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# Set No.

## IV B.Tech. I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2010

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
*******

## 1. (a) Explain the need of economic load dispatch.

(b) Constant load of 400 MW is supplied by two 210 MW generators 1 and 2, for which
the fuel cost characteristics are given as below:
C1 = 0.05 PG21 + 18 PG1 + 27 Rs/hr
C 2 = 0.06 PG22 + 14 PG 2 + 38

Rs/hr

The real power generations of the units PG1 and PG 2 are in MW. Find (i) the most
economical load sharing between the generators. (ii) The saving in Rs./ day there by
obtained, compared to equal load sharing between two generators.
2. (a) Obtain the condition for optimum operation of a power system with n plants when
losses considered
(b) On a system consisting of two generating plants the incremental costs in Rs/ MWh
with PG1 and PG 2 in MW are

dC1
dC 2
= 0.007 PG1 + 7.5 and
= 0.0011PG 2 + 9.0
dPG1
dPG 2
The system is operating on economic dispatch with PG1 = PG2 = 500 MW and
PL
= 0.2 . Find the penalty factor of plant 1.
PG 2
3. A two-plant system having a steam plant near the load centre and a hydro plant at a
remote location. The load is 500MW for 16 hrs a day and 350 MW, for 8 hrs a day.
The characteristics of the units are
2
C1 = 120 + 45 PGT + 0.075 PGT
Rs./hr
2
w2 = 0.6 PGH + 0.00283 PGH
m3/sec
Loss co-efficient, B22 = 0.002 MW-1
Find the generation schedule, daily water used by hydro plant and daily operating
cost of thermal plant for j =80 Rs./ m3-hr

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Set No. 1

## 4. (a) Develop the linearized modeling of a hydraulic turbine

(b) Explain the effect of varying excitation of a synchronous generator
5. (a) Discuss the ill effects of change in voltage and frequency of a power system. Mention
the acceptable ranges of these changes
(b) A 250MVA synchronous generator is operating at 3000 rpm, 50Hz. A load of 50MW
is suddenly applied to the machine and the station valve to the turbine opens only
after 0.5 sec due to the time lag in the generator action. Calculate the frequency to
which the generated voltage drops before the steam flow commences to increase to
meet the new load. Given that the valve of H of the generator is 6 kW-sec per kVA of
the generator energy.
6. Obtain the block diagram of two area system
7. (a) Explain the combined operation of LFC and ELDC system
(b) What are the requirements of the control strategy in LFC system
8. (a) Explain the effects on uncompensated line under no load and load conditions
(b) A 3-Phase, 50 Hz, 3000 V motor develops 700 HP, the p.f being 0.8 lagging and the
efficiency 0.9. A bank of capacitors is connected in delta across the supply terminals
and the p.f raised to 0.95 lagging. Each of the capacitance units is built of five similar
600 V capacitors. Determine capacitance of each capacitor.

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Set No. 2

## IV B.Tech. I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2010

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
*******

1. (a)Obtain the condition for optimum operation of a power system with n plants
(b) Determine the saving in fuel cost in Rs/hr for the economic distributes of a total load
of 200MW between the two units with incremental fuel costs

dC1
= 0.0075 PG1 + 15 and
dPG1

dC 2
= 0.085 PG 2 + 12
dPG 2

## Compared with equal distribution of same total load

2. (a) Derive the transmission loss formula and state any assumptions made.
(b) The incremental fuel cost for two plants are

dC1
dC 2
= 0.0075 PG1 + 17 Rs./MWh and
= 0.08 PG 2 + 15 Rs./MWh
dPG1
dPG 2
The loss coefficients are given as
B11=0.0015 /MW, B12= - 0.0004/MW and B22 =0.0032/ MW for =25 Rs./MWh.
Find the real power generations, total load demand and the transmission power loss.
3. A two plant system having a thermal station near the load center and a hydro power
station at remote location.
The characteristics of both stations are
C1 = (26 + 0.045 PGT)PGT Rs/hr
w2 = (7 + 0.004 PGH) PGH m3/sec
and
2= Rs. 4 10-4 / m3
The transmission loss co-efficient, B22 = 0.0025 MW-1
Determine the power generation at each station and the power received by the load when
= 65 Rs / MWhr
4. (a) Explain the simplified model of a synchronous machine.
(b) Derive the transfer function of an overall excitation system.

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Set No. 2

## 5. (a)Explain why it is necessary to maintain the frequency of the system to be constant

(b)Two generators of rating 150 MW and 300 MW are operated with droop characteristic
of 250 MW is connected across the parallel combination of those generators
6. (a) Deduce the expression for static error frequency and tie line power in an identical two
area system
(b) The two control areas of capacity 2000MW and 7000MW are interconnected through
a tie-line. The parameters of each area based on its own capacity base are R = 1Hz /
P.u. MW and B = 0.02 P.u. MW / Hz. If the control area-2 experiences an increment
in load of 180MW, determine the static frequency drop and the tie-line power.
7. Explain clearly about proportional plus integral load frequency control system with neat
block diagram.
8. (a) What are the merits and demerits of different types of compensation
(b) A 35 kW induction motor has power factor 0.85 and efficiency 0.9 at full load, power
factor 0.6 and efficiency 0.7 at half-load. At no-load, the current is 25% of the
full-load current and power factor 0.1. Capacitors are supplied to make the line power
factor 0.8 at half-load. With these capacitors in circuit, find the line power factor at

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Set No. 3

## IV B.Tech. I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2010

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
*******
1. (a)Describe the significance of equality and inequality constrains in the economic
allocation of generation among different plants in a system
(b) Three power plants of total capacity 500 MW are scheduled for operation to supply
total system load of 350 MW. Find the optimum load scheduling if the plants have
the following incremental cost characteristics and the generator constraints.
dC1
= 40 + 0.25PG1 , 30 PG1 150
dPG1

dC2
= 50 + 0.3PG 2 , 40 PG 2 125
dPG 2
dC3
= 20 + 0.2 PG 3 , 50 PG 3 225
dPG 3
2. (a) What are B-coefficients and derive them.
(b) A system consisting of two generating plants with fuel costs of

## C1 = 0.03 PG21 + 15 PG1 + 1.0 and

C2 = 0.04 PG22 + 21 PG 2 + 1.4
The system is operating on economical dispatch with 120 MW of power generation by
each plant. The incremental transmission loss of plant-2 is 0.15. Find the penalty
factor of plant-1.
3. (a) Explain the hydro-thermal coordination and its importance
(b) Derive the condition for optimality of short term hydro thermal scheduling problem
4. (a) Describe the effect of saliency in synchronous machine modeling
(b) Draw the block diagram representation of steam turbine and obtain the approximate
linear model.

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Set No. 3

## Code No: M0223 /R07

5. (a) Draw the schematic diagram of a speed governing system and explain its components
on the dynamic response of an uncontrolled system with necessary equations.
Hence obtain the transfer function of a speed governing system

(b) A 250MVA synchronous generator is operating at 1500 rpm, 50Hz. A load of 50MW
is suddenly applied to the machine and the station valve to the turbine opens only
after 0.35 sec due to the time lag in the generator action. Calculate the frequency to
which the generated voltage drops before the steam flow commences to increase to
meet the new load. Given that the valve of H of the generator is 3.5 kW-sec per kVA
of the generator energy.

## 6. (a) What is meant by tie line bias control?

(b) Two generating stations A and B have the capacities 400MWand 700MW
respectively are inter-connected by a short line. The percentage speed regulations
from no-load to full load of the two stations are 2 and 3 respectively. Find the power
generation at each station and power transfer through the line if the load on bus of
each station is 200MW.
7. For a single area system show that the static error in frequency can be reduced to zero
using frequency control and comment on the dynamic response of an controlled system
with necessary equations
8. (a) Compare the different types of compensating equipment for transmission systems
(b) What are the specifications of load compensation?

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Set No. 4

## IV B.Tech. I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2010

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
*******

## 1. (a)Explain the important characteristics of steam unit

(b) The fuel cost of two units are given by
C1 = 0.2 PG21 + 24 PG1 + 1.0
Rs/hr

## C 2 = 0.2 PG22 + 34 PG 2 + 1.5

Rs/hr
If the total demand on the generators is 250MW, find the economic load scheduling
of the two units.
2. (a) Describe exact coordination equation and derive the penalty factor
(b) A system consisting of two generating plants. The incremental costs in Rs/ MWh with
PG21 and PG22 in MW are

dC1
= 0.006 PG1 + 7.2 and
dPG1

dC 2
= 0.01PG 2 + 5
dPG 2

The system is operating on economic dispatch with PG1 = PG2 = 350 MW and

PL
= 0.25 . Find the penalty factor of plant 1.
PG 2
3. In a two plant operation system, the hydro plant is operate for 8 hrs during each day and
the steam plant is operate all over the day. The characteristics of the steam and hydro
plants are
CT = 0.025 PGT2+14 PGT + 12 Rs/hr
wH =0.002 PGH2+28 PGH m3/ sec
When both plants are running, the power flow from steam plant to load is 200 MW
and the total quantity of water is used for the hydro plant operation during 8 hrs is
220106 m3. Determine the generation of hydro plant and cost of water used. Neglect the
transmission losses.
4. (a) Derive state space second order mathematical model of synchronous machine.
(b) Draw the block diagram of IEEE type-I excitation model and explain its functioning.
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Set No. 4

## 5. Develop the block diagram of LFC of a single area system.

6. (a) Obtain the mathematical modeling of the line powers in an interconnected system and
draw its block diagram
(b) Two areas of a power system network are interconnected by a tie-line, whose capacity
is 250MW, operating at a power angle of 35o. If each area has a capacity of 2000 MW
and the equal speed regulation co-efficiency of 3.5 Hz/P.u. MW, determine the
frequency of oscillation of the power for step change in load. Assume that both areas
have the same inertia constants of H =5 sec. If a step load change of 100MW occurs
in one of the areas determine the change in tie-line power.
7. Draw the block diagram of single area LFC system with integral control and prove that
the steady state change in frequency is zero.
8. (a) Explain the objectives of load compensation
(b) A star connected 450h.p, 2000V, and 50Hz motor works at a p.f of 0.75 lag. A bank
of mesh-connected condensers is used to raise the p.f to 0.95 lag. Calculate the
capacitance of each unit and total number of units required, if each unit is rated
400V, 50 Hz. The motor efficiency is 95%.

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