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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 12, December - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Wireless Sensor Network Application In Agriculture For


Monitoring Agriculture Process.
Priyanka P. Khairnar1, Deepali V. Gaikwad2, Sneha R. Kale3, Monika T. Madane4,
Prof. Manish B. Giri5
Department Of Computer Engineering, MITAOE, Pune.
1piyakhairnar999@gmail.com, 2gaikwad.deepali15@gmail.com, 3kalesneha1199@gmail.com,
4monikamadane1994@gmail.com, 5mbgiri@comp.maepune.ac.in
ABSTRACT
WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) connects the physical and computational world by monitoring
environmental phenomena through ubiquitous devices called sensor nodes or motes. India ranks
second in agriculture activities. The agriculture production process is affected by different factors
such as temperature, light, soil humidity, soil moisture. Precision agriculture is a field which
provides suitable scenarios for the deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSNs
provide accurate information about environmental characteristics to farmers. This knowledge
represents a valuable resource because it helps in real-time decision making such as establishing
water management policies. In India there are different types of problems and one of the main
problems is the water shortage. Farmers crops are unreliable due to the variability in rainfall
amount as well as its distribution. We describe the use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) to
improve water management and for controlling other parameters such as temperature, light
humidity, moisture. Wireless sensor network(WSN) and other agricultural techniques might help
farmer to utilize and store the available water, improve their crop productivity, reduce the
production cost and instead of depending just on prediction WSN make use of real time values.

I. INTRODUCTION
Sensor networks are emerging as a great aid to improve agriculture quality, productivity and resource
optimization. Precision agriculture is a field which provides one of the most suitable scenarios for the
deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs)[1].To evaluate environmental parameters such as
humidity, temperature, moisture etc sensor network is used. Now a days many researchers are working
on WSN. Many new technologies in WSN have become available to improve agricultural quality. In WSN
large number of sensor node devices are spread over large geographical area. World Wide wireless
sensor network is used in many applications such as military, health care, agriculture, industrial.
Agriculture uses 85 % of available fresh water resources World Wide and this percentage will continue to
be dominant in water consumption because of population growth and increase food demand [7]. Climatic
conditions are continuously changing. So the farmer cannot depend on rainfall. Unplanned use of water
results in wastage of water. We have to utilize available water in efficient manner. Sensor network is
used to monitor environmental parameters of crop cultivation so that farmer knows when having water
or when to use certain pesticides. Precision agriculture has aim of optimizing the production. Sensor
network in agriculture is used to identify fungus, plagues infection of plant ,right harvesting time (i.e
maturity of fruit),controlled irrigation based on soil moisture. In India irrigation system is manual
controlled in which at regular interval farmers irrigates the land and sometime it is not possible to
irrigate the crop at required time due to this crop get dried. This results in less production as well as
profit to the farmer. Using Wireless Sensor Network for agriculture monitoring application human efforts
get reduced due to automated irrigation system [4].Farmer can perfectly predict environmental
conditions. The soil moisture sensor senses moisture level so that we get information about how much
53 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

www.ijfarc.org

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 12, December - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

water is to be sup- plied [5]. Proper irrigation management will help prevent economic losses caused by
over or under irrigation, movement of nutrients, pesticides [6]. Sensor nodes are deployed over farm.
Data sensed by different sensor nodes is given to sink node. Sink node transfer this collected data to
gateway over network. Sensor senses the information from sensor nodes transfers data to base station
.Actuator receives data from base station interpret them and generate the corresponding action [2]. A
Gateway forwards data from network to base station.

Figure 1. Architectural Functional Block Diagram

We are taking sensor values from sensor1, sensor2,...sensor n. The sensor values that we have taken are
in analog form for future computations we need digital values, so that we are using ADC to convert analog
values to digital form. ADC uses 10 bit register for computations sensor unit acquires data from ADC and
forward it to base-station through micro-controller. Micro-controller used in automatically control
products and devices such as automobile engine system, remote controls, power tools, micro-controllers,
are designed to govern operators of embedded system. Micro-controllers consist of CPU, RAM, ROM.
micro-controller works on TTL protocol and our base-station unit works on binary values, so for
communication between micro-controller and base-station we are using MAX- 232. MAX-232 works on
serial communication. Zig-Bee are flexible, they send and receive data over serial port which means they
are compatible with both computer and micro-controller.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
54 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

www.ijfarc.org

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 12, December - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Sensor networks are emerging as a great aid to improve agriculture quality, productivity and resource
optimization. To evaluate environmental parameters such as humidity, temperature, moisture etc sensor
network is used. Now a days many researchers are working on WSN. Many new technologies in WSN
have become available to improve agricultural quality.
1) Young-Duk Kim et.al. On the design of beacon based wireless sensor network for agricultural
emergency
In this paper, we proposed new sensor network architecture with autonomous robots based on beacon
mode for real time agriculture monitoring system. The proposed scheme also offers a reliable association
with parent nodes and dynamically assigns network addresses. For the large scale multi-sensor
processing, the proposed system accomplished the intelligent database, which generates alert messages
to the handheld terminal by means of the fire and air-based sensor data. Thus farmers can easily check
out the current conditions of crops and farms at anytime and anywhere. Moreover, we also developed a
robot platform with network based mobility function for mobile surveillance.
2) Zhen Li et.al. Practical deployment of an in-field soil property wireless sensor network
This paper proposed two tier wireless sensor network system was for unsupervised, real-time, in-field
soil property data collection. Within the system, a local wireless sensor network was formed to acquire
real-time soil property data including volumetric water content, electrical conductivity, and temperature
at different underground depths and various locations. A long range cellular network and internet
services were used to relay the field data to a remote database on a web-server for data storage and user
querying.
3) Aqeel-ur-Rehman et.al. A review of wireless sensors and networks applications in
agriculture
A review of several solutions and efforts has been presented in this paper towards agriculture domain.
The major concerns are:
a) Solutions are too complex to implement and requires major technical support
b) Intense Cost is involved
c) Lack of generalized solution to different services and problems
4) B. Majonea* et.al. Wireless Sensor Network deployment for monitoring soil moisture
dynamics at the field scale
This paper describes deployment and testing a WSN monitoring system capable to provide spatially
distributed hydrological data relevant for eco-hydrological studies.Monitor soil moisture dynamics to
analyze interplay between soil moisture dynamics plant physiology.
5) Xin Dong et.al. Autonomous precision agriculture through integration of wireless
underground sensor networks with center pivot irrigation systems
In this work, we develop a novel system through the integration of center pivot systems with wireless
underground sensor networks, i.e., WUSA-CP, for autonomous precision agriculture (PA). The system
gathers soil information, such as soil moisture, from a WUSN in real time to automatically control the CP
for precision irrigation.
55 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

www.ijfarc.org

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 12, December - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

6) Xiaoqing Yu et.al. A survey on wireless sensor network infrastructure for agriculture


In this paper, we introduced a hybrid wireless sensor network architecture for agriculture. This network
reduces the intensive human involvement required in current agricultural information collection systems
and provides information that is more accurate than the existing sensor networks. This advanced sensor
network includes a terrestrial wireless sensor network and a wireless underground sensor network. The
hybrid WSN architecture combines the advantages of existing sensor techniques.
7) Robert W. Coates et.al. Wireless sensor network with irrigation valve control.
In this paper actuator hardware and firmware were designed for compatibility with a commercial
wireless network node. Wireless network range varied with radio height and type of obstructions,
reaching 1610 m under visual line-of-sight conditions and 175 m under obstructed conditions. Nodes
were updated with custom firmware that allowed commands received by the node to be passed to an
attached actuator. The actuator received commands through the node, responded with actuator data, and
operated up to 4 latching valves.
8) Joaqun Gutirrez et.al, Automated Irrigation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network and GPRS
Module.
The automated irrigation system implemented was found to be feasible and cost effective for optimizing
water resources for agricultural production. This irrigation system allows cultivation in places with
water scarcity thereby improving sustainability.
9) Zhao Liqiang et.al A Crop Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Network.
This paper proposed an agricultural application of wirless sensor network. The main work is to
implement two types of nodes and building sensor network. The hardware platform is constituted by
data process unit, radio module, sensor control matrix, data storage flash, power supply unit, analog
interfaces and extended digital interfaces. The software system adopts TinyOS which is composed of
system kernel, device drivers and applications. Energy-saving algorithm is implemented in the
software system.
10) Soledad Escolar Daz et.al A novel methodology for the monitoring of the agricultural
production process based on wireless sensor networks.
This paper presents a methodology that can successfully guide the process of building monitoring
applications for agricultural production based on WSN technology. The methodology covers the complete
life cycle of applications, from requirements to maintenance. The motivation for describing a
methodology is to collect a set of best-practices and procedures that are found in the literature and
bridge the gap between how applications are built in practice and a robust, customizable approach.
III. PROJECT IDEA
Interpolation method is used to take readings in the farm where taking manual reading is not possible. If
we have two readings 30 meter away then we have to consider all the points between two readings. The
main purpose of project is to distribute water to crops if and only if there is need of water. So polynomial
interpolation technique is very useful. Objectives behind this project is to reduce human efforts, to reduce
power consumption, to utilize available water properly, to provide real time decision for water
management.
56 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

www.ijfarc.org

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 12, December - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Algorithm: Polynomial Interpolation

The problem of determining a polynomial of degree one that passes through the distinct points, (x0,y0) &
(x1,y1)
f(x0)=y0 & f(x1)=y1
by means of first degree polynomial interpolating or agreeing with the value of f at given points.
Using this polynomial for approximation within the interval given by end points is called as polynomial
interpolation.
The

linear Lagrange

interpolating polynomial

P(x) =
Define the functions

through (x0,y0) & (x1,y1) is

f(x1)

P(x)=
Note that,
L0(x0)=1 L1(x0)=0 L1(x0)=0 L1(x1)=1 which implies that,
p(x0)=1.f(x0) + 0.f(x1)=f(x0)=y0 &
p(x1)=0.f(x0) + 1.f(x1)=f(x1)=y1
So P is unique polynomial of degree at most 1 that passes through (x0,y0) & (x1,y1)
Mathematical Modeling
Let S = {U,N,S,D,Sval,Sth,info,result,F}
Where ,
U = u1,u2,u3,..ui, Finite set of users.
N = Master, Slave
Where,
Master=master node.
Slave=slaves node.
Slave=slave1,slave2
S=s1,s2,s3,.,si Finite set
of sensors.
D=d1,d2,d3,.,di Finite set of devices.
Sval=sval1,sval2,,svali Finite set of ADC values of sensor[0-255].
STh=sTh1,sTh2,,sThi Finite set of Threshold set against sensor.
Info=info1,info2,,infoi Hardware status.
57 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 12, December - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Functionalities:Yes/No = authenticate(uname,passwd)
Interface node(ni)
Svali = grab sensor values(Si)
Yes/No = apply threshold check(Svali,SThi)
control Device(Di,ON/OFF)
Result = apply prediction(Svali)
send data(infoi)
IV. CONCLUSION
WSN is emerging technology and it have wide range of applications. WSN plays an important role in
development of precision agriculture. Human efforts as well as electricity get reduced by making real
time decisions. Using WSN we can do proper utilization of water so that crop yield can increases to obtain
maximum profit.
V. FUTURE SCOPE
The future work is trying to improve hardware and software communication to make efficient and
reliable system which should also work in case of any type of failure. Smart monitoring system can be
design using sensor network. Most of the population in India is dependent on agriculture, so precision
agriculture help to traverse between developing country to developed country by increasing crop yield as
well as profit to farmer.
VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to all those who have helped us and guided us to
complete this paper successfully. We would like to express our gratitude towards our project guide, Mr.
Manish Giri for his guidance during the preparation of this review paper. We would also like to thank
him for the moral support and encouragement. We would also like to thank Mrs. Uma Nagaraj, Head of
the Department for their support and their efforts in making sure that sufficient facilities were always
available to students. We are indebted to the authors whose works have been referred in completing this
seminar report. We are also thankful to all the staff members of the Computer Department of MIT
Academy Of Engineering, Alandi. We would also like to thank the institute for providing the required
facilities, Internet access and important books. Last but not list the family members and friends, We
would also like to thank them.
VII. REFERENCES
[1]

Soledad Escolar Daz , Jess Carretero Prez, Alejandro Caldern Mateos,Maria-Cristina Marinescu,
Borja Bergua Guerra A novel methodology for the monitoring of the agricultural production
process based on wireless sensor networks. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 76
(2011) 252265

58 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 12, December - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

[2]

Robert W. Coates a, Michael J. Delwiche a, Alan Broad b, Mark Holler b Wireless sensor network
with irrigation valve control. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture
96 (2013) 1322.

[3]

Zhao Liqiang, Yin Shouyi, Liu Leibo, Zhang Zhen, Wei Shaojun. A Crop Monitoring System Based
on Wireless Sensor Network. Procedia Environmental Sciences 11 (2011) 558 565

[4]

Aqeel-ur-Rehman a,b,, Abu Zafar Abbasi b, Noman Islam


b, Zubair Ahmed Shaikh b A review
of wireless sensors
and networks applications in agriculture. Computer Standards
& Interfaces 36 (2014) 263270

[5]

Zhen Li a, b, Ning Wang a,, Aaron Franzen a, Peyman Taher c, Chad Godsey d, Hailin Zhang d,
Xiaolin Li e Practical deployment of an in-field soil property wireless sensor network. Computer
Standards & Interfaces 36(2014) 278287

[6]

Xin Dong a,, Mehmet C. Vuran a, Suat Irmak b Autonomous precision agriculture through
integration of wireless underground sensor networks with center pivot irrigation systems . Ad
Hoc Networks 11 (2013) 19751987

[7]

Joaqun Gutirrez, Juan Francisco Villa-Medina, Alejandra Nieto-Garibay, and Miguel ngel PortaGndara Automated Irrigation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network and GPRS Module (2014)

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