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TURBO CHARGER FOR TWO WHEELER

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of


DIPLOMA
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BY

Under the guidance of -----------------------------

2004-2005
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

Register number: _________________________

This is to certify that the project report titled TURBO


CHARGER submitted by the following students for the
award of the degree of bachelor of engineering is record
of bonafide work carried out by them.
Done by

Mr. / Ms_______________________________

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of


degree in
Diploma in mechanical Engineering
During the Year (2004-2005)
_________________
Head of Department
Guide

_______________

Coimbatore 641651.
Date:
Submitted for
___________

the

_________________
Internal Examiner
Examiner

university

examination

held

________________
External

on

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At this pleasing moment of having successfully
completed our project, we wish to convey our
sincere thanks and gratitude to the management
of

our

college

and

our

beloved

chairman

.. , who provided
all the facilities

to us.

We would like to express our sincere thanks to


our

principal

for

forwarding us to do our project and offering


adequate duration in completing our project.
We

are

also

Department Prof.

grateful

to

the

Head

of

.., for

her constructive suggestions & encouragement


during our project.
With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our
earnest

&

sincere

thanks

to

..,

our

guide

Department

of EEE for her kind guidance & encouragement


during this project.

We also express our indebt thanks to our


TEACHING
MECHANICAL

and

NON

TEACHING

ENGINEERING

staffs

of

DEPARTMENT,

.(COLLEGE NAME).

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TURBO CHARGER FOR TWO


WHEELER
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CONTENTS
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CONTENTS
ADKNOWLEDGEMENT
SYNOPSIS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. TURBO CHARGER
3. I.G ENGINE
4. BEARING WITH BEARING CAP
5. SPROCKET WITH CHAIN DRIVE
6. TURBINE WITH BLOWER ARRANGEMENT
7. WORKING PRINCIPLE
8. DESIGN AND DRAWINGS
9. LIST OF MATERIAL
10. COST ESTIMATION
11. ADVANTAGES
12. APPLICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES
13. CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY
PHOTOGRAPHY

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SYNOPSIS
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SYNOPSIS

The progress of automobiles for transportation has been intimately associated with
the progress of civilization.

The automobile of today is the result of the

accumulation of many years of pioneering research and development.


An attempt has been made in this project; the exhaust gas is used to rotate the
turbine with blower arrangement. Exhaust gas is used to rotate the blower and this air is
given to the ignition input supply. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use
efficiency turbo charging. It is also good with regard to economical considerations and
engine efficiency.

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Chapter-1
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INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The output of the engine exhaust gas is given to the input of the turbine blades, so
that the pressurized air produced. This power, the alternate power must be much more
convenient in availability and usage. The next important reason for the search of
effective, unadulterated power are to save the surrounding environments including men,
machine and material of both the existing and the next forth generation from pollution,
the cause for many harmful happenings and to reach the saturation point.

The most talented power against the natural resource is supposed to be the electric
and solar energies that best suit the automobiles.

The unadulterated zero emission

electrical and solar power, is the only easily attainable alternate source. Hence we

decided to incorporate the solar power in the field of automobile, the concept of many
Multi National Companies (MNC) and to get relieved from the incorrigible air pollution.

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Chapter-2
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TURBO CHARGER
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CHAPTER 2
TURBO CHARGER

What is turbo-charging?
Turbo-charging, simply, is a method of increasing the output of the engine without
increasing its size. The basic principle was simple and was already being used in big
diesel engines. European car makers installed small turbines turned by the exhaust gases
of the same engine. This turbine compressed the air that went on to the combustion
chamber, thus ensuring a bigger explosion and an incremental boost in power. The fuelinjection system, on its part, made sure that only a definite quantity of fuel went into the
combustion chamber.

What the turbo-charger does?

What the turbo-charger was does is that it simply increases the volumetric efficiency of
the engine. To give you an example: a 1,500 cc engine that produced, say, 60 bhp when it
was normally aspirated, benefited at times with a 10- to 20-per cent power boost
depending on the kind of turbo-charger used. Normally, the manufacturer would have had
to resort to a bigger displacement in the engine, or design and develop an all-new engine
to get more power from the same unit.

Introduction:

BMW was the first to use turbo-charging in a production passenger car when they
launched the 2002 in 1973. The car was brilliantly packaged too and paved the way for a
simply magnificent 'Turbo Era' in the automotive world. Swedish giant Saab took its cue
from this and its ensuing 900 series was one of the most characteristic turbo cars of its
time.

Intercoolers the latest turbo's they are used by most of today's turbo-diesel engines
to make the compressed air denser. It works like this - on starting, exhaust gases spin the
turbine and thus activate a compressor that pressurizes the air. This pressurised air from
the turbo-charger is then sent through a duct to an air-cooled intercooler, which lowers
the temperature of the intake charge and thus increases its density. The air-cooled
intercoolers receive air through separate intakes and that explains the small scoops and
louvers usually found on the hoods of turbo-charged cars.

Modern turbo-diesel engines also make use of a temperature-sensitive, motordriven fan which boosts airflow at low engine speeds or when the intake air temperature
is high.

Though there are diesel engines that 'earn' a turbo-charger mid-way through their
life, the usual practice is to design and develop an engine with a turbo-charger in mind.
Then, as and when a turbo-charged model is added to the stable, the engine can adapt to it
without any additional strengthening and cooling of engine parts. A well-engineered,
turbo-charged diesel engine offers better fuel efficiency (at times by 15 per cent), better
overall performance (better torque and high-end power), reduced noise (compared to
normally aspirated diesel engines) and minimum engine maintenance (owing to better
combustion of diesel fuel).

Turbo looses steam Multiple valves and double-overhead camshaft designs


developed reasonable performance without the complication of turbo-charging, and these
methods were politically correct too since they consumed less fuel. Consequently today
there are only a few petrol-powered road cars that still use turbo-chargers for enhanced
performance.

Computers soon started playing an even bigger role in cars. Engine management
systems linked to fuel-injection systems meant getting more out of the engine was even
easier. For example, one can buy chips that can boost power by 100 bhp for some
Japanese cars, such as the Nissan Skyline. Moreover, on-road speeds were being
restricted all over the world.

Though most of the sports cars today are capable of doing more, they are restricted
electronically not to exceed 250 kmph even in autobahn-blessed Germany.

Turbo-charging lost its edge towards the end of the '80s and today this technology is used
only in select performance cars. Porsche, for example, is all set to build a turbo-charged
version of its all-new 911 (water-cooled) with added performance. Turbo engines were
banned in Formula One too with the idea of restricting the performance of the cars (and
thereby making them safer too). There are many who consider this a backward step in the
world of Formula One, which is considered to represent the 'tomorrow' of automotive
technology. But if one analyses the performance of normally aspirated cars in F1 today,
(3,500 cc non-turbo), they perform as well, if not better, than the turbo cars of the early
'80s.
So, there are no full stops in technology. While road cars and even sports and
racing cars are going in for more efficient engines, better metallurgy and wilder-than-ever

electronics to get their engines to perform at an optimum level without sacrificing the
performance edge, turbo-chargers still continue to serve the same purpose they were
invented for... albeit more so with diesel engines.

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Chapter-3
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I.C ENGINE
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CHAPTER 3
I.C ENGINE

Internal combustion engines are those heat engines that burn their fuel inside the
engine cylinder. In internal combustion engine the chemical energy stored in their
operation. The heat energy is converted in to mechanical energy by the expansion
of gases against the piston attached to the crankshaft that can rotate.
4.1 PETROL ENGINE
The engine which gives power to propel the automobile vehicle is a petrol burning
internal combustion engine. Petrol is a liquid fuel and is called by the name
gasoline in America. The ability of petrol to furnish power rests on the two basic
principles;

Burning or combustions always accomplished by the production of heat.

When a gas is heated, it expands. If the volume remains constant, the pressure

rises according to Charles law.


4.2 WORKING
There are only two strokes involved namely the compression stroke and the power
stroke, they are usually called as upward stroke and downward stroke respectively.

4.2.1 UPWARD STROKE

During this stroke, the piston moves from bottom dead center to top dead center,
compressing the charge-air petrol mixture in combustion chamber of the cylinder,
at the time the inlet port is uncovered and the exhaust, transfer ports are covered.
The compressed charge is ignited in the combustion chamber by a spark given by
spark plug.

4.2.2 DOWNWARD STROKE


The charge is ignited the hot gases compress the piston moves downwards, during
this stroke the inlet port is covered by the piston and the new charge is compressed
in the crankcase, further downward movement of the piston uncovers first exhaust
port and then transfer port and hence the exhaust starts through the exhaust port.
As soon as the transfer port open the charge through it is forced in to the cylinder,
the cycle is then repeated.

4.3 ENGINE TERMINOLOGY


The engine terminologies are detailed below,

4.3.1 CYLINDER

It is a cylindrical vessel or space in which the piston makes a reciprocating


motion.
4.3.2 PISTON
It is a cylindrical component fitted to the cylinder which transmits the bore of
explosion to the crankshaft.
4.3.3 COMBUSTION CHAMBER
It is the space exposed in the upper part of the cylinder where the combustion of
fuel takes place.
4.3.4 CONNECTING ROD
It inter connects the piston and the crankshaft and transmits the reciprocating
motion of the piston into the rotary motion of crankshaft.
4.3.5 CRACKSHAFT
It is a solid shaft from which the power is transmitted to the clutch.

4.3.6 CAM SHAFT

It is drive by the crankshaft through timing gears and it is used to control the
opening and closing of two valves.
4.3.7.1CAM
These are made as internal part of the camshaft and are designed in such a way to
open the valves at the current timing.
4.3.7.2PISTON RINGS
It provides a tight seal between the piston and cylinder wall and preventing
leakage of combustion gases.
4.3.7.3GUDGEON PIN
It forms a link between the small end of the connecting rod and the piston.
4.3.7.4INLET
The pipe which connects the intake system to the inlet valve of the engine end
through which air or air fuel mixture is drawn in to the cylinder.

4.3.7.5EXHAUST MANIFOLD

The pipe which connects the exhaust system to the exhaust valve of the engine
through which the product of combustion escape in to the atmosphere.
4.3.7.6INLET AND EXHAUST VALVE
They are provided on either on the cylinder head or on the side of the cylinder and
regulating the charge coming in to the cylinder and for discharging the product of
combustion from the cylinder.
4.3.7.7FLYWHEEL
It is a heavy steel wheel attached to the rear end of the crank shaft. It absorbs
energy when the engine speed is high and gives back when the engine speed is
low.
4.4

NOMENCLATURE
This refers to the position of the crank shaft when the piston is in it slowest
position.
4.4.1 BORE(d)
Diameter of the engine cylinder is refers to as the bore.

4.4.2 STROKE(s)
Distance traveled by the piston in moving from TDC to the piston in moving from
TDC to the BDC.
4.4.3 CLEARANCE VOLUME (V)
The volume of cylinder above the piston when it is in the TDC position.
4.4.4 SWEPT VOLUME (V)
The swept volume of the entire cylinder
Vd = Vs N
Where,
Vs ------- Swept Volume
N --------- Number of cylinder
4.4.5 COMPRESSION RATIO (R)
It is the ratio of the total cylinder volume when the piston is at BDC to the
clearance volume.

4.5 ENGINE SPECIFICATION

Type of fuel used

Petrol

Cooling system

Air cooled

Number of cylinder :

Single

Number of stroke

Two Stroke

Arrangement

Vertical

Cubic capacity

100 cc

Spark Ignition Engine


A spark ignition (SI) engine runs on an Otto cyclemost gasoline engines run on
a modified Otto cycle. This cycle uses a homogeneous air-fuel mixture which is
combined prior to entering the combustion chamber. Once in the combustion chamber,
the mixture is compressed, and then ignited using a spark plug (spark ignition). The SI
engine is controlled by limiting the amount of air allowed into the engine. This is
accomplished through the use of a throttling valve placed on the air intake (carburetor or
throttle body). Mitsubishi is working on the development of a certain type of SI engine
called the gasoline direct injection engine.

Advantages

A century of development and refinement - For the last century the SI engine has

been developed and used widely in automobiles. Continual development of this


technology has produced an engine that easily meets emissions and fuel economy
standards. With current computer controls and reformulated gasoline, today's engines are
much more efficient and less polluting than those built 20 years ago.

Low cost - The SI engine is the lowest cost engine because of the huge volume

currently produced.
Disadvantages
The SI engine has a few weaknesses that have not been significant problems in the
past, but may become problems in the future.

Difficulty in meeting future emissions and fuel economy standards at a reasonable

cost - Technology has progressed and will enable the SI engine to meet current standards,
but as requirements become tougher to meet, the associated engine cost will continue to
rise.

Throttling loss lowers the efficiency - To control an SI engine, the air allowed into

the engine is restricted using a throttling plate. The engine is constantly fighting to draw
air past the throttle, which expends energy.

Friction loss due to many moving parts - The SI engine is very complex and has

many moving parts. The losses through bearing friction and sliding friction further reduce
the efficiency of the engine.

Limited compression ratio lowers efficiency - Because the fuel is already mixed

with the air during compression, it will auto-ignite (undesirable in a gasoline engine) if
the compression ratio is too high. The compression ratio of the engine is limited by the
octane rating of the engine.
Emission Control Systems
Automotive emissions contribute significantly to urban air quality problems.
HEVs can reduce this contribution significantly through increased fuel economy, use of
alternative fuels, and improved power unit and after treatment technology.
A well-tuned spark ignition engine produces relatively low emissions. Significant
emissions occur when the vehicle is started and warming up. During this time the engine
must be choked to run properly. This creates excess unburned fuel in the exhaust, which
leads to hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. During normal driving, emissions
are relatively low because the air-to-fuel mixture is precisely controlled, allowing the
catalytic converter to effectively reduce emissions.

The diesel engine emissions are primarily nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate
matter (PM). NOx is produced because the engine is operated with a lean air-to-fuel
mixture. The high compression ratio of a diesel engine (required because of compression
ignition) creates much higher pressure and temperature in the combustion cylinder. This
lean mixture and high temperature cause the higher level of NO x production. At high
engine loads, where more fuel is injected, some of the fuel burns incompletely leading to
the black smoke (PM) characteristic of a diesel engine.

The fuel cell produces a little water as emissions when operating on pure hydrogen. Other
types of fuel cells have reformers that convert methane to hydrogen, then use the
hydrogen. The reformer produces some emissions in the conversion process, but overall
emission levels are low.

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Chapter-4
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BEARING WITH BEARING CAP


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CHAPTER 4
BEARING WITH BEARING CAP

The bearings are pressed smoothly to fit into the shafts because if hammered the
bearing may develop cracks. Bearing is made upon steel material and bearing cap is mild
steel.

INTRODUCTION

Ball and roller bearings are used widely in instruments and machines in
order to minimize friction and power loss. While the concept of the ball bearing
dates back at least to Leonardo da Vinci, their design and manufacture has become
remarkably sophisticated. This technology was brought to its p resent state o f
perfection only after a long period of research and development. The benefits of
such specialized research can be obtained when it is possible to use a standardized
bearing of the proper size and type. However, such bearings cannot be used
indiscriminately without a careful study of the loads and operating conditions. In
addition, the bearing must be provided with adequate mounting, lubrication and
sealing. Design engineers have usually two possible sources for obtaining
information which they can use to select a bearing for their particular application:

a) Textbooks
b) Manufacturers

Catalogs Textbooks are excellent sources; however, they tend to be overly


detailed and aimed at the student of the subject matter rather than the practicing
designer. They, in most cases, contain information on how to design rather than
how to select a bearing for a particular application. Manufacturers catalogs, in
turn, are also excellent and contain a wealth of information which relates to the
products of the particular manufacturer. These catalogs, however, fail to provide
alternatives which may divert the designers interest to products not
manufactured by them. Our Company, however, provides the broadest selection of
many types of bearings made by different manufacturers.

For this reason, we are interested in providing a condensed overview of the


subject matter in an objective manner, using data obtained from different texts,
handbooks and manufacturers literature. This information will enable the reader
to select the proper bearing in an expeditious manner. If the designers interest
exceeds the scope of the presented material, a list of references is provided at the
end of the Technical Section. At the same time, we are expressing our thanks and are
providing credit to the sources which supplied the material presented here.

Construction and Types of Ball Bearings


A ball bearing usually consists of four parts: an inner ring, an outer ring, the balls
and the cage or separator.
To increase the contact area and permit larger loads to be carried, the balls run in
curvilinear grooves in the rings. The radius of the groove is slightly larger than the radius
of the ball, and a very slight amount of radial play must be provided. The bearing is thus
permitted to adjust itself to small amounts of angular misalignment between the
assembled shaft and mounting. The separator keeps the balls evenly spaced and prevents
them from touching each other on the sides where their relative velocities are the greatest.
Ball bearings are made in a wide variety of types and sizes. Single-row radial bearings
are made in four series, extra light, light, medium, and heavy, for each bore, as illustrated
in Fig. 1-3(a), (b), and (c).

100 Series

200 Series

300 Series

Axial Thrust

Angular Contact Self-aligning

Bearing Fig. 1-3 Types of Ball Bearings

The heavy series of bearings is designated by 400.

Most, but not all,

manufacturers use a numbering system so devised that if the last two digits are multiplied
by 5, the result will be the bore in millimeters.

The digit in the third place from the right indicates the series number. Thus,
bearing 307 signifies a medium-series bearing of 35-mm bore. For additional digits,
which may be present in the catalog number of a bearing, refer to manufacturers details.
Some makers list deep groove bearings and bearings with two rows of balls. For
bearing

designations

of

Quality

Bearings

&

Components (QBC), see special pages devoted to this


purpose. The radial bearing is able to carry a
considerable amount of axial thrust. However, when
the load is directed entirely along the axis, the thrust type of bearing should be used. The
angular contact bear- ing will take care of both radial and axial loads. The self-aligning
ball bearing will take care of large amounts of angular misalignment. An increase
in radial capacity may be secured by using rings with deep grooves, or by employing a
double-row radial bearing. Radial bearings are divided into two general classes,
depending on the method of assembly. These are the Conrad, or nonfilling-notch type,
and the maximum, or filling-notch type. In the Conrad bearing, the balls are placed
between the rings as shown in Fig. 1-4(a). Then they are evenly spaced and the separator
is riveted in place.

In the maximum-type bearing, the balls are a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

100 Series Extra Light 200 Series Light 300 Series Medium Axial Thrust Bearing
Angular Contact Bearing Self-aligning Bearing Fig. 1-3 Types of Ball Bearings Fig. 1-4
Methods of Assembly

for Ball Bearings (a) Conrad or non-filling notch type (b)

Maximum or filling notch type

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Chapter-5
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SPROCKET WITH CHAIN DRIVE


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CHAPTER 5
SPROCKET AND CHAIN DRIVE
This is a cycle chain sprocket. The chain sprocket is coupled with another
generator shaft. The chain converts rotational power to pulling power, or pulling power to
rotational power, by engaging with the sprocket.
The sprocket looks like a gear but differs in three important ways:
1. Sprockets have many engaging teeth; gears usually have only one or two.
2. The teeth of a gear touch and slip against each other; there is basically no slippage in a
sprocket.
3. The shape of the teeth is different in gears and sprockets.

Figure Types of Sprockets

Engagement with Sprockets:

Although chains are sometimes pushed and pulled at either end by cylinders,
chains are usually driven by wrapping them on sprockets. In the following section, we
explain the relation between sprockets and chains when power is transmitted by
sprockets.
1. Back tension
First, let us explain the relationship between flat belts and pulleys. Figure 2.5
shows a rendition of a flat belt drive. The circle at the top is a pulley, and the belt hangs
down from each side. When the pulley is fixed and the left side of the belt is loaded with
tension (T0), the force needed to pull the belt down to the right side will be:
T1 = T0 3 eu
For example, T0 = 100 N: the coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley,
= 0.3; the wrap angle u = (180).
T1 = T0 3 2.566 = 256.6 N
In brief, when you use a flat belt in this situation, you can get 256.6 N of drive
power only when there is 100 N of back tension.

For elements without teeth such as flat belts or ropes, the way to get more drive
power is to increase the coefficient of friction or wrapping angle. If a substance, like

grease or oil, which decreases the coefficient of friction, gets onto the contact surface, the
belt cannot deliver the required tension.
In the chain's case, sprocket teeth hold the chain roller. If the sprocket tooth
configuration is square, as in Figure 2.6, the direction of the tooth's reactive force is
opposite the chain's tension, and only one tooth will receive all the chain's tension.
Therefore, the chain will work without back tension.

Figure Flat Belt Drive

Figure Simplified Roller/Tooth Forces

Figure The Balance of Forces Around the Roller

But actually, sprocket teeth need some inclination so that the teeth can engage and
slip off of the roller. The balances of forces that exist around the roller are shown in
Figure 2.7, and it is easy to calculate the required back tension.

For example, assume a coefficient of friction = 0, and you can calculate the back
tension (Tk) that is needed at sprocket tooth number k with this formula:
Tk = T0 3 sin k-1 sin( + 2b) Where:
Tk=
T0 =
=
N=
2b =
k=

back tension at tooth k


chain tension
sprocket minimum pressure angle 17 64/N()
number of teeth
sprocket tooth angle (360/N)
the number of engaged teeth (angle of wrap 3 N/360); round down to the nearest
whole number to be safe
By this formula, if the chain is wrapped halfway around the sprocket, the back

tension at sprocket tooth number six is only 0.96 N. This is 1 percent of the amount of a
flat belt. Using chains and sprockets, the required back tension is much lower than a flat
belt. Now let's compare chains and sprockets with a toothed-belt back tension. Although
in toothed belts the allowable tension can differ with the number of pulley teeth and the
revolutions per minute (rpm), the general recommendation is to use 1/3.5 of the allowable
tension as the back tension (F). This is shown in below Figure 2.8. Therefore, our 257 N
force will require 257/3.5 = 73 N of back tension.

Both toothed belts and chains engage by means of teeth, but chain's back tension is
only 1/75 that of toothed belts.

Figure 2.8 Back Tension on a Toothed Belt

Chain wear and jumping sprocket teeth


The key factor causing chain to jump sprocket teeth is chain wear elongation (see
Basics Section 2.2.4). Because of wear elongation, the chain creeps up on the sprocket
teeth until it starts jumping sprocket teeth and can no longer engage with the sprocket.
Figure 2.9 shows sprocket tooth shape and positions of engagement. Figure 2.10
shows the engagement of a sprocket with an elongated chain.
In Figure 2.9 there are three sections on the sprocket tooth face:

a: Bottom curve of tooth, where the roller falls into place;


b: Working curve, where the roller and the sprocket are working together;
c: Where the tooth can guide the roller but can't transmit tension. If the roller, which
should transmit tension, only engages with C, it causes jumped sprocket teeth.

The chain's wear elongation limit varies according to the number of sprocket teeth
and their shape, as shown in Figure 2.11. Upon calculation, we see that sprockets with
large numbers of teeth are very limited in stretch percentage. Smaller sprockets are
limited by other harmful effects, such as high vibration and decreasing strength;
therefore, in the case of less than 60 teeth, the stretch limit ratio is limited to 1.5 percent
(in transmission chain).

Figure 2.9 Sprocket Tooth Shape and Positions of Engagement

Figure 2.10 The Engagement Between a Sprocket and


an Elongated Chain

Figure 2.11 Elongation Versus the Number of Sprocket Teeth

In conveyor chains, in which the number of working teeth in sprockets is less than
transmission chains, the stretch ratio is limited to 2 percent. Large pitch conveyor chains
use a straight line in place of curve B in the sprocket tooth face.

A chain is a reliable machine component, which transmits power by means of tensile


forces, and is used primarily for power transmission and conveyance systems. The
function and uses of chain are similar to a belt. There are many kinds of chain. It is
convenient to sort types of chain by either material of composition or method of
construction.
We can sort chains into five types:
Cast iron chain.
Cast steel chain.
Forged chain.
Steel chain.
Plastic chain.
Demand for the first three chain types is now decreasing; they are only used in
some special situations. For example, cast iron chain is part of water-treatment
equipment; forged chain is used in overhead conveyors for automobile factories.
In this book, we are going to focus on the latter two: "steel chain," especially the
type called "roller chain," which makes up the largest share of chains being produced,
and "plastic chain." For the most part, we will refer to "roller chain" simply as "chain."

NOTE: Roller chain is a chain that has an inner plate, outer plate, pin, bushing, and roller.
In the following section of this book, we will sort chains according to their uses,
which can be broadly divided into six types:
1. Power transmission chain.
2. Small pitch conveyor chain.
3. Precision conveyor chain.
4. Top chain.
5. Free flow chain.
6. Large pitch conveyor chain.
The first one is used for power transmission; the other five are used for
conveyance. In the Applications section of this book, we will describe the uses and
features of each chain type by following the above classification.
In the following section, we will explain the composition of power transmission
chain, small pitch chain, and large pitch conveyor chain. Because there are special

features in the composition of precision conveyor chain, top chain, and free flow chain,
checks the appropriate pages in the Applications section about these features.

Basic Structure of Power Transmission Chain


A typical configuration for RS60-type chain is shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 The Basic Components of Transmission Chain

Connecting Link

This is the ordinary type of connecting link. The pin and link plate are slip fit in
the connecting link for ease of assembly. This type of connecting link is 20 percent lower
in fatigue strength than the chain itself. There are also some special connecting links
which have the same strength as the chain itself. (See Figure 1.2)
Tap Fit Connecting Link
In this link, the pin and the tap fit connecting link plate are press fit. It has fatigue
strength almost equal to that of the chain itself. (See Figure 1.2)

Figure 1.2 Standard Connecting Link (top)


and Tap Fit Connecting Link (bottom)

Offset Link
An offset link is used when an odd
number of chain links is required.
It

is 35 percent lower in fatigue


strength than the chain itself. The
pin and two plates are slip fit.
There is also a two-pitch offset

link available that has fatigue strength as great as the chain itself. (See Figure 1.3)

Figure 1.3 Offset Link

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Chapter-6
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TURBINE WITH BLOWER


ARRANGEMENT
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CHAPTER 6
TURBINE WITH BLOWER ARRANGEMENT

Main Components of a Turbine


The main parts of this simple and efficient turbine are

1. Nozzle with regulating needle


2. Runner with blades
3. Casing

The exhaust air is brought from high head reservoir through a penstock.
At the end of penstock is a nozzle, which converts the available high head in high
velocity jet. The jet strikes the blades, mounted on a runner and due to impulse action;
the energy is transferred to runner. The jet itself is turned inside the blades and
ultimately falls down in the tail race. For high efficiency, the jet should be compact
and cylindrical and not broom shaped.

1. Nozzle
The exhaust pipe is jointed to the 1 pipe and this end is shaped to sharp to act as a
nozzle. This pipe is provided with a bend near the turbine.
This is done to accommodate regulating needle. The pipe at the end is provided
with guide cross to ensure parallel flow. The nozzle is made of mild steel for small
wheels and of cast steel for large turbines.

2. Runner with Blades:-

Normally the runner wheels are mild steel in one piece with the blades and
boss of special steel. The blade is the most important part of this project. It subjected to
erosion due to impact of sandy air or chemically unsuitable gas. Depending upon head,
stresses and quality of gas it is made of mild steel, cast steel or stainless steel. Cast iron is
generally avoided, except for very small runners, due to its unsatisfactory welding
characteristic.

3. Casing:-

The casing of a turbine has to carry housing for the bearing and it has also
to support the nozzle and pipe bend. It is reinforced at this point to withstand reaction of
jet. It is made of cast iron and is generally made in two parts so that erection and
assembling is easy. The upper portion should fit tightly to prevent the air leading to

runner and the lower portion has to be wide enough to prevent the water from reaching
the runner again.

BLOWER

The fan (impeller) rotates inside the shell. The shell is so designed that the air is
rushed out forcely. The blower consists of two main parts. They are

Casing
Impeller Blades(Fan)

The turbine is directly coupled with Impeller blades through bearings. The gas is
used to strike the turbine and the blower is rotated so that the air is rushed out force.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-7
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

WORKING PRINCIPLE
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER 7
WORKING PRINCIPLE

The progress of automobiles for transportation has been intimately associated with
the progress of civilization.

The automobile of today is the result of the

accumulation of many years of pioneering research and development.


The output of the engine exhaust gas is given to the input of the turbine blades, so
that the pressurized air produced. This pressurized air is given to the carburetor intake air
system. The efficiency of the engine is improved by using this type of turbo charging.
This power, the alternate power must be much more convenient in availability and usage.
The next important reason for the search of effective, unadulterated power are to save the
surrounding environments including men, machine and material of both the existing and
the next forth generation from pollution, the cause for many harmful happenings and to
reach the saturation point.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-8
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DESIGN AND DRAWINGS


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER 8
DESIGN AND DRAWINGS

1. DESIGN OF BALL BEARING

Bearing No. 6202


Outer Diameter of Bearing (D)

35 mm

Thickness of Bearing (B)

12 mm

Inner Diameter of the Bearing (d)

15 mm

Corner radii on shaft and housing

Maximum Speed

14,000 rpm (From design data book)

Mean Diameter (dm)

(D + d) / 2

(35 + 15) / 2

(From design data book)

dm

25 mm

4C 1 +
4C 4

(4 X 2.3) -1 + 0.65
(4 X 2.3 )-4
2.3

1.85

WAHL STRESS FACTOR


Ks

Ks

0.65
C

2. ENGINE DESIGN CALCULATIONS:-

DESIGN AND ANYLSIS ON TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION FOR TWOSTROKE ENGINE COMPONENT USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD:

SPECIFICATION OF FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE:


Type

four strokes

Cooling System

Air Cooled

Bore/Stroke

50 x 50 mm

Piston Displacement

98.2 cc

Compression Ratio

6.6: 1

Maximum Torque

0.98 kg-m at 5,500RPM

CALCULATION:

Compression ratio =

(Swept Volume + Clearance Volume)/ Clearance Volume

Here,
Compression ratio =

6.6:1

6.6

(98.2 + Vc)/Vc

Vc

19.64

Assumption:

1. The component gases and the mixture behave like ideal gases.
2. Mixture obeys the Gibbs-Dalton law
Pressure exerted on the walls of the cylinder by air is P
P

(MRT)/V

m/M =

Universal gas constant

303 K

Density of air x V mole

Here,

Molecular weight of air

(Mass of the gas or air)/(Molecular Weight)


=

253.28 x 10 m

8.314 KJ/Kg mole K.

Here,
Density of air at 303K

1.165 kg/m

V mole

22.4 m/Kg-mole for all gases.

Molecular weight of air =

1.165 x 22.4

{[(m/(1.165 x 22.4)] x 8.314 x 303}/253.28 x 10

381134.1 m

Let Pressure exerted by the fuel is P


P

(N R T)/V

Density of petrol

800 Kg/m

{[(M)/(800 x 22.4)] x 8.314 x 303}/(253.28 x 10

555.02 m

Therefore Total pressure inside the cylinder

PT

P + P

1.01325 x 100 KN/m

381134.1 m + 555.02 m=

1.01325 x 100 ------------------------- (1)

Calculation of air fuel ratio:

Carbon

86%

Hydrogen

14%

We know that,
1Kg of carbon requires 8/3 Kg of oxygen for the complete combustion.
1Kg of carbon sulphur requires 1 Kg of Oxigen for its complete combustion.
(From Heat Power Engineering-Balasundrrum)

Therefore,
The total oxygen requires for complete combustion of 1 Kg of fuel
=

[ (8/3c) + (3H) + S] Kg

Little of oxygen may already present in the fuel, then the total oxygen required for
complete combustion of Kg of fuel

{ [ (8/3c) + (8H) + S ] - O} Kg

As air contains 23% by weight of Oxygen for obtain of oxygen amount of air
required

100/23 Kg

Minimum air required for complete combustion of 1 Kg of fuel

=
So for petrol 1Kg of fuel requires =

Air fuel ratio

(100/23) { [ (8/3c) + H + S] - O} Kg
(100/23) { [ (8/3c) x 0.86 + (8 x 0.14) ] }

14.84 Kg of air

m/m

14.84

14.84 m-------------------------- (2)

14.84/1

Substitute (2) in (1)


1.01325 x 100

3.81134 (14.84 m) + 555.02 m

1.791 x 10 Kg/Cycle

Mass of fuel flow per cycle =

1.791 x 10 Kg cycle

Therefore,
Mass flow rate of the fuel for 2500 RPM
[(1.791 x 10)/3600] x (2500/2) x 60
=

3.731 x 10 Kg/sec

Calculation of calorific value:


By Delongs formula,
Higher Calorific Value

33800 C + 144000 H + 9270 S

(33800 x 0.86) + (144000 x 0.14) + 0

HCV

Lower Calorific Value

LCV

49228 KJ/Kg

HCV (9H x 2442)

49228 [(9 x 0.14) x 2442]

46151.08 KJ/Kg

46.151 MJ/Kg

Finding Cp and Cv for the mixture:


We know that,
Air contains 77% N and 23% O by weight
But total mass inside the cylinder =

(1)

m + m

2.65 x 10 + 1.791 x 10 Kg

2.8291 x 10 Kg

Weight of nitrogen present =

77% =

0.77 Kg in 1 Kg of air

In 2.65 x 10 Kg of air contains,


=

0.77 x 2.65 x 10 Kg of N

2.0405 x 10 Kg

Percent of N present in the total mass


=

(2.0405 x 10/2.8291 x 10)

72.125 %

(1)

Percentage of oxygen present in 1 Kg of air is 23%


Percentage of oxygen present in total mass

(2)

(0.23 x 2.65 x 10)/(2.8291 x 10)

21.54 %

Percentage of carbon present in 1 Kg of fuel 86%


Percentage of carbon present in total mass

(3)

(0.866 x 1.791 x 10)/(2.8291 x 10)

5.444%

Percentage of Hydrogen present in 1 Kg of fuel 14%


Percentage of Hydrogen present in total mass

Total Cp of the mixture is


Cp

(0.14 x 1.791 x 10)/(2.8291 x 10)

0.886 %

msi Cpi

(0.72125 x 1.043) + (0.2154 x 0.913)


+ (0.54444 x 0.7) + (8.86 x 10 x 14.257)

Cp

1.1138 KJ/Kg.K

Cv

msi Cvi

(0.72125 x 0.745) + (0.2154 x 0.653)


+ (0.05444 x 0.5486) + (8.86 x 10 x 10.1333)

0.8 KJ/Kg.K

(All Cvi, Cpi values of corresponding components are taken from clerks table)

n For the mixture

(Cp/Cv)

1.11/0.8

1.38

Pressure and temperature at various PH:

1.01325 x 100 bar

1.01325 bar

30C =

P/P

(r)

1.01325 bar

6.6

1.38

Where,

303 K

13.698 bar

(r) x T

Where,
T

303 K

620.68 K

3
P

4
2
1

Heat Supplied by the fuel per cycle


Q

MCv

1.79 x 10 x 46151.08

0.8265 KJ/Cycle

0.8265

MCv (T - T)

(P V) / T

4272.45 K

(P V) / T

(T x P)/T

Where,

Where,
P

94.27 bar

P / (r)

6.973 bar

POINT POSITION
POINT-1
POINT-2
POINT-3
POINT-4

T / (r)

2086.15 K

PRESSURE (bar)
1.01325
13.698
94.27
6.973

TEMPERATURE
30 C
303 K
347.68 C
620.68 K
3999.45 C
4272.45 K
1813.15 C
2086.15 K

DESIGN OF ENGINE PISTON:

We know diameter of the piston which is equal to 50 mm

Thickness of piston:
The thickness of the piston head is calculated from flat-plate theory

Where,
t

D (3/16 x P/f)

Here,
P

Maximum combustion pressure

100 bar

Permissible stress in tension

34.66 N/mm

Piston material is aluminium alloy.


t

0.050 (3/16 x 100/34.66 x 10/10) x 1000

12 mm

2 x D

Number of Piston Rings:


No. of piston rings
Here,
D

Should be in Inches

No. of rings

2.805

We adopt 3 compression rings and 1 oil rings

Thickness of the ring:

1.968 inches

Thickness of the ring

D/32

50/32

1.5625 mm

D/20

2.5 mm

Width of the ring:


Width of the ring

The distance of the first ring from top of the piston equals
=

0.1 x D

5 mm

Width of the piston lands between rings


=

0.75 x width of ring

Length of the piston

1.625 x D

Length of the piston

81.25 mm

1.875 mm

Length of the piston:

Length of the piston skirt =

Total length Distance of first ring from top of


The first ring (No. of landing between rings x
Width of land) (No. of compression ring x
Width of ring)

81.25 5 2 x 1.875 3 x 2.5

65 mm

Other parameter:
Centre of piston pin above the centre of the skirt

0.02 x D

65 mm

x 65 + 1

33.5 mm

x 12

6 mm

65 x 50

3250 mm

The distance from the bottom of the piston to the


Centre of the piston pin

Thickness of the piston walls at open ends

The bearing area provided by piston skirt

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-9
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

LIST OF MATERIALS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-9
LIST OF MATERIALS

Sl. No.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi
viii.
ix.
x

PARTS
Frame Stand
Turbine
Blower
Bearing with Bearing Cap
Engine
Chain with Sprocket
Connecting Tube
Bolt and Nut
Wheel Arrangement

Qty.

Material

1
1
1
1
1
1
1 meter
1

Mild Steel
M.S
Plastic
M.S
75 Cc
M.S
Plastic
M.S
-

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-10
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COST ESTIMATION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-10
COST ESTIMATION

1. MATERIAL COST:Sl. No.


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi
viii.
ix.
x

PARTS
Frame Stand
Turbine
Blower
Bearing with Bearing Cap
Engine
Chain with Sprocket
Connecting Tube
Bolt and Nut
Wheel Arrangement

Qty.

Material

1
1
1
1
1
1
1 meter
1

Mild Steel
M.S
Plastic
M.S
100 Cc
M.S
Plastic
M.S
-

TOTAL

Amount (Rs)

2. LABOUR COST

LATHE, DRILLING, WELDING, GRINDING, POWER HACKSAW, GAS CUTTING:


Cost =

3. OVERHEAD CHARGES

The overhead charges are arrived by Manufacturing cost

Manufacturing Cost =

Material Cost + Labour cost

=
=
Overhead Charges =
=

20% of the manufacturing cost

TOTAL COST
Total cost

Material Cost + Labour cost + Overhead Charges

=
=
Total cost for this project

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-11
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ADVANTAGES
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-11
ADVANTAGES

Efficiency of the vehicle is improved

Small modification is done in the vehicle


Fuel consumption is less when compared to ordinary vehicle
Less pollution

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-12
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

APPLICATIONS AND
DISADVANTAGES
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-11
APPLICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES
APPLICATIONS

Automobile application
DISADVANTAGES
1. Additional cost is required
2. Additional space is required to install this arrangement in vehicles

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-13
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONCLUSION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER 13
CONCLUSION

This project is an attempt to reduce our dependency on foreign oil and reduce the
tailpipe emission from automobiles and this was an attempt to design and
implement this new technology that will drive us into the future.
Use of production turbo charger will reduce smog-forming pollutants over the
current national average. The first hybrid on the market will cut emissions of
global-warming pollutants by a third to a half and later modes may cut emissions
by even more.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BIBLIOGRAPHY
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AUTOMOBILE ENGG.

N.M AGGARWAL

S.K.KATARIA & SONS


ADVANCES IN AUTOMOBILE ENGG.

S.SUBRAMANIAM

ALLIED PUBLISHERS LTD.


THEORY & PERFORMANCE OF

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

J.B.GUPTA
S.K.KATARIA & SONS

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS

CYBER REFERANCE

www.visionengineer.com
www.tpup.com

V.K.METHTA