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Each element has been discovered has peculiar property, that differs it from each other,
the ammonium molecules is special compound that has different properties such as
Basicity ,Acidity, self-dissociation, combustion, formation of other compounds and
Ammonia as a ligand. The above been discussed was about ammonium properties.
The Basicity is one of the most important properties of the ammonia. It is combining with
the acid to form salt .for example, NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl in this equation the ammonia
combing with the hydrochloric acid to form ammonium chloride. However, perfectly dry
ammonia will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chlorine: moisture is necessary to
bring about the reaction.
In some cases, the Ammonium exhibits the characteristics of a weak acid. It is conceder as
a protic substance and it forming amides (which contain the NH2− ion). For example Lithium
and ammonia react to give a solution of lithium amide: 2 Li + 2 NH3 → 2 LiNH2 + H2. This
was the acidity of ammonia.
The ammonium molecules undergo molecular autoionization to form its acid and base
at standard pressure and temperature. The molecular autoionization is the reaction
between same substances to produce ion. It does not require water for example, 2 NH3
<----> NH4+ + NH2-. Inaddtion, the oxidations number remand the same and it
unchanged in this reaction. There are two type of autoionization one of them is Protic
such as 2 H2O <----> H3O+ + OH- , and the other on is Non-protic such as 2 PF5 <---->
PF6- + PF4+. These summarize self-dissociation property of ammonia.
Ammonia is a flammable gas. It can react with both oxygen to form nitrogen and water
(4 NH3 + 3 O2 → 2 N2 + 6 H2O), or nitrogen (II) oxide and water. In the first reaction it
will reduce heat witch called the standard enthalpy change of combustion. According to
Wikipedia (expressed per mole of ammonia and with condensation of the water formed,
is –382.81 kJ/mol). Furthermore, Ammonium salts of oxidizing anions—nitrate,
dichromate, and perchlorate— are not constant and it explodes by heat. that all refer to
the combustion property of ammonia.
Ammonia can be used in the manufacture of nitric acid. A combination of ammonia
air is passed over a platinum gauze catalyst at 850 °C. Then, the ammonia is oxidized to
nitric oxide ( 4NH3 + 5O2 → 4NO + 6H2O). The Oxidation of ammonia gives as
dinitrogen and water. The nitric oxide is in turn oxidized by the excess of oxygen present
in the mixture, to give nitrogen dioxide. This is reacted with water to give nitric acid for
use in the production of fertilizers and explosives.