You are on page 1of 6

Ashley Schouten

C. D.

P. H.

N. S.

H. M.

Dr. Joe Immel

Febuary 22nd of 2008

3/4 period

Sci/Eng

Flooding Unknowns in Qualitative Organic Chemistry

There are many times during chemical experiements that a substance's nature is not given
or known. In order to properly procede, these substances must be identified. Qualitative
Organic Chemestry is a branch of chemical study that deals with the identification of these
unknown substances. By using several types of tests, such as a chromatograph tests,
individual substances can be determined in a mixture. A chromatograph test involves
passing a fluid[liquid or gas] through a series of differing mediums that slow different parts
of a mixture. Qualitative Organic Chemestry is not at all interested in the actual amount of
any unknown substance, it is merely the functional group or organic compound within the
sample. This was what was done in the experiment. Among the most common reactions in
Qualitative Organic Chemistry are those involving the formation or decomposition of
complex ions and precipitation reactions 6HCl or 6 Moles of Hydrochloric Acid was used in
many of the test. It is found that 6HCl can Increases [H+] and [Cl-]. It Decreases [OH-],
while it Dissolves insoluble carbonates, chromates, hydroxides, and some sulfates. It also
Destroys Hydroxo and NH3 complexes, and Precipitates insoluble chlorides.

Materials and Methods


Materials:

Zinc Nitrate
Cadmium Nitrate
Antimony Chloride
6 Mole of Hydrochloric Acid
Barium Chloride
Sodium Sulfate
Sodium Sulfide
Sulfite Ion
Calcium Carbonate
Limewater

Methods:

Test 1 [For Zinc, Cadmium, Antimony]

Place two [2] drops of Zinc Nitrate was placed in a cavity of the Chemplate.
Place two [2] drops of Cadmium Nitrate was placed in a different cavity of the same
Chemplate.
Place two [2] drops of Antimony Chloride was placed in a different cavity of the same
Chemplate.
Place two [2] drops of Sodium Sulfide in each of the cavities that has a substance in it.
Record the colors formed from each cavity.
Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.

Test 2 [Barium and Sulfate]

a.

1. Place three [3] drops of Barium Chloride solution in a cavity in the Chemplate.
2. Place three [3] drops of Sodium Sulfate in the above cavity.
3. Add three [3] drops of Hydrochloric Acid to the cavity.
4. Record your observations.
b.

1. Place three [3] drops of Sodium Sulfate in another cavity of the Chemplate
2. Place three [3] drops of Barium Chloride solution in the above cavity.
3. Add three [3] drops of Hydrochloric Acid to the cavity.
4. Record your observations.
5. Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.

Test 3 [Sulfide]

1. Place three [3] drops of Sodium Sulfide in a cavity in the Chemplate.


2. Add three [3] drops of Hydrochloric Acid to the cavity.
3. Record your observations.
4. Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.

Test 4 [Sulfite]

1. Place three [3] drops of Sulfite solution in a cavity in the Chemplate.


2. Add two [2] drops of Hydrochloric Acid.
3. Record your observations.
4. Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.

Test 5 [Carbonate]

1. Placing three [3] chips of Calcium Carbonate in a cavity in the Chemplate.


2. Put a few drops of Limewater into a neighboring cavity.
3. Add two [2] drops of Hydrochloric Acid into the cavity with the Calcium Carbonate.
4. Top that cavity with a Gas collecting cap with a rubber tube attatched to it.
5. Place the tube in the Limewater for thirty [30] seconds.
6. Record your observations.
7. Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.

Test 6 [The Unknowns] (The unknowns will be shortened to U + the number that the
unknown is)
Unknown 1

a.

1. U1 is added in the biggest cavity in the Chemplate.


2. Using the spatula, scoop a small amount in a a few different cavities.
3. Add a few drops of water to one of the cavities. Observe it.
4. Add a few drops of Hydrochloric Acid to another cavity and to the one above.
Observe them.
5. Add a few drops of Sodium Sulfide to another cavity. Observe it.
6. Record your observation on the Cation that is discovered.

b.

1. Using the cavities that still have some of U1 in them, and haven't been used, add a
few drops of Barium Chloride to one cavity. Observe.
2. Add a few drops of Hydrochloric acid to another cavity. Observe.
3. Do test 5 in another cavity. Observe.
4. Record you Observation of the Anion that is discovered.
5. Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.

Unknown 2

1. U2 is added in the biggest cavity in the Chemplate.


2. Using the spatula, scoop a small amount in a a few different cavities.
3. Add a few drops of Barium Chloride to one of the cavities. Observe.
4. Add a few drops of Hydrochloric acid to another cavity. Observe.
5. Do test 5 in another cavity. Observe.
6. Record you Observation of the Anion that is discovered.
7. Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.

Unknown 3

1. U3 is added in the biggest cavity in the Chemplate.


2. Using the spatula, scoop a small amount in a a few different cavities.
3. Add a few drops of Barium Chloride to one of the cavities. Observe.
4. Add a few drops of Hydrochloric acid to another cavity. Observe.
5. Do test 5 in another cavity. Observe.
6. Record you Observation of the Anion that is discovered.
7. Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.
Unknown 4

1. U4 is added in the biggest cavity in the Chemplate.


2. Using the spatula, scoop a small amount in a a few different cavities.
3. Add a few drops of Barium Chloride to one of the cavities. Observe.
4. Add a few drops of Hydrochloric acid to another cavity. Observe.
5. Do test 5 in another cavity. Observe.
6. Record you Observation of the Anion that is discovered.
7. Clean the Chemplate ten [10] times.
8. Return all supplies back to the Lab Aid box.

Results

In the first test done was on Zinc, Cadmium, and Antimony. When they reacted with the
other solution, they changed a certain color. Zinc was a white ppt. Cadmium was a yellow
ppt. Antimony was an orange ppt [See Fig. 1]. They formed Zinc Sulfide, Cadmium Sulfide,
and Antimony Sulfide. They all dissoved in the other solution, which was Sodium Sulfide.
For test two Barium and Sulfate were tested. Barium did not dissolve, nor did the Sulfate
dissolve. They stayed as a opaque white solid [See Fig. 2]. Barium and Sulfate combine
together to make Barium Sulfate. The third test was to test Sulfide. The ending product is
that it bubbles and smells like rotten eggs [See Fig. 3]. The next test would be for Sulfite.
Sulfite Bubbles aswell, but smells like freshly burnt matches [See Fig. 4]. The fifth test was
for Carbonate. Carbonate bubbles and turns the limewater a milky color [See Fig. 5]. The
sixth test, consited of 5 different smaller tests to find out the Cation of Unknown one, and
the Anion of Unknown one, and the other Unknowns. Unknown 1 Cation was found to be
Zinc [See Fig. 6.1]. And the U1 Anion is found to be Sulfate [See Fig 6.2]. U2 Anion is found
to be Sulfite [See Fig. 6.3]. U3 is found to be Sulfide [See Fig. 6.4]. U4 is found to be
Carbonate [See Fig. 6.5].

Discussion

This was very interesting to do, as it was not preformed by this body before in a science
class. Protection was very simple, very easy to follow. Directions were somewhat confusing
when the unknowns had to be tested. Although not many of the group members did help in
the process, they did pay attention which was the main point, so says the mind. At first, at
the end, when the group had got all the unknowns one of the Anions were wrong, but was
corrected a few days later. Again, the mind is not up to be opinionated during the
discussion, which is abnormal, because it is normally very opinionated. Stress is a main
factor of low opinionation. So this is where my mind, my body signs off from writing this.
^__^