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Studies of Voltage Stability Based on SVC Control

Baochun Lu, Baoguo Li , Yi Liu, Weiguo Guan and Gang Lv


Information Science and Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology,
Jinzhou, Liaoning Province 121001, China
E-mail: lubaochun1@163.com
Abstract
A fast method for determining the static voltage
stability of modern power systems with Static Var
Compensator (SVC) is proposed in this paper. Static
Var Compensator is an important component of
flexible AC transmission system, which provides an
effective approach to enhance voltage stability and to
increase the power transfer capability. This paper
discusses the effect of SVC controller on voltage
stability Based on Generalized Tellegens Theorem.
Meanwhile a practical criterion for static voltage
stability is presented, The method determines the
maximum power transfer limit by finding the critical
value of equivalent impedance model by the reactive
compensation. The application on an IEEE 30 bus
system shows that the proposed method is a feasible
and effective way to improve voltage stability, it can
provide useful information for the operators to analyze
and control voltage stability on line.

1. Introduction
With the rapid increase of modern industry and
load demand, Power grid interconnection, power
system is highly stressed and voltage instability poses
a primary threat to system stability, in such situations
power system voltage stability is of more concern
especially, as well as power system becomes more and
more complex and complicated for controlling. There
are many factors affecting voltage stability of the
power system[1]: insufficient reactive power,
automatic excitation system and its controllers
connected with modem generators, voltage dependent
loads, load voltage regulating transformers, static Var
compensators located in the transmission system to

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improve voltage, etc. Reactive power compensation is


often the most effective method to improve both
transmission capability and voltage stability.
It has been found that many power system
components and controller play a role in voltage
instability, Voltage stability can be maintained by
Static Var Compensator [2]. In analyzing the cause of
static and dynamic voltage instability on disturbance
occurrence, it is important to determine voltage stability,
however the criteria becomes even more difficult if
one attempts to apply the criteria to complex power
system, When the SVC controller is used in power
system, it must be variable impedance of capacitor (XC)
and reactor (Xl) will be taken into bus node equation
account to analyze. How to obtain a simple convenient
and practical criterion for static voltage stability is still
one important task in researching voltage stability
problems. At present, research of the criterion in
common use for static voltage stability focus on the
conventional power flow criterion[3], Sensitivity
criterion [4], Power criterion[5], impedance module
criterion[6] etc, The aim is that obtains critical voltage
or critical point.

In fact, voltage stability is closely related to not only


the power network construction but also characteristic
of the load and the control components. Generalized
Tellegens Theorem[7] is a theorem on network
topological structure, it connects the network
topological structure and parameter with port
parameter, so the idea is greatly suitable for the
research on voltage stability problems. In view of the
reason mentioned above, purpose of this paper is to
give system-wide voltage stability criteria with the
effect of SVC devices, which are based on Generalized
Tellegens Theorem. it derived the elementary criterion
for static voltage stability. On this basis, by
interpreting the physical meaning of the criterion is
presented. Instance shows that the proposed method is
fast, simple, convenient and with clear physical
concept.

2. Static voltage stability criterion based on


Generalized Tellegens theorem
To n nodes electric power network, its node
voltage equation is expressed in the following form,
Yll
Y
gl

Ylg V&pq J& pq

=
Ygg V&pv J& pv

(1)

generator nodes. J& pq , J& pv is injecting current of load


nodes and generator nodes. Yll , Ygg are the self
admittance matrix blocks of load nodes and generator
nodes. Y gl , Ylg are the trans-admittance matrix blocks
of load nodes and generator nodes.
variable impedance of capacitor (XC) and reactor
(Xl) include in admittance matrix.
To eliminate PV nodes and reduce equation (1)
(2)

where Y the equivalent admittance matrix. J&0 is


equivalent injecting current of generator nodes. V& is
the voltage of load nodes. V& = V& , D is the
pq

equivalent admittance of load nodes, D = diag ( Dii ) ,


for the power injecting at the load nodes in power
system, Dii is the equivalent admittance at the ith load
node and written as
S
(3)
Dii = i 2
Vi
where denotes conjugate, S i is the load power at
node i.
According to Generalized Tellegens Theorem,
the adjoint equation may be expressed as
~~ ~
(4)
YV = J
In the equation above, the adjiont network matrix
~
Y = Y T . If we want to obtain the voltage at the ith
~
load node, here, the vector J (i ) must be selected as
~
~
J (i ) = [0,L ,1,L ,0] , J (i ) represents the vector in

which the i th elements value is 1 and the rest


elements value is 0. Solve the adjoint equation of
~
expression and get the solution V i .

~
~
~
~
V T(i) =[V1(i),L,Vi (i),L,Vnl(i)]

(5)
in this expression, nl is the number of load nodes,
equation(5) multiplied by equation (2) each other. We
have

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(6)

It can be proved that

~
V T(i)Y = (0,L,1,L,0)

(7)

so equation (6) may be written as

where, V&pq , V&pv are the voltage of load nodes and

YV& = DV& + J&0

~
~
V T (i)YV& = V T (i)(DV& + J&o )

V&i =

~T

V (i)D V& +V (i)J&


k

kk k

(8)

k =1

To equation (8), when the k = i , if

Vi (i)Dii = 1
(9)
then the solution of equation (8) is nonexistence, we
can determine that voltage in power system is in
critical state and so define expression (9) is the 1
criterion for static voltage stability under Generalized
Tellegens Theorem (the abbreviation is 1 criterion for
static voltage stability). This point can be illustrated
according to 1 criterion physical meaning.
3. The physical meaning of 1 criterion for
Static voltage stability
According to adjoint network equation (4), if the i th
port is derived by driving 1 (current), the rest ports
~
are open-circuited, hat is J (i ) = [0,L ,1,L ,0] , then its
~
response V (i ) is the vector composed with node
impedance

~
V T (i) =[Zi1,L, Zii,L, Zinl]

(10)

where Z ii is the inner equivalent impedance looked


~

from node i to whole network N . Therefore, 1


criterion for static voltage stability maybe written as
follows:

ZiiDii = 1

(11)

then the relation of the variable modulus between Z ii


and Dii can be gotten

Zii Dii = 1

(12)

Z ii is the equivalent impedance model looked from

the ith node

into network, Dii is the equivalent

impedance model loaded at the ith node, the above


expression exactly satisfies the conditions of maximum
power transmission theorem[7] , when the voltage of
the ith load node is in critical state, therefore the
physical meaning of 1 criterion for static voltage
stability is known to arbitrary load node of the ith in
electric power network, when power system is in

critical state of voltage stability, the criterion will be


the embodiment for maximum power transmission
theorem.

4. Practical of 1 criterion for Static voltage


stability
Practical 1 criterion for static voltage stability is
formulated as follows:
To arbitrary load node i in electric power system,
1. if there are conditions as follows

Zii Dii < 1

(13)

then the load node voltage can be decided to be in


steady state.
2. if there are conditions as follows

Zii Dii > 1

(14)

then the load node voltage can be decided to be in instable state.


3. if there are conditions as follows

Zii Dii = 1

(15)

then the load node voltage can be decided to be in


critical state.
Z ii is the network side impedance model of
network itself without taking into account the
equivalent impedance of other load nodes. But in
complex electric power system, it must modified in
other to measure the influence of other heavy load
nodes except for node i ,this can be gotten by means of
analyzing the sensitivity, as expression(16)
n

Zii =

Zi

S
j =1

Sj

(16)

in the above expression, sensitivity

Zi S j can be

calculated easily based on Generalized Tellegens


Theorem. Therefore the modified network equivalent
impedance model is

Zii = Zii + Zii

(17)

Research shows the variable Z ii obtains a lot of


synthetic information and its value is determined by
not only sensitivity of load s j of the rest nodes
(except the node i) corresponding to z i

at node i

but also load s j of the rest nodes[6].

5. Calculating steps

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Step 1: Establish the admittance matrix of network


node and form equivalent admittance matrix Y
of expression (2).
Step 2:To the arbitrary load node i in electric power
network,
solve the adjoint equation of
expression (4) and get the solution V (i ) of
adjoint equation.
Step.3: Calculation of the load equivalent admittance
model Dii of load node i and Z ii Dii .
Step 4: Determine whether value of

Z ii Dii is 1 or

not. if so, go to next step, if not , turn to step 3.


Step 5: Determine whether value of Z ii Dii tend to 0
or not. If Z ii 0 , then the voltage at node i
is in critical state, if not, turn to next step.
Step6: Calculating the modified variate of Z ii and
Z ii , make Z ii = Z ii .

Step 7 Determine whether value of Z ii Dii satisfies 1


criterion for static voltage stability, if so, then
the voltage at node i is in critical state.

6. Example of calculation
This paper has given the calculating results of
IEEE16 buses system and the comparison of the
method proposed to admittance model method in table
1. Results of IEEE30 and 62-node practical system of
the South in liaoning province are not discussed here.
1. Under normal conditions, the voltage value at
node i is lower than normal. Select modes to increase
load at node 1, solve adjoint equation and get the
solution V1 (1) = 0.041 + j 0.136 , Z11 = 0.142
Adopt to the manner of increasing load at node 1,
the admittance model D1 and Z11 D11 are calculated
each time at node 1, meanwhile, it is known that when
the value of
approaches to 1,
Z11 D11
Z11 = 0.010 , then it can be determined that the

voltage of node 1 is on the verge of critical state, the


critical voltage Vcr = 0.5838 .
Make M1 represent voltage stability margin
calculated
by
admittance
model
method,
M1 = D1 Dcr , Dcr is the critical admittance model
gotten from admittance model method, where
Dcr = 7.0399 . It can be gotten that the static voltage
stability allowance calculated by admittance model
method approaches to zero. when voltage at node 1 is
on the verge of critical state, consequently, it is

illustrated that the method proposed in this paper is


basically sin agreement with admittance model method.
2. Exam the influence on voltage stability at the 1th
node when load is increased at node 2, 3, 4 at all the
same time. As shown in Tab.2, S5 = 0.30 + j 0.25 ,
when they are S1 = 1.07 + j1.05 S 2 = 0.65 + j 0.60 and
S3 = 0.45 + j 0.60 , the computing results are that the
is
value Z11 is 0.3608 and the modified value Z11
0.3001.thus the value is as standard, when
D11 = 1.0086 , it can be approximately determined
Z11

proposed method determines the maximum power


transfer limit by finding the critical value of equivalent
impedance model by the reactive compensation.
because it is not necessary to obtain critical voltage
value by means of the equivalence and simplification
of conventional method, this method is quite suited for
on-line voltage stability analysis. Meanwhile, the
applicable static voltage stability criterion has the same
exactness as the conventional criterion and is fast, brief,
robust and has less computational work.

the error is not large. The initial value Z11 D11 is

Acknowlgement:
This work was supported in part by Education
Committee Foundation of Liaoning province.
(2007T081)

2.3980, so it is not applicable to determined voltage


stability, the cause of error lies in that value Z11

8. References

that voltage at node 1 is in critical state, Comparing


with admittance model method , Z1load D11 = 1.0004 ,

itself is approximate and the influence of other nodes


D11 is bit
load is neglected. But in general, value Z11
upper, which results in the conservatism of the
practical criterion to some degree.
Table1 Comparison of the method proposed to
admittance model method
Power
0.1000
+j0.1000
0.5000
+j1000
0.800
+j1.500
1.000
+j2.000
1.2050
+j2.0745

Voltage
at node 1

Admittance
model

Method in
this paper

Voltage
stability
margin

0.9805

0.1471

0.0209

6.8928

0.8651

1.4939

0.2121

5.5460

0.7758

2.8246

0.4011

1.2153

0.6486

5.3153

0.7548

1.7249

0.5838

7.0391

0.9996

0.0002

Table2 calculating results of IEEE-16 buses system


Z11

D11
V1
Z11 Z 11
Z11 D1 Z11
Z1load D11
0.64
30

0.66
09

0.36
08

0.30
01

2.39
80

1.0086

1.002

7. Conclusions
Based on Generalized Tellegens theorem, a
practical criterion for static voltage stability with the
effect of SVC controller is derived and physical
interpretation of the proposed method will be
discussed. When voltage is in critical state, the

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