Dimensionality reduction, Feature Extraction & Feature Selection are the terms important in the
concept of data mining when someone has to reduce the size of high dimensional data. Our main
motto of this research is to find an applicable methodology that will reduce the ever increasingly
volume of data . In this paper we describe about various feature extraction & feature selection
methods & proposes an scheme which will able to select a subset of original features based on
some evaluation criteria & able to reduce the volume of high dimensional dataset.

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Dimensionality reduction, Feature Extraction & Feature Selection are the terms important in the
concept of data mining when someone has to reduce the size of high dimensional data. Our main
motto of this research is to find an applicable methodology that will reduce the ever increasingly
volume of data . In this paper we describe about various feature extraction & feature selection
methods & proposes an scheme which will able to select a subset of original features based on
some evaluation criteria & able to reduce the volume of high dimensional dataset.

© All Rights Reserved

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Aarti.B.Sahitya*, DR.Mrs.M.Vijayalakshmi.

Line 2: PG Scholar, V.E.S.I.T, Chembur, Professor, V.E.S.I.T,Chembur

Line 3: aarti.sahitya@ves.ac.in* , m.vijayalakshmi@ves.ac.in

ABSTRACT

Dimensionality reduction, Feature Extraction & Feature Selection are the terms important in the

concept of data mining when someone has to reduce the size of high dimensional data. Our main

motto of this research is to find an applicable methodology that will reduce the ever increasingly

volume of data . In this paper we describe about various feature extraction & feature selection

methods & proposes an scheme which will able to select a subset of original features based on

some evaluation criteria & able to reduce the volume of high dimensional dataset.

Index Terms : Feature Extraction, Feature Selection, Dimensionality Reduction, Big Data, Data

Visualization, High Dimensional Data.

I.

INTRODUCTION

A dataset is a collection of homogeneous objects. An object is a instance in the dataset. Dimension is the

property which define an object. Dimensionality reduction is the process where at each step the

irrelevant dimensions are reduced without substantial loss of information & without affecting the final

output. Feature extraction is process of extracting new set of reduced features from original features

based on some attributes transformation. Feature selection is a process that chooses an optimal subset of

features according to a objective function. As real world large dataset consist of irrelevant ,redundant &

noisy dimensions, so before applying clustering/classification/regression algorithms on these dataset,

one must consider dimensionality reduction as a pre-processing step.

A. High Dimensionality Data Reduction Challenges In Big Data

Big data is relentless. It is continuously generated on a massive scale. It is generated by online

interactions between people ,systems & by sensor enabled devices. It can be related, linked & integrated

to provide highly detailed information such a detail makes it possible for banks, health care & public

safety to provide specific services. It is creating new business & transforming new traditional markets to

create new business trends. So it is a challenge to statistical community. Additional information for big

data can be obtained from a single large set as opposed to separate smaller sets. It allows correlation to

be found, for instance to spot business trends. It involves increasing volume, that is amount of data,

velocity, that is speed at which data is in & out & variety that is range of data types & sources. This

requires new form of processing for decision making. It produces massive sample sizes that allows us to

discover hidden patterns associated with small subsets of big dataset. High dimensionality & big data

have special features such as noise, accumulation & spurious correlation. Spurious correlation occurs due

to the fact that many uncorrelated random variables may have sample correlation coefficient in high

dimensions. Such correlation leads to wrong inferences. High dimensional data can be generated from

sectors like Biotech, Financial, Satellite imagery & customer financial data. So such data can be stored in

form of data matrix- web term document data, sensor array data, consumer financial data etc. It is

computationally infeasible to directly make inferences based on the raw data. To handle big data from

both the statistical & the computational views, the idea of dimension reduction is an important step

before start processing of big data. High dimensional data can be analyzed through classification,

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

clustering & regression but these methods alone are not sufficient for processing of big data. So

challenges for reducing high dimensional data are as follows

1. No formal mathematical models are available

2. If sometimes models are available but proper derivation is not available so it creates confusion among

developers how to reduce the features of high dimensional dataset.

B. Need of Dimensionality Reduction

It is required as most machine learning & data mining techniques may not be effective for high

dimensional data, query accuracy & efficiency degrade rapidly as the dimension increases. It is also

required for

visualization-projection of high dimensional data on to 2D or 3D.

Data compression-Efficient storage & retrieval.

Noise removal- Positive effect on query accuracy

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

Data Mining, the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases is a powerful new

technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in their data

warehouses. Data mining tools can answer business questions that traditionally were too time

consuming to resolve. Choosing a subset of good features with respect to the target concepts, feature

subset selection is an effective way for reducing dimensionality, removing irrelevant data, increasing

learning accuracy, & improving result comprehensibility[2].

Feature selection is a process that chooses a subset from the original feature set according to some

criterions. The selected feature retains original physical meaning & provide a better understanding for

the data & learning process. Depending on the class label information is required ,feature selection can be

either unsupervised /supervised. For supervised methods, the correlation of each feature with the class

label is computed by distance ,information dependence or consistency measures[3].

A Common & often overwhelming, characteristic of text data is its extremely high dimensionality.

Typically the document vectors are formed using a vector space or bag of words model. Even a

moderately sized document collection can lead to a dimensionality in thousands. This high

dimensionality can be a severe obstacle for classification algorithms based on support vector machine,

linear discriminate analysis, k-nearest neighbor etc. The problem is compounded when the documents

are arranged in a hierarchy of classes & a full feature classifier is applied at each node of the hierarchy[4].

One of the primary task in mining data is feature extraction. The widespread digitization of information

has created a wealth of data that requires novel approaches for feature extraction. Recent advances in

computer technology are fueling radical changes in the information management. With roots of statistics,

machine learning & information theory data mining is emerging as a field of study in its own right Data

mining techniques has created unprecedented opportunity for the development of automatic approaches

to tasks therefore considered intractable[6].

Feature extraction techniques have been used to handle high-dimensional data but unfortunately very

few studies provide concrete evidences on the effectiveness of these feature extraction & they largely

remain to be black boxes. Mining high dimensional data is challenging, not only data volumes increase

significantly as the number of dimensions also increases where number of features is close or greater

than the number of available training instances which makes many statistical & machine learning

63 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

procedures not suitable for high dimensional data. Feature selection / feature extraction methods have

been used to select a subset of original features based on some evaluation criteria[7].

Data is growing at a huge speed making it difficult to handle such large amount of data(exabytes). The

main difficulty in handling such large amount of data is because that the volume is increasingly rapidly in

comparison to the computing resources. Big data can be defined by the following properties like variety,

volume, velocity, variability, value & complexity. Big data is different from the data being stored in

traditional warehouses. The data which is stored in warehouses that has to undergoes a process of

ETL(extraction, transformation & loading) but this is not the case with big data as this data is not suitable

to be stored in data warehouses[8].

Big data is also referred to as data intensive technologies, with a long tradition of working with

constantly increasing volume of data in sectors like business, social media, insurance, health care etc. So

modern industry is trying to develop advanced big data technologies & tools[9].

Data explosion is an inevitable trend as the world is connected more than ever. Data are generated faster

than ever & to date about 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created daily. This speed of data generation will

continue in the coming years & is expected to increase at an exponential level, according to IDC'S recent

survey. The above fact gives birth to the widely circulated concept called big data. But turning big data in

to sights demands an in depth extraction of their values, heavily relies upon & hence boosts deployments

of massive big data systems[10].

One of the strongest new presences in contemporary life is big data, very large data sets that may be big

in volume, velocity, variability, variety & veracity. High volume of data is generated in four areas such as

scientific, governmental, corporate, & personal data. One implication of big data is that humans are

having a wholly different concept & new way of relating to data, where formerly everything was signal,

now 99% is noise, which can possibly lead to overwhelm, especially if there is a failure to adequately

filter the information[11].

The emerging big data paradigm, owing to its broader impact, has profoundly transformed our society &

will continue to attract diverse attentions from both technological experts & the public in general. For

instance, an IDC report predicts that, from 2005 to 2020, the global data volume will grow by a factor of

300, from 130 exabytes to 40,000 exabytes, representing a double growth every two years[12].

III. EXISTING WORK

To reduce high-dimensionality various methods of feature selection / extraction have been proposed but

these methods have been utilized for extracting a feature from textual data for reducing the high

dimensionality of textual data or for document clustering but not for extracting a feature from high

dimensional dataset which comprises of mixture data. So here we proposes an approach which will take

high dimensional data comprises of mixture data like textual data , numerical data, noisy data etc and

based on some evaluation criteria chooses a subset of features which will reduces the dimensionality of

high dimensionality dataset. Feature extraction and Feature selection method also used as a

preprocessing step, for high dimensional data which is not possible by already tool available in the

market like Weka, Rapidminer etc.

IV. METHODOLOGY

A. Feature Extraction Techniques

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

When the input data to an algorithm is too large to be processed and it is suspected to be redundant (e.g.

the same measurement in both feet and meters), then it can be transformed into a reduced set

of features (also named features vector). This process is called feature extraction. The extracted features

are expected to contain the relevant information from the input data, so that the desired task can be

performed by using this reduced representation instead of the complete initial data. Criteria for feature

reduction can be based on different problem settings like a)Unsupervised setting: Minimize the

information loss. b)Supervised setting: Maximize the class description[1][4].The process of feature

extraction as follow

1.

2.

3.

4.

Loading of Dataset- First of all very basic step is to load a dataset in to the machine.

Extraction of Features-Apply some algorithm to extract a relevant features.

Stopping criteria- set some threshold which the features has to satisfy that criteria.

Provides results- The features which satisfy the criteria that come as a output.

1. Principal Component Analysis

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to

convert a set of possibly correlated variables into a set of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal

components. The number of principal components is less than or equal to the number of original

variables. This transformation is carried out in a way that the first principal component has the largest

possible variance and each succeeding component in turn has the highest variance possible under the

constraint that it is orthogonal to the preceding components. The principal components are orthogonal as

they are the eigen-vectors of the symmetric covariance matrix. PCA is the simplest of the

true eigenvector-based multivariate analyses. If a multivariate dataset is visualized as a set of coordinates

in a high-dimensional data space then PCA can supply the user with a lower-dimensional picture. This is

done by using only the first few principal components so that the dimensionality of the transformed data

is reduced. The faithful transformation T = X W maps a data vector x from an original space of p variables

to a new space of p variables which are uncorrelated over the dataset. However, not all the principal

components need to be required only the first L principal components are required, produced by using

only the first L loading vectors and that gives the truncated transformation as where the matrix TL now

has n rows but only L columns. Such dimensionality reduction can be a very useful step for visualizing

and processing high-dimensional datasets. For example, selecting L = 2 columns and keeping only the

first two principal components finds the two-dimensional plane through the high-dimensional dataset in

which the data is most spread out, so if the data contains clusters which spread out, and therefore most

visible on a two-dimensional diagram; whereas if two directions through the data are chosen at random,

65 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

the clusters may be much less spread apart from each other, and may in fact they substantially overlay

each other, which makes them indistinguishable.

2. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR)

Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) is a data mining approach for detecting and characterizing

combinations of attributes or independent variables that interact to influence a dependent or class

variable. MDR was designed specifically to identify interactions among discrete variables that influence

a binary outcome and is considered a nonparametric alternative to traditional statistical methods such

as logistic regression. The basis of the MDR method is a constructive induction algorithm that converts

two or more variables or attributes to a single attribute. This process of constructing a new attribute

changes the representation space of the data. The end goal is to create or discover a representation that

facilitates the detection of nonlinear or non additive interactions among the attributes such that

prediction of the class variable is improved over that of the original representation of the data. Consider

the following simple example using the exclusive OR (XOR) function. The table below represents a simple

dataset where the relationship between the attributes (X1 and X2) and the class variable (Y) is defined by

the XOR function such that Y = X1 XOR X2.

Table1. XOR Function

X1 X2 Y

0

If the above example has been solved using any data mining algorithm, that algorithm need to

approximate the XOR function in order to accurately predict Y. So alternate method is to use MDR

constructive induction algorithm which changes the representation of the data. MDR algorithm change

the representation of data by selecting two attributes like x1 & x2 which is there in above example. Each

combination of values for X1 and X2 are examined and the number of times Y=1 and/or Y=0 is counted.

With MDR, the ratio of these counts is computed and compared to a fixed threshold. Here, the ratio of

counts is 0/1 which is less than our fixed threshold of 1. Since 0/1 < 1 we encode a new attribute (Z) as a

0. When the ratio is greater than one we encode Z as a 1. This process is repeated for all unique

combinations of values for X1 and X2.

3. Independent Component Analysis (ICA)

ICA finds the independent components (also called factors, latent variables or sources) by maximizing the

statistical independence of the estimated components. ICA uses the two broadest definitions for

calculating of independence of components 1) Minimization of mutual information- The Minimization-ofMutual information (MMI) family of ICA algorithms uses measures like Kullback-Leibler

Divergence and maximum entropy.2) Maximization of non-Gaussianity-The non-Gaussianity family of ICA

algorithms, motivated by the central limit theorem, uses kurtosis and negentropy. Typical algorithms for

ICA use centering (subtract the mean to create a zero mean signal), whitening (usually with the eigen

value decomposition), and dimensionality reduction as preprocessing steps in order to simplify and

reduce the complexity of the problem for the actual iterative algorithm. Whitening and dimension

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

reduction can be achieved with principal component analysis or singular value decomposition. Whitening

ensures that all dimensions are treated equally before the algorithm is run. Well-known algorithms for

ICA include infomax, FastICA, and JADE, but there are many others. General defination of ICA is the data

are represented by the random vector

and the components as the random

vector

transformation W as

function

into

maximally

independent

using a linear

components measured

by

static

some

of independence.

When the no of hidden units is less than no of inputs, hidden layer performs dimensionality reduction

operation. Hidden units defined by gradient descent to(locally) minimize the squared output

classification / regression error. Each synthesized dimension (each hidden unit) is logistic function of

inputs that allow network with multiple hidden layers. In this approach, a set of feature vector is given to

the neurons for processing of features. If output is >0 then the reduced set of features belongs to class 1

otherwise belongs to class

5.Comparison between different Feature Extraction methods

1.Goal

Table 2

PCA

To minimize the

reprojection error.

MDR

ICA

discover a interaction

among attribute to

improve the prediction

of class variable.

The goal is to

minimize the stastical

dependence between

the vectors.

NN

The goal is to

train the neural

network to

minimize the

network error.

2.Methodology

Table 3

PCA

67 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

MDR

ICA

NN

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

It uses orthogonal

transformation to convert

a set of possibly correlated

variables in to a set of

linearly uncorrelated

variables called principal

components.

approach which detects

and characterize the

combinations of

attributes or

independent variable

that interact to influence

a class variable

latent variable by

maximizing the

stastical

independence of the

estimated

components

It uses multiple

hidden layers for

dimensionality

reduction operation

where each

dimension is logistic

function of input

3.Merits

Table 4

PCA

MDR

ICA

changes

the

expensive to compute

representation of data to

accurately predict the

class variable

localized

and

stastically

independent

NN

It

uses

gradient

descent method to

locally minimize the

squared output error.

4.Demerits

Table 5

PCA

Vectors are less spatially

localized

MDR

Implementation of

Mining pattern with MDR

from real data is

computationally complex.

ICA

Vectors are neither

orthogonal nor in

order

NN

Neural networks are

difficult to model because

a small change in a single

input will affect the entire

network

Feature selection is a process that selects a subset of original features by rejecting irrelevant and/ or

redundant features according to certain criteria. Relevancy of features is typically measured by

discriminating ability of a feature to enhance predictive accuracy of classifier and cluster goodness for

clustering algorithm. Generally, feature redundancy is defined by correlation; two features are redundant

to each other if their values are correlated[2][3][5].

Feature selection process comprises of four steps can be explained through diagram

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

1.

2.

3.

4.

Evaluation = compute relevancy value of the subset.

Stopping criterion = determine whether subset is relevant.

Validation = verify subset validity.

1. Filter Model

It separates feature selection from classifier learning. It relies on 4 types of criteria such as information,

distance, dependence, consistency for evaluation of features from any dataset without using any data

mining algorithm. Methods of filter model are as follow

1. Information Gain (IG)

Information measures typically determine the Information gain or reduction in entropy when the dataset

is split on a feature.

2. Correlation Coefficient (CC)

The correlation coefficient is a numerical way to quantify the relationship between two features.

3. Symmetric uncertainty (SU)

Features are selected based on highest symmetric uncertainty values between the feature and target

classes.

2. Wrapper model

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Wrapper methods require a predetermined mining algorithm for evaluating generated subsets of

features of dataset. It usually gives superior performance as they find features better suited to the

predetermined mining algorithm. Within the Wrapper category, Predictive Accuracy is used for

Classification and Cluster Goodness for Clustering. Commonly used wrappers methods are as follows

1.K-nearest neighbor classifier

This method finds the neighborhood based on euclidean distance where testing samples are assigned to

the class which is frequently represented among the k-nearest training samples.

2. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)

To guarantee the maximal separability between the inter-class and intra-class variance it maximizes the

ratio of between inter-class variance to the within-class (intra) variance in any particular dataset.

3. Support vector machine (SVM)

SVM is a method for classification of both linear and non-linear data. It uses a non linear mapping to

transform the original training data in to higher dimension. Within new dimension it searches for the

linear optimal decision boundary for separating one class from another.

4. Bayesian Classifier

The Bayesian Classifier is a statistical classifier, which has the ability to predict the probability that a

given instant belongs to particular class. In theory, Bayesian classifiers have the minimum error rate with

respect to other classifiers. However, the others classifiers are not suitable for high dimensional features

space.

V. PROPOSED APPROACH FOR REDUCING HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATASET

Our Proposed approach implements the Symmetric Uncertainty Feature Selection(SUFS) method which

selects feature that have highest symmetric Uncertainty values between the feature & the target classes.

The Symmetric Uncertainty Feature Selection is derived from the mutual information by normalizing it to

the entropies of the feature values & the target classes. This method uses information gain & entropy

which is appropriate for high dimensional data and also this method act as a preprocessing step for

giving data to any clustering / classification / regression algorithm for further processing.

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

where the entropy of variable x is found by

Step 1- Input the dataset which contains features and their values.

Step 2- Then we calculate the Relevance value for each feature by using the formula

Step 3- Then we take the average of all relevance values. We named it as Threshold value. We check one

by one each features relevance with the Threshold Value. If The relevance is greater than the Threshold

value we insert that Feature as relevant one else irrelevant one.

Fig 6. SUFS Algorithm

VI. IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS

A. Dataset Description

The Proposed algorithm uses the Insurance dataset which comprises of 69 dimensions. The attribute of

dataset as follow

1.Contact No

2.Product Code

3.Prod long des

4.Sum Assured

5.Bill Frequency

6.Premium cessation term

7.Policy_term

8.Status_code

9.Premium_Paying_status

10.Premium_status_description

11.med nonmed

12.Mode_of_payment

Likewise more are there and same can be visualized through graph given below

1.Age

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Fig 7

2. Agent branch short description

Fig 8

3. Agent Client Id

Fig 9

4. Agent Full Name

Fig 10

The above dataset can be given as input to SUFS algorithm described above & the output would be the

reduced set of relevant features which satisfies the criteria.

B. Output

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

VII. CONCLUSION

As a conclusion , we can determine that large dataset directly cannot be given to any clustering or

classification algorithm for further processing ,first that dataset can be reduced properly using feature

selection or feature extraction method described above . As many authors have used chi-squared tests

against these large dataset but unable to provide satisfied results. There are many feature selection

methods like Information Gain, correlation coefficient & Symmetric uncertainty. So, in this paper we

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

presented a Symmetric uncertainty feature selection(SUFS) method which is suitable for reducing high

dimensional dataset and hence we got the satisfied results.

Further this can be implemented as that above shown relevant features output can be given to any

clustering / classification / regression algorithm for further processing. We are now focusing on

implementing new clustering algorithm for given dataset.

VIII. REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

Prof.M.Mohamed Musthafa, R.Rokit Kumar, " A Fast Clustering-Based Feature Subset Selection

Algorithm for High-Dimensional Data" IJETS (2014)

[3]

Tao Liu, Shengping Liu, Zheng Chen Wei-Ying Ma, "An Evaluation on Feature Selection for Text

clustering" ICML (2003)

[4]

Feature Clustering Algorithm for Text Classification" Journal of Machine Learning Research 3

(2003)

[5]

A. Keerthiram Murugesan, B.Jun Zhang, "A New Term Weighting Scheme for Document

Clustering".

[6]

Jirada Kuntraruk and William M. Pottenger, " Massively Parallel Distributed Feature Extraction in

Textual Data Mining Using HDDI",IEEE (2001).

[7]

Visualization into High-Dimensional Data Mining Process" IEEE (2006).

[8]

Avita Katal, Mohammad Wazid, R H Goudar, " Big Data: Issues, Challenges, Tools and Good

Practices" IEEE (2013).

[9]

Yuri Demchenko, Cees de Laat, Peter Membrey," Defining Architecture Components of the Big

Data Ecosystem ", IEEE (2014).

[10]

Lei Wang, Jianfeng Zhan , Chunjie Luo, Yuqing Zhu, Qiang Yang, Yongqiang He, Wanling Gao, Zhen

Jia,Yingjie Shi, Shujie Zhang, Chen Zheng, Gang Lu, Kent Zhan, Xiaona Li, and Bizhu Qiu ,"

BigDataBench: a Big Data Benchmark Suite from Internet Services", IEEE (2014).

[11]

Melanie Swan," Philosophy of Big Data Expanding the Human-Data Relation with Big Data Science

Services", IEEE (2015).

[12]

Han Hu, Yonggang Wen, Tat-Seng Chua, And Xuelong Li," Toward Scalable Systems for Big Data

Analytics: A Technology Tutorial", IEEE (2014).

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