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Sample Problem #3:

A mixture of 50 g mol of liquid benzene and 50 g mol of water is boiling at 101.32 kPa pressure. Liquid
benzene is immiscible in water. Determine the boiling point of the mixture and the composition of the
vapor. Which component will first be removed completely from the still? Vapor-pressure data for the
pure components are as follows:

Temperature Pwater Pbenzene


K °C (mm Hg) (mm Hg)
308.5 35.3 43 150
325.9 52.7 106 300
345.8 72.6 261 600
353.3 80.1 356 760

Given:

Vapors
Ptotal = 760 mm Hg

50 gmol water
50 gmol benzene

Required: boiling temperature and which component is completely removed first

Solution:

Get Ptotal = Pwater + Pbenzene:

Temperature Pwater Pbenzene Ptotal


K °C (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (mm Hg)
308.5 35.3 150 43 193
325.9 52.7 300 106 406
345.8 72.6 600 261 861
353.3 80.1 760 356 1116
Plot temperature vs vapor pressure:

90

80 water benzene total

temperature, deg C
70
t = 68.5°C

60

50

40

30 230 530 760


0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
pressure, mm Hg

From the plot, at Ptotal = 760 mm Hg:

boiling temperature = 68.5°C


Pwater = 230 mm Hg
Pbenzene = 530 mm Hg

Because Pbenzene (=530 mm Hg) > Pwater (=230 mm Hg), benzene will be the component that will be
completely removed first.

Answers: t = 68.5°C and benzene