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UTILISATION OF MUSIC AS MEANS OF MEMORY IMPROVEMENT– EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
Authors: *Liliana (Neagu) Simion,Psychologist Psychiatry Hospital, Pucioasa, Dambovita District, Romania, Drd. “C. Davila” Medical University, Medical Psychology Dept.Bucharest ,Romania, e-mail : email@example.com **Prof. Dr. Ioan Bradu Iamandescu, MD, PhD, BA Psychology, Head of Department of Medical Psychology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila" Bucharest Romania, Senior Allergist Hospital Colentina Bucharest . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This work represents an original experimental research which addressess to the improvement of the memory processes having real possibilities to be used for the treatement of many psychiatric and neorological affections (for children, adults and aged-persons), but also for psychosomatic patients who present a decrease of their intellectual potential; Theoretical premises: Mozart effect and „Super-memory” Certain music styles and music of certain composers proved to be an element meant to produce certain specific effects (clinical and electroencephalographic and of other type objectivable for instance on CPT, MRI) whose systematized study generated two new chapters in the field of psychological and neurophysiological premises of the music therapy: Mozart Effect and „Supermemory”. On the other hand, the music of Mozart in the most cases (excepting the tests regarding the spatial thinking) is not the only one capable tot o produce positive effects for the human health. The same effects may have the music of other important classic composers (Bach, Haendel, Vivaldi, Beethoven, Schubert, etc.) whose music was not analysed so elaborately as the Mozartian music (Iamandescu, 2004). „Super-memory” represents a term with a spectacular tint even if, in the field of science presents the related corrections. It reffers to the amplification of the capacity to memorize a subject under certain external conditions represented, in the case of music (according the author who studied this effect, Dr. Lozanov, quoted by Iamandescu), by a certain category: the baroc music played in slow tempo prevailing string assembly (orchestra). Music creates a favorable mood also from the neurological standpoint, activates the reticulated form delaying the presence of tiredness. The effects of the slow baroc music proved the decrease of the stress hormons and the increase of the immune system. According to the reserches on the studied subjects it was noticed a decrease of the beta waves (rapid) in average of circa 6% and a increase by the same procentage of the slow (alfa) waves. It is created according to Lozanov, a mood of attentive relaxation, characterized by a calm spirit, and under these circumstances the body works more efficiently and with less energy while the brain benefits from a plus of energy due to this save of somatic energy. Under such a mood there is the possibility to improve rapidly the learning potential, similar to the one obtained with the help of a technique already known regarding the „learning of foreing languages” during sleeping. The main difference ist that the listener of the inducting music, as well as the sleep, on slow rhythms on EEG – does not sleep and cannot benefit from the effects of an active learning, filtered through a critical thinking. Therefore, the music of the string instruments– rich in harmonic tones– in a tempo of 60-65 metronome beats pro minute creates as a whole the conditions favourable for the delay of the somatic and mental rhythms, allowing a global improvement of the memory and granting to the subject a inner feeling of „temporal expansion” (sensation of „time expansion”). On the other hand, the electric increased activity of the overgifted persons presesnts a slower rhythm of the cerebral Alfa waves (7-13 cycles per second), simultaneously with the somatic biorhythms, also slower, allowing them to achieve an ideal combination between „a body which moves slowly and a rapid mind”. Substantially, the slow baroc music provides the establishment of condition of memorization– of super-memory – for a person with a medium intellect , creating for him/her– it is true temporary – the mental advantages the overgifted persons beneft from (Iamandescu, 2004). Objectives: Starting from these premises, under the supervision of Mr. Dr. Ioan-Bradu Iamandescu I performed a study which intended to follow the application of certain cognitive and suggestive methods of improving the memory and attention, including three independent variables: music as different styles (the baroc music versus rhythmic music) and placebo preparations. The dependent variables included in the study were: visual memory, semantic memory, applied lecture which care requests the working memory, attention and text understanding, the concentrated attention and distributive attention.
Material and method: For this experiment participated 260 subjects aged between 17-19 years, devided into four equal groups. The effects were appreciated with the following instruments: -for the verification of the visual memory was applied the Ray – Claparedé test; -the semantic memory within a categorial framework was quantified by the utilisation of a test which includes 5 names starting with a certain letter of four different categories; -the applied lecture which requires the text understanding was measured by amounting the number of correct answers to the related questions; - the concentrated attention and distributive attention was quantifed by means of the Toullouse-Pieron and D-A tests. It was used the listening of certain musical pieces composed by Vivaldi, Haendel and Bach and dance music (M. Jackson) during the test application. The control was realized by the measurement of the results, comparing the experimental group to itself but also to the control group. The obtained results (the differences) were as follows: CONTROL GROUP 43 -4 -80 c.op. c.ex. c.m c.op. c.ex. c.m. 5.54 0.8 0.8 5.59 -6.56 -1.99 c.op. c.ex. c.m. c.op. c.ex. c.m. BAROC MUSIC 171 100 59 6.31 1.97 1.97 8.91 -4.35 0.12 c.op. c.ex. c.m. c.op. c.ex. c.m. RHYTHMIC MUSIC 142 11 29 9.01 2.13 2.13 9.16 -5.81 -0.58 c.op. c.ex. c.m. c.op. c.ex. c.m. PLACEBO EFFECT 262 95 154 3.96 3.18 3.22 11.01 -7.39 -1.77
Contextual memory Semantic memory Visual memory Concentrated attention Distributive attention
The hierarchy of the results according to the methods influence on the dependent variables: Contextual memory 1.Placebo effect (262) Concentrated attention Baroc music Placebo effect Rhythmic music (100) (154) c.op. 9.01 c.ex. 2.13 c.m. 2.13 2.Baroc music Placebo effect Baroc music (59) Baroc music (171) (95) c.op. 6.31 c.ex. 1.97 c.m. 1.97 3.Rhythmic music Rhythmic music Rhythmic music Control group (142) (11) (29) c.op. 5.54 c.ex. 0.8 c.m. 0.8 4.Control group Control group Control group Placebo effect (43) (-4) (-80) c.op. 3.96 c.ex. 3.18 c.m. 3.22 Semantic memory Visual memory Distributive attention Placebo effect c.op. 11.01 c.ex. -7.39 c.m. .1.77 Rhythmic music c.op. 9.16 c.ex. -5.81 c.m. -0.58 Baroc music c.op. 8.91 c.ex. -4.35 c.m. 0.12 Control group c.op. 6.59 c.ex. -6.56 c.m. -1.99
Co – operativity coefficient (the thinking productivity from the quantity standpoint– the processing speed and reflects the mobility and flexibility level) Ce – exactness coefficient (represents a measure of the thinking productivity from the quality standpoint– correctness) o Cm – mnesic coefficient Concentrated attention– function of the attention which ensures the selection and the congervent organization of the operations and the actions for the behaviour regulation. Distributive attention– function of the attention which allows performance of several activities simultaneously without interfering between themselves (it requires that some operations or actions to be automatized and not to require conscious control Semantic memory– deposit of our knowledge. Visual memory (sensorial) – depends the process of memorizing and knowledge consolidation. Contextual memory - it necessitates the working memory which is activated during the period of the task performance and memorizes the information on the spot. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The Placebo effects influences especially the visual and contextual memories (increases the power if registration ). 2. The baroc music improves the semantic memory (increases the evocation power). 3. The rhythmic music influences positively the concentrated attention as regards the relation between the operativity coefficient /exactness coefficient proving the resistence to monotony and a strong nervous system. 4. The Placebo effects diminishes the operativity coefficient but the mnesic and exactness coefficients are superior to the other methods showing the prevalence of the inhibitory process. 5. It is noticed a semnificative decrease of the values to the control group, which might mean lack of interest in fulfilling the tasks (low resistance to monotony), and the increased differences of the other methods show the positive influence which they have upon the memorization. .
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