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You are on page 1of 8

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)

Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any Five Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

*******

(b) Constant load of 400 MW is supplied by two 210 MW generators 1 and 2, for which

the fuel cost characteristics are given as below:

C1 = 0.05 PG21 + 18 PG1 + 27 Rs/hr

C 2 = 0.06 PG22 + 14 PG 2 + 38

Rs/hr

The real power generations of the units PG1 and PG 2 are in MW. Find (i) the most

economical load sharing between the generators. (ii) The saving in Rs./ day there by

obtained, compared to equal load sharing between two generators.

2. (a) Obtain the condition for optimum operation of a power system with n plants when

losses considered

(b) On a system consisting of two generating plants the incremental costs in Rs/ MWh

with PG1 and PG 2 in MW are

dC1

dC 2

= 0.007 PG1 + 7.5 and

= 0.0011PG 2 + 9.0

dPG1

dPG 2

The system is operating on economic dispatch with PG1 = PG2 = 500 MW and

PL

= 0.2 . Find the penalty factor of plant 1.

PG 2

3. A two-plant system having a steam plant near the load centre and a hydro plant at a

remote location. The load is 500MW for 16 hrs a day and 350 MW, for 8 hrs a day.

The characteristics of the units are

2

C1 = 120 + 45 PGT + 0.075 PGT

Rs./hr

2

w2 = 0.6 PGH + 0.00283 PGH

m3/sec

Loss co-efficient, B22 = 0.002 MW-1

Find the generation schedule, daily water used by hydro plant and daily operating

cost of thermal plant for j =80 Rs./ m3-hr

1of 2

Set No. 1

(b) Explain the effect of varying excitation of a synchronous generator

5. (a) Discuss the ill effects of change in voltage and frequency of a power system. Mention

the acceptable ranges of these changes

(b) A 250MVA synchronous generator is operating at 3000 rpm, 50Hz. A load of 50MW

is suddenly applied to the machine and the station valve to the turbine opens only

after 0.5 sec due to the time lag in the generator action. Calculate the frequency to

which the generated voltage drops before the steam flow commences to increase to

meet the new load. Given that the valve of H of the generator is 6 kW-sec per kVA of

the generator energy.

6. Obtain the block diagram of two area system

7. (a) Explain the combined operation of LFC and ELDC system

(b) What are the requirements of the control strategy in LFC system

8. (a) Explain the effects on uncompensated line under no load and load conditions

(b) A 3-Phase, 50 Hz, 3000 V motor develops 700 HP, the p.f being 0.8 lagging and the

efficiency 0.9. A bank of capacitors is connected in delta across the supply terminals

and the p.f raised to 0.95 lagging. Each of the capacitance units is built of five similar

600 V capacitors. Determine capacitance of each capacitor.

2of 2

Set No. 2

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)

Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any Five Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

*******

1. (a)Obtain the condition for optimum operation of a power system with n plants

(b) Determine the saving in fuel cost in Rs/hr for the economic distributes of a total load

of 200MW between the two units with incremental fuel costs

dC1

= 0.0075 PG1 + 15 and

dPG1

dC 2

= 0.085 PG 2 + 12

dPG 2

2. (a) Derive the transmission loss formula and state any assumptions made.

(b) The incremental fuel cost for two plants are

dC1

dC 2

= 0.0075 PG1 + 17 Rs./MWh and

= 0.08 PG 2 + 15 Rs./MWh

dPG1

dPG 2

The loss coefficients are given as

B11=0.0015 /MW, B12= - 0.0004/MW and B22 =0.0032/ MW for =25 Rs./MWh.

Find the real power generations, total load demand and the transmission power loss.

3. A two plant system having a thermal station near the load center and a hydro power

station at remote location.

The characteristics of both stations are

C1 = (26 + 0.045 PGT)PGT Rs/hr

w2 = (7 + 0.004 PGH) PGH m3/sec

and

2= Rs. 4 10-4 / m3

The transmission loss co-efficient, B22 = 0.0025 MW-1

Determine the power generation at each station and the power received by the load when

= 65 Rs / MWhr

4. (a) Explain the simplified model of a synchronous machine.

(b) Derive the transfer function of an overall excitation system.

1of 2

Set No. 2

(b)Two generators of rating 150 MW and 300 MW are operated with droop characteristic

of 5% from no load to full load. Determine the load shared by each generator, if a load

of 250 MW is connected across the parallel combination of those generators

6. (a) Deduce the expression for static error frequency and tie line power in an identical two

area system

(b) The two control areas of capacity 2000MW and 7000MW are interconnected through

a tie-line. The parameters of each area based on its own capacity base are R = 1Hz /

P.u. MW and B = 0.02 P.u. MW / Hz. If the control area-2 experiences an increment

in load of 180MW, determine the static frequency drop and the tie-line power.

7. Explain clearly about proportional plus integral load frequency control system with neat

block diagram.

8. (a) What are the merits and demerits of different types of compensation

(b) A 35 kW induction motor has power factor 0.85 and efficiency 0.9 at full load, power

factor 0.6 and efficiency 0.7 at half-load. At no-load, the current is 25% of the

full-load current and power factor 0.1. Capacitors are supplied to make the line power

factor 0.8 at half-load. With these capacitors in circuit, find the line power factor at

(i) full load, and (ii) no-load.

2of 2

Set No. 3

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)

Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any Five Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

*******

1. (a)Describe the significance of equality and inequality constrains in the economic

allocation of generation among different plants in a system

(b) Three power plants of total capacity 500 MW are scheduled for operation to supply

total system load of 350 MW. Find the optimum load scheduling if the plants have

the following incremental cost characteristics and the generator constraints.

dC1

= 40 + 0.25PG1 , 30 PG1 150

dPG1

dC2

= 50 + 0.3PG 2 , 40 PG 2 125

dPG 2

dC3

= 20 + 0.2 PG 3 , 50 PG 3 225

dPG 3

2. (a) What are B-coefficients and derive them.

(b) A system consisting of two generating plants with fuel costs of

C2 = 0.04 PG22 + 21 PG 2 + 1.4

The system is operating on economical dispatch with 120 MW of power generation by

each plant. The incremental transmission loss of plant-2 is 0.15. Find the penalty

factor of plant-1.

3. (a) Explain the hydro-thermal coordination and its importance

(b) Derive the condition for optimality of short term hydro thermal scheduling problem

4. (a) Describe the effect of saliency in synchronous machine modeling

(b) Draw the block diagram representation of steam turbine and obtain the approximate

linear model.

1of 2

Set No. 3

5. (a) Draw the schematic diagram of a speed governing system and explain its components

on the dynamic response of an uncontrolled system with necessary equations.

Hence obtain the transfer function of a speed governing system

(b) A 250MVA synchronous generator is operating at 1500 rpm, 50Hz. A load of 50MW

is suddenly applied to the machine and the station valve to the turbine opens only

after 0.35 sec due to the time lag in the generator action. Calculate the frequency to

which the generated voltage drops before the steam flow commences to increase to

meet the new load. Given that the valve of H of the generator is 3.5 kW-sec per kVA

of the generator energy.

(b) Two generating stations A and B have the capacities 400MWand 700MW

respectively are inter-connected by a short line. The percentage speed regulations

from no-load to full load of the two stations are 2 and 3 respectively. Find the power

generation at each station and power transfer through the line if the load on bus of

each station is 200MW.

7. For a single area system show that the static error in frequency can be reduced to zero

using frequency control and comment on the dynamic response of an controlled system

with necessary equations

8. (a) Compare the different types of compensating equipment for transmission systems

(b) What are the specifications of load compensation?

2of 2

Set No. 4

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)

Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any Five Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

*******

(b) The fuel cost of two units are given by

C1 = 0.2 PG21 + 24 PG1 + 1.0

Rs/hr

Rs/hr

If the total demand on the generators is 250MW, find the economic load scheduling

of the two units.

2. (a) Describe exact coordination equation and derive the penalty factor

(b) A system consisting of two generating plants. The incremental costs in Rs/ MWh with

PG21 and PG22 in MW are

dC1

= 0.006 PG1 + 7.2 and

dPG1

dC 2

= 0.01PG 2 + 5

dPG 2

The system is operating on economic dispatch with PG1 = PG2 = 350 MW and

PL

= 0.25 . Find the penalty factor of plant 1.

PG 2

3. In a two plant operation system, the hydro plant is operate for 8 hrs during each day and

the steam plant is operate all over the day. The characteristics of the steam and hydro

plants are

CT = 0.025 PGT2+14 PGT + 12 Rs/hr

wH =0.002 PGH2+28 PGH m3/ sec

When both plants are running, the power flow from steam plant to load is 200 MW

and the total quantity of water is used for the hydro plant operation during 8 hrs is

220106 m3. Determine the generation of hydro plant and cost of water used. Neglect the

transmission losses.

4. (a) Derive state space second order mathematical model of synchronous machine.

(b) Draw the block diagram of IEEE type-I excitation model and explain its functioning.

1of 2

Set No. 4

6. (a) Obtain the mathematical modeling of the line powers in an interconnected system and

draw its block diagram

(b) Two areas of a power system network are interconnected by a tie-line, whose capacity

is 250MW, operating at a power angle of 35o. If each area has a capacity of 2000 MW

and the equal speed regulation co-efficiency of 3.5 Hz/P.u. MW, determine the

frequency of oscillation of the power for step change in load. Assume that both areas

have the same inertia constants of H =5 sec. If a step load change of 100MW occurs

in one of the areas determine the change in tie-line power.

7. Draw the block diagram of single area LFC system with integral control and prove that

the steady state change in frequency is zero.

8. (a) Explain the objectives of load compensation

(b) A star connected 450h.p, 2000V, and 50Hz motor works at a p.f of 0.75 lag. A bank

of mesh-connected condensers is used to raise the p.f to 0.95 lag. Calculate the

capacitance of each unit and total number of units required, if each unit is rated

400V, 50 Hz. The motor efficiency is 95%.

2of 2

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