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Name: ______________________________________________

TEACHER TRAINING

February 2016

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AND HOW TO JOIN THEM IN A SINGLE CLASS

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

Have you ever thought about why your students react in different ways to the activities you do in
the class? Or even why different groups react differently to the same activity?

Why do some students really enjoy working in groups whilst others are much more productive
working alone? Why do some learners draw pictures in their vocabulary books while others seem
to need to just hear a word to be able to use it themselves?
Types of intelligence
Finding your strengths
In the classroom
Linking learners to activity types
Conclusion
Types of intelligence
American psychologist, Howard Gardner developed a theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983) which
can go some way towards explaining different learner styles. According to Gardner there are eight
different types of intelligences.
The eight intelligences are:
Linguistic - The word player
Logical / Mathematical - The questioner
Visual / Spatial - The visualiser
Musical - The music lover
Bodily / Kinaesthetic - The mover
Interpersonal - The socialiser
Intrapersonal - The loner
Naturalistic - The nature lover (added by Gardner at a later date)
In the classroom
Now you may be wondering what all this has got to do with your classes, well, although not
impossible, it would be quite a real undertaking to give all your students a test to see which of the
intelligences is most prominent, and then tailor-make each of your classes to suit every individual
student!
If you want to go some way towards achieving this and it is a viable option for you there are some
examples of tests in Jane Revell and Susan Normans books In your hands and Handing Over
(Saffire press).
If time, or other factors make it impossible to do individual tests for your students, you could just
try to make sure that you vary the tasks and use a range of activities so that you touch upon all the
types of intelligences now and again.
By observing your students and making notes on how they react to different activities you may well
discover, for example, that you have a class with a majority of visual learners so you may try to use
more flash cards or improve your board work.
Linking learners to activity types
Below is a table of learner types and some suggested activities for each type. It is adapted from
Jeremy Harmers book The Practice of English Language Teaching but was originally taken from
How to use Gardners intelligences in a class program by M Loon for the University of Canberra.

Learner type

Is good at

Learns best by

Linguistic

Reading, writing and stories

Saying, hearing and


seeing words

Logical /
mathematical

Solving puzzles, exploring


patterns, reasoning and logic

Asking questions,
Puzzles
categorising and working
Problem solving.
with patterns

Visualising, using the


minds eye

Activities
Memory games
Trivia quizzes
Stories.

Flashcards
Colours
Pictures
Drawing
Project work.

Visual / Spatial

Drawing, building, arts and


crafts

Musical

Using songs
Singing, listening to music and Using rhythm, with music
Chants
playing instruments
on
Drilling.

Moving, touching and


doing

TPR activities
Action songs
Running dictations
Miming
Realia.

Bodily /
Kinaesthetic

Moving around, touching


things and body language

Interpersonal

Mingle activities
Mixing with others, leading
Co-operating, working in Group work
groups, understanding others
groups and sharing
Debates
and mediating
Discussions.

Intrapersonal

Working alone and pursuing


own interests

Working alone

Working individually on
personalised projects

Naturalistic

Nature

Working outside and


observing nature

Environmental
projects.

Conclusion
Although you cant please all the students all the time, its just good to bear in mind that there are
many different ways of learning.
If you try an activity with one group and it falls flat, it may well be worth trying it again as it may
work really well with another set of students.
If you can identify the loner of the class or the one who is always up and out of his seat, try and
put activities into your lesson plan that you think will suit them from time to time.
Finding out your own intelligence type will help you to better understand how you learn.
DO NOT PREPARE THE CLASS TO PLEASE YOU!

Activity: Dig dig joy


Video

TEACHING GRAMMAR

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COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT)


Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to
language teaching that emphasises interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.
CLT is usually characterised as a broad approach to teaching. As such, it is most often defined as
a list of general principles or features. One of the most recognised of these lists is David Nunans
(1991) five features of CLT:
An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.
The provision of opportunities for learners to focus not only on language but also on the learning
process itself.
An enhancement of the learners own personal experiences as important contributing elements
to classroom learning.
An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.
BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR GRAMMAR TEACHING

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GENERAL STEPS TO TEACH GRAMMAR


Example: Verb to be Negative form
Have students help you to write the affirmative form of the verb to be on the board. Write +
above this column.
Tell students that to make the negative form you simply add the word not. Write I am not beside
I am, forming a - column.
Make the students repeat the affirmative and negative forms.
Start a third column on the board with the contracted form: Im not, you arent, he isnt. Make
the students help you to complete the table. Have them repeat the full form and the contracted
form.
Written exercises.
Use the slides to teach the students opposite adjectives and help them to make sentences (e.g.:
she is tall / she isnt short). Make sure each student makes at least one example.
Drills.
Written exercises.
Example: Present Perfect
Write on the board: Past with Specific Time. Have students help you to write some examples of
phrases in the past (specific time).
On the other part of the board write Present Perfect: Past about experiences with NO specific
time. Also write have/has + 3rd and examples that are similar to the ones in the simple past.
Write the 20 most common verbs (3 forms) on the board. Make some drills for the students to
practice them.
Translation drills: Simple Past and Present Perfect.

Video

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DRILLING
A drill is a classroom technique used to practise new language. It involves the teacher modelling a
word or a sentence and the learners repeating it. There are different kinds of drilling, such as choral
drill, which involves the whole class, and substitution drill, where the teacher changes the cue words
after each repetition.
Drilling is a classroom technique which some teachers reject due to a possible lack of
communicative quality and its highly controlled, teacher-centred nature. However, there are
advantages to it also, such as offering learners an opportunity to practise pronunciation in a nonthreatening dynamic.
Drilling is a whole-class activity, so it brings the whole class together, possibly diminishing feelings
of isolation with some students. Another positive feature of drilling is that it gives quieter students
an opportunity to speak without feeling they are in the spotlight. It also can help students to develop
their pronunciation and notice intonation patterns. Also, it gives greater emphasis on the words and
sentences that are being drilled, which might help students remember them better.
Below are 9 different types of drills:
1. Repetition drill the teacher reads a sentence and the students repeat. This is the type of drill
most teachers are familiar with.
Teacher: The cat is under the table.
Students: The cat is under the table.
2. Mumble drill the teacher reads a sentence, and the students say or mumble it softly to
themselves. This might lower students anxiety about speaking out in class.
Teacher: The cat is under the table.
Students: MMMmmmmmmm hmmmmmm mmmm hmmmm mmmm.
3. Backward build-up drill (backchaining) the teacher reads the last part of the sentence then works
up to a full sentence. A nice variation the traditional drill.
Teacher: table
Students: table
Teacher: the table
Students: the table
4. Single-slot substitution drill the teacher reads a sentence, then calls out words that the students
must fit into the sentence
Teacher: The cat is under the table.
Students: The cat is under the table.
Teacher: chair
Students: The cat is under the chair.
Teacher: dog
Students: The dog is under the chair.

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5. Multiple-slot substitution drill the same as the previous one, but the teacher reads two words
that students must fit into the sentence.
Teacher: The cat is under the table.
Students: The cat is under the table.
Teacher: dog, chair
Students: The dog is under the chair.
Teacher: chimpanzee, sofa
Students: The chimpanzee is under the sofa.
6. Transformation drill the teacher reads a sentence and students must transform the sentence in
some way specified by the teacher. This could be changing the verb tense, changing an affirmative
sentence to a negative sentence, adding an adjective, switching words, or changing the register of
a sentence.
Teacher: The cat is under the table. NOT
Students: The cat is not under the table.
Teacher: The cat is under the table. QUESTION
Students: Is the cat under the table?
7. Completion drill the teacher reads the beginning of a sentence, and students finish it. This gives
students an opportunity to use language spontaneously.
Teacher: The cat is...
Students: under the table.
8. Chain drill students ask and answer questions in a highly structured exchange.
Student 1: Where is the cat?
Student 2: The cat is under the table.
Student 2: Where is the cat?
Student 3: The cat is under the table.
EXAMPLE:
Possessive Adjectives Basic 1 Lesson 4
Your house is big. Mary / Pedro / Joo and Carlos
His book is blue. Claudia / Mark / We
My name is Lucas. They / Rob / She
Her pen is green. I / Tim / they
Our apartment is small. Jenny / David / We
Their English is good. I / Elisa / We
Your clothes are clean. He / She / John and Sarah
My hair is short. Samantha / Peter / You
Now you try!
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ASSESSMENT
Correct and grade the following test:
BASIC 2
1. Complete the lists (15 points):
a) nineteenth, twentieth, twenti-first.
b) May, Jume, July.
c) spring, summer, _________, winter.
d) seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth.
e) November, December, Janiuary.
2. Complete with the present perfect (15 points):
a) She have finished her homework. (finish)
b) They have watched the movie. (watch)
c) I have bougth a new house. (buy)
d) He written a book. (write)
e) We have done the homework. (do)
3. Complete using be going to (15 points):
a) Mary is going to study for the test. (study)
b) They going to play soccer. (play)
c) She is goeing to write a letter. (write)
d) He is going to watch TV. (watch)
e) Anna is going travel next week. (travel)
4. Write in English (10 points):
a) Inglaterra - Ingland
b) Estados Unidos - The United States
c) Frana - French
d) Alemanha - Germany
e) Espanha - Hisppain
5) Complete the text using the present simple form of the verbs (15 points):
Hi. My name being (be) Joanne. I am (be) 16 years old and my brother is (be) ten. We goes (go) to
different schools. My timetable is terrible, but my brother haves (have) a wonderful timetable! Every
day, he starts school at 8.00 and finishes (finish) at 1.00. I going (go) to school from 8.00 to 4.00!
My brother plays (play) basketball every afternoon, but I study! My evenings is (be) great! In the
evening, I watch TV for two hours, but my brother only watchs (watch) for thirty minutes. He has a
lot of homework, but I doing (do) all my homework at school!
6) Write about your best friend (name, age, interests, etc) (30 points):
The my best friend is Maria. She have 25 years and working in Prati. She like go out, watch TV, play
video games and listen musics. She study at Unioeste and she like a lot. She is very nice and friend.
I know her since 2010.
My other best friend is Pedro. He has 20 years and not work. He study in Fasul. He always stressed.
He is the brother of Maria. We always go out togeter.
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GRAMMAR EXERCISES ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


All the components of the grammar structure CORRECT
One or more components of the grammar structure missing/wrong INCORRECT
If any word is misspelt but still recognisable, it does not influence the marking.
If any word is misspelt and not recognisable, the question should be marked INCORRECT.
Example:
Complete with the passive voice:
She wrote the book The book was written by her. CORRECT (perfect)
She wrote the book The book written by her. INCORRECT (missing component)
She wrote the book The book is written by her. INCORRECT (wrong component)
She wrote the book The book writing by her. INCORRECT (missing and wrong components)
She wrote the book The book was writen by her. CORRECT (recognisable spelling)
She wrote the book The book was wrttnen by her. INCORRECT (not recognisable spelling)
Exercise:
Complete with be going to + verb:
She is going to travel tomorrow. (travel)
He going to work all day. (work)
They are goeing to play chess. (play)
We are going to watch a movie. (watch)
We is going to take a walk. (take)
I am going to ried a book. (read)
She is going help her sister. (help)
VOCABULARY EXERCISES ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Correct answer and correct spelling CORRECT
Correct answer and wrong but recognisable spelling HALF
Correct answer and wrong and not recognisable spelling INCORRECT
Incorrect answer INCORRECT
Example:
Write in English:
Ma apple. CORRECT (perfect)
Abacaxi pineaple. HALF (correct word but wrong but recognisable spelling)
Mamo cashew. INCORRECT (incorrect word)
Melancia wodermmeln. INCORRECT (wrong and not recognisable spelling)
Exercise:
Write in English:
Alface letuce.
Cenoura carrot.
Batata potatoe.
Repolho kebbag.
Pimenta peper.
Abobrinha zucchini.
Agrio wadercress.

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LISTENING EXERCISES ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


Correct answer and correct spelling CORRECT
Correct answer and wrong but recognisable spelling CORRECT.
Correct answer and wrong and not recognisable spelling INCORRECT.
Incorrect answer INCORRECT.
WRITING ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Each grade will be given out of 25 points, and subsequently adjusted to each task.
CONTENT
5 All content is relevant to the task. Target reader is fully informed.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Minor irrelevances and/or omissions may be present. Target reader is on the whole informed.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Irrelevances and misinterpretation of task may be present. Target reader is minimally informed.
0 Content is totally irrelevant. Target reader is not informed.
GRAMMAR
5 All grammar structures previously studied are used correctly. OR
1-2 grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
4 3-5 grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
3 6-8 grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
2 8-10 grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
1 Most grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
0 All grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
VOCABULARY
5 All words previously studied are used correctly. OR
1-2 words previously studied are used incorrectly.
4 3-5 words previously studied are used incorrectly.
3 6-8 words previously studied are used incorrectly.
2 8-10 words previously studied are used incorrectly.
1 Most words previously studied are used incorrectly.
0 All words previously studied are used incorrectly.
SPELLING
5 All words previously studied are spelt correctly. OR
1-2 words previously studied are spelt incorrectly.
4 3-5 words previously studied are spelt incorrectly.
3 6-8 words previously studied are spelt incorrectly.
2 8-10 words previously studied are spelt incorrectly.
1 Most words previously studied are spelt incorrectly.
0 All words previously studied are spelt incorrectly.
COMMUNICATIVE ACHIEVEMENT
5 Text is organised, using a number of cohesive devices appropriate to the level. Ideas are communicated
clearly.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Text is generally organised and there is a limited number of cohesive devices. Most ideas are communicated
clearly.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Text shows some evidence of organisation, but there is a very limited number of cohesive devices. Ideas are
not clearly communicated.
0 Text is not organised or intelligible.

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Exercises
INTERMEDIATE 1
Write about two people in your family or extended family (140-180 words). Answer the questions:
What is he/she like?
What does he/she like or not like doing?
What is he/she doing at the moment?
How do you get on?
In my family I like my cousin Marina, she have 15 eyers, she is very cool, intelligent and funny,
we have good relationship, when I need help, she always help me, shes very patient with me and
when she need Im always here. She like to play volleyball and basketball, listen to music, read a
good books and eat pizza of strogonoff. She doesnt like stay still, people lazy and quiet. Shes
walking at skate in the street, she loves walk skate, she very radical and competitive.
My relationship with people is very normal, I very educated, talkative, funny, I like help people,
always help my friends or when I see someone bad or crying, Im friendly. I dont like people
moody and untrustfeel.
Grades:

BASIC 1
Read the notes and write about Lisa:
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Italian
Lives in New York City where?
Studying what?
Works evening & weekend where?
Can speak three languages which ones?
Likes New York City why?
Doesnt like New York weather why not?
Lisa has 23 years old, shes Italian and lives in New York City, near Empire State Building. Shes
studying medicine and work in the hotel. She speaks three lenguagas: Portuguese, Japanese and
Germany. She likes live in New York, because is very safe and your fast food are good. She
doesnt like for weather because is very could.
Grades:

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SPEAKING ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


Each grade will be given out of 25 points, and subsequently adjusted to each task.
GRAMMATICAL RESOURCE
5 All grammar structures previously studied are used correctly. OR
Very few structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Some grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Most grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
0 All grammar structures previously studied are used incorrectly.
LEXICAL RESOURCE
5 All words previously studied are used correctly. OR
Very few words previously studied are used incorrectly.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Some words previously studied are used incorrectly.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Most words previously studied are used incorrectly.
0 All words previously studied are used incorrectly.
DISCOURSE MANAGEMENT
5 Produces stretches of language that are long enough for the level, despite some hesitation. Contributions are
relevant. Uses a range of cohesive devices that are in keeping with the level.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Produces stretches of language that are not long enough for the level, despite hesitation. Contributions are
mostly relevant. Uses some cohesive devices (considering the level).
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Produces responses which are too short for the level. Hesitation is frequent.
0 Performance below Band 1.
PRONUNCIATION
5 Is intelligible. Intonation, sentence and word stress and individual sounds are articulated clearly enough for
the level.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Is mostly intelligible. Intonation, sentence and word stress and individual sounds are generally articulated
clearly (considering the level).
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Is mostly intelligible. Has limited control of phonological features (considering the level).
0 Performance below Band 1.
INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION
5 Initiates and responds appropriately. Requires very little support.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Responds appropriately. Requires some prompting and support.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Maintains simple exchanges, despite difficulty.
0 Performance below Band 1.

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Exercises
Student: _______________________________________________________________________

Student: _______________________________________________________________________

Student: _______________________________________________________________________

Student: _______________________________________________________________________

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TEACHER TALKING TIME


The development of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) brought with it a methodology which
emphasised communication in the classroom, pair and group activities and student involvement in
the learning process.

A consequence of this was the belief that the teachers presence in the classroom should be
reduced.
Why reduce TTT?
Many training courses based on CLT insisted that teacher talking time (TTT) was counterproductive
and that teachers should reduce TTT for a number of reasons:

Excessive TTT limits the amount of STT (student talking time). If the teacher talks for half the
time in a 60 minute lesson with 15 students, each student gets only 2 minutes to speak.

A large amount of TTT results in long stretches of time in teacher-to-class (T/class) mode and
a monotonous pace. Student under-involvement inevitably leads to loss of concentration,
boredom and reduced learning.

TTT often means that the teacher is giving the students information that they could be finding
out for themselves, such as grammar rules, the meanings of vocabulary items and
corrections. Teacher explanations alone are often tedious, full of terminology and difficult to
follow. There may be no indication of whether the students have understood.

If the teacher takes the dominant role in classroom discourse in terms of initiating the topic,
allocating turns and evaluating comments, the students role is only that of respondent.
Opportunities for developing the speaking skill are therefore severely limited.

If the teacher is constantly dominant and controlling, the learners take no responsibility for
their own learning but learn what the teacher decides and when. Student autonomy is thus
limited.
Strategies for reducing TTT
The over-use of TTT is often the product of the under-use of communicative techniques in the
classroom. Many activities do not need to be teacher led pair work (PW) or group work (GW) can
be used instead. An activity might be set up in T/class mode, demonstrated in open pairs (students
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doing the activity across the class), and done in closed pairs (all the students working at the same
time). Some mechanical activities need to be done individually (IW) but can be checked in pairs.
What is most important is that activities and interaction patterns (T/class, PW, GW, IW) need to be
varied. The amount of time spent in T/class mode will depend on factors such as the students and
how much they know, the stage of the lesson, the time of day and what is being taught, but a useful
guideline is a limit of 30% of a lesson, and no more than 10 minutes at one time.
Other common strategies for reducing TTT include:

Using elicitation rather than explanation. If students are presented with clear examples and
guiding questions, they often do not need to be told. This kind of guided discovery leads to
better understanding and more successful learning. Organising activities as pair work also
means that all the students have the chance to work on the new language.

The use of body language, mime, gestures and facial expressions rather than words. The
position of the teacher in the classroom can also indicate to the students what is expected of
them at a particular stage of the lesson.

Getting students to give feedback on tasks to each other rather than to the teacher. This is
often done in pairs, but answers can also be checked against a key. Student nomination,
whereby one student nominates another to answer a question, is also a useful technique.
Feedback involving the teacher is therefore limited to problematic questions rather than every
question in an exercise.

Eliminating unnecessary TTT. Grading language is important, but over-simplification can lead
to unnatural models from the teacher. Instructions should be kept simple, while explanations
need to be carefully worded and repeated if necessary rather than paraphrased. Simple
concept questions should be asked to check understanding. If explanations are clear and
concept checking is effective, there should be no need for re-explanation or interrupting an
activity to reteach or re-instruct.

Tolerating silence. Inexperienced teachers in particular tend to fill silences by unnecessary


talking. Silence is important not only when students are working individually, but also provides
processing time between instructions, during explanations, while waiting for a student to
respond, and during monitoring of activities. Prompting, providing clues and rephrasing the
question are often counterproductive when the student merely needs time to answer.

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EARLY FINISHERS
Keeping Early Finishers on Task
By: Janelle Cox
We know all children learn and complete their assignments at their own pace, which means
it is inevitable that some students are going to complete their assignments earlier than others. In the
past, a teachers go-to classroom management methods to deal with this would be to tell the student
to go read a book or to wait patiently for their classmates to be finished.
However, in todays world, we are lucky enough to be able to give our students more options
than to just go read a book, and furthermore, we have the knowledge of knowing what to do to avoid
getting half of the class bored and the other half, anxious.
Tip number 1
Set a limit time for the activity to be done;
By establishing some minutes for an activity, you avoid easily distracted students to lose their time
and focus on the activity, at the same time, students who cannot finish it dont feel embarrassed
because there is a stress environment when students feel everyone else in the classroom is waiting
for them to conclude something. And you, as a teacher, dont want that to happen; remember a
classroom environment must be enjoyable and comfortable for all the students.
Tip number 2
Speed up correction time, slow down correction explanations;
Working with time limit is useful; however, it will not be enough. When the time set is over, fast
students are finished and there are the ones who are still struggling to answer the questions. We
know this struggle is actually very important for the language acquisition process, and we know we
must continue our class either, so how to proceed?
You speed up correction time to support fast finishers, and then, you slow down explanation time
for the other ones the idea is to keep all the classroom involved throughout the lesson. So the
strategy here is:
a) Ok, you started correcting before everyone had finished, but you were able to avoid that some of
your students had nothing to do. and b) You re-explain grammar topics every time you see one
student hasnt got it yet. It may be a little repetitive for the ones who already got it, but, reviewing is
just good for everyone.
Tip number 3
Always have conversation cards with you
Always.
Tip number 4
Get to know your students
Once you know your class very well, its easier to think about the lesson. We know teachers guides
are awesome, but every single classroom is single. Unique.
You can always prepare extra exercises for the fast finishers you know you have.
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Tip number 5
Fast finishers arent always the same for all the skills
We dont teach only grammar, therefore, there arent just grammar exercises, therefore, there arent
just grammar-exercises fast finishers!
We have listening, talking, reading and vocabulary fast finishers too!
For the listening ones, its easier to handle the situation. But we still have to think about different
strategies for the other skills.
Tip number 6
Who are your students
Today, we are focusing on a target; very specific students, but remember that some information may
lead you to adopt different strategies:
- Students age;
- Number of students in the same classroom;
- Quality of the teachers guide material;
- Your preparation before the class.

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OUTPUT
Are we pushing our students?
P is for Push
On my MA Methods course Ive been pushing the notion of push. Being pushed (I argue) is a
precondition for effective learning. In order to progress, learners need to be challenged to go beyond
their immediate comfort zone; they need to be coerced into extending their present level of
competence. Otherwise, there is a danger that they will simply mark time as language learners, or
even to use a now fairly discredited term fossilise.
The term push is borrowed from a comment that Merrill Swain made as long ago as 1985, in
proposing what became known (in contradistinction to Krashens Input Hypothesis) as the Output
Hypothesis. If you remember, Krashen had argued that comprehensible input alone is a sufficient
condition for second language acquisition to occur, with the proviso that the input should be pitched
a little above the learners present state of competence what Krashen dubbed input + 1.
Swain, on the other hand, argued that, while input is necessary, it is insufficient. Instead (or as well),
the learner needs to produce language, and not only produce, but be pushed towards the delivery
of a message that is not only conveyed, but that is conveyed precisely,
coherently and appropriately. She adds that being pushed in output is a concept that is parallel
to that of the i + 1 of comprehensible input.
One reason for this is as I point out in An A-Z being pushed to produce language puts learners
in a better position to notice the gaps in their language knowledge, encouraging them to upgrade
their existing interlanguage system. And, as they are pushed to produce language in real time and
thereby forced to automate low-level operations by incorporating them into higher-level routines, it
may also contribute to the development of fluency.
So, what can teachers do to provide this extra push? Here are a few ideas:
1. Rather than accepting one- or two-word replies to questions, insist on more elaborated utterances,
in the spirit of: Ok, that was good. Now give me a full sentence. Or, Ok, say that again, but include
two facts, not just one.
2. Repeat tasks: research suggests that performance generally improves when learners repeat a
speaking task. The second or third time round, raise the bar, e.g. This time, do it from memory,
without your notes. Or, This time do it in half the time. If doing the same task seems like a chore,
add variety by changing the partner for each take.
3. Public performance: Whereas pair and group work is great for task rehearsal, its also easy for
learners to under-perform in this setting, especially when out of ear-shot of the teacher. Performing
the task to the whole class, or publicly reporting on the outcome of the task, adds an element of
formality that often encourages greater attention to accuracy. And knowing that they may be called
upon to report or perform has a useful washback effect on the level of engagement during the
groupwork itself.
4. Encourage learners to go beyond their present competence by incorporating novel language
items into their performance. For example, if a role play involves making requests, establish the
request forms that the learners are already comfortable with, then top up by teaching some new
ones. Ask individuals to choose at least one new form, and to write it on a piece of paper, which
they hold during the role play, and which they relinquish once its been used. Alternatively, a
cuisenaire rod can represent the targeted form it helps if it is something physical that serves to jog
their memory when the time is right.
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5. Increase memory load. For example, write targeted words, expressions or structures on the board,
in preparation for a speaking task, such as a class survey. As the learners perform the task,
selectively erase the material from the board, placing greater demands on their memory in an
incremental fashion.
6. Change the mode: for example, learners summarise a groupwork discussion in written form. Or
they perform a dialogue that they have first scripted. Or a rehearsed dialogue is then filmed. Or a
Powerpoint presentation is then performed. And so on.

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GAMES AS A MOTIVATION TRIGGER


From 'Games for Language Learning'
by Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby
Cambridge University Press, 1984.
'Language learning is hard work ... Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over
a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.'
'Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful.
The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have
written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.'
'The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful
interpretation of 'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they
are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the
meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and,
therefore, better remembered.
If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must
be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are thus not for use solely on wet days and at
the end of term!'
From 'Six Games for the EFL/ESL Classroom'
by Aydan Ersoz
The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000.
'Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to
understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as
they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practise language skills. Games
are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they
employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase
cooperation.'
'Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give
practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.'
From 'Games for Language Learning'
by Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby
Cambridge University Press, 1984.
'Language learning is hard work ... Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over
a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.'
'Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful.
The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have
written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.'
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'The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful of
'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused,
angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the
language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better
remembered.
If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must
be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are thus not for use solely on wet days and at
the end of term!'
From 'Six Games for the EFL/ESL Classroom'
by Aydan Ersoz
The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000.
'Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to
understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as
they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practise language skills. Games
are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they
employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase
cooperation.'
'Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give
practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.'
From 'Creative Games for the Language Class'
by Lee Su Kim
'Forum' Vol. 33 No 1, January - March 1995, Page 35.
'There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature, and that if
one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a
misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of
the best ways of doing this is through games.'
'There are many advantages of using games in the classroom:
1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class.
2. They are motivating and challenging.
3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain
the effort of learning.
4. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6. They create a meaningful context for language use.'

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From 'The Use of Games For Vocabulary Presentation and Revision'


by Agnieszka Uberman
'Forum' Vol. 36 No 1, January - March 1998 Page 20.
Using Games
'Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just
time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games
make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms (1979:2). He
also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching
programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but
warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There
are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of
input more likely" (Richard-Amato 1988:147). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they
can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen 1994:118).
They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not
always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion
to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas"
(1988:147). In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember
things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus 1994:218). S. M. Silvers says many teachers are
enthusiastic about using games as "a teaching device," yet they often perceive games as mere timefillers, "a break from the monotony of drilling" or frivolous activities. He also claims that many
teachers often overlook the fact that in a relaxed atmosphere, real learning takes place, and students
use the language they have been exposed to and have practised earlier (1982:29). Further support
comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practising language, for they
provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future (1994:6).'
'Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they
should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just
problems that at times seem overwhelming.'
When to Use Games
'Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a
lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd
moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do" (1979:3). Games ought to be at the
heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson,
provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen.'
'Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant,
entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise
and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom
since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.'

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From 'Learning Vocabulary Through Games'


by Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Khuat Thi Thu Nga
'Asian EFL Journal' - December 2003.
'Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various
ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new
words more easily. Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners
interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively
in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the classroom, and
enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.'
'Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be denied. However, in
order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen.
Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context,
timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.'
'In conclusion, learning vocabulary through games is one effective and interesting way that can be
applied in any classrooms. The results of this research suggest that games are used not only for
mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons, thus leading
toward the goal of improving learners' communicative competence.'
From 'Using Games in an EFL Class for Children'
by Yin Yong Mei and Jang Yu-jing
Daejin University ELT Research Paper. Fall, 2000.
Why Use Games in Class Time?
* Games are fun and children like to play them. Through games children experiment, discover, and
interact with their environment. (Lewis, 1999)
* Games add variation to a lesson and increase motivation by providing a plausible incentive to use
the target language. For many children between four and twelve years old, especially the youngest,
language learning will not be the key motivational factor. Games can provide this stimulus. (Lewis,
1999)
* The game context makes the foreign language immediately useful to the children. It brings the
target language to life. (Lewis, 1999)
* The game makes the reasons for speaking plausible even to reluctant children. (Lewis, 1999)
* Through playing games, students can learn English the way children learn their mother tongue
without being aware they are studying; thus without stress, they can learn a lot.
* Even shy students can participate positively.
How to Choose Games (Tyson, 2000)
* A game must be more than just fun.
* A game should involve "friendly" competition.
* A game should keep all of the students involved and interested.
* A game should encourage students to focus on the use of language rather than on the language
itself.
* A game should give students a chance to learn, practice, or review specific language material.

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From 'Index Cards: A Natural Resource for Teachers'


by M. Martha Lengeling and Casey Malarcher
'Forum' Vol. 35 No 4, October - December 1997 Page 42.
'In an effort to supplement lesson plans in the ESL classroom, teachers often turn to games. The
justification for using games in the classroom has been well demonstrated as benefiting students in
a variety of ways. These benefits range from cognitive aspects of language learning to more cooperative group dynamics.'
General Benefits of Games
Affective:
- lowers affective filter
- encourages creative and spontaneous use of language
- promotes communicative competence
- motivates
- fun
Cognitive:
- reinforces
- reviews and extends
- focuses on grammar communicatively
Class Dynamics:
- student centered
- teacher acts only as facilitator
- builds class cohesion
- fosters whole class participation
- promotes healthy competition
Adaptability:
- easily adjusted for age, level, and interests
- utilizes all four skills
- requires minimum preparation after development

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10 Best Games for ESL Teachers Abroad

1. Board Race
There isn't an EFL teacher I know who doesn't use this game in the classroom. Board Race is a fun
game that is used for revising vocabulary, whether it be words from the lesson you've just taught or
words from a lesson you taught last week. It can also be used at the start of the class to get students
active. It is a great way of testing what your students already know about the subject you're about
to teach.
Why use it? Revising vocabulary; grammar
Who it's best for: Appropriate for all levels and ages
How to play:
This is best played with 6 students or more - the more, the better. I've used it in classes ranging
from 7-25 years of age and it's worked well in all age groups. Here's a step by step explanation:
Split the class into two teams and give each team a colored marker.
If you have a very large class, it may be better to split the students into teams of 3 or 4.
Draw a line down the middle of the board and write a topic at the top.
The students must then write as many words as you require related to the topic in the form
of a relay race.
Each team wins one point for each correct word. Any words that are unreadable or misspelled
are not counted.

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2. Call My Bluff / Two Truths and A Lie

Call My Bluff is a fun game which is perfect at the start of term as a 'getting to know you' kind of
game. It is also a brilliant ice breaker between students if you teach classes who do not know one
another -- and especially essential if you are teaching a small class size.
The game is excellent for practicing speaking skills, though make sure you save a time for after the
game to comment on any mistakes students may have made during the game. (I generally like to
reserve this for after the game, so you don't disrupt their fluency by correcting them as they speak).
With older groups you can have some real fun and you might be surprised what you'll learn about
some of your students when playing this particular EFL game.
Why use it? Ice-breaker; Speaking skills
Who it's best for: Appropriate for all levels and ages but best with older groups
How to play:
Write 3 statements about yourself on the board, two of which should be lies and one which
should be true.
Allow your students to ask you questions about each statement and then guess which one is
the truth. You might want to practice your poker face before starting this game!
If they guess correctly then they win.
Extension: Give students time to write their own two truths and one lie.
Pair them up and have them play again, this time with their list, with their new partner. If you
want to really extend the game and give students even more time to practice their
speaking/listening skills, rotate partners every five minutes.
Bring the whole class back together and have students announce one new thing they learned
about another student as a recap.
3. Simon Says
This is an excellent game for young learners. Whether you're waking them up on a Monday
morning or sending them home on a Friday afternoon, this one is bound to get them excited and
wanting more. The only danger I have found with this game is that students never want to stop
playing it.
Why use it? Listening comprehension; Vocabulary; Warming up/winding down class
Who it's best for: Young learners
How to Play:
Stand in front of the class (you are Simon for the duration of this game).
Do an action and say Simon Says [action]. The students must copy what you do.
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Repeat this process choosing different actions - you can be as silly as you like and the sillier
you are the more the children will love you for it.
Then do an action but this time say only the action and omit 'Simon Says'. Whoever does the
action this time is out and must sit down.
The winner is the last student standing.
To make it harder, speed up the actions. Reward children for good behavior by allowing them
to play the part of Simon.

4. Word Jumble Race


This is a great game to encourage team work and bring a sense of competition to the classroom.
No matter how old we are, we all love a good competition and this game works wonders with all age
groups. It is perfect for practicing tenses, word order, reading & writing skills and grammar.
Why use it? Grammar; Word Order; Spelling; Writing Skills
Who it's best for: Adaptable to all levels/ages
How to play:
This game requires some planning before the lesson.
Write out a number of sentences, using different colors for each sentence. I suggest having
3-5 sentences for each team.
Cut up the sentences so you have a handful of words.
Put each sentence into hats, cups or any objects you can find, keeping each separate.
Split your class into teams of 2, 3, or 4. You can have as many teams as you want but
remember to have enough sentences to go around.
Teams must now put their sentences in the correct order.
The winning team is the first team to have all sentences correctly ordered.
5. Hangman
This classic game is a favorite for all students but it can get boring quite quickly. This game is best
used for 5 minutes at the start to warm the class up or 5 minutes at the end if you've got some time
left over. It works no matter how many students are in the class.
Why use it? Warming up / winding down class
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Who it's best for: Young learners

How to play:
In case you've never played, here's a quick rundown.
Think of a word and write the number of letters on the board using dashes to show many
letters there are.
Ask students to suggest a letter. If it appears in the word, write it in all of the correct spaces.
If the letter does not appear in the word, write it off to the side and begin drawing the image
of a hanging man.
Continue until the students guess the word correctly (they win) or you complete the diagram
(you win).
6. Pictionary
This is another game that works well with any age group; children love it because they can get
creative in the classroom, teenagers love it because it doesn't feel like they're learning, and adults
love it because it's a break from the monotony of learning a new language - even though they'll be
learning as they play.
Pictionary can help students practice their vocabulary and it tests to see if they're remembering the
words you've been teaching.
Why use it? Vocabulary
Who it's best for: All ages; best with young learners
How to play:
Before the class starts, prepare a bunch of words and put them in a bag.
Split the class into teams of 2 and draw a line down the middle of the board.
Give one team member from each team a pen and ask them to choose a word from the bag.
Tell the students to draw the word as a picture on the board and encourage their team to
guess the word.
The first team to shout the correct answer gets a point.
The student who has completed drawing should then nominate someone else to draw for
their team.
Repeat this until all the words are gone - make sure you have enough words that each student
gets to draw at least once!
7. The Mime
Miming is an excellent way for students to practice their tenses and their verbs. It's also great for
teachers with minimal resources or planning time, or teachers who want to break up a longer
lesson with something more interactive. It's adaptable to almost any language point that you might
be focusing on.
This game works with any age group, although you will find that adults tire of this far quicker than
children. To keep them engaged, relate what they will be miming to your groups' personal interests
as best as possible.
Why use it? Vocabulary; Speaking
Who it's best for: All ages; best with young learners
How to play:
Before the class, write out some actions - like washing the dishes - and put them in a bag.
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Split the class into two teams.


Bring one student from each team to the front of the class and one of them choose an action
from the bag.
Have both students mime the action to their team.
The first team to shout the correct answer wins a point.
Repeat this until all students have mimed at least one action.

8. Hot Seat
This is one of my students' favorite games and is always at the top of the list when I ask them what
they want to play. I have never used this while teaching ESL to adults, but I imagine it would work
well.
Hot Seat allows students to build their vocabulary and encourages competition in the classroom.
They are also able to practice their speaking and listening skills and it can be used for any level of
learner.
Why use it? Vocabulary; Speaking and Listening
Who it's best for: All ages and levels
How to play:
Split the class into 2 teams, or more if you have a large class.
Elect one person from each team to sit in the Hot Seat, facing the classroom with the board
behind them.
Write a word on the board. One of the team members of the student in the hot seat must help
the student guess the word by describing it. They have a limited amount of time and cannot
say, spell or draw the word.
Continue until each team member has described a word to the student in the Hot Seat.
9. Where Shall I Go?
This game is used to test prepositions of movement and should be played after this subject has
been taught in the classroom. This game is so much fun but it can be a little bit dangerous since
41

you'll be having one student in each pair be blindfolded while the other directs them. So make sure
to keep your eyes open!
It is also excellent for the adult EFL classroom, or if you're teaching teenagers.
Why use it? Prepositions; Speaking and Listening
Who it's best for: All ages and levels
How to play:
Before the students arrive, turn your classroom into a maze by rearranging it. It's great if you
can do this outside, but otherwise push tables and chairs together and move furniture to make
your maze.
When your students arrive, put them in pairs outside the classroom. Blindfold one student
from each pair.
Allow pairs to enter the classroom one at a time; the blindfolded student should be led through
the maze by their partner. The students must use directions such as step over, go under, go
up, and go down to lead their partner to the end of the maze.
10. What's My Problem?
This is a brilliant EFL game to practice giving advice. It should be played after the 'giving advice'
vocabulary lesson has taken place. It is a great way for students to see what they have remembered
and what needs reviewing. This game works well with any age group, just adapt it to fit the age
you're working with.
Why use it? Speaking and Listening; Giving Advice
Who it's best for: All ages and levels
How to play:
Write ailments or problems related to your most recent lesson on post-it notes and stick one
post-it note on each student's back.
The students must mingle and ask for advice from other students to solve their problem.
Students should be able to guess their problem based on the advice they get from their peers.
Use more complicated or obscure problems to make the game more interesting for older
students. For lower levels and younger students, announce a category or reference a recent
lesson, like "Health", to help them along.
Others
Numbers Game
Memory Game
Hot Potato
Outdoor Dictation
http://iteslj.org/games/

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Video: Teachers questions to Jeremy Harmer (5:20-7:59)

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