woodlands. Land
degradation usually results from unsustainable
land use.
Safety of Environment

98.

Landfill Area where waste is dumped and

110. Nuclear fission: The splitting of uranium

eventually covered with dirt and topsoil.

99.

Lead: Harmful to the environment used in a


lot of paints. Its also toxic to humans.

isotopes to produce heat, which is then


harnessed to produce electricity.

111. Nuclear fusion: The fusing together of

elements to produce either electrically-charged


particles or heat, which is then harnessed to
produce electricity. This technology is
currently being researched but thus far is not
cost-effective. Some scientists believe that it is
possible to produce non-radioactive nuclear
power with this type of technology.

100. Life cycle assessment: Methodology


developed to assess a products full
environmental costs, from raw material to
final disposal.

101. Light pollution: Environmental pollution


consisting of the excess of harmful or
annoying light.

112.

102. Low-emission vehicles: Cars etc which


emit little pollution compared to conventional
engines.

103.

M aximum

Credible Accident (MCA)

Scenario:

: The process of reducing carbon


emissions by offsetting it. An example is by
taking a flight and in compensation paying a
company to plant trees to equal the carbon
use out.

113. Oil: Fossil fuel used to produce petrol etc

Indicates most believable,


reasonable, trust worthy, convincing, likely or
possible accident scenario and damage
distance based on it. MCA scenario takes
into account the effect of existing control
measures
also.
It
considers
the
malfunctioning of the control system, opening
of safety valve, flange joint, pipe line etc. and
failing of some safety devise.

104.

Offsetting

and other materials such as plastics.

114. Official Development Assistance


(ODA): That which one country, usually of

the North, commits to give to another country,


usually of the South, for purposes of assisting
with development. The United Nations has
been trying for many years to get every
country in the developed world to commit to
giving 0.7 per cent of its GNP to developing
countries as ODA.

National

Park : Means an area declared,


whether under sec.35. or sec.38 or deemed,
under sub-section (3) of sec.66. to be declared,
as a National Park

115. Organic: Referring to or derived from living


organisms. In chemistry, organic refers to any
compound containing carbon. While it
technically refers to molecules made up of
two or more atoms of carbon, its generally
now used as a term for the growth of
vegetables etc without the use of artificial
pesticides and fertilizer.

105. Natural resource : (e.g., tree biomass, fresh

water, fish) Whose supply can essentially


never be exhausted, usually because it is
continuously produced.

106. Natural resource management: It is a


discipline in the management of natural
resources such as land, water, soil, plants
and animals, with a particular focus on how
management affects the quality of life for both
present and future generations.

116. Organic

Compounds: Compounds
composed of carbon and hydrogen. Organic
compounds form the basic building blocks of
living tissue.

107. Non-Governmental
Organization
(NGO): An organization centered around a

117. Organism: A living thing.


118. Ozone: A gas composed of three atoms of

cause or causes that works outside the sphere


of governments. NGOs often lobby
governments in an attempt to influence policy.

oxygen (0 3). Ozone partially filters certain


wavelengths of ultraviolet light from the Earth.
Ozone is a desirable gas in the stratosphere,
but in high concentrations at ground level, it
is toxic to living organisms.

108. Non-renewable resources: Resources that


are in limited supply, such as oil, coal, and
natural gas.
Natural resources that are not naturally
replenished once they have been harvested.
Non-renewable resources can be used up
completely or else used up to such a degree
that it is economically impractical to obtain
any more of them. Fossil fuels and metal ores
are examples of non-renewable resources.

119. Ozone layer : In the upper atmosphere


about 15 miles above sea level it forms a
protective layer which shields the earth from
excessive ultraviolet radiation and occurs
naturally.
Stratosperic ozone is formed in the
stratosphere from the conversion of oxygen
molecules by solar radiation. Ozone absorbs
much ultraviolet radiation and prevents it
from reaching the Earth.

109. North: See Developed World.


Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 8

Safety of Environment

120.

Parts

Per Million (ppm): The number of


parts by weight of a substance per million
parts of water or air as the case may be. This
unit is commonly used to represent pollutant
concentrations. Large concentrations are
expressed in percentages.

131. Precipitation: Any and all forms of water,


whether liquid or solid, that fall from the
atmosphere and reach the Earths surface. A
day with measurable precipitation is a day
when the water equivalent of the precipitation
is equal to or greater than 0.2 mm.

121. Pesticide: A substance or mixture of

132.

substances intended for preventing, destroying,


repelling, or mitigating any pest. Pesticides
can accumulate in the food chain and/or
contaminate the environment if they are
misused.

The process of reestablishing


a forest on previously cleared land.

133. Recycle symbol : The chasing arrow


symbol used to show that a product or
package can be recycled. The
three arrows on the symbol
represent different components
of the recycling process. The
top arrow represents the
collection
of
recyclable
materials. The second arrow (bottom right)
represents the recyclables being processed into
recycled products and the third arrow on the
bottom left represents when the consumer
actually buys a product with recycled content.

122. pH: An expression of both acidity and

alkalinity on a scale of zero to 14, with seven


representing neutrality; numbers less than
seven indicate increasing acidity and numbers
greater than seven indicate increasing
alkalinity. Acid rain can increase the pH level
of the water in a lake, thereby killing all life.

123. Photosynthesis: The manufacture by plants

of carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon


dioxide and water in the presence of
chlorophyll, using sunlight as an energy
source. Plants thereby absorb carbon from the
atmosphere with the process, and store it in
their forms.

134. Recyclable: Refers to such products as


paper, glass, plastic, oil and metals that can
be reprocessed into products again instead of
being disposed of as waste.

135. Recycling: The process of collecting, sorting,


and reprocessing old material into usable raw
material, intermediate, product or waste.

124. Phytoplankton: Usually microscopic aquatic


plants, sometimes consisting of only one cell.

136. Reduce: Not using or buying products in the

125. Plankton: Those organisms that are unable

first place so that less waste, less recycling


and less reusing may be required.

to maintain their position or distribution


independent of the movement of water or air
masses.

137. Renewable energy: Alternative energy


sources such as wind power or solar energy
that can keep producing energy indefinitely
without being used up.

126. Plastic: Man-made durable and flexible


synthetic-based product. Composed mainly of
petroleum. Non bio degradable plastic bags
are not very good for the environment.

138. Renewable resources: Like renewable

energy, resources such as wind, sunlight and


trees that regenerate. Natural resources that
have the capacity to be naturally replenished
despite being harvested (e.g., forests, fish). The
supply of natural resources can, in theory,
never be exhausted, usually because it is
continuously produced.

127. Plastic recycling : There are seven different


categories of plastics that can be recycled.

128. Pollution: The contamination of a natural


ecosystem, especially with reference to the
activity of humans.

129. Pollution Prevention (P2): It is a front-

139. Reserve Forest: Means the forest declared

end method to decrease costs, risks, and


environmental concerns. In contrast to
managing pollution (i.e. pollution control or
PC) after it is created, P2 reduces or
eliminates waste at its source. Once practices
are in place, savings from P2 continue year
after year.

to be reserved by the State Government


under sec.20. of the Indian Forest Act, 1927
(16 of 1927)

140. Resource: A person, thing, or action that is


used to produce a desired affect or product,
usually for meeting human needs or
improving the quality of life.

130. Post consumer waste : Waste collected

141. Reuse: Before throwing away or recycling, a

after the consumer has used and disposed of


it.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Reforestation:

product that can be reused until its time to


recycle.
31 - 9

Safety of Environment

142. Risk Assessment: It is the quantitative


evaluation of the likelihood of undesired
events and their consequences being caused
together and a value judgement concerning
the significance of the results after comparing
with set, legal or accepted values or
standards. Objectives of risk assessment are:
(1) Identification of vulnerable zones (losses
of persons and property) of the premises.
(2) Estimation of hazard distances for the
maximum credible accident (MCA)
scenarios.
(3) Suggestions for risk mitigation measures
and delineation of approach to disaster
management plan (DMP).

143.

S anctuary:

Means an area declared,


whether under sec. [26(A)5] or sec 38, or
deemed, under sub section (3) of Sec.66 of the
Indian Forest Act to be declared, as a wildlife
sanctuary

144. Septic

Tank: An tank (usually kept

underground) that is used to hold domestic


wastes when a sewer line is not available to
carry them to a treatment plant. It stores the
solid waste until bacteria breaks it down and
relatively clean water is absorbed by the
ground.

145. Sinks: Sinks remove gases from the


atmosphere either by destroying them through
chemical processes or storing them in some
other form. Carbon dioxide is often stored in
ocean water, plants, or soils, from where it
can be released at a later time.

146. Smog (photochemical smog): Literally a


contraction of smoke and fog; the
colloquial term used for photochemical fog,
which includes ozone and numerous other
contaminants. Smog is usually adds a
brownish haze to the atmosphere.

147. Solar energy: Energy from the sun.


148. Solar heating: Heat from the sun is
absorbed by collectors and transferred by
pumps or fans to a storage unit for later use
or to the house interior directly. Controls
regulating the operation are needed. Or the
heat can be transferred to water pumps for
hot water.

149. South: See Developing World.


150. Species: A uniform interbreeding population
spread overtime and space.

151. Stratosphere: The layer of the atmosphere


between about 10 and 40 km above the
Earths surface within which temperatures rise
with altitude. The stratosphere contains 90
per cent of the atmospheres ozone (O3).
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

152. Sulfur dioxide: SO2 is a heavy, smelly gas

which can be condensed into a clear liquid.


Its used to make sulfuric acid, bleaching
agents, preservatives and refrigerants and a
major source of air pollution.
153. Sustainability: It is the ability to continue
economic growth while protecting natural
resource systems and providing a high quality
of life. Achieving sustainable solutions call for
stewardship,
with
everyone
taking
responsibility for solving the problems of
today and tomorrow-individuals, communities,
businesses and governments are all stewards
of the environment. Activities are sustainable
if they meet the needs of the present
generation without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs.
154. Sustainable development: Development
that ensures that the use of resources and the
environment today does not compromise their
use in the future.

155.

Total

and Dissolved Organic Carbon


(TOC and DTOC): The TOC of a

wastewater can be used as a measure of its


pollution characteristics, and in some cases it
has been possible to relate TOC to BOD and
COD values. The TOC test is also gaining in
favor because it takes only 5 to 10 min to
complete.
A continuous on-line TOC analyzer has
been developed, in conjunction with the space
program that can be used to detect TOC
concentrations in the ppb (parts per billion)
range. Such instruments are currently being
used to detect the residual TOC in the treated
effluent from microfiltration and reverse
osmosis (RO) treatment units.
Along with COD, it has also become more
important to fractionate the TOC.
The
principal fractions are particulate TOC and
dissolved (soluble) DTOC.
Interrelationships between BOD, COD and
TOC
Typical values for the ratio of BOD/COD
for untreated municipal wastewater are in the
range from 0.3 to 0.8. If the BOD/COD ratio
for untreated wastewater is 0.5 or greater, the
waste is considered to be easily treatable by
biological means. If the ratio is below about
0.3, either the waste may have some toxic
components or acclimated microorganisms
may be required in its stabilization. The
corresponding BOD/ TOC ratio for untreated
wastewater varies from 1.2 to 2.0. In using
these ratios it is important to remember that
they will change significantly with the degree
of treatment the waste has undergone.
156. Toxic: Harmful to living organisms.

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Safety of Environment

157. Transnational corporation: A corporation

injurious to public health or safety, or to


domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural
or other legitimate uses, or to the life and
health of animals or plants or of aquatic
organizers

that is not based in any one country but may


maintain corporate offices in several countries.

158. Tree: includes palms, bamboos, skumps,


brush-wood and canes.

159. Troposphere: Layer of the atmosphere that

contains about 95 per cent of the Earths air


and extends about six to 17 km up from the
Earth, depending upon latitude and season.

160.

U ltraviolet

Radiation

(UV):

Electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength


range of 200 to 400 nanometres. (Also known
as ultraviolet light).

161. Urban runoff: Storm water from city streets

170. Water Quality: A term used to describe the


chemical,
physical,
and
biological
characteristics of water with respect to its
suitability for a particular use.

171. WEEE: Waste Electrical and Electronic


Equipment, your broken or not wanted
electronic gadgets like mobile phones or
computers.

172. Wetlands: Lands where water saturation is

the dominant factor that determines the nature


of soil development and the types of plant
and animal communities living in the
surrounding environment. Other common
names for wetlands are bogs, ponds, estuaries
and marshes.

and adjacent domestic or commercial


properties that may carry pollutants of
various kinds into the sewer systems and
from there to rivers, lakes or oceans.

162.

Vegetation:

The collective and continuous


growth
of plants in space is called
vegetation.

173. Wild life : Includes any animal (except


domestic) an aquatic and land vegetation
which form part of any habitat. In practice it
is used for a particular animal species.

163. Vermicomposting: The process whereby


worms feed on slowly decomposing materials
(e.g., vegetable scraps) in a controlled
environment to produce nutrient-rich soil.

174. Wind power: Energy derived from the wind.


175. Worst Case Release Scenario : Release

of the largest quantity of a regulated


substance from a single vessel or process line
failure that results in the greatest distance to
an end point e.g. catastrophic failure. It
considers the failure of all control systems
and release of the whole mass resulting in
maximum damage.

164. VOC (volatile organic compound): The


term used to describe the organic gases and
vapours that are present in the air. They are
believed to be involved in ground-level ozone
formation. Some VOCs are toxic air pollutants.

165. Vulnerable: Species that may become

endangered in the near future because


population of the species are decreasing in
size throughout its range.

166.

Waste

minimization: It is the process and


the policy of reducting the amount of waste
produced by a person or a society.

167. Waste water: Water that carries wastes


from homes, businesses, and industries. It is
usually a mixture of water and dissolved or
suspended solids.

168. Waste water or Effluent treatment


plant (ETP): A facility containing a series of
tanks, screens, filters, and other processes by
which pollutants are removed from water.

169. Water Pollution : Such contamination of

water or such alteration of the physical,


chemical or biological properties of water or
such discharge of any sewage or trade effluent
or of any other liquid, gaseous or solid
substance into water (whether directly or
indirectly) as may, or is likely to, create a
nuisance or render such water harmful or

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

PRESERVATION OF
RESOURCES.

Resources are natural and man made. Natural


resources are to be preserved first.

3.1 Need to Preserve Resources


Unless it is renewable, no resource can last for
ever. God has given limited resources and they are
not only for us. They are made for all men,
animals, birds and all living beings. Water in rivers
and sea is for all. Land is for all. Trees, fruits,
flowers, plants, vegetables, oils and minerals on
land are for all. Everybody has right to utilize Godgiven resources and also man-made resources. If we
will consume them abruptly, future generation will
be in trouble.
Natural resources like forests, animals, birds,
fishes, coal and petroleum, metals and minerals,
mines, land, fresh water, clean air etc. are to be
preserved or conserved for our own benefit and also
for our future generations.

31 - 11

Safety of Environment

3.2 Types of Resources

2. Actual Resources Actual resources are

Different resources are as under-

3.2.1 Natural Resources


Natural resources occur naturally within
environments that exist relatively undisturbed by
mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is
often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and
geodiversity existent in various ecosystems.

those that have been surveyed, their quantity and


quality determined and are being used in present
times. The development of an actual resource, such
as wood processing depends upon the technology
available and the cost involved.

3. Reserve Resources The part of an actual


resource which can be developed profitably in the
future is called a reserve resource.

Natural resources are derived from the


environment. Many of them are essential for our
survival while others are used for satisfying our
wants. Natural resources may be further classified in
different ways.

4. Stock Resources Stock resources are those

These are materials and components


(something that can be used) that can be found
within the environment. Every man-made product is
composed of natural resources (at its fundamental
level). A natural resource may exist as a separate
entity such as fresh water, and air, as well as a
living organism such as a fish, or it may exist in an
alternate form which must be processed to obtain
the resource such as metal ores, oil, and most forms
of energy.

Renewability is a very popular topic and


many natural resources can be categorized as either
renewable or non-renewable:

Classification of Natural Resources:


There are various methods of categorizing
natural resources, these include source of origin,
stage of human use, and by their renewability, these
classifications are described below. On the basis of
origin, resources may be divided into:

1. Biotic Biotic resources are obtained from the


biosphere (living and organic material), such as
forests, animals, birds, and fish and the materials
that can be obtained from them. Fossil fuels such as
coal and petroleum are also included in this
category because they are formed from decayed
organic matter.

2. Abiotic Abiotic resources are those that come


from non-living, non-organic material. Examples of
abiotic resources include land, fresh water, air and
heavy metals including ores such as gold, iron,
copper, silver, etc.
Considering their stage of development, natural
resources may be referred to in the following ways:

1. Potential Resources Potential resources are


those that exist in a region and may be used in the
future. For example, petroleum may exist in many
parts of India, having sedimentary rocks but until
the time it is actually drilled out and put into use,
it remains a potential resource.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

that have been surveyed but cannot be used by


organisms due to lack of technology. For example:
hydrogen.

3.2.2 Renewable Resources:

Renewable Resources are ones that can be


replenished naturally. Some of these resources, like
sunlight, air, wind, etc., are continuously available
and their quantity is not noticeably affected by
human consumption. Though many renewable
resources do not have such a rapid recovery rate,
these resources are susceptible to depletion by overuse. Resources from a human use perspective are
classified as renewable only so long as the rate of
replenishment/recovery exceeds that of the rate of
consumption.

3.2.3 Non-renewable Resources:


They are resources that form extremely slowly
and those that do not naturally form in the
environment. Minerals are the most common
resource included in this category. By the human
use perspective resources are non-renewable when
their rate of consumption exceeds the rate of
replenishment/recovery, a good example of this are
fossil fuels which are in this category because their
rate of formation is extremely slow (potentially
millions of years), which means they are considered
non-renewable from a human use perspective. Some
resources actually naturally deplete in amount
without human interference, the most notable of
these are the radio-active elements such as uranium,
which naturally decay into heavy metals. Of these,
the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling
them.

3.3 Depletion and Conservation of


Resources:
In regards to natural resources, depletion is of
concern for sustainable development as it has the
ability to degrade current environments and
potential to impact the needs of future generations.

31 - 12

Safety of Environment

It is associated with social inequity.


Considering most biodiversity are located in
developing countries, depletion of this resource
could result in losses of ecosystem services for these
countries. Depletion is viewed as a major source of
social unrest and conflicts in developing nations.

reduce risks to the environment which also includes


human beings.

The depletion of natural resources is caused by


direct drivers of change such as Mining, petroleum
extraction, fishing and forestry as well as indirect
drivers of change such as demography, economy,
society, politics and technology. The current practice
of Agriculture is another factor causing depletion of
natural resources. For example the depletion of
nutrients in the soil due to excessive use of
nitrogen and desertification.

(1)

Cleaner production can be applied to the


production processes used in any industry, to
products themselves and to various services
provided in society as under.

(B) Substituting toxic/hazardous materials by


less hazardous ones and
(C) Reducing the quantity and/or toxicity of
all emissions and wastes before they leave
a production process.

3.4 Management of Resources:

A successful management of natural resources


should engage the community because of the nature
of the shared resources the individuals who are
affected by the rules can participate in setting or
changing them. The users have the rights to device
their own management institutions and plans under
the recognition by the government. The right to
resources includes land, water, fisheries and
pastoral rights. The users or parties accountable to
the users have to actively monitor and ensure the
utilisation of the resource compliance with the rules
and to impose penalty on those peoples who
violates the rules. These conflicts are resolved in a
quick and low cost manner by the local institution
according to the seriousness and context of the
offence.

(D) Recycling and reusing of the wastes and


by-products within industry or in other
industries.

(2)

(3)

For services, cleaner production entails


incorporating environmental concerns into the
design and delivery of services.

Each action to reduce consumption of water,


raw materials and energy, or to use renewable
energy and to prevent or reduce generation of waste
as well as recycle and reuse of the waste can
increase productivity and bring financial benefits to
enterprise.

Some examples of CP options are:-

See Part 1.4 and the difinition of cleaner


production in Part 2.

and

Cleaner production is defined as the


continuous application of an integrated preventive
environmental strategy applied to processes, products
and services to increase overall efficiency and
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

For products, cleaner production focuses on


the reduction of environmental impacts over
the entire life cycle of a product, from raw
material extraction to the ultimate disposal of
the product, by appropriate design.

CLEANER PRODUCTION (CP)


TECHNIQUES.

4.1 Meaning,
Examples
Methodology of CP

production processes, cleaner


production results from one or a combination
of the following:(A) Conserving water, raw materials and
energy. Use of solar, wind, biomass, hydro,
nuclear and other renewable energy.

The depletion of natural resources is a


continuing concern for society.

Management of natural resources involves


identifying who has the right to use the resources
and who does not for defining the boundaries of
the resource. The resources are managed by the
users according to the rules governing of when and
how the resource is used depending on local
condition.

For

31 - 13

1. Documentation of consumption (as a basic


analysis of material and energy flows, e. g.
with a Sankey diagram).
2. Use of indicators and controlling (to identify
losses from poor planning, poor education
and training) mistakes.
3. Substitution of raw materials and auxiliary
materials (especially renewable materials
and energy).
4. Increase of useful life of auxiliary materials
and process liquids (by avoiding drag in,
drag out, contamination).
5. Improved control and automatisation.
6. Reuse of waste (internal or external).
7. New, low waste processes and technologies
including waste minimization.
Safety of Environment

CP Assessment and Methodology

Above Steps and sub-steps are explained below


in brief:

Step 1: To Start with

Step 1: To Start with:

1: Make CP Team.
2: List Process Steps (unit operations).

In order to prepare for the CP assessment, the


following tasks need to be executed.

3: Identify and select Wasteful Process steps (Audit focus)


Selection of Cleaner production focus

Step 2: Analyze process Steps


4: Prepare Process Flowchart.
5: Make Material and Energy Balance.
6: Assign Cost to Waste Streams.
7: Review of process to identify waste causes.

(1) Make Cleaner Production Team

The CP Team shall be made up of


representatives from the various major sections in
the company that will have an interest in CP. Size
and composition of the CP team shall be according
to the companys organizational structure. The team
should be capable of identifying potential CP areas,
developing CP solutions and implementing them. To
this end, input from both in house and external
experts might be needed.

Listing of process waste source

Step 3: Generating Cleaner Production Opportunities


8: Develop CP Opportunities.
9: Select Workable Opportunities.

Listing of Cleaner Production Opportunities

Step 4: Selecting Cleaner Production Solutions


10: Assess Technical Feasibility.
11: Assess Financial Viability.
12: Evaluate Environmental Aspects.

(2) List Process steps (Unit Operations)


All process steps in the unit should be
specified, including utilities, storage and waste
management facilities, in order to get a proper
understanding of all manufacturing processes.
The team should highlight major and obvious
waste generating areas and, if possible, identify the
reasons for waste generation. In addition,
housekeeping and process control practices should
be assessed carefully. Special attention should be
paid to periodic activities e.g. washing and
regeneration (of catalysts, absorbents etc.) as these
are often highly wasteful but still overlooked.
(3) Identify and select wasteful process steps
(Audit focus)

Step 5: Implementing Cleaner Production Solutions

Without going into details, the team should


broadly assess all process steps in terms of quantum
of waste, severity of impact on the environment,
expected CP opportunities, estimated benefits (cost
savings) etc. Such assessments are effective tools in
focusing on one or a few process steps (audit
focuses) for detailed CP analysis.

14: Prepare for Implementation

Step 2 : Analyzing Process Steps

15: Implement Cleaner Production Solutions

This step in CP methodology covers the


detailed data collection and evaluation for the
selected processes. This information will enable the
generation and evaluation of CP opportunities in the
subsequent phases. In this step the following tasks
need to be addressed.

13. Select Solutions for Implementation.

Listing of Cleaner Production Solutions

16: Monitor and evaluate results

Successfully Implemented Cleaner Production

Step 6: Sustaining Cleaner Production


17: Sustain Cleaner Production Solutions
18: Identify and Select wasteful process steps

Ongoing Cleaner Production efforts

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

(4) Prepare process flow chart


A schematic representation of the selected
process steps (audit focus) is essential with the
purpose of identifying all process steps and the
sources of wastes and emissions. The flow chart
should list and - to some extent - characterize the
input and output streams for each process step.
Given the historic development of the production
processes, it is not always easy to establish a
31 - 14

Safety of Environment

correct process flow diagram but it is essential for


the smooth development of the Cleaner Production
audit.
(5) Make material and energy balance
Material and Energy balances are necessary to
quantify the process losses (wastes) during
processing. Later, balances can be used to monitor
results / achievements of the implementation of CP
options. Normally a preliminary balance
(approximate) should be derived, given the lack of
records and the lack of data on composition of
input and output material streams and complex
recycle streams. It may be worthwhile to draw
component balances for important resources, e.g.
water and fiber balance in paper industry, print
paste balance in the textile finishing industry, oil
balance in vanaspati industries etc.
(6) Assign Costs to waste streams
In order to get the top managements
commitment and to estimate the approximate
savings, potential cost of the waste stream should
be evaluated. A preliminary estimate can be made
with a calculation of the cost of raw material and
intermediate product lost with the waste stream (like
fiber loss in the pulp and paper industry). A more
detailed analysis might reveal additional costs,
including the cost of raw materials in waste, the
manufacturing cost of material in waste, cost of
product in waste, cost of treatment of waste, cost of
waste disposal, waste tax etc.
(7) Review of process to identify waste causes
A review of the processes should locate and
highlight the causes of waste generation (cause
analysis). A wide variety of possible causes should
be considered, including for instance poor
housekeeping, operational and maintenance
negligence, poor raw material quality, poor layout,
bad technology, inadequately trained personnel,
employee de-motivation etc.

Step 3 : Generating Cleaner Production


Opportunities
Having identified and assigned causes of waste
generation, the audit team can move on to
determining CP opportunities which eliminate these
causes The following tasks need to be undertaken to
this end.
(8)
Developing
opportunities

Cleaner

Production

(9) Select Workable opportunities


The CP opportunities are now screened in
order to weed out those, which are impractical and
to select those, which are directly implementable
(not requiring feasibility analysis). This screening
process should be simple, fast and straight forward
and may often be only qualitative. The remaining
opportunities are then subjected to more detailed
feasibility studies

Step 4 : Selecting Cleaner Production


Solutions
The feasibility of the workable CP opportunities
is to be evaluated in order to select the most
practical set of Cleaner Production solutions. The CP
opportunities should be subjected to the following
assessments.
(10) Assess Technical feasibility
Before selecting solution proposed, the CP
opportunity should be subjected to technical
evaluation to ascertain whether it will work for the
specific application or not. To this end, impact of
the proposed CP opportunity on process, product
quality, production rate etc. has to be evaluated. In
addition, an inventory has to be made of the
necessary technical changes for the implementation
of the CP opportunity.
(11) Assess financial viability
Financial viability is the key parameter in the
evaluation of CP opportunities. For the evaluation of
low investment options, priority should be given to
the simple analysis methods like pay back
calculations. However in case of high investment
options, a rigorous evaluation method (exampleinternal rate of return) is necessary to assess
economic viability.
(12) Evaluate environmental aspects
In most cases, the environmental benefits of CP
programme are obvious. However, for options,
having complexity in involving changes of raw
materials or process chemistry, care should be taken
to assess whether or not, a net reduction of toxicity,
quantity of waste and emissions occurs.
(13) Select solutions for implementation

The team having analyzed the data and


possible causes for waste generation is now
equipped for eliminating waste causes, which in
turn minimize waste generation. Finding of such
options, depends on knowledge and creativity of the
team members, much of which comes from their
educational background and work experience.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Techniques like brain-storming, group discussions


etc. might be applied to boost option generation.
Ideas from outside viz. personnel from similar
operations, equipment supplier and consulting
engineers should be encouraged.

The results of the technical, financial and


environmental evaluation have to be combined in
order to select the most practical and viable set of
CP solutions. Proper documentation of the selected
solutions will be highly useful in obtaining approval
and funds for the actual implementation of the
solutions.

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Safety of Environment

Step 5 : Implementing Cleaner Production


Solutions
The CP solutions that emerge from above
analysis, now have to be implemented. A significant
number of solutions might be implemented as soon
as they are identified (i.e. repairing of leaks and
enforcement of working instructions), while others
would require a systematic plan of implementation.
To this end, the following tasks should be
undertaken.
(14) Prepare for implementation
This includes arranging required finances,
establishing task forces, preparing detailed technical
drawings, planning for undertaking implementation
etc. Good liaison, awareness and information
dissemination should assist in obtaining the
involvement of key departments and persons.
(15)
solutions

Implementing

Cleaner

Production

Implementing CP solutions is similar to any


other routine industrial modification / expansion. In
order to achieve the optimum results, the in-house
training of manpower should not be missed and
should be considered as an important activity.
(16) Monitor and evaluate results
Environmental and economic performance
evaluation of all the implemented CP options is
needed to assess causes for deviation (if any) of the
results obtained from the results expected as well as
to inform management and to sustain its
commitment for Cleaner Production.

Step 6 : Sustaining Cleaner Production


It might seem in the first place that CP
programme is completed upon the implementation
of the feasible CP solutions. However, the team still
faces the major challenge of sustaining CP
programme in order to further reduce wastes and
improve profits in the future. This basically consists
of the two tasks.
(17) Sustain Cleaner Production solutions
Generally for areas like housekeeping and
process optimization, employees tend to return to
the wasteful, old practices if not continuously
motivated to sustain the improved practices.
Developing own benchmarks and regular
comparison of current scenario is, therefore, crucial
in order to monitor on-going achievements and
sustaining CP solutions. Rewards and recognition
schemes could ensure the ongoing involvement of
the employees.
(18) Identify and Select wasteful process steps
Having
improved
the
environmental
performance of selected wasteful processes new
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

selection should be made as the focus for next CP


audit. The newly selected audit focus shall be
subjected to all the steps starting from Step 2.

4.2 Energy Conservation:


It refers to efforts made to reduce energy
consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved
through increased efficient energy use, in
conjunction with decreased energy consumption
and/or reduced consumption from conventional
energy sources.
Energy conservation can result in increased
financial capital, environmental quality, national
security, personal security, and human comfort.
Individuals and organizations that are direct
consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to
reduce energy costs and promote economic security.
Industrial and commercial users can increase energy
use efficiency to maximize profit.
Energy conservation facilitates the replacement
of non-renewable resources with renewable energy.
Energy conservation is often the most economical
solution to energy shortages, and is a more
environmentally benign alternative to increased
energy production.
In passive solar building design, windows,
walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and
distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the
winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is
called passive solar design or climatic design
because, unlike active solar heating systems, it
doesnt involve the use of mechanical and electrical
devices.
The key to designing a passive solar building
is to best take advantage of the local climate.
Elements to be considered include window
placement and glazing type, thermal insulation,
thermal mass, and shading. Passive solar design
techniques can be applied most easily to new
buildings, but existing buildings can be adapted or
retrofitted.

4.3 Green Chemistry:


It is also called sustainable chemistry. It is a
philosophy of chemical research and engineering
that encourages the design of products and
processes that minimize the use and generation of
hazardous substances.
Whereas environmental chemistry is the
chemistry of the natural environment, and of
pollutant chemicals in nature, green chemistry seeks
to reduce and prevent pollution at its source. In
1990 the Pollution Prevention Act was passed in the
United States. This act helped create a modus
operandi for dealing with pollution in an original
and innovative way. It aims to avoid problems
before they happen.

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Safety of Environment

As a chemical philosophy, green chemistry


applies to organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry,
biochemistry, analytical chemistry, and even physical
chemistry. While green chemistry seems to focus on
industrial applications, it does apply to any
chemistry choice. The focus is on minimizing the
hazard and maximizing the efficiency of any
chemical choice. It is distinct from environmental
chemistry which focuses on chemical phenomena in
the environment.
In 2005 Ryji Noyori identified three key
developments in green chemistry: use of supercritical
carbon dioxide as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen
peroxide for clean oxidations and the use of
hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis.
Examples of applied green chemistry are
supercritical water oxidation, on water reactions, and
dry media reactions.
Bioengineering is also seen as a promising
technique for achieving green chemistry goals.
The term green chemistry was coined by Paul
Anastas in 1991.

Principles of Green Chemistry

10. Chemical products should be designed so that at


the end of their function they do not persist in
the environment and break down into innocuous
degradation products.
11. Analytical methodologies need to be further
developed to allow for real-time, in-process
monitoring and control prior to the formation of
hazardous substances.
12. Substances and the form of a substance used in
a chemical process should be chosen to
minimize potential for chemical accidents,
including releases, explosions, and fires.

4.4 Green energy:


See its definition and explanation in Part 2.

4.5 Environmental Technology


Environmental technology (abbreviated as
envirotech) or green technology (abbreviated as
greentech) or clean technology (abbreviated as
cleantech) is the application of one or more of
environmental
science,
green
chemistry,
environmental monitoring and electronic devices to
monitor, model and conserve the natural
environment and resources, and to curb the negative
impacts of human involvement. Sustainable
development is the core of environmental
technologies. The term environmental technologies is
also used to describe a class of electronic devices
that can promote sustainable management of
resources.

Paul Anastas, then of the United States


Environmental Protection Agency, and John C.
Warner developed 12 principles of green chemistry,
which help to explain what the definition means in
practice. The 12 principles are:
1. It is better to prevent waste than to treat or
clean up waste after it is formed.
2. Synthetic methods should be designed to
4.6 Waste Minimization:
maximize the incorporation of all materials used
See definition of waste minimization in Part 2.
in the process into the final product.
Waste minimization involves efforts to
3. Wherever practicable, synthetic methodologies
minimize
resource and energy use during
should be designed to use and generate
manufacture.
For the same commercial output,
substances that possess little or no toxicity to
usually
the
fewer
materials are used, the less waste
human health and the environment.
is
produced.
Waste
minimisation usually requires
4. Chemical products should be designed to
knowledge
of
the
production
process, cradle-to-grave
preserve efficacy of function while reducing
analysis
(the
tracking
of
materials
from their
toxicity.
extraction
to
their
return
to
earth)
and
detailed
5. The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents,
knowledge
of
the
composition
of
the
waste.
separation agents, etc.) should be made
In the waste hierarchy, the most effective
unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous
approaches to managing waste are at the top. In
when used.
contrast to waste minimisation, waste management
6. Energy requirements should be recognized for
focuses on processing waste after it is created,
their environmental and economic impacts and
concentrating on re-use, recycling, and waste-toshould be minimized. Synthetic methods should
energy conversion.
be conducted at ambient temperature and
pressure.
Methods of Waste Minimization are as under7. A raw material or feedstock should be renewable
1. Industries:
rather than depleting wherever technically and
Industries using more efficient manufacturing
economically practicable.
processes and better materials will generally reduce
8. Reduce derivatives - Unnecessary derivatization
the production of waste. The application of waste
(blocking group, protection/ deprotection,
minimisation techniques has led to the development
temporary modification) should be avoided
of innovative and commercially successful
whenever possible.
replacement products. Waste minimisation has
proven benefits to industry and the wider
9. Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are
environment.
superior to stoichiometric reagents.
31 - 17
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Safety of Environment

Waste minimisation often requires investment,


which is usually compensated by the savings.
However, waste reduction in one part of the
production process may create waste production in
another part.
There are government incentives for waste
minimisation, which focus on the environmental
benefits of adopting waste minimisation strategies.
The Government of Gujarat, Industries
Department provides such insentives schemes for
adoption of CP options including waste
minimisation. Industries should come forward to
take benefit of these schemes.

2. Product design
(1) Planning at Design Stage
Waste minimisation and resource maximisation
for manufactured products can most easily be done
at the design stage. Reducing the number of
components used in a product or making the
product easier to take apart can make it easier to be
repaired or recycled at the end of its useful life.
In some cases, it may be best not to minimise
the volume of raw materials used to make a
product, but instead reduce the volume or toxicity of
the waste created at the end of a products life, or
the environmental impact of the products use. See
Durability below.
(2) Durability
Improving product durability, such as
extending a vacuum cleaners useful life to 15 years
instead of 12, can reduce waste and usually much
improves resource optimisation.
But in some cases it has a negative
environmental impact. If a product is too durable, its
replacement with more efficient technology is likely
to be delayed. For example, a washing machine
produced 10 years ago may use twice as much
water, detergent and energy as one produced today.
Therefore, extending an older machines useful life
may place a heavier burden on the environment
than scrapping it, recycling its metal and buying a
new model. Similarly, older vehicles consume more
fuel and produce more emissions than their modern
counterparts.
Making refillable glass bottles strong enough to
withstand several journeys between the consumer
and the bottling plant requires making them thicker
and so heavier, which increases the resources
required to transport them. Since transport has a
large environmental impact, careful evaluation is
required of the number of return journeys bottles
make. If a refillable bottle is thrown away after
being refilled only several times, the resources
wasted may be greater than if the bottle had been
designed for a single journey..
Many
choices
involve
trade-offs
of
environmental impact, and often there is insufficient
information to make informed decisions.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

(3) Fitting the intended use


In this strategy, products and packages are
optimally designed to meet their intended use. This
applies especially to packaging materials, which
should only be as durable as necessary to serve
their intended purpose. On the other hand, it could
be more wasteful if food, which has consumed
resources and energy in its production, is damaged
and spoiled because of extreme measures to reduce
the use of paper, metals, glass and plastics in its
packaging.

3. Processes:
Here some methods are as under:
(1) Resource optimisation
Minimising the amount of waste produced by
organisations or individuals goes hand-in-hand with
optimising their use of raw materials. For example,
a dressmaker may arrange pattern pieces on a
length of fabric in a particular way to enable the
garment to be cut out from the smallest area of
fabric.
(2) Reuse of scrap material
Scraps can be immediately re-incorporated at
the beginning of the manufacturing line so that they
do not become a waste product. Many industries
routinely do this; for example, paper mills return
any damaged rolls to the beginning of the
production line, and in the manufacture of plastic
items, off-cuts and scrap are re-incorporated into
new products.
(3) Improved quality control and process
monitoring
Steps can be taken to ensure that the number
of reject batches is kept to a minimum. This is
achieved by increasing the frequency of inspection
and the number of points of inspection. For
example, installing automated continuous monitoring
equipment can help to identify production problems
at an early stage.
(4) Waste exchanges
This is where the waste product of one process
becomes the raw material for a second process.
Waste exchanges represent another way of reducing
waste disposal volumes for waste that cannot be
eliminated.
(5) Delivery at the point of use
This involves making deliveries of incoming
raw materials or components direct to the point
where they are assembled or used in the
manufacturing process to minimise handling and the
use of protective wrappings or enclosures.

4. Households
Here some waste minimisation techniques are
suggested for householders.
Appropriate amounts and sizes can be chosen
when purchasing goods; buying large containers of

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Safety of Environment

paint for a small decorating job or buying larger


amounts of food than can be consumed create
unnecessary waste. Also, if a pack or can is to be
thrown away, any remaining contents must be
removed before the container can be recycled.
Home composting, the practice of turning
kitchen and garden waste into compost can be
considered waste minimisation.
The resources that households use can be
reduced considerably by using electricity
thoughtfully (e.g. turning off lights and equipment
when it is not needed) and by reducing the number
of car journeys made. Individuals can reduce the
amount of waste they create by buying fewer
products and by buying products which last longer.
Patch-up of broken or worn items of clothing or
equipment also contributes to minimising household
waste. Individuals can minimise their water usage,
and walk or cycle to their destination rather than
using their car to save fuel and cut down
emissions.
Increased consumer awareness of the impact
and power of certain purchasing decisions allows
industry and individuals to change the total
resource consumption. Consumers can influence
manufacturers and distributors by avoiding buying
products that do not have eco-labelling, which is
currently not mandatory, or choosing products that
minimise the use of packaging. Where reuse
schemes are available, consumers can be proactive
and use them.

4.7 Pollution prevention (P2):


See its definition in Part 2.
P2 describes activities that reduce the amount
of pollution generated by a process, whether it is
consumer consumption, driving, or industrial
production.
In contrast to most pollution control strategies,
which seek to manage a pollutant after it is formed
and reduce its impact upon the environment, the
pollution prevention approach seeks to increase the
efficiency of a process, thereby reducing the amount
of pollution generated at its source.
Although there is wide agreement that source
reduction is the preferred strategy, some
professionals also use the term pollution prevention
to include recycling or reuse.
As an environmental management strategy,
pollution prevention shares many attributes with
cleaner
production.
Pollution
prevention
encompasses more specialized sub-disciplines
including green chemistry and green design (also
known as environmentally conscious design).

(A) List process steps, identify and select


wasteful process steps, analyze process
steps, prepare process flow chart, make
material and energy balance, assign cost to
waste streams and review the process to
identify waste causes. Then develop and
select cleaner production opportunities,
assess technical feasibility, assess financial
viability, evaluate environmental aspects
and select solutions for implementation.
Then implement cleaner production
solutions and monitor the results.
(B) Metering and control of quantities of active
ingredients to minimize waste.
(C) Reuse / recycle of by-products and
intermediates from the process as raw
materials or raw materials substitutes in
other processes. Dual flushing system with
separate pipelines for reuse of the treated
wastewater wherever feasible.
(D) Use of automated and close filling or local
exhaust system to minimize exposure and
spillage.
(E) Venting equipment through vapour
recovery system.
(F) Use of high pressure hoses for equipment
cleaning to reduce wastewater generation.
2. Water purification: The whole idea/
concept of having dirt/germ/pollution free water
flowing throughout the environment. Many other
phenomena lead from this concept of purification of
water. Water pollution is the main enemy of this
concept, and various campaigns and activists have
been organized around the world to help purify
water. Considering the amount of water usage that
is under current consumptions, this concept is of
utter importance.
3. Air Purification: Basic and common green
plants can be grown indoors to keep air fresh
because all plants remove CO2 and convert it into
oxygen. The best examples are: Dypsis lutescens,
Sansevieria trifasciata, and Epipremnum aureum.
4. Sewage treatment: Sewage treatment is
conceptually similar to water purification. Sewage
treatments are very important as they purify water
per levels of its pollution. The more polluted water
is not used for anything, and the least polluted
water is supplied to places where water is used
affluently. It may lead to vaious other concepts of
environmental protection, sustainability etc.

5.

Environmental

remediation:

Environmental remediation is the removal of


pollutants or contaminants for the general protection
of the environment. This is accomplished by various
4.8 Cleaner Production Options:
chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in
Some CP options are as underconjunction with environmental monitoring.
1. General CP Options: The following are
6. Solid waste management: Solid waste
some of the common CP options.
management is the purification, consumption, reuse,
31 - 19
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Safety of Environment

disposal and treatment of solid waste that


undertaken by the government or the ruling bodies
of a city/town.

7. Renewable energy: Renewable energy is


energy that can be replenished easily. For years we
have been using sources like wood, sun, water, etc.
for means for producing energy. Energy that can be
produced by natural objects like wood, sun, wind,
etc. is considered to be renewable.
8. eGain forecasting: Egain forecasting is a
method using forecasting technology to predict the
future weathers impact on a building. By adjusting
the heat based on the weather forecast, the system
eliminates redundant use of heat, thus reducing the
energy consumption and the emission of greenhouse
gases.
9.

Energy

Conservation:

Energy
conservation is the utilization of devices that require
smaller amounts of energy in order to reduce the
consumption of electricity. Reducing the use of
electricity causes less fossil fuels to be burned to
provide that electricity.

10. Alternative and clean power:

Scientists continue to search for clean energy


alternatives to our current power production
methods. Some technologies such as anaerobic
digestion produce renewable energy from waste
materials. The global reduction of greenhouse gases
is dependent on the adoption of energy conservation
technologies at industrial level as well as this clean
energy generation. That includes using unleaded
petrol, solar energy and alternative fuel vehicles,
including plug-in hybrid and hybrid electric vehicles.

5.1 Land (Soil) Pollution Control:


Types, causes, effects and controls of land
pollution are explained below.

5.1.1 Types of Land (Soil) Pollution


Soil (land) is the thin layer of organic and
inorganic materials that covers the Earths rocky
surface.
The organic portion, which is derived from the
decayed remains of plants and animals, is
concentrated in the dark uppermost topsoil. The
inorganic portion made up of rock fragments, was
formed over thousands of years by physical and
chemical weathering of bedrock. Productive soils are
necessary for agriculture to supply the world with
sufficient food.

Soil pollutant is any factor which


deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content
of the soil or which disturbs the biological balance
of the organisms in the soil. Pollution in soil has
adverse effect on plant growth.
Soil pollution is the presence of soil
pollutant in land. It is defined as the build-up in
soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts,
radioactive materials, or disease causing agents,
which have adverse effects on plant growth and
animal health.
Types of Land (soil) Pollution
Briefly they are1. Agricultural Soil Pollution
(i) pollution of surface soil
(ii) pollution of underground soil

Since electric motors consume 60% of all


electricity generated, advanced energy efficient electric
motor (and electric generator) technology that are cost
effective to encourage their application, such as the
brushless wound-rotor doubly fed electric machine
and energy saving module, can reduce the amount of
carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) that
would otherwise be introduced to the atmosphere, if
electricity is generated using fossil fuels.

POLLUTION CONTROL (PC)


TECHNIQUES:

2. Soil pollution by industrial effluents and solid


wastes
(i) Pollution of surface soil
(ii) Disturbances in soil profile
3. Pollution due to urban activities
(i) Pollution of surface soil
(ii) Pollution of underground soil

5.1.2 Causes of Land (soil) Pollution

Out of land, water and air, land parameter is more


important, because we live on land; land is our main
support (bhumi, mata & mother) and water (sea, rivers,
lakes, reservoirs and all water bodies) is contained
because of land only. Air also surrounds land and
becomes affected by radiation or exposure of heat, gas,
smoke and other contamination from land. Pollution on
land is more visible to us as for most of the time we live
and travel on land. Therefore, we will see land, water
and air pollution and their control techniques in
chronological order.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 20

Briefly they are as under1. Seepage from a landfill


2. Discharge of industrial waste into the soil
3. Percolation of contaminated water into the
soil
4. Rupture of underground storage tanks
5. Excess application of pesticides, herbicides
or fertilizer
6. Solid waste seepage
Safety of Environment

7. Soil pollution is caused by the presence of


man-made chemicals or other alteration in
the natural soil environment. This type of
contamination typically arises from the
rupture of underground storage tanks,
application of pesticides, percolation of
contaminated surface water to subsurface
strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of
wastes from landfills or direct discharge of
industrial wastes to the soil.
The most common chemicals
involved are petroleum hydrocarbons,
solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy
metals. This occurrence of this phenomenon
is correlated with the degree of
industrialization and intensities of chemical
usage.

Main causes of soil pollution are1. Indiscriminate use of fertilizers


2. Indiscriminate use of
insecticides and herbicides

pesticides,

3. Dumping of large quantities of solid


waste
4. Deforestation and soil erosion

Plants on which we depend for food are under


attack from insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, rodents
and other animals, and must compete with weeds
for nutrients. To kill unwanted populations living in
or on their crops, farmers use pesticides.
The most important pesticides are DDT, BHC,
chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, aldrin,
malathion, dieldrin, furodan, etc. The remnants of
such pesticides used on pests may get adsorbed by
the soil particles, which then contaminate root crops
grown in that soil. The consumption of such crops
causes the pesticides remnants to enter human
biological systems, affecting them adversely.
Pesticides not only bring toxic effect on human
and animals but also decrease the fertility of the
soil. Some of the pesticides are quite stable and
their bio- degradation may take weeks and even
months.
Pesticide problems such as resistance,
resurgence, and health effects have caused scientists
to seek alternatives. Pheromones and hormones to
attract or repel insects and using natural enemies or
sterilization by radiation have been suggested.

3. Dumping of solid wastes

5. Urbanisation
They are discussed below.

1. Indiscriminate use of fertilizers


Soil nutrients are important for plant growth
and development. Plants obtain carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen from air and water. But other necessary
nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
calcium, magnesium, sulfur and more must be
obtained from the soil. Farmers generally use
fertilizers to correct soil deficiencies. Fertilizers
contaminate the soil with impurities, which come
from the raw materials used for their manufacture.
Mixed fertilizers often contain ammonium nitrate
(NH4NO 3), phosphorus as P2O5, and potassium as
K2O. For instance, As, Pb and Cd present in traces
in rock phosphate mineral get transferred to super
phosphate fertilizer. Since the metals are not
degradable, their accumulation in the soil above their
toxic levels due to excessive use of phosphate
fertilizers, becomes an indestructible poison for
crops.
The over use of NPK fertilizers reduce quantity
of vegetables and crops grown on soil over the
years. It also reduces the protein content of wheat,
maize, grams, etc., grown on that soil. The
carbohydrate quality of such crops also gets
degraded. Excess potassium content in soil
decreases Vitamin C and carotene content in
vegetables and fruits. The vegetables and fruits
grown on overfertilized soil are more prone to
attacks by insects and disease.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

2. Indiscriminate use of pesticides etc.

In general, solid waste includes garbage,


domestic refuse and discarded solid materials such
as those from commercial, industrial and
agricultural operations. They contain increasing
amounts of paper, cardboards, plastics, glass, old
construction material, packaging material and toxic
or otherwise hazardous substances. Since a
significant amount of urban solid waste tends to be
paper and food waste, the majority is recyclable or
biodegradable in landfills. Similarly, most
agricultural waste is recycled and mining waste is
left on site.
The portion of solid waste that is hazardous
such as oils, battery metals, heavy metals from
smelting industries and organic solvents are the
ones we have to pay particular attention to. These
can in the long run, get deposited to the soils of the
surrounding area and pollute them by altering their
chemical and biological properties. They also
contaminate drinking water aquifer sources. More
than 90% of hazardous waste is produced by
chemical, petroleum and metal-related industries and
small businesses such as dry cleaners and gas
stations contribute as well.
Solid Waste disposal was brought to the
forefront of public attention by the notorious Love
Canal case in USA in 1978. Toxic chemicals leached
from oozing storage drums into the soil underneath
homes, causing an unusually large number of birth
defects, cancers and respiratory, nervous and kidney
diseases.

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Safety of Environment

4. Deforestation
Soil Erosion occurs when the weathered soil
particles are dislodged and carried away by wind
or water. Deforestation, agricultural development,
temperature extremes, precipitation including acid
rain, and human activities contribute to this erosion.
Humans speed up this process by construction,
mining, cutting of timber, over cropping and
overgrazing. It results in floods and cause soil
erosion.
Forests and grasslands are an excellent binding
material that keeps the soil intact and healthy. They
support many habitats and ecosystems, which
provide innumerable feeding pathways or food
chains to all species. Their loss would threaten food
chains and the survival of many species. During the
past few years quite a lot of vast green land has
been converted into deserts. The precious rain forest
habitats of South America, tropical Asia and Africa
are coming under pressure of population growth
and development (especially timber, construction
and agriculture). Many scientists believe that a
wealth of medicinal substances including a cure for
cancer and aids, lie in these forests.

3. Foul smell: Generated by dumping the


wastes at a place.
4. Increased microbial activities: Microbial
decomposition of organic wastes generate
large quantities of methane besides many
chemicals to pollute the soil and water
flowing on its surface
5. When such solid wastes are hospital
wastes they create many health problems:
As they may have dangerous pathogen
within them besides dangerous medicines,
injections.
(2) Pollution of Underground Soil
Many dangerous chemicals like cadmium,
chromium, lead, arsenic, selenium products are
likely to be deposited in underground soil. Similarly
underground soil polluted by sanitary wastes
generate many harmful chemicals.These can damage
the normal activities and ecological balance in the
underground soil. The causes in brief are as under-

Deforestation is slowly destroying the most


productive flora and fauna areas in the world,
which also form vast tracts of a very valuable sink
for CO2.

5. Urbanisation
Because of growing population, facilities and
job opportunities developed in urban areas and
people going from villages to cities, urbanization is
increased. Causes of pollution due to urbanisation
are explained below.
(1) Pollution of surface soils
Urban activities generate large quantities of city
wastes including several Biodegradable materials
(like vegetables, animal wastes, papers, wooden
pieces, carcasses, plant twigs, leaves, cloth wastes as
well as sweepings) and many non-biodegradable
materials (such as plastic bags, plastic bottles,
plastic wastes, glass bottles, glass pieces, stone /
cement pieces). On a rough estimate Indian cities
are producing solid city wastes to the tune of
50,000 - 80,000 metric tons every day. If left
uncollected and decomposed, they are a cause of
several problems such as
1. Clogging of drains: Causing serious
drainage problems including the burst /
leakage of drainage lines leading to health
problems.

Polluted water discharged from factories

2.

Runoff from pollutants (paint, chemicals,


rotting organic material) leaching out of
landfill

3.

Oil and petroleum leaks from vehicles


washed off the road by the rain into the
surrounding habitat

4.

Chemical fertilizer runoff from farms and


crops

5.

Acid rain (fumes from factories mixing


with rain)

6.

Sewage discharged into rivers instead of


being treated properly

7.

Over application
fertilizers

8.

Purposeful injection into groundwater as a


disposal method

9.

Interconnections between aquifers during


drilling (poor technique)

of

pesticides

and

10. Septic tank seepage


11. Lagoon seepage
12. Sanitary/hazardous landfill seepage
13. Cemeteries
14. Scrap yards (waste oil and chemical
drainage)
15. Leaks from sanitary sewers

5.1.3 Effects of Land (soil) Pollution

2. Barrier to movement of water: Solid wastes


have seriously damaged the normal
movement of water thus creating problem of
inundation, damage to foundation of
buildings as well as public health hazards.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

1.

31 - 22

Briefly they are as under:


1. Pollution runs off into rivers and kills the
fish, plants and other aquatic life
2.

Crops and fodder grown on polluted soil


may pass the pollutants on to the
consumers
Safety of Environment

3.

Polluted soil may no longer grow crops


and fodder

4.

Soil structure is damaged (clay ionic


structure impaired)

5.

Corrosion of foundations and pipelines

6.
7.

Impairs soil stability


Releases vapours and hydrocarbon into
buildings and cellars

8.

Creates toxic dusts

9. Poisons children playing in the area


Effects of soil pollution can be classified as
under.

(1) Agricultural
1. Reduced soil fertility
2. Reduced nitrogen fixation
3. Increased erodibility
4. Larger loss of soil and nutrients
5. Deposition of silt in tanks
reservoirs

and

6. Reduced crop yield


7. Imbalance in soil fauna and flora

(2) Industrial
1. Dangerous
chemicals
underground water

entering

2. Ecological imbalance
3. Release of pollutant gases
4. Release of radioactive rays causing
health problems
5. Increased salinity
6. Reduced vegetation

(3) Urban
1. Clogging of drains
2. Inundation of areas
3. Public health problems
4. Pollution of drinking water sources
5. Foul smell and release of gases
6. Waste management problems

(4) Environmental Long Term Effects


When it comes to the environment itself, the
toll of contaminated soil is even more dire. Soil that
has been contaminated should no longer be used to
grow food, because the chemicals can leech into the
food and harm people who eat it.

In addition, the pollutants will change the


makeup of the soil and the types of microorganisms
that will live in it. If certain organisms die off in the
area, the larger predator animals will also have to
move away or die because theyve lost their food
supply. Thus its possible for soil pollution to
change whole ecosystems

5.1.4 Control of Land (soil) Pollution:


Adoption of three Rs- Reduce, Reuse, and
Recycle, will give us less solid wastes.
Some control measures are as under.

1. Reducing chemical fertilizer and


pesticide use
Applying bio-fertilizers and manures can
reduce chemical fertilizer and pesticide use.
Biological methods of pest control can also reduce
the use of pesticides and thereby minimize soil
pollution.

2. Reusing of materials
Materials such as glass containers, plastic
bags, paper, cloth etc. can be reused at domestic
levels rather than being disposed, reducing solid
waste pollution.

3. Recycling and recovery of materials


This is a reasonable solution for reducing soil
pollution. Materials such as paper, some kinds of
plastics and glass can and are being recycled. This
decreases the volume of refuse and helps in the
conservation of natural resources. For example,
recovery of one tonne of paper can save 17 trees.

4. Reforesting
Control of land loss and soil erosion can be
attempted through restoring forest and grass cover to
check wastelands, soil erosion and floods. Crop
rotation or mixed cropping can improve the fertility
of the land.

5. Solid waste treatment


Proper methods should be adopted for
management of solid waste disposal. Industrial
wastes can be treated physically, chemically and
biologically until they are less hazardous. Acidic
and alkaline wastes should be first neutralized; the
insoluble material if biodegradable should be
allowed to degrade under controlled conditions
before being disposed.

(A) Co-Processing of Wastes

In Solid waste treatment, co processing of


If contaminated soil is used to grow food, the
waste should be preferred first because it eliminates
land will usually produce lower yields than it
or avoids the need of incineration, land filling and
would if it were not contaminated. This, in turn,
extra burning of fuel and reduces emissions and the
can cause even more harm because a lack of plants
quantity of original fuel being used in the co proon the soil will cause more erosion, spreading the
cessing.
contaminants onto land that might not have been
tainted before.
31 - 23
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Safety of Environment

Co-processing is the use of waste as raw


material, or as a source of energy, or both to replace
natural mineral resources (material recycling) and
fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and gas (energy
recovery) in industrial processes, mainly in energy
intensive
industries
(EII)
such
as cement, lime, steel, glass, and power generation.
Waste materials used for Co-processing are referred
to as alternative fuels and raw materials (AFR)
Co-processing is a proven sustainable
development concept that reduces demands on
natural resources, reduces pollution and landfill
space, thus contributing to reducing the
environmental footprint.
Co-processing is also based on the principles
of industrial ecology, which considers the best
features of the flow of information, materials and
energy of biological ecosystems, with the aim of
improving the exchange of these essential resources
in the industrial world.
The waste management hierarchy infers that
Co-processing is a recovery activity which should
be considered after waste prevention and recycling.
Co-processing ranks higher in this hierarchy in
comparison to disposal activities such as land filling
or incineration.

Furans. This coupled with resource conservation


and reduced carbon emissions make a strong case
for considering co-processing as a sound and better
alternative for hazardous wastes disposal in general
and incinerable waste in particular.
Thus the co-processing of hazardous substances
in cement industry is much beneficial option,
whereby hazardous wastes are not only destroyed at
a higher temperature of around 14000C and longer
residence time but its inorganic content gets fixed
with the clinker apart from using the energy content
of the wastes. Apart from this, no residues are left,
which in case of incineration still requires to be
land filled as incinerator ash. Further, the acidic
gases, if any, generated during co-processing gets
neutralized, since the raw material is alkaline in
nature. Such phenomenon also reduces resource
requirement such as coal and lime stone. Thus
utilization of Hazardous wastes for co-processing
makes a win win situation.
The main concern for co-processing hazardous
waste containing POP (persistent organic pollutant)
is the formation of dioxins and furans. Due to the
long residence time and the high temperatures in
the cement kiln, all organic compounds will be
destroyed. Feeding the waste to the main burner (or
to the pre heater / pre calciner) and good process
control are prerequisites for the POP destruction.
Rapid cooling of the exhaust gas together with the
low temperature in the gas cleaning device avoids
the novo synthesis of dioxins and furans.
Independent of the use of alternative fuels any
chlorine introduced to the kiln system in the
presence of organic material may cause the
formation of small quantities of dioxins and furans
in combustion processes. Due to the long residence
time, the high temperatures in the kiln and the
rapid cooling of the exhaust gas, dioxins and
furans emissions are generally very low during
steady kiln conditions. Cement kilns typically can
easily comply with an emission limit of 0.1 ng
TEQ/Nm3.

Co-processing can reduce the green house


relevant CO2 emissions as shown above, if the waste
material being used would instead have been
burned without energy recovery or being disposed in
an uncontrolled manner.

Co-processing Vs Incineration of Wastes

CPCB guidelines for Co-processing:


CPCB has developed guidelines in February2010 for Co-processing of Hazardous Waste in Cement kilns. Other substances with high calorific
value viz.; tyres and plastic wastes, which are otherwise treated as waste not in the purview of Hazardous Waste can also be co-processed in the Cement Industry, Thermal Power Plant, Iron and Steel
Industry etc through co-processing.

The cost of providing incinerator would


depend on its capacity ranging from Rs 10 crores to
30 crores. Assuming disposal cost of incinerable
hazardous waste is about Rs. 16,000/- per MT, it
The decision on what type of substances can
may roughly be estimated that additionally about
be used is based on the clinker production proRs. 640 crore / annum would be incurred in
cesses, the raw material and fuel composition, the
incinerating hazardous waste in our country.
feeding points, the air pollution control devices and
Besides, incinerator if not operated optimally, may
the given waste management problems.
contribute to emissions including toxic Dioxins and
31 - 24
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Safety of Environment

As a basic rule, waste accepted must give


value addition for the cement kiln:
- Calorific value from the organic part.
- Material value from the mineral part.
Many substances, particularly those of low
calorific value, contain a significant proportion of
incombustible substance(s), while inorganic substances are used as a combination of high and low
calorific value raw material.
In some cases kilns can be used for the safe
disposal of hazardous waste such as obsolete pesticides, PCB or out-dated pharmaceutical products,
which may not have appropriate material or energy
value but can be disposed in cement kiln without
impacting the product quality.

(D) Anaerobic / Aerobic decomposition


of biodegradable municipal and domestic waste is
also being done and gives organic manure. Cow
dung which releases methane into the atmosphere,
should be processed further in gobar gas plants to
produce gobar gas and good manure.

(E) As a last resort, new areas for storage


of hazardous waste should be investigated such as
deep well injection and more secure landfills.
Burying the waste in locations situated away from
residential areas is the simplest and most widely
used technique of solid waste management.
Environmental and aesthetic considerations must be
taken into consideration before selecting the
dumping sites.
6. Bioremediation

A wide range of hazardous waste materials


may be co-processed such as; ETP sludge, paint
sludge, refinery sludge and TDI tar, plastic wastes
and tyre chips. There are liquid hazardous wastes
such as used oil, solvents or end - of - line products from the transport sector, which may also be
used as Alternate Fuel and Raw material (AFR).
Some materials can be delivered as single batches
directly to the cement plant, while other may be
pre-processed to meet the required conditions.

It is the use of microorganism metabolism to


remove pollutants. Technologies can be generally
classified as in situ or ex situ. In situ
bioremediation involves treating the contaminated
material at the site, while ex situ involves the
removal of the contaminated material to be treated
elsewhere. Some examples of bioremediation
technologies are phytoremediation, bioventing,
bioleaching, landfarming, bioreactor, composting,
bioaugmentation, rhizofiltration, and biostimulation.

Cement manufacture can consume significant


quantities of wastes as fuel and non-fuel raw materials. This consumption reflects the process characteristics in clinker kilns that ensure the complete
breakdown of the raw materials into their component oxides and the recombination of the oxides
into the clinker minerals.

Bioremediation can occur on its own (natural


attenuation or intrinsic bioremediation) or can be
spurred on via the addition of fertilizers to increase
the
bioavailability
within
the
medium
(biostimulation). Recent advancements have also
proven successful via the addition of matched
microbe strains to the medium to enhance the
resident microbe populations ability to break down
contaminants. Microorganisms used to perform the
function of bioremediation are known as
bioremediators.

Precaution: All the waste cannot be used for


co-processing, keeping in view the environment,
health, safety and operational concern. The wastes
i.e. Biomedical waste, Asbestos containing waste,
Electronic scrap, Entire batteries, Explosives, Corrosives, Mineral acid wastes, Radioactive Wastes and
Unsorted municipal garbage are normally not recommended for co-processing till otherwise proved/evidenced for.

(B) Incineration of other wastes is expensive


and leaves a huge residue and adds to air
pollution.
(C) Pyrolysis is a process of combustion at
high temperature in absence of oxygen or the
material burnt under controlled atmosphere of
oxygen. It is an alternative to incineration. The gas
and liquid thus obtained can be used as fuels.
Pyrolysis of carbonaceous wastes like firewood,
coconut, palm waste, corn combs, cashew shell, rice
husk paddy straw and saw dust, yields charcoal
along with products like tar, methyl alcohol, acetic
acid, acetone and a fuel gas.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Not all contaminants, however, are easily


treated by bioremediation using microorganisms. For
example, heavy metals such as cadmium and lead
are not readily absorbed or captured by
microorganisms. The assimilation of metals such as
mercury into the food chain may worsen matters.
Phytoremediation is useful in these circumstances
because natural plants or transgenic plants are able
to bioaccumulate these toxins in their above-ground
parts, which are then harvested for removal.
The heavy metals in the harvested biomass
may be further concentrated by incineration or even
recycled for industrial use.

5.2 Water Pollution Control


Water is essential for all living organism. Clean
water is basic requirement. Pollution of water creates
health and environmental problems.

31 - 25

Safety of Environment

Water is Life: Growth is possible due to


food and water. Marine ecology, rain and rivers,
lakes and ponds and all water sources are possible
because of water only. Water is life for all of us
because without water life is not possible.

any place into any such stream or well includes


following points
1. Notice of entry and inspection or to take
sample should be given to occupier or his
agent.

5.2.1 Wastewater Quality Indicators

2. Sample should be divided in two parts.

Chemical assessment of wastewater can be


known by wastewater quality indicators or
parameters and salinity. Main indicators are as
under1. pH
2. Temperature
3. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
4. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

3. Containers of samples should be marked,


sealed and signed by the parties.

5.

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

6.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

7.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

8.

Pesticides

9.

Metals

4. One container should be sent to the


laboratory recognized by the CPCB or SPCB.
5. On the request of occupier or his agent,
second container should be sent to the
laboratory specified under Section 51 or 52.
6. If the occupier or his agent remains absent,
the container shall be marked, sealed and sent
to the laboratory stated in Para 5 above.
7. If the occupier or his agent refuses to divide
sample into two parts, the container shall be
marked, sealed and sent to the laboratory
stated in para 4 above.
8. The Lab analyst will analyze the sample and
submit the analysis report in triplicate in the
prescribed form to the CPCB or SPCB.

10. Nitrate-N
11. Orthophosphates
12. Turbidity

9. One copy of the Analysis Report shall be sent


to the occupier or his agent (or shall be
informed online) and second copy shall be
preserved to produce before the court in case
of legal proceeding and the third copy shall
be kept by the concerned Board.

See schedule I u/r. 3 of the Environment


(Protection) Rules 1986 for various water and air
quality indicators and their permissible limits in
respect of 104 types of industries.

5.2.2

Water Sampling and Analysis


Need of water sampling and analysis is to

1. The water quality indicators stated in Part


5.2.1 above.

10. In case of any inconsistency or discrepancy or


variation in the results, the report of the
laboratory stated in Para 5 above shall
prevail.

2. Whether the parameters


permissible limits or not?

the

11. Cost of the sample analysis shall be borne by


the occupier or his agent.

3. Whether Section 24 of the Water Act is


complied with it or not?

Procedure for legal sampling as prescribed in


Rule 27 of the Gujarat Water (Prevention & Control
of Pollution) Rules, 1976 is as under -

know

exceed

4. Whether the effluent treatment plant (ETP or


CETP) is working efficiently or not?
For this basic objective, legal and technical
guidelines are available.

(i) the source, and nature of sample,

Relevant legal provisions are as under


1. Section 21 to 23 of the Water (Prevention &
Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
2. Rules 26, 26A and 27 of the Water
(Prevention & Control of Pollution) Rules,
1975.
3. Rules 26 to 29 of the Gujarat Water
(Prevention & Control of Pollution) Rules,
1976.
Legal procedure prescribed for Boards officers
to take samples of water from any stream or well or
samples of any sewage or trade effluent which is
passing from any plant or vessel or from or over
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

1. The sample shall be collected preferably in


polythene container and shall be labeled
giving the following details, namely:-

31 - 26

(ii) the date and time of collection,


(iii) the method of preservation used.
2. At least 2.5 liters of the materials required to
be analyzed shall be sent in a container, the
capacity of which shall not be less than 3
liters and not be more than 5 liters.
3. The sample shall accompany with the letter
from the concerned authority and shall give
the numbers of parameters to be analyzed.
4. The sample shall be preferably transported to
the laboratory by a messenger.
Safety of Environment

5. The messenger shall take receipt of sample


from the laboratory.
6. Fess for analysis shall be paid either in
advance or at the time of submission of
sample.
7. The samples shall be preserved as per the
instruction given in IS-2488-1996 and 1968
(Part I, II and III) and IS-4733-1968.
Wastewater Sampling Procedure
The analytical results of a sample are only as
accurate as the quality of the sample taken. If your
technique for collecting samples is poor, then no
matter how accurate your lab procedures are, the
results will be poor. By sampling according to set
procedures, you reduce the chance of error and
increase the accuracy of your sample results.
The six criteria for quality data are as under
1. Collecting representative samples
2. Formulating the objectives of the sampling
program.
3. Proper handling and preservation of water
samples.
4. Proper chain-of-custody and sample ID
procedures.
5. Field Quality Assurance

Types of Samples :
1. Grab-Each sample shows the characteristics
of the water at the time of sampling only and
should not exceed a sampling time of 15 minutes.
Grab sampling is done for such procedures as batch
discharge, constant waste stream characteristics and
when the parameter tested deteriorates rapidly such
as cyanides, volatile organic compounds and
phenols.
2. Composite-These are individual samples
taken and deposited in the same collection bottle.
There are two methods that are most common to
collecting composite samples. Time paced is when
samples are collected at set increments of time. Flow
paced samples are taken when a measured volume
of water flows over the sensor of a flow meter. The
preferred method of sampling is by flow pacing.
This gives the most representative sample. Metals,
Base/Neutral/Acid Organics, BOD and TSS samples
may be collected by this method.

the composite is made with portions of each grab


sample according to the amount of flow at the time
of sampling.
4. Volatile Organic Compounds Grab- These
samples are collected in a clean glass beaker and
transferred to 40-milliliter vials, usually with HCl
acid for a preservative. The cap has a flexible
septum in it. There must not be any air bubbles in
the vial, so the cap must not have an air space
under it. The vial must be filled until the liquid
crowns and the cap screwed until the septum
bulges.
5. Discrete Sampling- This method is used
when you want to look at the characteristics of the
wastewater flow at certain times of the day, for
certain parameters, such as high or low pH, or for
high or low flow events. Samples are taken in
individual bottles at the time of the event and each
sample is analyzed. This method can also be used
for flow composites if the flow rate is recorded at
the time of sampling.
Keep accurate recorders of the sampling events
and the results.

Quality Assurance:
Quality assurance protocols are implemented to
ensure that sample collection procedures are not
resulting in contamination of samples used to
determine compliance. At least 10 percent of all
samples collected should undergo quality control
check points.
Separate samples taken from the same source
at the same time provide a check on equipment and
technique.
A sample is divided into two containers for
analysis to check handling and analytical
procedures.

5.2.3 Types of Wastewater Treatments


Satisfactory disposal of wastewater, whether by
surface, subsurface methods or dilution, is
dependent on its treatment prior to disposal.
Adequate treatment is necessary to prevent
contamination of receiving waters to a degree which
might interfere with their best or intended use,
whether it be for water supply, recreation, or any
other required purpose.

Wastewater treatment consists of applying


3. Grab Composite- This procedure is not
known technology to improve or upgrade the quality
commonly used but is useful for such parameters as
of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will
total oil and grease released to the sewer system in
involve collecting the wastewater in a central,
a 24-hour period. Individual samples are grabbed in
segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant)
the field and then composited in the lab or in the
and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment
field for analysis. Another variation on grab
processes. Most often, since large volumes of
composite is the flow-proportioned grab composite.
wastewater are involved, treatment processes are
Samples are grabbed in the usual manner but the
carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters
flow level is recorded at the time of sampling. After
(continuous flow or open systems) rather than as
all the predetermined times of sampling are done
31 - 27
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Safety of Environment

batch or a series of periodic treatment processes


in which treatment is carried out on parcels or
batches of wastewaters. While most wastewater
treatment processes are continuous flow, certain
operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving as
it does, storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals,
filtration and removal or disposal of the treated
sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch
operations.
Wastewater treatment, however, can also be
organized or categorized by the nature of the
treatment process operation being used;
for
example, physical, chemical or biological. Examples
of these treatment steps are shown below. A
complete treatment system may consist of the
application of a number of physical, chemical and
biological processes to the wastewater.
Type of Treatment Methods
Physical
1. Sedimentation
(Clarification)
2. Screening
3. Aeration
4. Filtration
5. Flotation and
Skimming
6. Degassification
7. Equalization

Biological
Chemical
1. Chlorination
2. Ozonation
Anaerobic
3. Neutralization Aerobic
1. Activated
1. Anaerobic
4. Coagulation
sludge
digestion
5. Adsorption
treatment
2. Septic tanks
6. Ion Exchange
methods
3. Lagoons
2. Trickling
filtration
3. Oxidation
ponds
4. Lagoons
5. Aerobic
digestion

Above methods are explained below in brief:

1. Physical Treatment Methods


They include processes where no gross
chemical or biological changes are carried out and
strictly physical phenomena are used to improve or
treat the wastewater.
Examples would be coarse screening to remove
larger entrained objects and sedimentation (or
clarification). In the process of sedimentation,
physical phenomena relating to the settling of solids
by gravity are allowed to operate. Usually this
consists of simply holding a wastewater for a short
period of time in a tank under quiescent conditions,
allowing the heavier solids to settle, and removing
the clarified effluent. Sedimentation for solids
separation is a very common process operation and
is routinely employed at the beginning and end of
wastewater treatment operations.While sedimentation
is one of the most common physical treatment
processes that is used to achieve treatment, another
physical treatment process consists of aeration
that is, physically adding air, usually to provide
oxygen to the wastewater. Still other physical
phenomena used in treatment consists of filtration.
Here wastewater is passed through a filter medium
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

to separate solids. An example would be the use of


sand filters to further remove entrained solids from
a treated wastewater. Certain phenomena will occur
during the sedimentation process and can be
advantageously used to further improve water
quality. Permitting greases or oils, for example, to
float to the surface and skimming or physically
removing them from the wastewaters is often carried
out as part of the overall treatment process.
In certain industrial wastewater treatment
processes strong or undesirable wastes are
sometimes produced over short periods of time.
Since such slugs or periodic inputs of such wastes
would damage a biological treatment process, these
wastes are sometimes held, mixed with other
wastewaters, and gradually released, thus
eliminating shocks to the treatment plant. This is
call equalization. Another type of equalization
can be used to even out wide variations in flow
rates. For example, the wet well of a pump station
can receive widely varying amounts of wastewater
and, in turn, pump the wastes onward at more
uniform rates.

2. Chemical Treatment Methods


They consist of using some chemical reaction or
reactions to improve the water quality. Probably the
most commonly used chemical process is
chlorination. Chlorine, a strong oxidizing chemical,
is used to kill bacteria and to slow down the rate of
decomposition of the wastewater. Bacterial kill is
achieved when vital biological processes are affected
by the chlorine. Another strong oxidizing agent
that has also been used as an oxidizing disinfectant
is ozone.
A chemical process commonly used in many
industrial wastewater treatment operations is
neutralization. Neutralization consists of the
addition of acid or base to adjust pH levels back to
neutrality. Since lime is a base it is sometimes
used in the neutralization of acid wastes.
Coagulation consists of the addition of a
chemical that, through a chemical reaction, forms an
insoluble end product that serves to remove
substances from the wastewater. Polyvalent metals
are commonly used as coagulating chemicals in
wastewater treatment and typical coagulants would
include lime (that can also be used in
neutralization), certain iron containing compounds
(such as ferric chloride or ferric sulfate) and alum
(aluminum sulfate).
Certain processes may actually be physical and
chemical in nature. The use of activated carbon to
adsorb or remove organics, for example, involves
both chemical and physical processes. Processes
such as ion exchange, which involves exchanging
certain ions for others, are not used to any great
extent in wastewater treatment.

31 - 28

Safety of Environment

3. Biological Treatment Methods


They use microorganisms, mostly bacteria, in
the biochemical decomposition of wastewaters to
stable end products. More microorganisms, or
sludges, are formed and a portion of the waste is
converted to carbon dioxide, water and other end
products. Generally, biological treatment methods
can be divided into aerobic and anaerobic methods,
based on availability of dissolved oxygen.
The purpose of wastewater treatment is
generally to remove from the wastewater enough
solids to permit the remainder to be discharged to a
receiving water without interfering with its best or
proper use. The solids which are removed are
primarily organic but may also include inorganic
solids. Treatment must also be provided for the
solids and liquids which are removed as sludge.
Finally, treatment to control odors, to retard
biological activity, or destroy pathogenic organisms
may also be needed.
Degrees of treatment are sometimes indicated by
use of the terms primary, secondary and tertiary
treatment. Tertiary treatment, properly, would be
any treatment added onto or following secondary
treatment.
While the devices used in wastewater treatment
are numerous and will probably combine physical,
chemical and biological methods, they are generally
grouped as under:

2. Two story tanks Imhoff and several


proprietary or patented units
3. Plain sedimentation tank with mechanical
sludge removal
4. Upward flow clarifiers with mechanical
sludge removal
When chemicals are used, other auxiliary
units are employed. These are:
1. Chemical feed units
2. Mixing devices
3. Flocculators
In this treatment, most of the settleable solids
are separated or removed from the wastewater by
the physical process of sedimentation. When
certain chemicals are used with primary
sedimentation tanks, some of the colloidal solids are
also removed. Biological activity of the wastewater
in primary treatment is of negligible importance.
The purpose of primary treatment is to reduce
the velocity of the wastewater sufficiently to permit
solids to settle and floatable material to surface.
Therefore, primary devices may consist of settling
tanks, clarifiers or sedimentation tanks.

3. Secondary Treatment
The devices used in secondary treatment
may be divided into four groups:
1. Trickling filters with secondary settling tanks

1. Preliminary Treatment

2. Activated sludge and modifications with final


settling tanks

To effect the objectives of preliminary


treatment, the following devices are commonly
used.
1. Screens rack, bar or fine
2. Comminuting devicesgrinders, cutters,
shredders
3. Grit chambers
4. Pre-aeration tanks
At most plants preliminary treatment is used to
protect pumping equipment and facilitate subsequent
treatment processes. Preliminary devices are
designed to remove or cut up the larger suspended
and floating solids, to remove the heavy inorganic
solids, and to remove excessive amounts of oils or
greases.
Chlorination may be used in preliminary
treatment. Since chlorination may be used at all
stages in treatment, it is considered to be a method
by itself. Preliminary treatment devices require
careful design and operation.

3. Intermittent sand filters


4. Stabilization ponds
Secondary treatment depends primarily upon
aerobic organisms which biochemically decompose
the organic solids to inorganic or stable organic
solids. It is comparable to the zone of recovery in
the self-purification of a stream.

4. Disinfection

2. Primary Treatment
Because of variations in design, operation,
and application, settling tanks can be divided
into four general groups:
1. Septic tanks
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 29

Chlorine and ozone are used to achieve


disinfection for following purposes.
1. Disinfection or destruction of pathogenic
organisms
2. Prevention of wastewater decomposition for
(a) odor control, and
(b) protection of plant structures
3. Aid in plant operation
(a) sedimentation,
(b) trickling filters,
(c) activated sludge bulking
4. Reduction or delay of biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD)
Safety of Environment

While chlorination has been commonly used


over the years, especially for disinfection, other
methods to achieve disinfection as well as to
achieve similar treatment ends are also used.
Among the most common is the use of ozone. In
view of the toxicity of chlorine and chlorinated
compounds for fish as well as other living forms,
ozonation may be more commonly used in the
future. This process will be more fully discussed in
the section on disinfection.

5. Sludge Treatment
The solids removed from wastewater in both
primary and secondary treatment units, together
with the water removed with them, constitute
wastewater sludge.

it is used to remove suspended solids, plant


nutrients, primary nitrogen and phosphorous,
wastewater.
A term that is also sometimes used to
indicate treatment of a wastewater by methods other
than primary or biological (secondary) treatment is
advanced treatment. This degree of treatment is
usually achieved by chemical (for example
coagulation) methods as well as physical methods
(flocculation, settling and activated carbon
adsorption) to produce a high quality effluent water.

7. Variety of Methods :
Wastewater treatment methods are many and
are to be utilized based on treatability reports. Some
such methods are named below.

For removal of water from sludge and


decomposition of organic solids to mineral solids
or stable organic solids, following methods are
used with combination of two or more of them.
1. Thickening
2. Digestion with or without heat
3. Drying on sand bed open or covered
4. Conditioning with chemicals
5. Elutriation
6. Vacuum filtration
7. Heat drying
8. Incineration
9. Wet oxidation
10. Centrifuging
It is generally necessary to subject sludge to
some treatment to prepare or condition it for
ultimate disposal. Such treatment has two objectives
the removal of part or all of the water in the
sludge to reduce its volume, and the decomposition
of the putrescible organic solids to mineral solids or
to relatively stable organic solids.

6. Tertiary Treatment

Activated sludge systems


Advanced oxidation process
Aerated lagoon
Aerobic granular reactor
Aerobic treatment system
Anaerobic clarigester
Anaerobic digestion
Anaerobic filter
API oil-water separator
Anaerobic lagoon
Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol
fuels
Bioreactor
Bioretention
Biorotor
Carbon filtering
Cesspit
Coarse bubble diffusers
Composting toilet
Constructed wetland
Dark fermentation

The terms primary and secondary


treatment have been used to generally describe a
degree of treatment; for example, settling and
biological wastewater treatment. Since the early
1970s tertiary treatment has come into use to
describe additional treatment following secondary
treatment. Quite often this merely indicates the use
of intermittent sand filters for increased removal of
suspended solids from the wastewater. In other
cases, tertiary treatment has been used to describe
processes which remove plant nutrients, primarily
nitrogen and phosphorous, from wastewater.

Dissolved air flotation


Distillation

Improvement and upgrading of wastewater


treatment units as well as the need to minimize
environmental effects has led to the increased use of
tertiary treatment. This is an additional treatment
following secondary treatment. As explained earlier,
31 - 30

Fine bubble diffusers

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Desalination
EcocyclET systems
Electrocoagulation
Electrodeionization
Electrolysis
Expanded granular sludge bed digestion
Facultative lagoon
Fentons reagent
Flocculation & sedimentation
Flotation process
Froth flotation
Safety of Environment

Humanure (composting)

11. Electro chlorination technology


municipal water disinfection.

Imhoff tank

12. Bank filtration for sustainable drinking


water supply.

Iodine
Ion exchange
Living machines

13. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in water


projects.

Maceration (sewage)
Membrane bioreactor
Nanotechnology

5.3 Air Pollution Control

NERV (Natural Endogenous Respiration Vessel)


Parallel plate oil-water separator
Reed bed
Retention basin
Reverse osmosis
Rotating biological contactor

Air is most essential for all living organism. Its


pollution causes our death.
The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural
gaseous system that is essential to support life on
planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to
air pollution has long been recognized as a threat
to human health as well as to the Earths
ecosystems.

Sand filter

Air is Life: Amongst three most indispensable things: Air, Water & Food in our life, Air is the
most essential thing. One can survive without food a
few months and without water a few days but cant
survive without Air a few minutes.
God has given us ample quantities of all these
three essential things in nature.
An average individual human being needs, 1kg
of food,3kg of water and 15 kg of Air.
Though the quantities of these things are in
ascending order, cost of procurement of these things
are in descending order.

Sedimentation
Septic tank
Sequencing batch reactor
Sewage treatment
Stabilization pond
Submerged aerated filter [2]
Treatment pond
Trickling filter
soil bio-technology
Ultrafiltration (industrial)

5.3.1 Air and Air Pollutants :

Ultraviolet disinfection

Composition of dry Air is as under:

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digestion

Sr No

Wet oxidation
Following subjects in water and wastewater management are useful:
1.

Zero Discharge technologies for industrial


effluent recycling.

2.

Eco-friendly technologies for wastewater


treatment.

3.

Increasing recovery and decreasing


operating costs in Reverse Osmosis (RO)
membrane systems.
New developments in leakage detection
and control.

4.
5.

Latest approaches in rainwater harvesting.

6.

Energy conservation approaches through


better pumping.

7.

Advanced Filtration
contaminant removal.

8.

Ultra filtration membrane technology for


pretreatment.
Membrane bioreactor technologies for
sewage recycling.

9.

for

technologies

for

10. Lowering costs of desalination technologies.


Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Components of Air

Conc. of Gas %

Nitrogen

78.09

Oxygen

20.94

Argon

0.93

Carbon Dioxide

0.04

Neon

Helium

-3

1.8x10

-4

1.0x10

Air pollutant is a substance in the air that


can cause harm to humans and the environment.
Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles,
liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be
natural or man-made.
The air pollutants are generated from chimneys
of industrial plants, from vehicular exhaust, natural
disturbance like volcanic eruption, cyclones, dust
storms, forest and grassland fires.
The main air pollutants are PM (particulate
matter), SO2, NOX, HCL, NH3 etc.

31 - 31

Safety of Environment

Air pollution is presence of air pollutants in


air. It is the introduction of chemicals, particulate
matter, or biological materials that cause harm or
discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or
cause damage to the natural environment or built
environment, into the atmosphere.
5.3.2 Sources and Causes of Air Pollution:
Sources of air pollution refer to the various
locations, activities or factors which are responsible
for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere.
These sources can be classified into two major
categories which are:

A. Natural sources
1. Dust from natural sources, usually large
areas of land with little or no vegetation

2. Methane, emitted by the digestion of food


by animals, for example cattle
3. Radon gas from radioactive decay within
the Earths crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless,
naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is
formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to
be a health hazard. Radon gas from natural sources
can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined
areas such as the basement and it is the second
most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette
smoking
4. Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires
5. Vegetation, in some regions, emits
environmentally significant amounts of VOCs on
warmer days. These VOCs react with primary
anthropogenic pollutantsspecifically, NOx, SO2,
and anthropogenic organic carbon compoundsto
produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants.[8]

2. Mobile Sources include motor vehicles,


marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc.
Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in
agriculture and forestry management. Controlled or
prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in
forest management, farming, prairie restoration or
greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of
both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire
can be a tool for foresters. Controlled burning
stimulates the germination of some desirable forest
trees, thus renewing the forest.
3. Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish,
aerosol sprays and other solvents
4. Waste deposition in landfills, which
generate methane. Methane is not toxic; however, it
is highly flammable and may form explosive
mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant
and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space.
Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen
concentration is reduced to below 19.5% by
displacement
5. Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic
gases, germ warfare and rocketry

5.3.3 Types and Effects of Air Pollutants:


A substance in the air that can cause harm to
humans and the environment is known as an air
pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid
particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they
may be natural or man-made.

Air Pollutants are classified as air borne


nuisance in the form of:
1. Gaseous Pollutants such as: SO2, NOx, CO,
CO2, HCl, H2S, HC etc

6. Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur,


chlorine, and ash particulates.

2. Particulate Mater such as : dust, pollen,


fibers etc.

Causes of air pollution are:


1. Greenhouse effect.
3. Increased UV radiation.

3. Odours of various volatile substances of


solvents, decaying materials, distilleries etc
and

4. Acid rain.

4. Noise

2. Particulate contamination.

5. Increased ground level ozone concentration.

Pollutants can also be classified as primary


and secondary.

6. Increased levels of nitrogen oxides.

B. Anthropogenic sources (human activity)

mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel

1. Stationary Sources include smoke stacks


of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories)
and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and
other types of fuel-burning heating devices. In
developing and poor countries, traditional biomass
burning is the major source of air pollutants;
traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and
dung.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Primary pollutants are directly emitted from


a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the
carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust
or sulfur dioxide released from factories.

Secondary pollutants are not emitted


directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary
pollutants react or interact. An important example of
a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone one
of the many secondary pollutants that make up
photochemical smog.

31 - 32

Safety of Environment

Some pollutants may be both primary and


secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and
formed from other primary pollutants.

A. Primary Pollutants:
Mostly they are produced by human activity
and include:
1. Sulphur oxides (SOx) - especially sulfur
dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2.
SO 2 is produced by volcanoes and in various
industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often
contain sulfur compounds, their combustion
generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2 ,
usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2 ,
forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain.
This is one of the causes for concern over the
environmental impact of the use of these fuels as
power sources.
Sulfur dioxide is mainly emerged from combustion of fuel which contain sulphur especially fuel
like coal and petroleum. Sulfur dioxide is typically
produced in significant amounts by the burning of
common sulfur-rich materials including wool, hair,
rubber, and foam rubber

Effect of SO 2 on health :
Sulfur dioxide is a major air pollutant and has
significant impacts upon human health. Inhaling
sulfur dioxide is associated with increased
respiratory symptoms and disease, difficulty in
breathing, and premature death.
In addition the concentration of sulfur dioxide
in the atmosphere can influence the habitat
suitability for plant communities as well as animal
life. Sulfur dioxide emissions is the prime cause of
acid rain.
2. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - NOx is a
generic term for NO and NO 2 (nitric oxide and
nitrogen dioxide). They are produced from the
reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air
during combustion, especially at high temperatures.
The oxygen and nitrogen do not react at ambient
temperatures. But at high temperatures, they have an
endothermic reaction producing various oxides of
nitrogen which is called NOX.

Effect of NOX on health :


When NOx and volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, they form
photochemical smog, a significant form of air
pollution, especially in the summer. Children, people
with lung diseases such as asthma, and people
who work or exercise outside are particularly
susceptible to adverse effects of smog such as
damage to lung tissue and reduction in lung
function.
Inhalation of NOx may cause or worsen
respiratory diseases such as emphysema, bronchitis.
it may also aggravate existing heart disease
Mono-nitrogen oxides eventually form nitric
acid when dissolved in atmospheric moisture,
forming a component of acid rain.

3. Carbon monoxide (CO)- is a colourless,


odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is
a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as
natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a
major source of carbon monoxide.
4. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )- a colourless,
odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas also associated
with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such
as combustion, cement production, and respiration. It
is otherwise recycled in the atmosphere in the
carbon cycle.
5. Volatile organic compounds - VOCs
are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field
they are often divided into the separate categories of
methane (CH 4) and non-methane (NMVOCs).
Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas
which contributes to enhanced global warming.
Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant
greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone
and in prolonging the life of methane in the
atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on
local air quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic
compounds benzene, toluene and xylene are
suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia
through prolonged exposure. 1,3-butadiene is another
dangerous compound which is often associated with
industrial uses.

6. Particulate matter - Particulates,


The major source of NOx production is from
alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or
nitrogen-bearing fuels such as certain coals and oil.
fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid
suspended in a gas. In contrast, aerosol refers to
Especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from
particles and the gas together. Sources of particulate
high temperature combustion, and are also produced
matter can be man made or natural. Some
naturally during thunderstorms by electrical
particulates occur naturally, originating from
discharge. Can be seen as the brown haze dome
volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires,
above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen
living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities,
dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula
such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles,
NO2. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This
power plants and various industrial processes also
reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp,
generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged
biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air
over the globe, anthropogenic aerosolsthose made
pollutants.
31 - 33
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Safety of Environment

by human activitiescurrently account for about 10


percent of the total amount of aerosols in our
atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the
air are linked to health hazards such as heart
disease, altered lung function and lung cancer.
Persistent free radicals connected to airborne
fine particles could cause cardiopulmonary disease.
Particulate matter is divided in two categoriesrespirable form and non respirable form.
Respirable PM

- having size < 10 micron


- having less density
- remains in air for long time

Non Respirable PM

- having size > 10 micron


- Having high density
- Settles quickly

Effect of particulate matter on health:


Effects of inhaling particulate matter causes
asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, birth
defects and premature death.
Larger particles are generally filtered in the
nose and throat via cilia and mucus, but particulate
matter smaller than about 10 micrometers, referred to
as PM10, can settle in the bronchi and lungs and
cause health problems

7. Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and


copper. See Part 1.5 and Part 4 of Chapter 24.
8. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful
to the ozone layer emitted from products currently
banned from use.
9.

Ammonia

(NH 3 )

- emitted from

pollution; the word smog is a portmanteau of


smoke and fog. Classic smog results from large
amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a
mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog
does not usually come from coal but from vehicular
and industrial emissions that are acted on in the
atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form
secondary pollutants that also combine with the
primary emissions to form photochemical smog.

2. Ground level ozone (O3) formed from


NOx and VOCs. Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of
the troposphere. It is also an important constituent
of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly
known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and
chemical reactions involving it drive many of the
chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by
day and by night. At abnormally high
concentrations brought about by human activities
(largely the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a
pollutant, and a constituent of smog.
3. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) - similarly formed
from NOx and VOCs.

C.

Minor air pollutants:

There are many minor hazardous air


pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA
under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the
Air Framework Directive. For our Air (PCP) Act,
1981 and Air (PCP) Rules 1982 and Gujarat Rules
1983 see Part 10.3 and 10.4 of Chapter 28.
A variety of persistent organic pollutants,
which can attach to particulate matter.

agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound


with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as
a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia
contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of
terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to
foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly
or indirectly, is also a building block for the
synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in
wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic


compounds that are resistant to environmental
degradation through chemical, biological, and
photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been
observed to persist in the environment, to be capable
of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human
and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and
to have potential significant impacts on human
health and the environment.

10. Odors such as from garbage, sewage,


and industrial processes

5.3.4 Air Quality Indicators:

11. Radioactive pollutants - produced by


nuclear explosions, nuclear events, war explosives,
and natural processes such as the radioactive decay
of radon.
B.

Chemical assessment of air can be known by


air quality indicators. Main indicators are as under-

Secondary Pollutants:

1. Sulphur dioxide SO2


2. Oxides of Nitrogen NOX
3. Particulate Matter PM
4. Suspended Particulate Matter SPM

They include:

5. Carbon monoxide CO

1. Particulate matter formed from gaseous

6. Hydrogen Sulphide H2S

primary
pollutants
and
compounds
in
photochemical smog. Smog is a kind of air
31 - 34
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

7. Total Dust
Safety of Environment

8. Volatile Organic Compound VOC

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for


Particulate Matter, Metals and Non Metals and other
gases should be followed.

9. Total Organic Carbon TOC


10. Hydrogen Chloride HCl

Equipment required for stack monitoring:

11. Total Dioxins and Furans


12. Nickel and Vanadium Ni+v

5.3.5 Air Sampling and Analysis:


Need of air sampling and analysis is to

know
1.

The air quality parameters stated in Part


5.3.4 above

They include- Pitot tube, Sampling probe,


Nozzles, Heated filter box, Sample transfer line,
Thermocouple, Mounting flange, Panel box sides,
Back panel, Inclined cum vertical manometer,
Rotameters, Stop-watch, Impinger, Connectors,
Vacuum pump, Dry gas meter, Pump housing and
Kit containing tools.

2.

Whether the parameters


permissible limits or not.

the

Sampeling and measurement of Specific


air pollutants:

3.

Whether Section 22 of the Air Act is


complied with or not.

4.

Whether the air pollution control measures


(APCM) are working efficiently or not.

Different methods of sampling and analysis are


prescribed for different types of air pollutants. They
should be studied and followed for correct results.

exceed

For this basic objective, legal and technical


guidelines are available.

Relevant legal provisions are as under


1.

Section 26 to 30 of the Air (Prevention &


Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

2.

Rules 12 to 18 of the Gujarat (Air


Prevention & Control of Pollution) Rules,
1983.

Legal procedure prescribed for Boards officer to


take sample of air or emission from any chimney,
flue or duct or any other outlet is similar to that
stated in Para 5.2.2 to take water sample.

Manner of taking samples of air or


emission u/r 12 of the Gujarat Air (P&CP) Rules
1983 is as under1. The occupier of the premises shall provide
port holes, platforms conveniently located for easy
access to port holes and all other necessary facilities
for taking samples of air or emission from chimney,
flue or duct, plantar vessel or any other sources and
outlets, stationary or mobile.
2. (a) The samples for gaseous emissions shall
be taken either into an absorbing
solution or in a suitable container or
both;
(b) The sample of air for particulate matter
for shall be taken isokinetically
The occupier shall provide all facilities for
taking samples of air emissions from sources which
may be stationary or mobile.

Steps for Stack Monitoring:


1. Selection of sampling site and points.
2. Location of sampling port.
3. Method of taking samples and testing.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

1. Sampling method for SO 2 (in ambient air):


The SO 2 from ambient air is absorbed in
STCM solution (sodium tetra chloro mercurate). The
sampling is carried our for 24 hours at 2 lit/min
flow rate adjusted in HVAS. The collected sample is
analyzed
by
colouromatric
titration
in
spectrophotometer.
2. Sampling method for NO2 :
The NO 2 from ambient air is absorbed in
NaOH solution. The sampling is carried our for 24
hours at 2 lit/min flow rate adjusted in HVAS. The
collected sample is analyzed by colouromatric
titration by using 1-nepthelene ethylene di-amine
(NEDA ) solution in spectrophotometer.

3. Measurement of Particulate Matter (PM):


To measure this parameter, we use high
volume air sampler machine(HVAS). Pre weighted
filter paper is kept in HVAS. HVAS should be
placed at least at 3-4 meter height at where the
ambient air monitoring to be carried out. Care must
be taken that there should not be any vehicular
activity or source of instant dusting. Certain air
flow is set in HVAS for 24 hours. After running
HVAS for 24 hours, the filter paper is taken out
from machine and weight it on weight scale. the
difference of filter paper weight in micro gram or
mg (after weight & pre weight) is divided by
volume of air passed from HVAS for 24 hours. this
figure gives total SPM of ambient air. For
measurement of respirable PM, we require RDS
(Respirable dust sampler). For PM 10 & PM 2 . 5
separate ambient air monitoring machines available
in market.

31 - 35

Safety of Environment

5.3.6 Air Pollution Control Devices:


The following items are commonly used as air
pollution control devices by industry or
transportation devices. They can either destroy
contaminants or remove them from an exhaust
stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere.
1.

forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other


contact method, so as to remove the pollutants.

Other Air Pollution Control Devices are as


under:
Baffle spray scrubber
Cyclonic spray scrubber

Control Measures for Particulate Mattersi.

Ejector venturi scrubber

Electrostatic Precipitators

Mechanically aided scrubber

ii. Bag Filters and

Spray tower

iii. Cyclone Separators

Wet scrubber (absorption or scrubing)

iv. Settling Chambers


2.

Control Measures for gases-

Dry scrubbers

i.

NOx control

Catalectic Converters

ii. Packed Towers and

Low NOx burners

iii. Spray Towers

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

iv. Venturi Scrubber

Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)

Efficiencies of Control Measures


Sr No

Control Measure

NOx scrubbers

Eff Range %

Typical%

Exhaust gas recirculation


Catalytic converter (also for VOC control)

Electrostatic Precipitator

99-99.9

99.5

Bag Filters

97-99.5

98

VOC abatement

Packed Tower

96-99

98

Adsorption systems, such as activated carbon

Venturi Scrubber

95 - 99

97

Flares

Spray Tower

80-90

85

Thermal oxidizers

Cyclones

70- 90

80

Biofilters

Settling Chambers

25-35

30

Cryogenic condensers

Some control devices are mentioned below.

Vapor recovery systems

1. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP):

Acid Gas/SO2 control


Flue-gas desulfurization

It is also known as electrostatic air cleaner. It


is a particulate collection device that removes
particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the
force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic
precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices
that minimally impede the flow of gases through the
device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter
such as dust and smoke from the air stream.

Mercury control
Sorbent Injection Technology
Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO)
K-Fuel
Dioxin and furan control
Miscellaneous associated equipment

2. Baghouses:
They are designed to handle heavy dust loads,
a dust collector consists of a blower, dust filter, a
filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust
removal system (distinguished from air cleaners
which utilize disposable filters to remove the dust).

Source capturing systems


Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

5.4 Noise Pollution Control


See Chapter 12 for Noise and Vibration.

3. Particulate scrubbers:
Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control
technology. The term describes a variety of devices
that use pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from
other gas streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted
gas stream is brought into contact with the
scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

See Part 10.13 of Chapter 28 for legal aspect.


It is excessive, displeasing human, animal or
machine-created environmental noise that disrupts
the activity or balance of human or animal life. The
word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas,
meaning seasickness.

31 - 36

Safety of Environment

The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is


mainly construction and transportation systems,
including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail
noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise
pollution, since side-by-side industrial and
residential buildings can result in noise pollution in
the residential area.

important factor in applying these strategies is a


computer model for roadway noise, that is capable
of addressing local topography, meteorology, traffic
operations and hypothetical mitigation. Costs of
building-in mitigation can be modest, provided these
solutions are sought in the planning stage of a
roadway project.

Effect on Human Health

Aircraft noise can be reduced to some extent by


design of quieter jet engines, which was pursued
vigorously in the 1970s and 1980s. This strategy has
brought limited but noticeable reduction of urban
sound levels. Reconsideration of operations, such as
altering flight paths and time of day runway use,
has demonstrated benefits for residential
populations near airports. FAA sponsored residential
retrofit (insulation) programs initiated in the 1970s
has also enjoyed success in reducing interior
residential noise in thousands of residences across
the United States.

Noise health effects are both health and


behavioral in nature. The unwanted sound is called
noise. This unwanted sound can damage
physiological and psychological health. Noise
pollution can cause annoyance and aggression,
hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing
loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.
Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading
causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can
lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times
panic attacks.
Chronic exposure to noise may cause noiseinduced hearing loss. Older males exposed to
significant occupational noise demonstrate
significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their
non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing
sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups
are indistinguishable by age 79. A comparison of
Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed
to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical
U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to
moderately high levels of environmental noise
contributes to hearing loss.
High noise levels can contribute to
cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately
high levels during a single eight hour period causes
a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten
points and an increase in stress and
vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood
pressure noted above as well as to increased
incidence of coronary artery disease.
Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance.
A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in
urban areas households are willing to pay
approximately four Euros per decibel per year for
noise reduction.

Exposure of workers to Industrial noise has


been addressed since the 1930s. Changes include
redesign of industrial equipment, shock mounting
assemblies and physical barriers in the workplace.
Noise Free America, a national anti-noise
pollution organization, regularly lobbies for the
enforcement of noise ordinances at all levels of
government.

5.5

Pollution problem can be seen from many


angles and it has many reasons. In industrial
context, we can see it from some points of
inspection and types of complaints received from
the public. A few such points are stated below:
1.

Violations of conditions given in EC, CTE or


CCA. Strict compliance is expected from
industry occupiers or managers which they
could not achieve because of the reasons best
known to them. They think over them if some
strict action is taken viz. closure.

2.

No provision of ETP and direct discharge of


effluent on land. Some units have done reverse
bore injunction, a crime against nature. When
such cases are found,
closure becomes
necessary as punishment.

3.

ETPs are inadequate. People have increased


their production, water consumption and
effluent discharge without their CTE/CCA
amended. They dont want to show i.e. they
want to hide pollution. Data Collection Form
should be devised and used to know the total
current pollution load of the industries. This is
a tough and lengthy exercise and also depends
on co-operation and correct discloser of
information by industries.

Mitigation and Control of Noise


Technology to mitigate or remove noise can be
applied as follows:
There are a variety of strategies for mitigating
roadway noise including: use of noise barriers,
limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway
surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles, use of
traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce
braking and acceleration, and tire design. An
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

General Guidelines for Pollution


Control.

31 - 37

Safety of Environment

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

No upgradation or revision of ETP or APCM


based on current load of pollution generation.
Upgradation should happen by self-inspiration
or self-discipline by industries. How much time
is required to check thousands of such units by
a limited staff of the Board?

Strategy to Fight Pollution:


Above discussed pollution problems need
certain specific control measures. A few are stated
below:
1.

Industries must provide their correct status of


current production and pollution generation.
They should give correct information in this
regard. This will reveal the correct picture of
current pollution load. This can be utilized in
devising a State Level Pollution Control Plan
including requirement of common facility
infrastructure also.

2.

Boards officers should thoroughly inspect the


industry and give inspection remarks in
writing. This will help industry to plan and
install correct pollution control plant from the
design stage. Assuming future expansion, initial
design of ETP, APCM, CETP, TSDF, pipe
conveyance etc. should be made accordingly.

3.

EC amenable projects should complete EC


procedure first and only after getting EC,
construction may be started so that design and
construction will be eco friendly and legal.

4.

EC, CTE and CC&A conditions must be strictly


followed. They should be amended from time
to time if production or pollution load vary and
it becomes legally required.

5.

Records of hydraulic discharge and solid wastes


generation are not matching with the records of
their treatment. The gap indicates pollution
generation. Great efforts are required to find
and fill this gap. By hiding actual water
consumption, industries are causing revenue
loss to Pollution Control Boards.

Direct discharge of untreated waste should be


avoided. ETP, CETP, APCM, Incinerator etc
must be seen working. Board should take strict
action if such pollution control measures are
not found working and false defences are
pleaded.

6.

If production or pollution load is to be


increased, necessary up gradation of pollution
control plant must be made first.

7.

Four Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) and


other CP options are not followed properly.
Spent acid, solvent mixed effluent, textile
effluent etc. are thrown in common or municipal
pipelines, again a big crime. Closer may not be
the permanent solution. Self-discipline has no
substitute. But when it is absent, authority is
compelled to become strict.

Zero discharge means zero generation of


pollution or no discharge of any treated or
untreated waste water on land within or
outside the plant premises. To achieve this, 4R
control measures will become necessary.

8.

If CETP inlet norms are not observed by


member industries, CETP outlet norms are
difficult to achieve and in such condition,
criticality of pollution may continue. Therefore,
all industries must provide at their plant
premises adequate control plants to meet with
the pollution control norms or CETP design
inlet norms. There is no other solution. CETP
operators should also become strict. They
should have correct, preferably on-line system to
measure and monitor inlet and outlet hydraulic
and pollution (quantitative and qualitative)
parameters constantly.

Claiming zero discharge but not in reality zero


discharge. Strict observation of process control
and use of cleaner production options are
required, but only a few industries do this. All
such zero discharge units should follow the
Pollution Control Boards guidelines to avoid
strict action.
Not observing inlet norms of CETP (Common
Effluent Treatment Plant) and sending high
pollutants to it, thus spoiling the working of
CETP itself! Neutralization, solid filtration, COD
& Ammonical nitrogen reduction, no toxic or
heavy metal contents etc.-all are necessary but
many industries big or small do not do this.
This may generate critically polluted areas.
Common facility operators are also not fully
following CPCB or SPCB guidelines. They think
that they cannot be stopped. Their membership
gives protection or assurance of waste as
treated to members. Many times incinerators are
not found working. Wrong capacities are
shown. Control measures are neither provided
nor working. Complaints of dumping
incinerable wastes in TSDF are received.

10. Noise complaints are increasing. People have


valid complaints. But it is we only who
generates noise and cannot live without noise
in celebrating any small or big function or even
in worshiping Gods. Live and let live
peacefully should become our constitutional
right. Otherwise running behind complaints will
not help much. At source reduction is required.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 38

Safety of Environment

9.

Incinerators must work and found working at


the time of visit of Boards officer or public
representative. False defenses will conclude not
running the incinerator and disposing
incinerable waste illegally. Dumping of
incinerable waste in TSDF is considered grave
offence. Closure direction may follow.

10. Each pollution generating unit should have one


in-plant laboratory and necessary qualified
persons (degree or diploma in Environment) to
measure, analyze, assess and monitor the
pollution within permitted limits only.
11. Pollution Control Boards should install and
devise the system to know correct quantity of
water consumption, wastes generation and
treated wastes by daily reporting on online
system.
12. Strict action should be followed for illegal
transport, storage or throwing of any hazardous
wastes anywhere in the state.
13. New industries should be invited for more and
more common facility operations depending on
the latest pollution load in the State. Their
location, jurisdiction and safe working must be
controlled.
Common plants for acid handling, solvent
distillation, single or multiple evaporators, spray
driers, COD and Ammonical nitrogen reduction,
should be welcomed in addition to CETP,
TSDF. Incinerators, pipe conveyance etc. SEZ,
Eco-parks, etc. common infrastructure are
welcomed by industries to send their treated
effluent in common pipe line. But this should
not be allowed without CETP or some common
point of collection to see what is actually going
in, in totality.

16. CETP operators should pay more attention on


more discharging or more polluting units rather
than zero discharge or less polluting units.
17. A team of experts on various subjects of
pollution and its control should be made by
selecting such persons from the society to assist
the Pollution Control Boards as and when
required. They can also advise to the R & D
and Training Cell of the Board.
18. College students (ME or M.Sc. Environment)
should be encouraged for their best suggestions
or projects for pollution control. Their
contribution should be recognized.
19. Awards should be given to persons drawing
attention towards gross pollution and doing
best activities for environmental protection.
See also Part 6.2.6 to 6.2.9 for land, water, air
and noise environment control.

ENVIRONMENT IMPACT
ASSESSMENT (EIA)

It is a legal requirement to submit a report before


the Government Authority regarding possible
environmental impacts or consequences due to the
construction or industrial activities of a proposed project.
Some projects are to be approved at central level and
some at state level. No project shall be started before
getting the environmental clearance (EC).

6.1 Meaning and Objective of EIA


It is an assessment of the possible positive or
negative impact that a proposed project may have
on the environment, together consisting of the
environmental, social and economic aspects.

14. Technological innovations and scanning


machines should be utilized to detect unlawful
wastes or pipelines in ground to control over
illegal business in this regard.

The purpose of the assessment is to ensure


that decision makers consider the ensuing
environmental impacts when deciding whether to
proceed with a project.

15. For noise control, public appeal for noise


reduction should be continued. Where high
noise is a daily phenomenon, fixed volume
locking on amplifier or interlocking of sound
level (detector) and volume control of amplifier
must be introduced. More easy way is to allow
certain low volume (cannot allow more than
permissible dB levels) amplifiers only for any
function, procession or place of worship.
Timing should also be restricted. Like silence
zone, silence period (viz. Sunset to Sunrise and
afternoon 1 to 4 pm in residential areas) can
also be notified for not causing high noise.

The International Association for Impact


Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact
assessment as the process of identifying, predicting,
evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social,
and other relevant effects of development proposals
prior to major decisions being taken and
commitments made.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

The basic objective of the Environment Impact


Assessment is to identify, predict, mitigate and
communicate the possible impacts due the proposed
project to the Government authority and people likely
to be affected and incorporate the conditions for

31 - 39

Safety of Environment

construction, operation, maintenance and waste


disposal phases of the project to mitigate the negative
(adverse) impacts and enhance the positive impacts
for the sustainable development of the region.

11 Noise Environment.

EIAs are unique in that they do not require


adherence to a predetermined environmental
outcome, but rather they require decision-makers to
account for environmental values in their decisions
and to justify those decisions in light of detailed
environmental studies and public comments on the
potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

13 Risk Management.

12 Protection of Workers and Public from


adverse impacts.

14 Parking Area, Entry & Exit criteria.


15 Greenbelt Development.

Part B : Project Specific Aspects

There are various methods available to carry


out EIAs, some are industry specific and some
general methods:

Information required from all projects.

Information required from Chemical Projects.

At the end of the project, an EIA should be


followed by an audit. An EIA audit evaluates the
performance of an EIA by comparing actual impacts
to those that were predicted. The main objective of
these audits is to make future EIAs more valid and
effective. The two main considerations are:
(1) Scientific - to check the accuracy of predictions
and explain errors and (2) Management-to assess
the success of mitigation in reducing impacts.

Construction Projects.

Mining Projects.

Annexure:
A- Format of first presentation by applicant
before the SEAC, Gujarat. (For industrial
projects other than chemical industries).
B- Format of first presentation by applicant before
the SEAC, Gujarat. (For chemical industry
projects).

6.2 EIA Guidelines :


Guidelines to Project Proponents for
Preparation of EIA Report published on 1-5-2010 by
the State Experts Appraisal Committee (SEAC) of
Gujarat is useful in this regard. Its short summary
is given below. For details see- http://gpcb.guj.nic.in

C- Format of first presentation by applicant


before the SEAC, Gujarat. (For building /
construction projects).

6.2.1 Contents of EIA Reports:

D- Application of Remote Sensing and Satellite


Images in Environment Impact Assessment
some important aspects required to be
considered while preparing the EIA reports.

PartA : General Aspects of EIA preparation.


1

Highlights of EIA Notification 2006 as


amended in 2009.

Objectives of the SEAC, Gujarat.

1.

Some Useful Terminology / Definitions.

General Guidelines for Project Proponents.

2.

Alternatives Analysis in EIA.

List of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries


and Conservation Reserve in Gujarat

Siting criteria.

3.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

Flora and Fauna.

4.

Some useful Books / Publications.

Cleaner Production.

5.

Some useful Websites.

Water Environment.

Air Environment.

10 Land Environment.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Appendix :

6.2.2

Applicability of the Environment


Clearance (EC)

Projects requiring prior EC as listed in the EIA


Notification are given in the following table.

31 - 40

Safety of Environment

SCHEDULE
(See paragraph 2 and 7 of the EIA Notification, 2006)
LIST OF PROJECTS OR ACTIVITIES REQUIRING PRIOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE
(As amended up to December 2009)
Category with threshold limit

Conditions if any

Project or Activity

(a) (

(1)
1(a)

1(b)

1(c)

1(d)

1(e)

A
B
Mining, extraction of natural resources and power
1
production capacity)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(i)Mining of minerals. (i) >50 ha of mining lease (i) <50 ha >5 ha of mining
area in respect of non - lease area in respect of noncoal mine lease.
coal mine lease.
>150 ha of mining lease <150 ha > 5 ha of mining
area in respect of coal lease area in respect of coal
mine lease.
mine lease.
(ii) Slurry pipelines Asbestos
mining
(coal lignite and other irrespective of mining
ores) passing through area.
national
parks
/
sanctuaries / coral (ii) All projects.
(ii) --reefs,
ecologically
sensitive areas.
Offshore and onshore All projects
--oil
and
gas
exploration,
development
&
production
River Valley projects

(i) 50 MW hydroelectric
power generation;

(ii) 10,000 ha. of


culturable command area
Thermal Power Plants >
500
MW
(coal/lignite/naphtha
and gas based);
> 50 MW (Pet coke, diesel
and all other fuels
including
refinery
residual oil waste except
biomass);
> 20 MW (based on
biomass
or
non
hazardous
municipal
solid waste as fuel).

Nuclear
power All projects
projects
and
processing of nuclear
fuel

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

generation (for a specified

General
apply.

(5)
Condition

shall

Note: Mineral prospecting


is exempted.

Note : Exploration Surveys


(not involving drilling) are
exempted
provided
the
concession areas have got
previous
clearance
for
physical survey
(i) < 50 MW 25 MW General Condition shall
hydroelectric
power apply
generation;
(ii) < 10,000 ha. of culturable
command area
<500MW
General Condition shall
(coal/lignite/naphtha and apply.
gas based);
Note:
<50 MW >5 MW (Pet coke, (i) Power plants up to 15
diesel and all other fuels MW, based on biomass and
including refinery residual using auxiliary fuel such as
oil waste except
coal / lignite / petroleum
biomass);
products up to 15% are
<20MW > 15MW (based on exempt.
biomass or non hazardous (ii) Power plants up to 15
municipal solid waste as MW,
based
on
nonfuel).
hazardous municipal waste
and using auxiliary fuel
such as coal / lignite
/petroleum products up to
15% are exempt.
(iii) Power plants using
waste heat boiler without
any auxiliary fuel are
exempt.
-

31 - 41

Safety of Environment

(1)
2
2(a)

2 (b)

3
3(a)

(2)

(3)

Coal washeries

Mineral
beneficiation

(4)

Primary Processing
ton/annum General
Condition
shall
1 million ton/annum <1million
throughput of coal
apply
throughput of coal
(If located within mining
area the proposal shall be
appraised together with the
mining proposal)
0.1million ton/annum < 0.1million ton/annum General Condition shall
mineral throughput
apply
mineral throughput
(Mining
proposal
with
Mineral beneficiation shall
be appraised together for
grant of clearance)
Materials Production

Metallurgical
a)Primary metallurgical
industries (ferrous & industry - All projects
non ferrous)
b)
Sponge
iron Sponge iron manufacturing
<200TPD
manufacturing
= 200TPD
Secondary
metallurgical
c)Secondary
processing
industry
metallurgical processing
industry
All toxic and heavy metal i.)All toxic and heavy metal
producing units
producing units
20,000 tonnes /annum <20,000 tonnes/annum
-

3( b)

Cement plants

(5)

ii.) All other non toxic


secondary
metallurgical
processing industries
>5000 tonnes/annum

1.0
million <1.0 million tonnes/annum
production capacity. All
tonnes/annum
Stand alone grinding unit s
production capacity

General condition shall


apply.
Note:
(i) The recycling industrial
units registered under the
HSM Rules, are exempted.
(ii) In case of secondary
metallurgical
processing
industrial
units,
those
projects
involving
operation of furnaces only
such as induction and
electric
arc
furnace,
submerged arc furnace,
and cupola with capacity
more than 30,000 tonnes
per annum (TPA) would
require
environmental
clearance.
(iii) Plant/units other than
power
plants
(given
against entry no. 1(d) of the
schedule),
based
on
municipal
solid
waste
(non-hazardous)
are
exempted.
General Condition shall
apply

Materials Processing
4
4(a)

4(b)
4(c )

Petroleum
industry

refining All projects

Coke oven plants

2,50,000 tonnes/annum
Asbestos
milling All projects
and asbestos based
products

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

<2,50,000 &
25,000 tonnes/annum
-

General
apply.
-

31 - 42

condition

shall

Safety of Environment

(1)
4(d)

(2)
Chlor-alkali industry

(3)
(4)
300 TPD production (i) All projects irrespective
capacity or a unit located of the size, if it is located in a
out side the notified Notified Industrial Area /
Estate.
industrial area/ estate
(ii) < 300 tonnes per day
(TPD) and located outside a
Notified
Industrial
Area/Estate.

4(e)

Soda ash Industry

All projects

4(f)

Leather/skin/hide
processing industry

New projects outside the


industrial
area
or
expansion of existing
units
out
side
the
industrial area

All new or expansion of General as well as specific


projects located within a conditions shall apply.
notified industrial area/
estate

5
5(a)

Chemical fertilizers

(5)
General as well as specific
conditions shall apply.
No new Mercury Cell
based plants will be
permitted and existing
units
converting
to
membrane cell technology
are exempt from the
notification.
-

Manufacturing/Fabrication
All projects except Single Single super phosphate
Super Phosphate.

5(b)

Pesticides
industry All
units
producing and pesticide specific technical grade pesticides
intermediates
(excluding
formulations)

5(c)

Petro-chemical
complexes (industries
based on processing
of
petroleum
fractions & natural
gas and/or reforming
to aromatics)
Manmade
fibres
manufacturing
Petrochemical based
processing (processes
other than cracking &
reformation and not
covered under the
complexes)
Synthetic
organic
chemicals
industry
(dyes
&
dye
intermediates; bulk
drugs
and
intermediates
excluding
drug
formulations;
synthetic
rubbers;
basic
organic
chemicals,
other
synthetic
organic
chemicals
and
chemical
intermediates)

5(d)
5(e)

5(f)

All projects

Rayon

Others

General Condition shall


apply
Located out side the Located
in
a
notified General as well as
notified industrial area/ industrial area/ estate
specific conditions shall
estate
apply.
-

Located out side the Located


in
a
notified General as well as specific
notified industrial area/ industrial area/ estate
conditions shall apply.
estate

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 43

Safety of Environment

(1)
5(g)

(2)
Distilleries

(3)
(i)All Molasses
distilleries

(4)
based -

(5)
General Condition shall
apply

(ii) All Cane juice/ non- All Cane juice/non-molasses


molasses
based based distilleries
<30 KLD
distilleries 30 KLD
5(h)

Integrated
industry

5(i)

Pulp
&
paper
industry excluding
manufacturing
of
paper from waste
paper
and
manufacture
of
paper from ready
pulp
with
out
bleaching
Sugar Industry

5(j)

6
6(a)

6(b)

7
7(a)

7(b)

paint -

All projects

General Condition shall


apply

Pulp manufacturing and

Paper
manufacturing General Condition shall
industry
without
pulp apply
Pulp
&
Paper manufacturing
manufacturing industry
-

5000 tcd cane crushing General Condition shall


apply
capacity
Service Sectors

Oil
&
gas All projects
transportation pipe line
(crude
and
refinery/
petrochemical
products), passing
through
national
parks
/sanctuaries/coral
reefs /ecologically
sensitive
areas
including
LNG
Terminal
Isolated storage & handling
of
hazardous chemicals
(As per threshold
planning
quantity
indicated in column
3 of schedule 2 & 3
of
MSIHC Rules
1989 amended 2000)

All projects

General Condition shall


apply

Physical Infrastructure including Environmental Services


All projects including
Note:
airstrips, which are for
Air strips, which do not
commercial use.
involve bunkering /
refueling facility and or
Air Traffic Control, are
exempted.
All ship breaking All projects
yards including ship
breaking units
Air ports

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 44

Safety of Environment

(1)
7(c)

(2)
Industrial estates/ parks/
complexes/ areas, export
processing Zones (EPZs),
Special Economic Zones
(SEZs),
Biotech
Parks,
Leather Complexes.

(3)
(4)
If at least one industry in Industrial estates housing at
the proposed industrial least one Category B industry
estate falls under the and area <500 ha.
Category
A,
entire
industrial area shall be
treated as Category A,
irrespective of the area.

Industrial estates with area Industrial estates of area>


greater than 500 ha. and 500 ha. and not housing any
housing at least one industry
belonging
to
Category B industry.
Category A or B.

7(d)

7(e)

7(f)

7(g)

7(h)
7(i)

Common hazardous waste All integrated facilities


treatment, storage and having
incineration
disposal facilities (TSDFs)
&landfill or incineration
alone
Ports, harbours, break 5 million TPA of cargo
waters, dredging.
handling
capacity
(excluding
fishing
harbours)

All facilities having land fill


only

(5)
General as well as
specific conditions shall
apply.
Note:
1. Industrial Estate of
area below 500 ha. and
not
housing
any
industry of Category
A or B does not
require clearance.
2. If the area is less than
500 ha. but contains
building
and
construction projects >
20,000 Sq. mtr. and or
development area more
than 50 ha it will be
treated as activity listed
at serial no. 8(a) or 8(b)
in the Schedule, as the
case may be.
General Condition shall
apply

General Condition shall


apply
Note:
1. Capital dredging
inside and outside the
ports or harbors and
channels are included;
2.
Maintenance
dredging is exempt
provided it formed part
of the original proposal
for which Environment
Management
Plan
(EMP) was prepared
and
environmental
clearance obtained.
Highways
i) New National High (i)
All
State
Highway General Condition shall
ways; and
Projects; and
apply.
ii) Expansion of National (ii) State Highway expansion Note:
High ways greater than 30 projects in hilly terrain Highways
include
KM, involving additional (above 1,000 m AMSL) and expressways.
right of way greater than or
ecologically
sensitive
20m
involving
land areas.
acquisition and passing
through more than one
State.
Aerial ropeways
(i) All projects located at
All projects except those
General Condition shall
altitude of 1,000 mtr. and
covered in column (3).
apply
above.
(ii) All projects located in
notified ecologically
sensitive areas.
Common
Effluent
All projects
General Condition shall
Treatment Plants (CETPs)
apply
Common Municipal Solid
All projects
General Condition shall
Waste
Management
apply
Facility (CMSWMF)

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 45

< 5 million TPA of cargo


handling capacity and/or
ports/ harbours 10,000 TPA
of fish handling capacity

Safety of Environment

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Building /Construction projects/Area Development projects and Townships

8(a)

Building
Construction
projects

and

=20000 sq.mtrs and


<1,50,000 sq.mtrs. of built-up
area#

8(b)

Townships and Area


Development
projects.

Covering an area = 50 ha and


or built up area =1,50,000 sq
.mtrs ++

General Condition (GC):


Any project or activity specified in Category
B will be treated as Category A, if located in
whole or in part within 10 km from the boundary
of: (i) Protected areas notified under the Wildlife
(Protection) Act, 1972; (ii) Critically polluted areas as
identified by the Central Pollution Control Board
from time to time; (iii) Eco-sensitive areas as notified
under section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act,
1986, such as, Mahabaleshwar Panchgani, Matheran,
Pachmarhi, Dahanu, Doon Valley, and (iv) interState boundaries and international boundaries:
Provided that the requirement regarding distance of
10 km of the inter-State boundaries can be reduced
or completely done away with by an agreement
between the respective States or UTs sharing the
common boundary in case the activity does not fall
within 10 kilometers of the areas mentioned at item
(i), (ii) and (iii) above.

Procedure and Time frame for


Environment Clearance (EC)

the

Application to the EAC ,MoEF ,GOI ,for A


category projects OR to the SEAC, State
Government for B category projects
as listed in the EIA Notification dated 14-9-2006

Scoping/Terms of Reference for the EIA Report

60 days

Public Consultation to be carried out by


the SPCB [Comprises of Public Hearing
(PH) and Response in Writing]

45days

Appraisal by the EAC or SEAC, as the


case may be, based on the EIA report and
the outcome of the public consultation
process

EAC Recommendation to the MoEF

OR

SEAC Recommendation to the SEIAA

Specific Condition (SC):

60 days

60 days

If any Industrial Estate / Complex / Export


processing Zones / Special Economic Zones /
Biotech Parks / Leather Complex with
homogeneous type of industries such as Items 4(d),
4(f), 5(e), 5(f), or those Industrial estates with pre
defined set of activities (not necessarily
homogeneous) obtains prior environmental clearance,
individual industries including proposed industrial
housing within such estates /complexes will not
be required to take prior environmental clearance, so
long as the Terms and Conditions for the industrial
estate/complex are complied with (Such estates/
complexes
must
have a clearly identified
management with the legal responsibility of
ensuring adherence to the Terms and Conditions of
prior environmental clearance, who may be held
responsible for violation of the same throughout the
life of the complex/estate).
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

#(built up area for


covered construction; in
the case of facilities open
to the sky, it will be the
activity area )
++All projects under Item
8(b) shall be appraised as
Category B1

31 - 46

Decision by the MoEF OR SEIAA


Grant EC with conditions

45 days

Reject EC with reasons

Total 270 days if all formalities/


procedures are followed correctly.
EC

= Environment Clearance

EIA

= Environment Impact Assessment

SPCB

= State Pollution Control Board

EAC

= Expert Appraisal Committee

EIAA

= Environment Impact Assessment


Authority

SEAC = State Expert Appraisal Committee


SEIAA = State Environment Impact Assessment
Authority
Safety of Environment

6.2.3 Siting Criteria


1.

2.

(2) In case the study area has wetlands, the


aquatic flora should also be included. In
case of trees and shrubs, the numbers
(population) should be indicated against
each species.

The siting or location of industry should be


done after having considered various
alternatives for this purpose as stated in part
A-4 above. The justifications for selection of the
site in question shall be highlighted, if the site
is already finalized. If the proposal is for
various options, the study shall be done to
finalize the site based on environmental/
ecological aspects and socio-economic feasibility
in mind.
The site selection shall be done keeping in
view the existing environmental and wildlife
laws in mind. The site under question should
be sufficiently away from the nearby residential
areas, wildlife protected areas, other sensitive
areas to avoid the adverse impacts due to the
project activities and for better planning leading
the sustainability.

3.

Some useful sources of information in this


regard are given in Appendix at the end.

4.

Use the Remote Sensing and satellite images


for siting of industries. The details given at
Annexure C for application of Remote Sensing
in Environment Impact Assessment would be
useful not only for siting of industries but also
for assessing the impacts and deciding the
mitigation measures as well as developing the
Environmental Management Plan.

(3) In case of trees within the project site, the


height should be mentioned in the height
classes of 2 meters.
(4) Separate information should be given about :
1. endemic flora
2. threatened flora- as per International
Union for Conservation of Nature and
Natural Resources (IUCN) list / category
or any other known system of
categorization (quote reference)
3. any rare flora

3.

(1) The information about fauna should be in


the form of number of the presence of
1. mammals
2. reptiles
3. birds
4. amphibians
5. aquatic fauna (in case of wetland etc.)
6. marine fauna including corals (in case of
marine ecosystem)
(2) For each category of fauna, the following
information should be given.

6.2.4 Flora and Fauna

1. species name- local as well as scientific


name

Following details should be incorporated in the EIA


with respect to the flora and fauna.

2. estimated population

1. Baseline Survey :

3. the schedule to which they belong as


per the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act,
1972

(1) The baseline status of the flora and fauna


in the study area shall be properly
determined. This should include the
terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Further, if
there exists any wetland or marine areas
within the study region, the ecosystems of
the said region shall also be studied for
ascertaining the baseline condition.
Whenever secondary data is used, it is
necessary to quote the source and time of
data generation.
(2) The information should include the present
status of flora and fauna covering all the
types of ecosystems in the project area.

4. IUCN threat category- if any.


5. feeding and breeding habitat within the
project area and the study area
(3) If the study area contains the habitat
(including feeding and breeding habitat) of
any wildlife belonging to Schedule-I of the
Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 which
may normally be residing outside the project
area, it should be clearly mentioned.

4.

2. Flora :
(1) The information about flora should be in the
form of number of species of (along with
their names- local as well as scientific
name) trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers
present in the area.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Fauna :

31 - 47

Impact on flora and fauna:


(1) All potential project activities which are
likely to have impacts on flora and fauna
shall be properly identified.
(2) The li kely impacts due to the project
activities and project induced development
on the ecology shall also be identified for
developing the mitigation action plans.
Safety of Environment

(3) The detailed measures shall be proposed for


mitigating the potential adverse impacts on
the flora, fauna and natural resources based
on its significance and magnitude.

7.

(4) Alternatives considered for various


mitigation measures shall also be highlighted
specifically for this purpose. The selected
alternative for mitigation purpose should be
justified appropriately.

5. Topography and Drainage lines :


The natural drainage lines passing through the
project area should be clearly indicated and
should not be blocked. The natural flow should
remain unobstructed.

6. Information collection:
(1) The following information should be
obtained from the office of the local Deputy
Conservator of Forests and submitted along
with the proposal.
1. Whether the project area includes any
forestland. If yes, the details regarding
the type of forestland (Reserved Forests
and Protected Forests under Section 20
and 29, respectively, of the Indian Forest
Act, 1927 as well as the area declared
under Section 4 of the same Act). The
area of forestland of each category
should be obtained.
2. The aerial distance of the nearest forest
area (i.e. Section 4 / Section 20 / Section
29 mentioned hereinabove).
3. The aerial distance of the nearest
Protected Area declared under the
Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 as
a National Park, Wildlife Sanctuary,
Conservation Reserve or Community
Conservation Area.
4. The details about the flora and fauna
mentioned above.
(2) The information may also be collected from
other institutes / organizations including
universities and libraries. In such cases, the
source of information should invariably be
quoted.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 48

Check list of some flora fauna in


Gujarat
1. Checklist of Flora to be protected

Sr
Scientific Name
No.
1 Tribulus rajasthanansis

Local Name
Gokharu

Commithora wightti

Gugal

Anogysis sericua

Dhavo ( Dhavadi)

Gloriossa superba

Vachhanag

Tecomela undulate

Ragatroydo

2. Checklist of Herpato Fauna


and Reptiles)
Sr
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

(Amphibians

English Name

Scientific Name

Painted Kaloula
Green Turtle
Spiny Tailed Lizard
Starred Tortoise
Mugger or Marsh Crocodile
Indian Python

Kaloula taprobanica
Chelonia mydas
Uromastyx hardwickii
Geochelone elegans
Python molurus

(3)Checklist of Threatened Avifauna


Sr No.

English Name

Red-crested Pochard

Netta rufina

Scientific Name

Great Indian Bustard

Choriotis nigriceps

Houbara or
Macqueens Bustard

Lesser Florican

Forest Spotted Owlet

Adjutant Stork

Leptoptilos dubius

Black-nacked Stork

Xenorhynchus asiaticus

King Vulture

Torgos calvus

Hodgons frogmouth

10

Grey Horn Bill

11

Forest Wagtail

Sypheotides indica

(4) Checklist of Threatened Mammals


Sr No.

English Name

Scientific Name

IUCN
Status

1
2

Asiatic Lion
Black Buck

Panthera leo persica


Antilope cervicarpa

Cr.Endan.
Lower Risk

Common
Dolphin

Delphinus delphis

Nearly
Threatened

Desert Cat

Felis libyca

Desert Fox

Vulpes vucapus

Nearly
Threatened
Nearly
Threatened

6
7

Four horned
Antelope
Indian Ratel

Tetraceros
quadricornis
Mellivora cepensis

Wild Ass

Equus hemionus
khur

Safety of Environment

6.2.5

Cleaner Production

The EIA report for the industrial plant is


expected to cover the most useful Cleaner Production
technology or option in the said project activities.
The project proponents are expected to understand
the benefits of the Cleaner Production (CP) and the
types of the CP options to be incorporated during
the project implementation and operation phases.
See Part 1.4 & 4 for more information in
this regard.

6.

The control measures shall be proposed


for mitigating the potential adverse
impacts on the land environment and soil
characteristics based on its significance
and magnitude.

7.

Land Environment related aspects raised


during the public hearing shall be
properly addressed in the mitigation
measures.

8.

Likely generation of solid and hazardous


wastes from the processes and other
project activities and their collection,
storage, transportation and disposal
systems shall be mentioned. The specific
measures required for safe handling and
disposal of the said waste shall be
highlighted. Wherever the waste is
proposed to be disposed of into the
common TSDF or incineration facilities,
the membership letter along with the
capacity of the said facility to accept this
additional waste shall be attached. It shall
be mentioned that the TSDF / Incinerator
is meeting with the prescribed norms or
not.

9.

In case of own TSDF and/or incineration,


the design of the same along with the
compliance of the CPCB guidelines
including the liner systems, slopes, layers
etc for TSDF and temperature, dual
chamber, residence time, products of
combustion etc. for incinerators shall be
specifically addressed. In case of such
existing facility, It shall be mentioned that
the TSDF / Incinerator is meeting with
the prescribed norms or not.

The Cleaner Production techniques study


through a reputed institute / agency shall be
carried out during project implementation phase.
However, the options already developed and
available in the published literature shall be used to
design the plant for their implementation.
Some studies are already done for various
sectors by the National Productivity Council, Gujarat
Cleaner Production Centre and the National Cleaner
Production Centre. The suitable recommendations /
suggestions of such studies shall be incorporated in
the project design and implementation.
Appropriate lab-scale study for identification
of waste minimization options may also be
conducted.

6.2.6

Land Environment:

1.

Detailed key plan indicating the location


with respect to surrounding land use and
a detailed site plan indicating the areas
for construction, roads, gates, pipelines,
hydrants, greenbelt, parking, development
and future expansion etc. shall also be
submitted on the said plan.

2.

The baseline status of the land


environment including the land-use
pattern and the soil quality shall be
properly determined using scientific
information. Satellite images shall be given
and interpreted. See annexure C also.

3.

All potential project activities which are


likely to have impacts on land
environment shall be properly identified.

4.

The likely impacts due to the project


induced development shall also be
identified for developing the mitigation
action plans.

5.

The prediction of impacts on land


environment using proper methods such
as software, maps, plans, etc. shall be
done and the significance and magnitude
of the potential adverse impacts shall be
determined. Assessment shall be given by
comparing with the standards.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

6.2.7

31 - 49

Water Environment:

1.

All sources of water availability with


quantity shall be mentioned. Use of
ground water source (e. g. bore-well) shall
be avoided or minimized as far as
possible. Use of surface water supplied by
the Government or Local Authority is
preferable and when such water is
available, use of bore well must be
discontinued. Plan for conservation of
water, its reuse and recycle and
harvesting or recharging of rain water
shall be submitted. During operation
phase, it is expected that all the project
proponents install flow meters at all
sources to measure intake of water from
different sources. Use of water by road/
rail tankers shall also be counted.

2.

Baseline water quality shall be determined


as per the guidelines specified by the
Safety of Environment

MoEF, GOI. For determining the baseline


water quality, both surface and ground
water quality shall be determined.
3.

All potential sources of water pollution


(discharges from the processes, utilities,
leakages, washing of floors / vessels,
treatment plant etc.) shall be identified
and properly documented.

4.

The prediction of impacts (including the


quantification of the pollutants both in
terms of concentration and load) due to
these discharges shall be done using
proper models, software, formulae,
equations, etc. and the significance and
magnitude
shall
be
determined.
Assessment shall be given by comparing
these quantities with the permissible
limits.

5.

The control measures shall be proposed


for measuring and mitigating the potential
adverse impacts based on its significance
and magnitude.

6.

In case of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP),


the details of the same including the
adequacy with respect to hydraulic and
organic load of inlet parameters as well
as the outlet parameters to be achieved
after treatment vis--vis the standards
prescribed shall be properly documented.
For specific pollutants like heavy metals,
ammonical nitrogen, non-biodegradable
organic compounds, etc. specific treatment
shall be proposed with proper details.
Treatability problems, if any, shall be
specifically mentioned. In case of existing
ETP, records of last 3 years and adverse
or compliance remark from GPCB and
CPCB shall be submitted. Flow meter at
the outlet of the ETP at all discharge
points is also expected during operation
phase.

7.

8.

In case of the Common Effluent Treatment


Plant (CETP), the design capacity of the
CETP, availability of spare capacity to
accept the
additional intake due to
the proposed project, the present status of
the compliance of the CETP at its outlet,
proposal for upgradation of the CETP
under implementation or consideration,
etc. shall be detailed out and reported. It
shall be mentioned that the CETP is
meeting with the prescribed norms or not.
All these are applicable to FETP also.

9.

10. CETP / FETP facility is generally meant


for small and medium scale units which
cannot afford costly treatment or
technology. Effluent discharge more than
25 KLD should not be sent to such
common facilities but to be treated at own
site (ETP). Stream segregation and
interlocking device mentioned in para 8
and 9 above for self monitoring and
control should be installed and operated
by all big units having effluent discharge
more than 25 KLD and also by those
units which can adversely affect the
results of CETP / FETP. This shall be
clearly mentioned in EIA report.
11. In case of effluent discharge proposed, the
adequacy of the receiving body for
accepting the new load shall be properly
assessed and related mitigation measures
shall also be mentioned. Letter of
acceptance from the common facility
operator shall be submitted.
12. Water Environment related aspects raised
during the public hearing shall be
properly addressed in the mitigation
aspects.
13. If sea water is available nearby, possibility
of RO Plant to convert it into demineralized (DM) water to be used in
processes and elsewhere shall be
mentioned.

6.2.8. Air Environment:

Untreatable or highly concentrated wastes


streams shall be segregated from process
plants, collected separately and disposed
of safely. Plan for such treatment shall be
submitted.
31 - 50

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Interlocking device to sense exceeding flow


rate and pollutant (eg: pH and TOC i.e
total organic carbon) at the final discharge
point of ETP, CETP, FETP or conveyance
pipe and to trip, alarm, stop or divert
such discharge at safe collection place is
most desirable. SMS alert of exceeding
parameters should be available to ETP /
CETP / FETP operators and concerned
authorities.

1.

Baseline Air Quality shall be assessed as


per the guidelines specified by the MoEF,
GOI.

2.

All potential sources of air pollution


(including emissions from processes, flue
gases, the steam/power generation and
other such utilities, fugitive emissions and
vapours, gases and dusting due to
manufacturing processes, handling and
transportation etc.) shall be identified and
properly documented. Only approved fuel
shall be used. Where natural gas is
available as clean fuel, other fuel shall not
be used.
Safety of Environment

3.

4.

The prediction of impacts due to these air


pollutants (including noise) shall be done
using proper models, software, formulae,
equations, etc. and the significance and
magnitude
shall
be
determined.
Assessment shall be given by comparing
these calculated or predicted quantities
(toxic concentration, pressure, temperature,
heat energy etc.) with the permissible
limits.
The control measures shall be proposed
for mitigating the potential adverse
impacts based on its significance and
magnitude. Whenever the control measures
are proposed, the details of the air
pollution control equipments along with
its efficacy, validation, O&M aspects, shall
be adequately mentioned. APCM including
scrubber, column- condenser, vent cooler,
odour killer, flare, ESP, incinerator, etc
shall work efficiently and continuously.

5.

In case of existing plant, records of last 3


years and adverse or compliance remark
from GPCB and CPCB shall be submitted.

6.

Air Environment related aspects raised


during the public hearing shall be
properly addressed in the mitigation
aspects.

6.2.9
1.

2.

3.

4.

Noise Environment:
The ambient noise quality / baseline
status of the noise environment shall be
properly determined and reported for day
and night hours.
All potential sources of noise pollution
(including the sources like noisy and
vibrating machinery, pneumatic conveyors,
DG sets, compressors, heavy machinery
and equipments, transportation and other
project activities) shall be identified and
properly documented.
The prediction of impacts due to these
sources shall be done using proper
models, software, formulae, equations, etc.
and the significance and magnitude shall
be determined. Assessment shall be given
by comparing with the permissible limits.

5.

Noise related aspects raised during the


public hearing shall be properly
addressed in the mitigation aspects.

6.

For existing plant, records of last 3 years


and adverse or compliance remark from
GPCB and CPCB shall be submitted.

6.2.10

Protection of Workers and Public


from Adverse Impacts:

Definition of Environment u/s 2(a) of the


Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 includes human
beings.
Definition of Hazardous Substance u/s 2(e) of
the same Act speaks of harm to human beings.
Definition of Hazardous Waste u/r 3(14) of
the Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling)
Rules 1989 speaks of danger to health a n d
accident at facility is considered reportable u/r 10.
Definition of Major Accident, its notification,
safety report, safety audit report, on-site and off-site
emergency plans, information to public likely to be
affected, threshold quantities of chemicals, hazardous
operations and processes, Material Safety Data
Sheets etc. are prescribed under the Manufacture,
Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules
1989.
Chemical Accident , Major Chemical
Accident and different crisis groups are included in
the Chemical Accidents (Emergency, Planning,
Preparedness and Response) Rules 1996.
Similarly the Factories Act 1948 and the
Gujarat Factories Rules 1963 provide for many
aspects of safety and health of the workers and the
public.
EIA document while including Environment,
certainly expects causes and control measures of
adverse impacts on workers and public as human
beings. They are the most vital part of the
environment and first to be protected.
Therefore following topics of safety and health
of the workers and public should be properly
addressed in EIA document.

The control measures shall be proposed


for mitigating the potential adverse
impacts based on its significance and
magnitude. Whenever the control measures
are proposed, the details of the same shall
be adequately addressed. The engineering
control measures for noise and vibration
reduction are more desirable. Then PPE
shall be used.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 51

Types of accidents likely to happen during


construction, operation and waste
disposal phases of a new or expansion
project.

Health effects (including occupational


disease or poisoning) possible during
phases mentioned in para 1 above.

In case of existing and expanding unit,


figures of accidents and occupational
diseases during last five years should be
reported.

Safety of Environment

Hazardous properties of the raw


materials, intermediates, products and byproducts should be mentioned along with
their maximum quantity and number and
type of storage containers at site. Small
size storage tanks are preferable than big
size tanks.

List of hazardous processes and hazards


possible due to them.

Areas of poor illumination, poor


ventilation, confined spaces, working at
height, gas-cylinders storage, tank farm,
switch yard, dangerous machines and gas
pipe lines should be indicated. Areas of
fire, explosion or toxic release possibilities
shall be clearly mentioned.

3. In case of possibility of toxic gas release (e.g.


Cl2, NH3, H2S, Phosgene etc) damage distances with
concentration and in case of flammable gas release
(e.g. LPG, NG, Propylene, Kerosene, solvent vapour
etc) damage distances with heat energy effect or in
case of explosion possibility (VCE, UVCE, BLEVE
etc) over pressure damage distances due to bursting
effect shall be calculated by appropriate formulae or
computer software (eg:. Effects, Safeti, Phast, Aloha,
Cirrus etc)
4. For toxic damage criteria, Lethal toxicity
levels LC50 are to be considered for risk assessment
purpose. Where LC50 is not available, LOC, IDLH or
STEL shall be considered for calculation. LC50 for
some gases for healthy humans at rest are as under

GAS
Methyl isocyanate
Phosgene
HCN
Cl2
H2 S
Br 2
HF
SO2
NH3

Points suggested in different Formats


(Annexure) and guidelines stated in Part
B should be included.

Control measures to be planned at design


stage should include applicable statutory
requirements such as:1.

2.
3.

4.

Fire fighting arrangement including water


reservoir, tanks, pumps, hydrants, fire
tenders, fire detectors and alarms, fire
extinguishing system, fire exits, trained
staff, alternate power (eg. DG set) etc.
Toxic and flammable gas leak detection,
alarm and control system.
Railing,
guarding,
earthing,
heat
insulation, noise control, safety fittings &
devices, interlocking, trips and alarms,
PLC/ DCS Control,
local exhaust
ventilation, purging, blanketing, showering
and similar protection systems for
machines, vessels and process safety. Two
stage condenser or scrubber and vent
cooling to reduce air pollution. HAZOP
study before operation is useful.
Provisions to be made at operational
phase viz safety policy, safety committee,
safety manual, on-site emergency plan,
safety training, safety audit, risk
assessment, medical examinations of the
workers etc.

Source: Withers, R.M.J., Foundations for simple


computer models, Loughborough University of
Technology, MHC 186/2, PP 4-8, 1986.
5. For thermal damage criteria, heat flux levels
- 1.6 kw/m2 for pain threshold to 37.5 kw/m2 for
99% fatality - are reported. Consider 4.0 kw/m2 for
risk assessment purpose as threshold value of
injury.
6. For explosion or over pressure damage
criteria , peak overpressure levels - 0.01 bar for
cracks in glass to 1.7 bar for bursting of lung are
reported. Consider 0.02 bar for risk assessment
purpose as an effect of minor glass damage.
7. Risks will be identified from hazards
existing or reasonably assumed (predicted). Two
types of scenario are possible:

Brief mention of these items at EIA stage is


sufficient.

6.2.11

Risk Management

1. For existing and expanding projects, risk


assessment shall be submitted based on exact
quantities of the hazardous materials and their
processes / activities on site.
2. For new projects this shall be done from the
assumed (predicted) quantities and activities at site.
31 - 52
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

LC50 at 30 minutes
34
53
131
500
640
750
1200
2300
11500

(1) The worst case scenario which is rarely


possible and indicates total or catastrophic
failure of the vessel or system. Consider
escape of whole mass in this case.
(2) The MCA (maximum credible accident)
scenario which is mostly possible and
most reasonable. It takes place when
control measures fail eg:. Leakage from
outlet valve, joint or pipe, release from
safety valve opening, vent opening, stack
release, hole or puncture in pipe or vessel
or transport vehicle etc. In case of uneven
rapture, equivalent diameter should be
considered for source strength calculation.
Safety of Environment

8. Prevailing wind velocity (eg:. 2 to 5 m/s)


and direction at the project site should be
considered. Weather condition D (neutral) shall be
assumed for calculation purpose.

Toxic gas or LEL detectors with alarm and


automatic fire fighting system should be included in
planning. List of antidotes and medical help centers
shall be ready.

9. The results shall be plotted on the project


plot boundary from point of source to 5 km or zero
damage distance whichever is maximum. Distance of
the lethal concentration LC50 (Toxic effect), 4.0 kw/
m2 (Heat radiation effect) and 0.02 bar peak over
pressure for glass bursting (Explosion effect) shall
be shown by different colours.

Purpose of EIA is safe planning and avoidance


of risk from beginning.

10.The results of risk assessment calculation in


above manner shall be properly presented before
SEAC.
11.When risk due to toxic or flammable gas is
not possible because of absence of such material,
activity-wise risk assessment (metrix method) or raw
material wise risk assessment (formula method,
Risk=Probability x Severity) shall be carried out
from the existing or assumed (predicted) hazardous
activities.
12.Results of risk assessment shall be used in
estimating preparedness in On-site and Off-side
emergency plans. Depending on type and gravity of
risk, list the control measures to be provided.
13. Risk control measures include : Risk
avoidance, Risk prevention, Risk reduction, Risk
transfer (contract to skilled persons) and Insurance
for risks which cannot be retained and handled by
the company.
Avoid the risk in initial planning (eg. selection
of technology) by avoiding or eliminating the use of
hazardous substances (see Cleaner Production, Part
4-7). Find less hazardous substitutes.
If avoidance is not possible, prevent the risks
by appropriate engineering controls.
Risks can be reduced from very beginning if
small size storage tanks instead of big size tanks,
metal tanks instead of plastic tanks, low pressure /
low temperature processes instead of high pressure
/ high temperature processes, low speed machines
instead of high speed and low energy equipments
instead of high energy equipments are selected at
planning stage.
Make short term and long term program for
risk management. Where zero damage distance
ends within project premises, planning of on site
emergency plan and where it crosses the project
boundary, additional planning of off site emergency
plan becomes necessary.

6.2.12 Parking Area, Entry and Exit Criteria


1. For all building construction and area
development projects (falling at Sr. No. 8 of the
schedule of the EIA Notification, 2006) the parking
area shall be provided based on the requirements as
per the National Building Code or the local bye
laws or Development Control Regulations, whichever
is higher. Twenty percent more parking area should
be considered to include future requirement.
2. For industrial projects, the requirements for
parking shall be calculated based on the peak load
of traffic i.e. vehicles entry to the premises (1) for
unloading of raw materials (2) for loading of
finished goods (3) for transportation of men power
and shall be provided adequately to ensure that
there is no traffic blockages on road or roadside
parking creating nuisance.
3. For all industrial and building construction
projects, the entry and exit shall be provided
separately for safe and smooth movement of vehicles
entering and exiting the premises. Unidirectional
flow of vehicles is desired to avoid head- on
collisions. Mirrors should be provided at blind
corners or turning points. Blow horn notices
should also displayed.
For building construction projects, see Part B-3
of the guideline.

6.2.13 Greenbelt Development:


1. Definition: A green belt is a policy and land
use designation used in land use planning to retain
areas of largely undeveloped, wild or agricultural
land surrounding or neighboring urban areas.
Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges
which have a linear character and may run through
an urban area instead of around it. The greenbelt is
a strip of land provided on the periphery of town
for the special purpose of limiting the growth of a
town. Promotion of tree plantation around industrial
establishment also came to be known as green belt.
The land contained in the green belt is to be used
for carrying out the agricultural activities.

Prevent the spread of toxic or flammable liquid


by necessary dyke, curb, diversion and their safe
disposal in confined area (for pool spread).
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 53

2. Purposes :
The stated objective of green belt policy are to:
(1) Protect and develop natural or semi
natural environments;
(2) Improve air quality within industrial and
urban areas;
(3) Insure that urban dwellers have access to
countryside, with consequent educational
and recreational opportunities; and
Safety of Environment

(4)

Protect the unique character of rural


communities which might otherwise be
absorbed by expanding suburbs.

5. Some important trees, which could be


planted in Gujarat with respect to suggested specific
areas :Sr.
No.

3. Advantages:
(1)
(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Green belts are compensatory plantation


to restore the ecological balance.
Green belts insure a minimum distance
between the industrial sources of pollution
and the receptors/ residential areas, prone
to the health hazards of industrial
pollution.
Green belts can absorb the air and water
pollution caused by the industry. For
example, Noise can be decreased by up to
10 decibels by green belts.
Trees not only assimilate carbon dioxide
and release oxygen but also play an
important role in trapping some
obnoxious gases and particulate matters
in the air. Hence green belt functions both
as filter and sink for contaminants.
Green belts can improve the local
microclimate. These occur mainly through
their influence on wind, temperature and
humidity.

Name of the tree

Specific area

Acacia catechu

Dang,
Vyara

Rajpimpala,

2
3

Salvadora peryica
Terminalia tomentosa

Saurastra, Kachchh
Except dry area

Dalbergia sissoo

Vadodara. Anand, Ahmedabad, Dahod, Kheda,


Bharuch, Valsad, Mehsana

Peltophorum pterocarpum

Ailanthus exceisa

Dry region of Saurastara, Chotaudepur,


Devgadhbaria, Godhara, Banaskantha

7
8

Pithecellobium dulee
Acacia tartilis

South Gujarat,

Prosopis juliflora

Kachchh, Gujarat

Azadirachta indica
Syzygium cuminii

Dang, Rajpimpala, North Gujarat


All over Gujarat

12

Dalbergia jatifolia

Dang, Vyara, Rajpimpala

13
14

Diospyros melanoxylon
Madhuca indica

Dang, Ranjpimpala
Except Kachchh

15

Ougeinnia ougeinensis

South Gujarat and North Gujarat

16
17

Cassia siamea
Dendrocalamus strictus

Ornamental tree not seen in a forest area


Dang, Dediyapada

18

Bambusa bambos
Gmelina arborea

19

Casuarina equisetifolia

South Guja rat, good population where there is


heavy rain
Sea coat, saurastra

20

Pterocarpus marsupium

South Gujarat

21
22

Acecia niiotica
Leucaena leucocephela

Dry zone
Dry zone

23

Tectona grandis

All forest in Gujarat

24
25

Ficus bengalensis
Zizyphus mauritiana

All over Gujarat


Saurastra, Kachchh, North Gujarat

Green belts provide picnic spot and


recreation grounds.

6.

(7)

In the dryer part of the area, the trees


reduce the effect of dryness and desiccate
hot wind and increase the availability of
soil moisture.

Some trees are useful as under:

For the development of greenbelt, plants having


simple big leaves are preferred with compound or
pinnate leaves. Native trees are preferable.

7.

The plants are suitable for green belt


development based on gaseous exchange capacity of
foliage which is ascertained by various
characteristics and hence the following aspects are
important while selecting the plant species:
(1)

The species should be fast growing and


having thick canopy cover

(2)

It should be perennial and evergreen and


should have large area index

(3)

It should be indigenous and suitable to


local climatic conditions

(4)

It should be efficient in absorbing


pollutants without significant effects on
plant growth

(5)

It should be fruit yielding trees, if


possible, especially in wasteland areas.
31 - 54

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Pollution Control
Plantation :

Dust Absorbers
Azadirachta indica (Neem)
Melia azaderach (Mahaneem)
Terminalia arjuna (Arjun)
Cassia fistula (Amaltas)
Bauhinia variegate (Kachnar)

Which plants / trees should be selected


for green belt area?

Songadh,

10
11

(6)

4.

Dharampur,

Through

Tree

For Air Pollution Attenuation


Terminalia tomentosa (Asan)
Acacia auriculiformis (Babul)
Polyalthia longifolia (Debdari)
Ficus benghalensis (Banyan)
Mangifera indica (Aam)
Nerium odorata (Kaner)
Ficus elastica

The proposed greenbelt development


plan should include:
1. Detailed plan for greenbelt development including the area, diversity and density of
plantation, types of species and budgetary
allocation for the same.
2. While selecting the species to be planted in
the greenbelt, the following should be considered.
(1) Greenbelt should cover perennial trees
as far as possible. Development of
lawns, small ornamental flowering
plants, seasonal plants etc. should not
be counted as a part of greenbelt in
the conservation plan.
(2) Locally occurring species which can
easily be grown, should be given preference in greenbelt development.
Safety of Environment

(3) Any particular species of plant which


may be needed in that area from the
point of view of soil conservation,
moisture conservation, pollution control, dust control, wildlife habitat etc.
may also be given preference while deciding the species to be included in
the greenbelt.
(4) The number of trees as well as the
area to be covered by the greenbelt
should be mentioned. At least 33% of
the plot area and the whole periphery
should be covered by green belt.
(5) The plan should indicate how the
greenbelt will be raised, irrigated and
maintained over a long run. The detailed plan for greenbelt development
for at least five years shall be submitted.
(6) Contribution to awareness generation
about conservation of trees and nature
should also form the conservation
plan.

6.2.14 Application of Remote Sensing and


Satellite Images in Environment
Impact Assessmentsome important
aspects required to be considered
while preparing the EIA reports :

6.

The
study
of
drainages
and
hydrological pattern should be done in
such a way that the run off direction
could also be shown on the map to
study the path of run off from the
development site. The downstream
impacts due to such run off should
also be studied to understand the final
recipient (which could be water body
or the settlement) due to the water
pollution, if any.

7.

The soil characteristics (may be from


other sources) with respect to
permeability and also to show how the
water would percolate over the time in
case the land application of the treated
effluent is proposed.

In nutshell, the process which will result out of


this development should be studied with respect to
the location of different features.

7 STATUTORY PROVISIONS
In our country, existing laws on environmental
subjects are listed below-

Constitutional Provisions
Article 21 - Fundamental Right: Protection of
life and personal liberty: No person shall be
deprived of his life or personal liberty except
according to procedure established by law.

1.

Latest Remote Sensing data should be


analyzed for land use utilization /
land use pattern with respect to the
location of the proposed development
to establish the site suitability

2.

Precautions should be taken in


choosing the date of satellite data to
have factual description of land
features

3.

Scale of depiction should be chosen in


such a way that pollution related to
air, water and soil may be linked to
each features so that the relations
could be established e.g. the distance
of the existing habitation / settlement
/ industries and workers from the
source of pollution has a different
implications for different situations

Article 51-A (g) - Fundamental Duties: To


protect and improve the natural environment
including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to
have compassion for living creatures.

The satellite data should also be


interpreted for understanding the crop
type and intensity of cultivation (it will
have an implication on number of
people working in nearby fields)

4.

5.

The right to life includes the right to healthy


environment, pollution free water and air and
protection against hazardous processes.
Article 48A - Protection and Improvement of
Environment and Safeguarding of Forests and
Wildlife: The state shall endeavor to protect and
improve the environment and to safeguard the forest
and wildlife of the country.

Laws on Industrial Environment


1.

The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

2.

The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986.

3.

The Manufacture, Storage and Import of


Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989.

4.

The Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import,


Export and Storage of Hazardous MicroOrganisms/ Genetically Engineered Organisms
or Cells, 1989.

Other vegetation type may also be


shown with respect to location so that
5.
the
interaction
of
proposed
development could also be understood
and studied
31 - 55

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning,


Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996.

Safety of Environment

6.

The Bio-medical Waste (Management and


Handling) Rules, 1998.

7.

The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control)


Rules, 2000.

8.

The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation


and Control) Rules, 2000.
The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and
Handling) Rules, 2000.
The Batteries (Management and Handling)
Rules, 2001.
The Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling
and Transboundary) Rules, 2008.
The Wetlands (Conservation and Management)
Rules, 2010.
The Plastic Waste (Management and Handling)
Rules, 2011.
The E-waste (Management and Handling)
Rules, 2011.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Laws on Air
15. The Air (Prevention and
Act, 1981.
16. The Air (Prevention and
Rules, 1982.
17. The Air (Prevention and
(Union Territories) Rules,

Control of Pollution)
Control of Pollution)
Control of Pollution)
1983.

Laws on Water
18. The Water (Prevention
Pollution) Act, 1974.
19. The Water (Prevention
Pollution) Rules, 1975.
20. The Water (Prevention
Pollution) Cess Act, 1977.
21. The Water (Prevention
Pollution) Cess Rules, 1978.

and

Control

of

and

Control

of

and

Control

of

and

Control

of

Laws of Gujarat:
Laws made by Government of Gujarat are as
under22. Gujarat Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Rules, 1976.
23. Gujarat Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Rules, 1983.
24. Gujarat Disaster Management Act, 2003.

Laws on Forest
29.
30.
31.
32.

The
The
The
The

Indian Forest Act, 1927.


Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.
Forest (Conservation) Rules, 2003.
National Forest Policy, 1988.

Laws on Wild Life


33. The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
34. The Wild Life (Stock Declaration) Central Rules,
1973.
35. The Wild Life (Transactions and Taxidermy)
Rules, 1973.
36. The Wild Life (Protection) Licensing (Additional
Matters for Consideration) Rules, 1983.
37. The Wild Life (Protection) Rules, 1995.
38. The Wild Life (Specified Plants-Conditions For
Possession by Licensee) Rules, 1995.
39. The Wild Life (Specified Plant Stock
Declaration) Central Rules, 1995.
40. National Zoo Policy, 1998.
41. The Declaration of Wild Life Stock Rules, 2003.
42. The National Board For Wild Life Rules, 2003.
43. The National Tiger Conservation Authority
(Salaries, Allowances and other Conditions of
Appointment) Rules, 2006.
44. The National Tiger Conservation Authority
(Qualifications and Experience of Experts or
Professional Members) Rules, 2006.
45 The Recognition of Zoo Rules, 2009.
46. Guidelines for Appointment of Honorary Wild
Life Wardens.
47. Central Government Orders Prohibiting Sale of
Animals by Zoo.
48. Disaster Management Act, 2005.
For the summary of statutory provisions of
some of above laws see Part 10 of Chapter 28.

NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL


STANDARDS

National (Indian) and International (ISO)


Standards are available on the subjects of
environment protection. A few are stated below.

Laws on National Green Tribunal

8.1 National Standards

25. The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010.

Some National
mentioned below.

26. The National Green Tribunal (Manner of


Appointment of Judicial and Expert Members,
Salaries, Allowances and other Terms and
Conditions of Service of Chairperson and other
Members and Procedure for Inquiry) Rules,
2010.
27. The National Green Tribunal (Removal of
Difficulties) Order, 2010.
28. The National Green Tribunal (Practices and
Procedure) Rules, 2011.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 56

(Indian)

Standarads

are

No.
IS
Subject
1. IS:2488 - 1968 Instruction to preserve samples
2. IS:4733 - 1968 Instruction to preserve samples
3. IS:7967 - 1976 Criteria for controlling pollution
of marine coastal areas
4. IS:8032 - 1976 Guidelines for treatment and
disposal of distillery effluent
5. IS:8073 - 1976 Guidelines for treatment and
disposal of steel plant effluent
Safety of Environment

6.

IS:8682 - 1977 Guidelines for treatment for


dairy industry
7. IS:9508 - 1980 Guidelines for treatment of
cotton and synthetic textile
industry
8. IS:9509 - 1980 Guidelines for treatment of
viscos reyon industry
9. IS:9569 - 1980 Glosary of terms relating to
solid wastes.
10. IS:9841 - 1981 Guidelines for treatment of
fertilizer industry
11. IS:10044 -1981 Guidelines for treatment and
disposal for petroleum refining
industry
12. IS:10153 -1982 Guidelines for utilization &
Disposal of Fly Ash
13. IS:10179 -1982 Code of practice for control of
air pollution in petroleum
refineries.
14. IS:10495 -1983 Guidelines for treatment and
disposal wool processing
industry
15. IS:10500 -1991 Parameters for drinking water
16. IS:11304 -1985 Code of practice for control of
Air Pollution in iron and steel
plants.
17. IS:11768 -1986 Recommendation for disposal
of Asbestos Waste Material
18. IS:12002 -1987 Code of practice for control of
air pollution from cement
plants.
19. IS:12112 -1987 Code of practice for control of
air pollution in refractories
industry
20. IS:12185 -1987 Code of practice for control of
air pollution in integrated
aluminum industries.
21. IS:12402 - 1988 Part 1 & 2 - Mobile containers
for solid wastes.
22. IS:13416 -1994 Recommendation for preventive
measures against hazard at
workplace Disposal of Debris
23. IS:13428 -2005 Packaged natural mineral
water.
24. IS:14489 -1998 Code of Practice on OHS audit
(Annex A, B & C containing
items on hazardous waste
treatment and disposal)
25. IS:14543 -2011 Packaged drinking water (other
than packaged natural mineral
water)
See Part 5 of Chapter 18 and Table 11 of
Chapter 33 for other Indian Standards on
environment.

with a view to provide organizations world over


with a structure for managing environmental
impacts of their activities, products and services and
to have a uniform international Environmental
Management Systems (EMS) for use as
environmental management tool.
Some ISO standards are accepted as IS also.
ISO 14000 series of standards address six distinct
but related subjects like
IS/ISO:14004-1996 Environmental
Systems (EMS)

Management

IS/ISO:14031-1999 Environmental
Evaluation (EPE)

Performance

IS/ISO:14024-1999 Environmental Labeling (EL)


IS/ISO:14040-1997 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
IS/ISO:18001-2000 Occupational Health and Safety
Assessment Series (OHSAS).
IS/ISO:19011-2002 Environmental Auditing (EA)
IS/ISO:50001-2011 Energy management system
There are also IS/ISO standards available for
method of measurement and estimation of various
air and water parameters and also for calibration of
equipments related to particular parameter.
2. ILO Convention 170 & Recommendation
185 on Safety in the Use of Chemicals
Art. 2 (c) (v) regarding disposal and treatment
of waste chemicals. Art. 14 for safe disposal. Para
16 (Recomm.) for disposal and treatment of
hazardous waste. Para 26 (d) for safety training to
workers.
3. UNEPs Basel Convention on the Control of
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes
and their Disposal, 1989.
It lists about 190 categories of wastes reflecting
the nature of toxic wastes and measures to be taken.

8.3 Foreign Standards

8.2 International Standards


1. ISO Standards:
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) has published ISO 14000 series of standards
31 - 57
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

1. Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act. 1974 U.K.


(A) Work Place (HS&W) Regulations, 1992R9(3) prohibits accumulation of waste
materials except in suitable receptacles.
(B) Special Waste Regulation 1996 provides
for
control for wastes that are
dangerous and difficult to handle and to
ensure they are soundly managed from
their production to their final destination
for disposal or recovery.
2. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970, USA
Reg. 1910.120 for hazardous waste
operations in detail which include
responsilities of contractors and subcontractors, decontamination, emergency
response, site characterisation and analysis,
site control etc.
Safety of Environment

9. POLLUTION CONTROL BOARDS


For the monitoring and implementation of
environment protection laws stated in Part 7 above,
Ministery of Environment and Forest (MoEF) at New
Delhi and Forest and Environment Departments at
State levels are functioning. Under them, Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution
Control Boards (SPCBs) are also functioning. For
their duties and powers, statute books and Part 10
of Chapter 28 should be referred. Also see Part 9.3.
Addresses of such Boards are given below to
get more information of their activities and to get
necessory permissions from them.

9.1 Addresses of Boards Offices:


9.1.1 Addresses of MoEF, CPCB and SPCBs:
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

16. Jammu & Kashmir State Pollution Control


Board,Sheikhul Alam Campus, Behind Govt.
Silk Factory, Rajbagh , Srinagar, J a m m u &
Kashmir.
17. Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board, T.A.
Building, HEC, P.O. DhurwaRanchi 834 004
Jharkhand
18. Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, 6th-9th
floors, Public Utility Building NSB Building,
Mahatama Gandhi MargBangalore 560 001
Karnataka
19. Kerala State Pollution Control Board, Plamoodu
Junction, Pattom PalaceTrivandrum 695 004
Kerala
20. Meghalaya Pollution Control Board, ARDEN,
Lumpyngndad, Meghalaya

Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of


21.
India, Paryavaran Bhavan, CGO Complex, Lodi
Road, New Delhi-110 003
Central Pollution Control Board,Parivesh
22.
Bhavan, East Arjunnagar, Nr. Karkarduma
Court, New Delhi-110 032
Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board,
Paryarana Bhawan, A-3, Industrial Area,
23.
Sanathnagar, Hyderbabad-500 018, Andhra
Pradesh
24.
Arunachal State Pollution Control Board,
Government of Arunachal Pradesh Office of the
25.
Principal Chief and Secretary (E&F) Conservator
of Forests, Itanagar 791111, Arunachal Pradesh
Assam Pollution Control Board, Bamunimaidam,
26.
Guwahati781021, Assam
A & N Islands Pollution Control Committee
Van Sadan, Port Blair-744 102
27.
Bihar State Pollution Control Board,IInd Floor,
Beltron Bhvan, Jawaharlal Nehru Marg, Shastri
Nagar, Patna 800023, Bihar
Chhattisgarh State Environment Conservation
28.
Board, Nanak Nivas, Civil Lines, Raipur
492001, Chhattisgarh
Chandigarh Pollution Control Committee
Chandigarh Administration,Additional Town
29.
Hall Building, IInd Floor, Sector 17- C,
Chandigarh 160 017.
Delhi
Pollution
Control
Committee,
30.
4 th Floor, I.S.B.T. Building, Kashmere Gate,
Delhi 110006
Daman Diu & Nagar Haveli Pollution Control
31.
Committee, Office of the Dy. Conservator of
Forests, Moti Daman-396220, Daman
32.
Goa State Pollution Control Board, Dempo
Tower, Ist Floor Patto Plaza, Goa 403110
Gujarat State Pollution Control Board,
Sector 10-A, Gandhinagar 382043, Gujarat
33.
Haryana State Pollution Control Board ,
S.C.O.No.11 A-12, Sector 7-C Madhya Marg,
Chandigarh-160 019
34.
H.P. State Environment Protection & Pollution
Control Board, Paryavaran Bhawan, Phase III
New Shimla -171 009 Himachal Pradesh
31 - 58

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board, E-5,


Arera Colony, Paryavaran Parisar,Bhopal 463
016, Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, Kalpataru
Points, 3rd & 4th floor, Opp. Cine Planet, Sion
Circle, Sion (E), Mumbai 400 022
Mizoram State Pollution Control Board,M.G.
Road, Khatna, Aizwal-796 012, Mizoram
Manipur Pollution Control Board,Langol
Housing Complex, Imphal 795 004, Manipur
Nagaland Pollution Control Board, Forests
Colony, Dimapur, Nagaland
Orissa State Pollution Control Board,, A-118,
Nilakantha Nagar, Unit-VIII, Bhubaneswar
751012 Orissa
Punjab Pollution Control Board, Vatavaran
Bhawan, Nabha Road, Patiala 147 001
Punjab
Pondichery Pollution Control Committee,
Department of Science, Technology &
Env.Housing Board Complex, IIIrd Floor
Pondicherry 600 005
Rajasthan Pollution Control Board, A-4,
Institutional Area, Jalana Dungri, Jaipur-302 004
Rajasthan
State Land Use and Environment Cell, Govt. of
Sikkim, Deorali Sikkim
Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board,No. 76,
Mount Salai, Guindy, Chennai 600 032.
Tripura State Pollution Control Board, Vigyan
Bhawan, Pandit Nehru Complex,Gorkhabasti,
PO: Kunjaban,Agartala (W) 799 006 Tripura
Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board,IIIrd floor
PICUP
Bhavan,Vibhuti
Khand,
Gomti
Nagar,Lucknow 226020 Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal Pollution Control Board, Paribesh
Bhavan, 10-A, Block LA, Sector III, Salt Lake
City, Kolkata 700 091
Safety of Environment

9.1.2 Addresses of Regional Offices in


Gujarat.
Head Office :

Gujarat
Pollution
Control
Board,
Paryavaran Bhavan, Sector 10 A, Gandhinagar 382 010
Phone: 079 23232152 Fax: 079 23222784, 23232161
website: www. gpcb.gov.in

Regional Offices:

1. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,


Ahmedabad2nd Floor, Gram Nirman Bhavan,
Gujarat Rajya Khadi Gramodyog Board, Juna
Vadaj, Ahmedabad 380 009.
2. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
Nadiad201-203, B Block, Sardar Patel Bhavan,
Nadiad District Kheda 387 001.
3. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
AnandBardanwala Bhavan, Dr. Crook road,
Anand 38.
4. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
VadodaraERI Compound, Race Course road,
Vadodara 390 007.
5. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Godhra20,
Haidary
Society,
Near
DSP
office,
Godhra Dist: Panchmahal 389 001.
6. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
BharuchShed no. C 1, 119/3, GIDC Estate,
Narmadanagar, Bharuch.
7. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
AnkleshwarCleaner Techonology Development
Centre
Building
(ARAIL)1501,
GIDC
Ankleshwar, Dist. Bharuch 393 0002.
8. RO,Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Surat Belgium
Square, Silver Plaza Complex, Opposite Linear bus
stand, Ring road, Surat 395 003.
9. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Dev
Complex, Opp. Alka Society, Chhapara Road,
Navsari 396 445.
10. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, VapiShed
no. C 5/124, Vapi GIDC, Near Hotel Pritam,
Vapi 396 195.
11. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
Gandhinagar,G - 10, Ground Floor, Paryavaran
Bhavan, Sector 10 A, Gandhinagar 382 010
12. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
HimmatnagarAadarsh Bunglow, House no. 33/
34, Motipura, Polytechnic road, Himmatnagar,
district Sabarkantha 383 001.
13. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
MehsanaH/3 - A, Phase I, GIDC Estate, Near
GIDC Office, Modhera road, Mehsana 389 002.
14. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Palanpur
C/o. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, H/3
- A, Phase I, GIDC Estate, Near GIDC Office,
Modhera road, Mehsana 389 002.
15. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Rajkot
Near Hotel Durkhush, Race course road, ring
road, Rajkot 360 001
16. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Jetpur
Near Hotel Durkhush, Race course road, ring
road, Rajkot 360 001.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

17. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,


SurendranagarC/o Gohil Ushadevi S., Ground
Foor, Krushn Bhuvan, Jadeshwar Society, Nr
PTC College, Jadeshwar road, Wadhvan, Dist.
Surendranagar 363 030.
18. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
JamnagarSardar Patel Commercial Complex,
Rameshwarnagar, K.G. Vikas Gruh marg, Bedi
Bandar road, Jamnagar.
19. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
PorbandarSandeep Complex, First Floor, Opp.
Madhvani College, Narsang Tekri, Airport road,
Porbandar 360 577.
20. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Junagadh
Pankaj Bungalow, Station road, Opp. St. Anees
Church, Junagadh 362 001.
21. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
BhavnagarPlot 1154/2-B, Ghogha Circle, Sir
Patni road, Bhavnagar 364 004.
22. RO, Gujarat Pollution Control Board,
BhujNaniba Pathshala building, Patwadi
Darwajo, Near Hamirsar Talav, Bhuj District
Kutch 370 001.

9.2 Duties of Boards Officers.

Under the statutory provisions stated in Part 7,


various duties and powers of Boards Officers are
prescribed. Some such duties include1. To receive applications from industries and
other waste generators for CTE and CCA
and to process them for granting or
rejecting such applications.
2. To visit the industries, waste generating
sites, collecting and treatment sites and
common facilities like CETP, TSDF,
incinerators, distillation units, spray driers,
acid handlers, bio-medical waste sites,
municipal solid waste sites, co-processing
wastes sites, pipe conveyance, etc. and to
guide them for pollution prevention and
control. Guidance should be given in
writing.
3. To arrange for and attending training
programs, seminars, public awareness
programs, meetings and offices.
4. To take samples of water, air and
hazardous wastes from different locations
and to send them at laboratories for
analysis. For the legal provisions, procedure
and methods of sampling and analysis see
Part 5.2.2 and 5.3.5. For analysis of various
parameters (indicators) of samples of waste
water, polluted air and hazardous wastes,
laboratories are attached with Boards
Offices. Some Officers have to work in these
laboratories as Scientific Officers.
5. To inspect the plant, machinery, equipment
and devices to reduce or control the
pollution at source. After inspection, they
have to suggest necessary control measures
to the occupier. Format of such Inspection
Report (IR) by Boards Officers may be like
as under.

31 - 59

Safety of Environment

Format of Inspection Report by Boards Officer:


1

Industry Id:

Logo

Date & Time of Inspection:


Inspection Id:
Outward No. & Date:
Date of Inspection Remarks (Para-11)
delivered to the industry:

CCA No.,Date &


Validity
RO:

Name and Address of Industry:


Email:
Telephone:(M)

(LL)

(Fax)

Date of Commencement:
3

Type of Industry/Scale/Sector/Status:

Person Contacted:

Env Audit Status:

Electricity Consumer No:

Electric Co:

DG sets or CPP & its capacity:

More than one connection?


7

Water and Waste Water (Effluent):


A

Sources of Water:

Water Consumption(KLD): Industrial:

Effluent Generation(KLD): Industrial:

How much water is reused (KLD)?

Stream segregation & treatability report available?

Flow meter provided?


Domestic:

Total:

Domestic:

Total:

Flow meter for reused quantity provided?

1)

Type of ETP, its sections & Status at the time of inspection:

2)

Flow meter for discharge provided?

3)

Up gradation of ETP required? Reason?

(Give detail in para 11 & 12)

pH, Temp, Color & Condition of Effluent:

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 60

Safety of Environment

Disposal mode of Industrial/Domestic effluent:

Discharge Point/Final receiving body:

Separate meter for ETP power consumption provided?

If yes, its status at the time of inspection:


Logbook for ETP operation maintained?

Laboratory and qualified staff for analysis of treated w/w provided?

If member of CETP, State its Name and location and Membership number:

Illegal discharge possible? Give detail:

Air Pollution:
A

No. of Boilers & Capacity:

No. of TFH* & Capacity:

No.of Incinerators & Capacity:

Any other:

Name of fuel used:

Its consumption (KLD/MTD):

No. of stacks & their heights:

Color of smoke or gas:

Qualified & trained boiler operator employed?

Logbook for boiler/TFH*/Incinerator operation maintained?

Type of APCM# provided (give detail):

1)

Name & Quantity (m 3/hr) of air pollutants:

2)

Unwanted by-pass line (No standard design) removed?

3) Upgradation of APCM required? Reason?


H

(Give detail in Para 11 & 12)

1)

Name & No. of Noise generation sources:

2)

Control Measures provided:

3)

Control Measures still required?

1)

Name of process gases & Types of scrubbers provided:

2)

Name of scrubbing media:

3)

Alternate pump (DG driven) provided for circulation of scrubbing media?

(Give detail in Para 11 & 12)

pH at the time of inspection:

4) Fugitive emission & its sources:


*TFH = Thermic Fluid Heater
#APCM=Air Pollution Control Measure

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 61

Safety of Environment

1)

Name and storage quantity of Solvents:

2)

Quantity of spent (contaminated) solvent generated (KLD) :

3)

Solvent distillation plant for used solvent provided at site?

4)

If yes, what is the mode of disposal of undistilled residue?

5)

If not, where is it sent? In what quantity & frequency?

6)

Is it sent to the consented (recognized) reuser?

7)

By which transporter? Dedicated (GPS) vehicle used?

8)

Logbook of transportation maintained?

9)

Does wastewater come out after distillation process? What is its mode of disposal?

10) Amendment in CCA necessary?

Consumption(KLD)

(Mention in Para 11 & 12 also)

1)

Name and storage quantity of Acids/Alkalies:

Consumption (KLD):

2)

Quantity of spent (contaminated) acid/alkali generated (KLD):

3)

What is the mode of reuse or disposal of spent acid/alkali?

4)

If it is sent outside, where is it sent? In what quantity and frequency?

5)

Is it sent to the consented (recognized) reuser?

6)

By which transporter? Dedicated (GPS) vehicle used?

7)

Logbook of transportation maintained?

8)

Amendment in CCA necessary?

(Mention in Para 11 & 12 also)

Raw materials, Products and Hazardous wastes:


A

1)

Name of the Raw Materials with quantities (TPM):

2)

Is the storage or use of RM increased more than the consented quantity? Since when?

3)

Name any new RM being used, its quantity (TPM) and since when?

4)

Amendment in CCA necessary?

1)

Name of Products with quantities (TPM):

2)

Are the products increased more than the consented quantity? Since when?

3)

Name of any new product started, its quantity (TPM) and since when? :

4)

Is power consumption increased? Since when?

5)

Amendment in CCA necessary?

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

(Mention in Para 11 & 12 also)

(Mention in Para 11 & 12 also)

31 - 62

Safety of Environment

Sources of Hazardous wastes (HW) generation1) From process: Name, Quantity& State (S,L):
2) From ETP:

Name, Quantity & State (S,L):

3) From others:

Name, Quantity & State (S,L):

4) Which HW is increased more than consented quantity and since when?


5) Amendment in CCA necessary?
D

(Mention in Para 11 & 12 also)

1) Storage capacity of Haz wastes (type wise):


2) Is any Haz waste reusable? By self or by whom?

Treatment facility of Haz wastes:


1) At own site: Reuse method and quantity being reused (TPM):
2) If incinerated at own site, No. and capacity of incinerators, Solar or ME evaporators,
RO plant etc provided at own site:
3) If incinerated outside, state its name and place, CCA No., type and capacity of
incinerators.
4) Amendment in CCA necessary?

(Mention in Para 11 & 12 also)

5) If sent to TSDF*, Name & quantity of waste being sent (TPM):


6) Name, Place & CCA No. of TSDF:
7) Name, address & phone numbers of Transporter:
8) Whether the transport vehicles are dedicated and GPS attached?
9) Online daily reporting on XGN system by both the parties (sender & receiver)
provided?
10) Logbook of transportation maintained?
11) Amendment in CCA necessary?

(Mention in Para 11 & 12 also)

12) If sent to Recycler (reuser), its name, address and registration no & date with GPCB:
13) Name and quantity of waste (TPM) being sent to recycler:
14) Name, address & phone numbers of Transporter:
15) Whether the transport vehicles are dedicated and GPS attached?
16) Online daily reporting on XGN system by both the parties (sender & receiver)
provided?
17) Logbook of transportation maintained?
18) Amendment in CCA necessary?

(Mention in Para 11 & 12 also)

*TSDF = Treatment, Storage & Disposal Facility


10 Samples collected at the time of inspection:
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 63

Safety of Environment

10 Samples collected at the time of inspection:


A

Water:

No. of samples & quality:

Air:

No. of samples & quality:

Haz waste: No. of samples & quality:

Barcode system & secrecy maintained?

Counter sample given to party?

11 Inspection points (remarks) given in writing to the unit:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
12 Report points for HO:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Inspecting Team (Name and designation):
Signed by:
1)
1)
2)
2)
3)
3)
Note: This inspection report will be freezed within seven days of inspection

9.3 Information Required from Industry:


The occupiers are supposed to give necessary
information regarding consumption of resources,
generation of pollution, control measures provided
and Environmental Audit Report. For this purpose,
following information is required from them.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 64

(1) Monthly Report from Industry.


(2) Annual Report from Industry.
(3) Environmental Audit Report from Industry
every year.

Safety of Environment

(1) Format of Monthly Report from Industry:


For the month of _____________
1.
2
3
4

10.

Industry ID No.
Name & address of the industry
Phone Nos.
Date of commencement of
Manufacturing process
CTEs No. & Date
CCA No. & Date of expiry
Water Cess (with interest) paid upto
which period
Laboratory charges pending if any
Water consumed during the month
(by all sources) in KL
Fuel consumed during the month

11.
12
13
14
15

Production
Electricity consumed in production
Electricity consumed in ETP/CETP
Electricity consumed in APCM
Wastes discharged during the Month

5
6.
7
8.
9.

Sr.No
1
2
3

16.

Type of wastes
Effluent
Solid Waste
Gaseous
emission

:
:
: (M)__________ (LL)______(Fax)_______
:
:
:
:
:
: 1) Bore well
2) GIDC supply
3) Through tanker - 4) Other
: CoalT/Month,
Lignite T/Month,
Gas SCM
LDOKL/Month,
Agro wasteT/Month, Other
: ___________ Tons/Month
: ___________ Units/Month
: ___________ Units/Month
: ___________ Units/Month
:

Quantity
KL/Month
T/month
(i) CO2 -----T/Month
(ii)Other Gases--- T/month

Work of Control Measures in progress :


(A) ETP up gradation
(B) APCM up gradation
(C) Solid Waste reduction or safe
disposal method
(D) Cleaner Production Technique (E) Reduction or safe treatment plant for COD,
Colour, toxicity, solvent, acid etc. , NH3 N
(F) Any other control technique

Date:
Place:
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Place of disposal

-----

Yes or No
Yes or No
Yes or No
Yes or No
Yes or No
Yes or No

Signature of Occupier
31 - 65

Safety of Environment

(2) Format of Annual Report from Industry:


(To be submitted by each industrial unit on or before 31st March in respect of Calendar
Year ended on previous 31st December)
1.

Industry ID No.

2.

Name & Address of the Unit

3.

Phone Nos.

4.

CCA No., Date & Validity (Copy of


The CCA should be enclosed)

5.

Production :

(M)
(LL)
(Fax)

Sr.No.

Name of the
Products

Consented (CCA)
Quantity per month

1.
1.
2.
3.

2.

3.

6.

Total
produced
during
the year

Name of the
supporting
document or record.

5.

6.

Raw Materials (RM) :

Sr.No.

Name of the
Raw Materials

1.
1.
2.
3.

2.

7.

Total
produced
during the
previous
year
4

Consented (CCA)
or calculated
quantity per year
3.

Total consumed
during the year

Name of the supporting


document or record

4.

5.

Utilities :
Sr.No.
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Name of the
Utility
2.
Electric Power
Captive Power
Water
Coal/Coke
Lignite
Baggas
Oil (Name)
Gas (Name)
Others.

Consented (CCA)
Quantit y per
year.
3.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 66

Total consumed
during the year
4.

Name of the
supporting
document or record
5.

Safety of Environment

8.
Sr
.
No

Wastes Generation & Disposal during the year :


Name State Consente
Total Quantity of
of the (S,L,
d
wastes generated
Waste
G)
Quantity
reused and treated
during the year

1.
1
2
3
4
9.

2.

3.

4.

Gener
ated

Reuse
d at
site

Treated

5.

Type&
capacity
of
Treatmen
t facility
at site
(ETP,
APCM
etc.)
8

Out side
Disposal
facility
for
treated
waste
(place of
disposal)

Total
Wastes
disposed
during
the year.

10

Details of Disposal of Treated Effluent :


Sr.No.
Name of the
Total quantity of treated effluent disposed during the year
Waste stream
Disposed on land by
Directly
Disposed to CETP by
disposed to
GIDC or
municipal drain
or Sea.
Gardening
Disposal
Tankers
Pipeline
etc.
outside
1.
2.
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3

10.

Details of Solid/Gaseous wastes after treatment :


Total Quantity disposed during the year
Sr Name
Sent for
Sent
Incinerated at
Evaporated at
Vented
No of the
coto
Own Common Own Common through
Waste processing TSDF site
flue gas
facility
site
facility
or Restack
cycler
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1.
2.
3.

11.

Vented
through
process
gas
scrubber
10.

Details of Disposal of Spent Solvents, Acids or Alkalis after use :


Sr.No.
Name of the
Total Quantity disposed during the year.
Solvent, Acid or
Solvent distillation at
Spent Acid or Alkali ReAlkali
use or treatment at
Own
Other
Sale to
Own
Other
Sale to
site
site
Actual
Site
site
Actual
Users
users
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 67

Safety of Environment

12.

Other Details :
(1)

CETP Membership No., Date, Place & booked quantity (membership certificate should
be attached):
TSDF Membership No., Date & Place (a)
(b)
(c)
CHWI Membership No., Date & Place (a)
(b)
(c)
Consent No. & Date of Reuser/Recycler etc. :

(2)
(3)
(4)
Sr.No.

Name, Address &


Phone Nos. of
Reuser/Recycler
etc.

1.

Consent No. & Date


from GPCB/CPCB./
Other SPCB (For
transboundary
movement)
3.

2.

Total Quantity sent to them


Name of the
Waste
4.

Total Quantity
sent during
the year.
5.

1
2
3
(5)

Wastes Transporters Details :

Sr
No

Name,
Address &
Phone Nos.
of the
Transporters

1.
1.
2.
3.

2.

13.

Vehicle
Registratio
n Nos. of
Trucks/
Tankers &
capacity
3.

Used to carry
wastes
Name To carry
of
at which
the
place for
waste disposal
4.
5.

Having
Authori
zation
from
GPCB?

GPS
system
impleme
nted?

Online
manifests
implemented
?

Logbook
maint
ained?

8.

9.

Need of Upgradation, if any :

Looking to the above production and wastes generation or/and future planning to increase
production, mention any up gradation or addition of pollution control measures necessary in
respect of
1.
ETP
2.
Fuel change or use
3.
APCM
4.
Scrubbing system for process gases
5.
Noise control.
6.
Solvent Recovery Unit
7.
Any other
(Signature)
Name & Designation.
__________________________________________________________________________________
Note : Any false information or suppression of information may lead to cancellation of all types of
permissions from the Board.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 68

Safety of Environment

(3) Environment Audit Report from Industry (As per HC directive):


The Environmental Audit Scheme came into existence due to judgment given by the Hon. High Court of Gujarat
in SCA-770 of 1995 on 20-12-1996, 13-3-1997 and 16-9-1999 with a view to:
(i) Enforcing discipline amongst industries for environmental protection;
(ii) Arming GPCB as well as the associations of industries with required data and
(iii) Doing regular environmental monitoring of various industries of the State from different aspects /
angles.

Schedule I : Requirement of Auditors


No.
1
I
A)

B)

C)
(I)
(i)
(I)
(ii)
II

III
IV

Type of Industries
Products requiring Environmental Audit
2
3
Dyes-Intermediates
Naphthalene
based
intermediates
H-acid
(irrespective of effluent going to CETP or Diazo Napthayl Sulphonic acid
not)
Beta Napthol
Alpha Napthyal Amine
C-acid
Kale acid/European acid
Naphthalene
derivative
based
Bon Acid
intermediates (if effluent not going to K-acid
CETP)
J-acid
N-M-J acid
Gamma Acid
Sulpho tobias Acid
Tobias Acid
Schaefers acid
Bronners acild
Intermediates
Aniline based intermediates (irrespective Vinyl Sulphone
of effluent
Acetyl Sulphonyl Chloride (ASC)
going to CETP or not)
Aniline based intermediates (If
DASA (Manufactured using chloreffluent not going to CETP)
Sulphonation process)
PIGMENTS
Metal Pthalo Cyanine based (If effluent
not going to CEPT)

Common effluent treatment plants


(CETPS), TSDFs, all Bio Medical Waste
incineration facilities
All industrial plants manufacturing

products/involving processes mentioned


in column no.3 and discharging effluent
in quantity 1 lac ltr/day or more (if
effluent not going to CETP)

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 69

CPC Blue
CPC Green
Alpha Blue

Fermentation including Distillery


Sugar
Fertilizers
Oil refinery
Caustic soda
Petrochemicals
Formulation and/or mfg. of
pesticides and/or insecticides
Formulations and/or mfg. of basic
drugs and pharmaceuticals
Dyes/Dyes intermediates/pigments
Agrobased pulp and paper
manufacturing units
Tanneries
Safety of Environment

All industrial
column 3

plants mentioned

in

Cement plant (with horizontal shaft kilns)


Thermal power plant
Integrated iron & steel plant
Zinc smelter
Copper smelter
Aluminum smelter

Schedule II : Requirement of Auditors


No.
1
I
A

B)

Type of Industries
2
Dyes-Intermediates
Naphthalene
derivative
based

intermediates (if effluent not going to


CETP)

Benzene based (if effluent not going to


CETP)

Products requiring Environmental Audit


3
Bon Acid
K-acid
J-acid
N-M-J acid
Gamma acid
Sulpho tobias acid
Tobias acid
Schaefers acid
Bronners acid
4-CAP
PAABSA
PABA

C)

Nitrochloro benzene based (if effluent not Anthranilic acid


going to CETP)
NADPSA
APDA
ONCBSA

D)
(I)

Aniline based
If effluent not going to CETP

(II)

If effluent going to CETP

II

Dyes
If effluent not going to CETP
Direct Dyes (CPC Based)
Reactive Dyes (CPC Based)
Vat Dyes

i)
ii)
iii)
III

IV

FC Acid
DABSA
DASDA
NAPSA
OAPSA
OPDA
SPCP
DASA (if manufactured from ASC)

DASA (if manufactured from


chloro sulphonation process)

Direct Turquoise Blue


Reactive Turquoise Blue
Vat Dye
Vat indigo

Pigment
Metal pthalo cyanine based pigments (if CPC Blue
effluent going to CETP)
CPC Green
Alpha Blue
All
industrial
plants
(except
those mentioned
at
item
IV
in
Schedule-I) discharging effluent one lac
litres per day or more (irrespective of
effluent going to CETP or not)

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 70

Safety of Environment

VII Stainless steel rolling and rerolling Mills


VIII All industrial plants manufacturing
products mentioned in C o l 3 of Item IV
in Sch-1 discharging effluent less than
one lac lts buy more than 25,00 lac per
day (if
effluent
not going
to from
CETP)
IX
Lead
recovery
units
scrap
X
All
Industrial
plants
manufacturing / plants / involving
process mentioned
in
col. 3 and
discharging effluent quantity one lakh
liter per day or more.( If effluent going to
CETP)

Fermentation including Distillery


Sugar
Fertilizers
Oil refinery
Caustic Soda
Petrochemicals
Formulation and/or manufacturing of
pesticides and/or insecticides
Formulation and/or manufacturing
basic drugs and pharmaceuticals
Dyes/Dyes Intermediates/Pigments
Aerobased pulp and paper
manufacturing units

Format of Environmental Audit Report


( To be submitted every year in triplicate to the Gujarat Pollution Control Board
Paryavaran Bhavan, Sector 10-A, Gandhinagar 382 010)
(Period from...To.)

(A) GENERAL
1.
Name of the Industry
2.
Location :
3.
Registered Office Address:
4.
Month & Year of establishment:
5.
- No. of workers employed :
- Male/Female :
6.
- No. of electrical connections
with service numbers
:
- Total connected load
:
- Electric consumption per
tone of product ma nufactured :
- Percentage enhancement in
energy
- Saving as compared to revious
year.
7.
8.
9.

Number of D.G. Set & their capacity :


Name/Residential address of all directors/partners:
Telephone Nos.
:
(Residential & Industrial)
Fax No.
:
E-mail of Industry
:
E-mail of partners/ directors
:

10.

No. of shifts & timings :

11.

Name & Address of in charge of


Environment/Safety Division/Cell/Unit:
No. of days during which production activities were in operation during the
Audit period covered

12.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 71

Safety of Environment

13.

Has the industry obtained ISO 9000/ISO, 14000/OSHAS, 18000/Any other


Environment Management accreditation/certification recognition?

14.

Whether
the
industry
technology/CDM?

has

adopted

cleaner production/cleaner

(B) PRODUCT DETAILS


1.
Name of products(s) & capacity with
yield /purity per day. :
2.

Name of all by products and its quantity per day:

3.

Date of commencement of production for each product. Whether production


is as per consented quantity.

4.

All raw materials required per kg of the product(s).

5.

Whether the manufacturing process is continuous or batch wise. Indicate


the batch capacity. If the process is in batch operation, no. of
batches/month along with the duration of the completion of each batch.

6.

Detailed manufacturing process with schematic flow diagram, list of unit


operations & processes & with all chemical reactions, along with the time
required (in hrs)for completion of each unit operation/process and the total
time for completion of the entire batch. Mass balance in respect of the
quantity of water, input of raw materials and waste water generation. (Attach
separate sheet)

(C) WATER
1.
The quantity of water consumed per day as well as per tonne of product
manufactured. (Attach water balance diagram)* over the last three years.

2.

The quantity of waste water (trade effluent) generated per tonne of each product
per day, as well as per batch* over the last three years.

3.

The particulars of effluent treatment plant


(Attach separate sheets)
- Name and Size of each unit
- Capacity of ETP
- Flow diagram & Hydraulic diagram, of ETP to be submitted.
- Whether lighting arrangement around ETP is provided.
- Whether separate energy meter is installed for effluent treatment plant. If yes,
readings of the meter for consumption every month
- Whether flow meters are provided at the inlet and outlet of the ETP. Please
indicate the type of the flow meter.

4.

The method of disposal of final treated effluent and the point of disposal
(Please attach sketch)
The quality of trade effluent at the inlet and outlet of ETP and at various stages
of treatment (Attach separate sheets)

5.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 72

Safety of Environment

6.

The quantity and quality of sewage and its method of treatment and disposal
(Attach separate sheets)
a) As per norms
b) Total pollution load*

7.
8.
9.

The open area available for disposal of the effluent


Whether the quality of treated effluent meets the specified norms.
If not, the extent of deviation and reasons thereof.
Improvement in effluent quality and quantity since previous environmental
audit based on performance evaluation of effluent management systems. If yes,
provide details
(Attach separate sheets)

10.

Retrofitting undertaken to improve performance of ETP. If yes, provide details.

11.

Major problems encountered during operation of effluent treatment facilities, if


any and reasons thereof.

12.

The details about the operator/chemist responsible for operation and


maintenance of effluent treatment plant:
- Name of the operators/employees
- Qualification & Experience of each Operator/employee whether trained in
such operation or not.
- Salary of operators/employees.

13.
The status of Consent under the Water Act-1974.
(D) AIR ACT
1.
No. of the flue gas stacks, their height
(from ground level) nature & consumption of fuel
2.
The details pertaining to the stack monitoring facilities
3.
Number of process stacks, their height (from ground level), source, expected
pollutants & the details pertaining to the provisions of stack monitoring facilities.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.
10.

The quality of emission from each flue gas stack & the process stack & the
extent of deviation from them.
The ambient air quality within the factory premises, along with the number of
ambient air quality monitoring stations outside the industry.
The status of Consent under the Air Act-1981.
The details of air pollution control measures for all process of & flue gas stacks.
Improvement in emission quality since previous environmental audit based on
performance evaluation of air pollution management system. If yes, provide
details. (Attach separate sheets)
Retrofitting undertaken to improve emission quality. If yes, provide details.
Major problems encountered during operation of control device, if any and
reasons thereof.

* Whether production is as per consented quantity.


Note: Total pollution load each for air, water and hazardous waste should have men tion ed along with the
quality of effluent, emission or s olid waste as the case may be. Whether measures taken for reduction
of pollution load.
31 - 73

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

Safety of Environment

(E) HAZARDOUS (SOLID) WASTE:


The quantity, sources and composition of hazardous waste/solid waste from
1.
each process/sources over the last three years. (Total sludge generation per
tonne of produc t) whether it is as per the consented quantity.
2.

a) The method of storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous/solid waste.


The details should include area of storage and disposal and whether storage
and disposal system is covered and made impervious (pucca) The quantity of
Hazardous waste sent to TSDF. Please also indicate. how the quantity of
hazardous /solid waste shall be reduced in next three months.
b) The data/information about leachate generation, quantity & characteristics
and treatment facility.

3.
4.

The status of Authorization under the Env (P) Act 86 for solid waste.
Plan, if any to reduce hazardous waste generation or its recycling.

(F) SITE PLAN


1.
The site plan showing the location of effluent treatment plant, final point of
disposal of effluent, sampling point, drainage line, stacks, solid waste storage,
disposal area & green belt (its width).
(G) RESOURCE RECOVERY

1.

The details regarding resource recovery including treated effluent for


recycle/reuse from environmental pollution control system including
effluent treatment plant.

The details regarding resource recovery/by product recovery from


manufacturing process by using cleaner production technology.

(H) HEALTH
1.
Whether any hazard is involved in the manufacturing or from the work
environment. Yes/No
If yes, provide details thereof.
2.

Whether industry has pre-employment & periodical medical examination


facilities. Yes/No
If yes, provide details thereof.

3.

Whether health records are maintained regarding adverse effect on the health of
workers. Yes/No
If yes, provide details thereof.

4.

Whether industry has appointed a Factory Medical Officer. Yes/No.


If yes; full time or part time. Include the details about the name, address and
qualification of the Factory Medical Officer.

5.

Details of medical facilities available.


(Please tick ( v ) correct column:Dispensary/Ambulance/Hospitals/First Aid box.

6.

Whether sanitary facilities like water closets, urinals, bathrooms are provided &
are satisfactory.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 74

Safety of Environment

(I) ACCIDENTS
1.
The details of accidents in the factory if any & remedial measures taken
(J) SAFETY MEASURES
1.
General Environment of the factory. Please tick ( v ) the appropriate column
a. House Keeping
Good
Fair
Poor
b. Dustiness
High
Medium
Low
c. Lighting
Good
Fair
Poor
d. Ventilation
Good
Fair
Poor
2.
Whether the following protective appliances are provided to all the persons

3.
4.

5.
6.

Goggles
Yes/No (Utilization level)
If yes; How many?
Gloves
Yes/No (Utilization level)
Gumboot
Yes/No (Utilization level)
Helmet
Yes/No (Utilization level)
Skin Cream
Yes/No (Utilization level)
Soap
Yes/No (Utilization level)
Ear Plug
Yes/No (Utilization level)
Face Mask
Yes/No (Utilization level)
Clothing
Yes/No (Utilization level)
The details of facilities for disaster management/gas leakage.
Whether on site/off site emergency plans are prepared and
are being implemented/upgraded regularly; Please give
details
Whether records of occupational hazards are maintained?
Preventive measures adopted to minimize above occupational hazard.

(K) REMEDIAL MEASURES


1.

The details of sources; monitoring and measures taken for control of noise
pollution in & around the industrial pre mises

2.

The measures taken for prevention treatment and control of odor nuisance in &
around the industrial premises

3.

The details in respect of cases/complaints under the Water Act-1974, the Air
Act-1981 & the Env. (P)Act -1986

4.

The compliance report with respect to all the conditions of CTE/Consent


(Under all the Env. Acts)
Incidents of spillages, leakages etc. and remedial measures thereof.
Whether insurance policy obtained under to Public Liability Insurance Act.
Yes/No
If yes, provide details

5.
6.

(L) WATER CESS


1.
The details regarding payment of the Watercess for the previous & current year

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 75

Safety of Environment

(M)

(N )

The N ame and Address of the Environment


Consultant engaged by the Company/
Industry.
It is hereby declared that all the information submitted in and with respect to this format is correct
and we will be resp onsible for any lapse regarding incorrect or incomplete information.

(A)
Na me & Signature of the responsible persons
of the industry/organization/institute/ CETP
stamp.
Na me
1.
2.
3.
4.

(B)
Name & Signature of the
members of Audit Team TSDF with the

Signature

Na me

Signature

1.
2.
3.
4
.Adequacy

Certificate of Environmental Management System

M/s.
of
is recognized by the GPCB, Gandhinagar under the Environmental Audit Scheme introduced by the
Honble High Court Gujarat, vide its orders dtd. 20/12/1996 and 13/3/1997 and modified order dtd. 1 6/
9/1999, as an environmental auditor for the purpose of auditing, having carried out Environmental audit of,
M/s. ________________________________________________________________
Located at;
Manufacturing products:
Product (s)
Capacity
Having completed the environmental audit based on personal mon itoring, and audit report, prepared as
per the direction of the Honble High Court in Environmental Audit Scheme, it is certified that the Environmental Managemen t System (EMS) provided by this industry for the products manufactured and
capacity as stated above is
*
to achieve the quality of effluents (Waste Water, Air, Solid Waste) as specified in consent/Notifications by
GPCB, Gandhinagar for the following quantity of waste generation:

Liquid effluent
:
Solid/Hazardous Waste

Air emission (flue gas


:
Adequate/Not adequate
efficacious/ Stack as well as Process efficacious)
(Please strike out which is not applicable.)

m3 /Day
kg/Day

This certificate is valid for the audit report only. However, it is subject to automatic cancellation in case of any
change in product profile/capacity, quality and quantity of effluent or emission (Waste Water, Air, Solid/
Hazardous waste) and efficiency of EMS equipments.
This Certificate forms part of environ mental audit report.
Na me & Address of the
Environmental Auditor
Date:
Place:

Signature of
Environmental Auditor *

* Here write, whether a dequate and efficient or inadequate a nd inefficient as applicable.


Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

31 - 76

Safety of Environment

1.

Comment on the following


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

22.
23.
24.

2.

E X E R C I S E

Environment is a visible form of the God.


Environment is environment, there is
nothing like safe or unsafe environment.
Pollution Control is more important than
the Cleaner Production.
Preservation of natural resources is
preferred over their subsequent control.
Biodiversity may sustain by itself, we have
not to worry.
Production of CFCs should be curtailed.
First deforestation and then reforestation.
We have to protect endangered species.
We should use energy efficient equipment.
Noisy equipment are environmentally
sound.
Fossil fuels are environmentally preferable
than natural gas.
Global warming is natural and not a
man-made hazard.
Green buildings are costly and harmful.
Waste minimization is a part of cleaner
technology.
Care is also required in using renewable
resources.
It is better to prevent waste than to treat
or clean up it after its generation.
Urbanization also causes pollution.
Air is life, Water is life.
Environment Impact Assessment is a
lengthy process, hampers production startup and therefore not to be followed.
Noise is not a part of air pollution.
Protection of workers and public from
adverse impacts is a matter of safety and
therefore not a part of environmental
protection.
Risk management is important.
Green belt development is a part of EIA
document.
Prior Environmental Clearance is not
compulsory.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

3.

Flora and Fauna.


MCA scenario and worst case scenario.
Incineration and Pyrolysis.
Water purification and Air purification.
VOC and Particulate Matter.
Electrostatic Precipitators and Bag Filters.
Eco-bag and Eco-bus.
Effluent and Emission.
Green design and Green energy.
Ozone gas and greenhouse gas.
Hazardous substance and Hazardous
waste.
25. HCFCs and HFCs.
26. National park and Sanctuary.
27. Effect of CO2 and SO2.

Write Short Notes :


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Explain the Difference between -

22.
23.
24.

2.
3.
4.

25.
26.
27.
28.

1.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Natural greenhouse effect and enhanced


greenhouse effect.
Gray water and ground water.
Renewable and Non renewable resources.
Depletion and Conservation of Natural
resources.
Reduce, Reuse and Recycle of wastes.
Pollution
Control
and
Pollution
Prevention.
Primary and Secondary treatment.
Physical and chemical treatment method.
Aerobic and Anaerobic treatment method.
Chemical and Biological treatment method.
Sources and Causes of air pollution.
Types and effects of air pollutants.
Primary and secondary pollutants.

Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

29.
30.

31 - 77

Waste minimization techniques for


householders.
Durability.
Types of land pollution OR Causes of
land pollution.
Bio-remediation.
Chemical treatment methods.
Biological treatment methods.
Tertiary treatment methods.
Wastewater quality indicators.
Mitigation of noise pollution.
The national green tribunal.
Siting criteria.
Safety of environment a global issue.
Acid rain OR Global Warming OR Climate
Change.
Biodiversity OR Treatability report.
Composting OR Conservation.
eGrain forecasting.
Sewage treatment.
Environmental remediaton.
Deforestation.
Dumping of solid wastes.
Effects of land pollution OR Sources of air
pollution.
Solid waste treatment.
Types of wastewater treatment.
Natural sources of air pollution OR Effects
of air pollution.
Measurement of Particulate Matter.
Air pollution control devices.
Effect of noise on human health.
Category-A projects and Category-B
projects under EIA Notification, 2006 for
the purpose of Environmental Clearance.
Baseline survey under EIA report.
Control measures for protection of workers
and public from adverse impacts.

State, Mention, Explain or Discuss :


1.
2.
3.
4.

Main causes of soil pollution.


Major primary pollutants.
General guidelines for pollution control.
EIA guidelines published by the SEAC,
Gujarat.
Safety of Environment

5.
6.
7.
8.

Strategy to fight pollution.


Object of the Environment (Protection) Act,
1986.
Salient features of Plastic Waste Rules,
2011 OR The E-waste Rules, 2011.
EIA guideline for Water environment OR
Air environment.

9.

Use of remote sensing and satellite images


for EIA studies.
10. Cleaner Production options.
11. Classification of Natural resources.
12. Twelve principles of Green Chemistry.

Reference & Recommended Readings

1. Environment and Pollution Laws, S K Mohanty,


Universal Law Publishing Co., New Delhi.
2. Statutory Information Sheets on OSH, NSC,
Mumbai - 400614.
3. Pollution Control Acts, Rules, Notifications and
other publications by the Central Pollution
Control Board, Parivesh Bhavan, Delhi-32.
4. Waste Water Engineering, Metcalf and Eddy,
Tata Macgraw Hill BC.
5. Water science and technology, Tebutt, Jonh
Marray Ltd. London.
6. Waste Recycling and Pollution Control
Handbook, Bridge water, George Godwin Ltd.
And Subsidiary of A.V. Bridgewater and C.J.
Manfort.
7. Waste water treatment and disposal, Arceiwala,
Marcel Dekker.
8. Air pollution, Stern, Accedemic press, New York.
9. Air Pollution Control, Part I,II and III, Strauss,
Wiley Intersciences, London.
10.Hand book of air pollution analysis, Perry,
Edited by Roges, Chapman& Hill New York
11.Principals of Water Quality Control, Tebutt, by.
T.H.Y. Tebutt, Pergamon Press UK.
12.Introduction to Environmental Engineering, Devis
& Cornwell, Tata Macgraw Hill BC.
13.Environmental Pollution Causes, Effects &
Controls,
K.C. Agarwal, Nidhi Publication.
14.Chemistry for Environmental Engineer, Sawyer,
Tata Macgraw Hill BC.
15.Toxic Organic Chemicals Destruction & Waste
Treatment, Hackman, Noyes Data Corporation,
USA.
16.Pollution Prevention for Chemical Processes ,
David T Allen, Rosselot, John Wiley& Sons, New
Jersy.
17.Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis,
Eving, Macgraw Hill BC.
18.Handbook of Solid Waste Management, David
Gordon, Wilson, Van Notsrand Reinhold Com.,
New York.
19.Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Waste
Treatment, Lawrence Wang, Marcel Dekker.
20.Environmental Engineering Hand book, Liptac,
Bela G, Thomas Nelson& Sons, USA.
21.Paryavaran Saathi, Ramesh Savalia, Centre for
Environment Education, Ahmedabad.
22.Compilations of EPAS Sampling & Analysis
Method, Lawrence Keith, Lewis Publisher.
23.Pollution Engineering Practice Hand book,
Cheremisinoff & Young, Ann Arbor Science.
24.Environmental Chemistry, A K De, New age
International (p) Ltd, New Delhi.
Fundamentals of Industrial Safety and Health

25. Air pollution Control & Design Hand book Part


I& II, Paul. N. Cheremisinoff, Mercel Dekkers,
New York.
26. Air pollution Control Engineering, Licht, by
William Marcel Dekkers Inc.
27. Environmental Health & Safety Management,
Nicholas P Cheremisinoff, Graffia, Noyes
Publication.
28. Liquid waste industry :Theories, Practices &
Treatment, Nemerrow, Wiley Publishing London.
29. Industrial Water Pollution Control, Eckenfelder,
Macgraw Hill BC.
30. Pollution Prevention Pays, RoystonM.G. Raoston.
31. Environment Impact Analysis by Larry Canter
32. Environment Impact Assessment by Riki Therival.
33. Environment Impact Analysis by Christopher
Wood.
34. Environment Impact Assessment by R. K. Jain.
35. Water Supply and Sewerage System by Mcghee.
36. Environmental Engineering by Peavy, Rowe and
Tchvanoglous.
37. Environmental Chemistry by Sawyer & McCarty.
38. Air Pollution by Wark and Warner.
39. Wastewater Treatment / Engineering by S. Z.
Qasim.
40. Industrial Wastewater by Nelson Nemerow.
41. Environmental Microbiology by Ralf Mitchelle.
42. Preventive Environmental Management: An
Indian Perspective, Dr. Shyam R. Asolekar & Dr.
R. Gopichandran, Centre for Environment
Education, Ahmedabad.
43. Environmental Challenges of the 21st Century,
Sudip Datta Banik, Saikat Kumar Basu, APH
Publishing Corporation, New Delhi.
44. Climate Change Reconsidered (Report of the Non
Governmental International Panel on Climate
Change, Lead Authors - Craig Idso and S. Fred
Singer (USA), the Heartland Institute, Illinois
60603, USA.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.
13.
14.
15.
31 - 78

Some useful Websites

www.envfor.nic.in
www.cpcb.nic.in
www.gpcb.gov.in
http://gujenvfor.gswan.gov.in/
http://seiaa.gujarat.gov.in/
www.worldbank.org
www.unep.org
www.adb.org
www.usepa.org
www.msdsonline.com
www.safetyforeveryone.com/doyouknow/
dyk.html
http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/laws.htm
www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/pesticides/
www.skcinc.com/reference.asp
www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/request.htm
Safety of Environment