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MIDDLE AGES (470-1450)
Church music = a cappella (no instruments)

Secular music = minstrels (minestrelli) : Trouvèrs (modern day France)

Troubadours (modern day France)
Minnesingers (germany) (mine=love,

Simple, rudimental instruments (lute, recorder, viol…)

Development of notation (neums)

Guidonian Hand (invented by Guido D’Arezzo who was a choir conductor)

RENAISSANCE (1450-1600)
Notation on 4 lines (but also other experiments with the lines)

Instruments developed (brass music)

Music = entertainment

Composers compose for a living (in middle ages they had other jobs as well)

Style = madrigal (fa la la) = composition for 4 voices or more a cappella (1 person per voice)

Music isn’t only for church

BAROQUE (1600-1750)
Famous composers : G. F. Handel
J. S. Bach
Antonio Vivaldi

Operas start (probably the first opera written by Claudio Monteverdi and was the story Orfeo)
Operas are a story told through music in which the characters are actors and singers
Parts are : actors, costumes, scenes, orchestra, (balletto), recitative (recitative) (to tell the rest of
the opera it can be secco (without orchestra) or accompaniato (with orchestra or harpsichord)
Monteverdi was also a famous madrigal composer

The greatest used language is italian and then german because they are big musical centers

Sonatas start (piece for solo instrument with piano accompaniment with 3 movements (fast, slow, fast)

Concertos begin to develop at the very end of the baroque and beginning or classical
Concertos are compositions for solo instrument with orchestra accompaniment with 3 movements
(fast, slow, fast)

CLASSICAL (1750-1825)
W. A. Mozart (1756-1791) loved composing operas (especially in Italian)
Most famous are : L’Italiana in Algeri
Marrige of Figaro (Le Nozze di Figaro)
Magic Flute (Flauto Magico) (German)
Cosi Fan Tutte
The Abduction from the Sevrail
Don Giovanni
Il Turco in Italia

Symphonies start (written mostly for orchestra usually with 4 movements (fast, slow, dense, fast)

Bartolomeo Christofori invented the piano

ROMANTIC (1825-1900)
Famous composers : L. Van Beetoven (1770-1827) (9 symphonies)
Schrbert (8 symphonies and 1 unfinished)
Mahler (9 symphonies)
All these composers wrote : symphonies
Leider (leid singular) (german songs with piano accompaniment)
Small ensembles music (especially quartet)
(Wagner wrote operas)

Small ensemles music is different instruments put together : triplets (3 instruments)

quartets (4 instruments)
quintets (5)
octets (8)

Leiders only came out now because the piano had been invented in the late classical

Operas are popular in Italy (Italians go crazy about opera)

Puccini is born in the late romantic period early contemporary
CONTEMPORARY (1900-present)
Types of music : rock

Musical = development of opera

5 lines in a staff (read from bottom to top)

4 spaces in a staff (read from bottom to top)

musical sounds are called pitches

Treble clef

Notes on the lines spell Every Good Boy Does Fine (EGBDF)
Notes on the spaces spell FACE

Treble clef is commonly placed on the second line (look at the swirl)

Wherever the swirl is that line indicates G (that is why it is also called the G Clef)

Bass clef (pronounced base)

Notes on the lines spell Good Boys Do Fine Always (GBDFA)

Notes on the spaces spell All Cows Eat Grass (ACEG)

Bass clef is commonly placed on the fourth line (in between the two dots)

Wherever the two dots are that line indicates F (that is why it is also called the F Clef) if it is lower it is
called a Baritone

Grand Staff the treble clef and bass clef put together
Ledger Lines are notes that don’t fit on the staff (they are also for the bass clef)

4 beats

2 beats

1 beat

half a beat

quarter of a beat

A stem extends downward on the left if the note is on or above the third line
A stem extends upward on the right if the note is below the third line

Music is divided by bar lines staff G clef time signature

The area between the bar lines is called a bar or a measure
Double bars finish the piece
Bar line measure double bar line

Time signature is at the beginning of the music after the clef

4 the upper # tells how many beats are in each measure (in this case 4)
4 the lower # indicates what type of note receives 1 beat (in this case a quarter note)