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Information Science and Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology,

Jinzhou, Liaoning Province 121001, China

E-mail: lubaochun1@163.com

Abstract

A fast method for determining the static voltage

stability of modern power systems with Static Var

Compensator (SVC) is proposed in this paper. Static

Var Compensator is an important component of

flexible AC transmission system, which provides an

effective approach to enhance voltage stability and to

increase the power transfer capability. This paper

discusses the effect of SVC controller on voltage

stability Based on Generalized Tellegens Theorem.

Meanwhile a practical criterion for static voltage

stability is presented, The method determines the

maximum power transfer limit by finding the critical

value of equivalent impedance model by the reactive

compensation. The application on an IEEE 30 bus

system shows that the proposed method is a feasible

and effective way to improve voltage stability, it can

provide useful information for the operators to analyze

and control voltage stability on line.

1. Introduction

With the rapid increase of modern industry and

load demand, Power grid interconnection, power

system is highly stressed and voltage instability poses

a primary threat to system stability, in such situations

power system voltage stability is of more concern

especially, as well as power system becomes more and

more complex and complicated for controlling. There

are many factors affecting voltage stability of the

power system[1]: insufficient reactive power,

automatic excitation system and its controllers

connected with modem generators, voltage dependent

loads, load voltage regulating transformers, static Var

compensators located in the transmission system to

and Control (ICICIC'08)

978-0-7695-3161-8/08 $25.00 2008 IEEE

often the most effective method to improve both

transmission capability and voltage stability.

It has been found that many power system

components and controller play a role in voltage

instability, Voltage stability can be maintained by

Static Var Compensator [2]. In analyzing the cause of

static and dynamic voltage instability on disturbance

occurrence, it is important to determine voltage stability,

however the criteria becomes even more difficult if

one attempts to apply the criteria to complex power

system, When the SVC controller is used in power

system, it must be variable impedance of capacitor (XC)

and reactor (Xl) will be taken into bus node equation

account to analyze. How to obtain a simple convenient

and practical criterion for static voltage stability is still

one important task in researching voltage stability

problems. At present, research of the criterion in

common use for static voltage stability focus on the

conventional power flow criterion[3], Sensitivity

criterion [4], Power criterion[5], impedance module

criterion[6] etc, The aim is that obtains critical voltage

or critical point.

the power network construction but also characteristic

of the load and the control components. Generalized

Tellegens Theorem[7] is a theorem on network

topological structure, it connects the network

topological structure and parameter with port

parameter, so the idea is greatly suitable for the

research on voltage stability problems. In view of the

reason mentioned above, purpose of this paper is to

give system-wide voltage stability criteria with the

effect of SVC devices, which are based on Generalized

Tellegens Theorem. it derived the elementary criterion

for static voltage stability. On this basis, by

interpreting the physical meaning of the criterion is

presented. Instance shows that the proposed method is

fast, simple, convenient and with clear physical

concept.

Generalized Tellegens theorem

To n nodes electric power network, its node

voltage equation is expressed in the following form,

Yll

Y

gl

=

Ygg V&pv J& pv

(1)

nodes and generator nodes. Yll , Ygg are the self

admittance matrix blocks of load nodes and generator

nodes. Y gl , Ylg are the trans-admittance matrix blocks

of load nodes and generator nodes.

variable impedance of capacitor (XC) and reactor

(Xl) include in admittance matrix.

To eliminate PV nodes and reduce equation (1)

(2)

equivalent injecting current of generator nodes. V& is

the voltage of load nodes. V& = V& , D is the

pq

for the power injecting at the load nodes in power

system, Dii is the equivalent admittance at the ith load

node and written as

S

(3)

Dii = i 2

Vi

where denotes conjugate, S i is the load power at

node i.

According to Generalized Tellegens Theorem,

the adjoint equation may be expressed as

~~ ~

(4)

YV = J

In the equation above, the adjiont network matrix

~

Y = Y T . If we want to obtain the voltage at the ith

~

load node, here, the vector J (i ) must be selected as

~

~

J (i ) = [0,L ,1,L ,0] , J (i ) represents the vector in

elements value is 0. Solve the adjoint equation of

~

expression and get the solution V i .

~

~

~

~

V T(i) =[V1(i),L,Vi (i),L,Vnl(i)]

(5)

in this expression, nl is the number of load nodes,

equation(5) multiplied by equation (2) each other. We

have

and Control (ICICIC'08)

978-0-7695-3161-8/08 $25.00 2008 IEEE

(6)

~

V T(i)Y = (0,L,1,L,0)

(7)

~

~

V T (i)YV& = V T (i)(DV& + J&o )

V&i =

~T

k

kk k

(8)

k =1

Vi (i)Dii = 1

(9)

then the solution of equation (8) is nonexistence, we

can determine that voltage in power system is in

critical state and so define expression (9) is the 1

criterion for static voltage stability under Generalized

Tellegens Theorem (the abbreviation is 1 criterion for

static voltage stability). This point can be illustrated

according to 1 criterion physical meaning.

3. The physical meaning of 1 criterion for

Static voltage stability

According to adjoint network equation (4), if the i th

port is derived by driving 1 (current), the rest ports

~

are open-circuited, hat is J (i ) = [0,L ,1,L ,0] , then its

~

response V (i ) is the vector composed with node

impedance

~

V T (i) =[Zi1,L, Zii,L, Zinl]

(10)

~

criterion for static voltage stability maybe written as

follows:

ZiiDii = 1

(11)

and Dii can be gotten

Zii Dii = 1

(12)

expression exactly satisfies the conditions of maximum

power transmission theorem[7] , when the voltage of

the ith load node is in critical state, therefore the

physical meaning of 1 criterion for static voltage

stability is known to arbitrary load node of the ith in

electric power network, when power system is in

the embodiment for maximum power transmission

theorem.

stability

Practical 1 criterion for static voltage stability is

formulated as follows:

To arbitrary load node i in electric power system,

1. if there are conditions as follows

(13)

steady state.

2. if there are conditions as follows

(14)

3. if there are conditions as follows

Zii Dii = 1

(15)

critical state.

Z ii is the network side impedance model of

network itself without taking into account the

equivalent impedance of other load nodes. But in

complex electric power system, it must modified in

other to measure the influence of other heavy load

nodes except for node i ,this can be gotten by means of

analyzing the sensitivity, as expression(16)

n

Zii =

Zi

S

j =1

Sj

(16)

Zi S j can be

Theorem. Therefore the modified network equivalent

impedance model is

(17)

synthetic information and its value is determined by

not only sensitivity of load s j of the rest nodes

(except the node i) corresponding to z i

at node i

5. Calculating steps

and Control (ICICIC'08)

978-0-7695-3161-8/08 $25.00 2008 IEEE

node and form equivalent admittance matrix Y

of expression (2).

Step 2:To the arbitrary load node i in electric power

network,

solve the adjoint equation of

expression (4) and get the solution V (i ) of

adjoint equation.

Step.3: Calculation of the load equivalent admittance

model Dii of load node i and Z ii Dii .

Step 4: Determine whether value of

Z ii Dii is 1 or

Step 5: Determine whether value of Z ii Dii tend to 0

or not. If Z ii 0 , then the voltage at node i

is in critical state, if not, turn to next step.

Step6: Calculating the modified variate of Z ii and

Z ii , make Z ii = Z ii .

criterion for static voltage stability, if so, then

the voltage at node i is in critical state.

6. Example of calculation

This paper has given the calculating results of

IEEE16 buses system and the comparison of the

method proposed to admittance model method in table

1. Results of IEEE30 and 62-node practical system of

the South in liaoning province are not discussed here.

1. Under normal conditions, the voltage value at

node i is lower than normal. Select modes to increase

load at node 1, solve adjoint equation and get the

solution V1 (1) = 0.041 + j 0.136 , Z11 = 0.142

Adopt to the manner of increasing load at node 1,

the admittance model D1 and Z11 D11 are calculated

each time at node 1, meanwhile, it is known that when

the value of

approaches to 1,

Z11 D11

Z11 = 0.010 , then it can be determined that the

critical voltage Vcr = 0.5838 .

Make M1 represent voltage stability margin

calculated

by

admittance

model

method,

M1 = D1 Dcr , Dcr is the critical admittance model

gotten from admittance model method, where

Dcr = 7.0399 . It can be gotten that the static voltage

stability allowance calculated by admittance model

method approaches to zero. when voltage at node 1 is

on the verge of critical state, consequently, it is

basically sin agreement with admittance model method.

2. Exam the influence on voltage stability at the 1th

node when load is increased at node 2, 3, 4 at all the

same time. As shown in Tab.2, S5 = 0.30 + j 0.25 ,

when they are S1 = 1.07 + j1.05 S 2 = 0.65 + j 0.60 and

S3 = 0.45 + j 0.60 , the computing results are that the

is

value Z11 is 0.3608 and the modified value Z11

0.3001.thus the value is as standard, when

D11 = 1.0086 , it can be approximately determined

Z11

transfer limit by finding the critical value of equivalent

impedance model by the reactive compensation.

because it is not necessary to obtain critical voltage

value by means of the equivalence and simplification

of conventional method, this method is quite suited for

on-line voltage stability analysis. Meanwhile, the

applicable static voltage stability criterion has the same

exactness as the conventional criterion and is fast, brief,

robust and has less computational work.

Acknowlgement:

This work was supported in part by Education

Committee Foundation of Liaoning province.

(2007T081)

stability, the cause of error lies in that value Z11

8. References

with admittance model method , Z1load D11 = 1.0004 ,

D11 is bit

load is neglected. But in general, value Z11

upper, which results in the conservatism of the

practical criterion to some degree.

Table1 Comparison of the method proposed to

admittance model method

Power

0.1000

+j0.1000

0.5000

+j1000

0.800

+j1.500

1.000

+j2.000

1.2050

+j2.0745

Voltage

at node 1

Admittance

model

Method in

this paper

Voltage

stability

margin

0.9805

0.1471

0.0209

6.8928

0.8651

1.4939

0.2121

5.5460

0.7758

2.8246

0.4011

1.2153

0.6486

5.3153

0.7548

1.7249

0.5838

7.0391

0.9996

0.0002

Z11

D11

V1

Z11 Z 11

Z11 D1 Z11

Z1load D11

0.64

30

0.66

09

0.36

08

0.30

01

2.39

80

1.0086

1.002

7. Conclusions

Based on Generalized Tellegens theorem, a

practical criterion for static voltage stability with the

effect of SVC controller is derived and physical

interpretation of the proposed method will be

discussed. When voltage is in critical state, the

and Control (ICICIC'08)

978-0-7695-3161-8/08 $25.00 2008 IEEE

swing stability limit of a power system, Electric Power

System Research, vol.77, pp1402-1409, 2007.

power system with SVC using artificial neural network,

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, vol.18,

pp695703, 2005.

[3] F.D.Galiana, Load Flow Feasibility and The Voltage

Collapse Problem, in the 23th proc.1984 On Decision and

Control, Las Vegas, NV, pp.485-493.

[4] Y. Sekine and A. Yokovama, A Static Voltage Stability

Index Based on Multiple Load flow Solutions, in proc. 1989

Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena-Voltage Stability

and Security, pp.65-72.

[5] M.H.Haque, A Fast Method for Determining The

Voltage Stability Limit of a Power System, Electric Power

System Research, vol.32, pp.35-43, 1995.

[6]W.C. Ge, Study of Voltage Stability and Voltage

Collapse in Electric Power Systems, ph.D. dissertation, P. R.

China , Harbin Institute of Technology, 1992.

[7]B.C. Lu, A Study on Generalized Tellegens Theorem

and Its Application to Voltage/Reactive Power System,

ph.D. dissertation, P. R. China , Harbin Institute of

Technology, 1998.

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