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LIST OF EQUATIONS

NO.

EQUATION

GENERAL PHYSICS

1

=m/V

2

v = s / t (constant v)

3

a = (v u) / t

(constant acceleration)

6

7

9

10

Av. Vel. = (u + v)

s = area under v-t graph

v = gradient of s-t graph

a = gradient of v-t graph

average v = (u + v)

or = total s / total t

W = mg

F = ma

[F = applied force frictional/opposing force ]

Moment = F d

13

W = F s

[use if F is constant]

P = W / t or E / t

P = Fv (if object moves at

constant v)

G.P.E. = mgh

14

K.E. = mv2

16

P = F/A

17

P = h g

11

12

26

n = sin i / sin r

29

n=c/v

33

v=f

MEANING OF SYMBOLS

= density in kg/m3 ; m = mass in kg ; V = volume in m3

v = velocity in m/s ; s = displacement in m ; t = time in s

a = acceleration in m/s2 ; v = final velocity ; u = initial

velocity ; t = time in s

W = weight in N ; m = mass in kg ;

g = gravitational field strength in N/kg

F = resultant force in N ; m = mass in kg ;

a = acceleration in m/s2

F = force in N ; d = perpendicular distance of line of action

of F from pivot in m

W = work done in J ; F = force in N ; s = distance moved in

the direction of F in m

P = power in W ; W = work done in J ; t = time in s ; E =

energy converted

v = speed in m/s

G.P.E. = gravitational potential energy in J ; g = 10 N/kg ;

h = vertical distance in m

K.E. = kinetic energy in J ; m = mass in kg ; v = speed in

m/s

P = pressure in Pa (or N/m2) ; F = normal force in N ;

A = area in m2

P = pressure in Pa ; h = height of column of liquid/ gas in

m;

3

2

= density of gas/liquid in kg/m ; g = 10 m/s

n = refractive index (from vacuum to medium) ;

i = angle of incidence (in vacuum) ; r = angle of refraction

(in medium)

c = velocity of light in vacuum (3 108 m/s);

v = velocity of light in second medium

v = speed of wave in m/s ; f = frequency in Hz ;

= wavelength in m

f = frequency in Hz ; T = period in s

34

f=1/T

ELECTRICITY and MAGNETISM

35

I=Q/t

I = electric current in A ; Q = electric charge in C ; t= time in

s

36

V or = W / Q

V = potential difference or = e.m.f. in V ; W = energy in J ;

37

R = resistance of a wire in ; l = length of wire in m ;

R= l/A

= resistivity of material in m ; A = cross-sectional area

in m2

38

R=V/I

R = resistance in ; V = p.d. in V ; I = current in A

40

P = VI ; P = V2/R

41

P = I2R

42

E = Pt

43

RT = R1 + R2 (series)

46

1

1

(parallel)

RT =

+

R2

R1

RT = ( R1 R2 ) / (R1 + R2)

1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ...

LIST OF DEFINITIONS

NO.

PHYSICAL

QUANTITY

1

Acceleration

2

Velocity

3

Speed

4

Displacement

5

Mass

6

Weight

7

8

Density

Inertia

10

11

Moment of a force

(about the pivot)

OR turning effect of a

force

Centre of mass

Centre of gravity

12

Stability

13

16

17

constant force)

Kinetic energy

Gravitational potential

energy

Energy

Power

18

20

27

Pressure

Internal energy

Conduction

28

Convection

14

15

A

P = power losses in electrical wires (due to heating effect of

current) in W ; R = resistance in

E = electrical energy converted to in J (or kWh) ; P = power

in W (or kW) ; t = time in s (or h)

RT = combined/effective resistance

R1 ; R2 = resistance in

DEFINTION / MEANING

is the rate of change of velocity.

is the rate of change in displacement.

is the rate of change of distance.

is the distance moved in a specified direction.

is the amount of matter in the body.

is a measure of the amount of substance in a body.

is the amount of gravitational pull of the Earth (or planet) on an

object.

is the mass per unit volume.

Is the reluctance of an object to change its state of rest or uniform

motion.

is the product of the force and its perpendicular distance from the line

of action of the force to the pivot.

is the point on the body where its whole weight appears to act for any

orientation.

refers to the ability of an object to return to its original position after

it has been tilted slightly.

(a measure of a bodys ability to maintain its original position.)

is the product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of

force.

is the energy possessed by an object because of its motion.

is the energy which a body possesses because of its raised height

relative to the Earth.

is the capacity to do work.

is the rate of work done.

is the rate of change of energy/ energy conversion.

is the force acting normally per unit area

is the sum of potential and kinetic energies of molecules.

is the transfer/passing on of thermal energy through a medium from

one molecule to another due to molecular vibrations and collisions.

is the transfer of thermal energy due to movement of fluid from the

hotter region which is less dense to the cooler region which is denser

by means of convection currents.

29

Radiation

30

Melting point

31

Boiling point

32

Refractive index

33

Critical angle

40

41

Electric current

Electric p.d.

42

Electromotive force

(e.m.f.)

43

Electrical resistance

44

45

Amplitude of

oscillation

Wavelength

46

Frequency of wave

47

48

Period

Wavefront

49

Transverse wave

50

Longitudinal wave

NO.

NAME OF LAW

1

Newtons First Law of

Motion

2

Newtons Second Law

of Motion

3

4

Motion

Principle of moments

Principle of

Conservation of Energy

Laws of reflection

without the aid of a medium.

is the continual emission of infrared waves from the surface of all

bodies, transmitted without the aid of a medium.

of a substance is fixed temperature at which the substance changes

from the solid to liquid state.

of a substance is a fixed temperature at which the substance changes

from the liquid to gaseous state.

is the ratio of velocity of light in vacuum to the velocity of light in

medium.

is the angle of incidence in the optically denser medium such that the

angle of refraction in the optically less dense medium is 90 .

is the rate of flow of electrons.

is the electrical energy converted to other forms of energy when a

coulomb of electric charges flow from one point of a circuit to

another.

is the work done in moving a unit charge around a complete circuit.

is the chemical potential energy converted to electrical energy in the

electrical source when one coulomb of electric charges flow around

the whole circuit.

is the ratio of potential difference. across a conductor to the current

flowing through it.

is the maximum displacement of oscillating particles from its rest/

equilibrium position.

is the distance between two successive crests or troughs.

is the distance between 2 successive points on the wave which are in

phase and at the same point of their path.

is the number of wave crests passing a point per second.

is the number of waves generated in one second.

is the time taken for a particle to complete one oscillation.

is the imaginary line joining all particles on the wave that are in

phase/ joining the crests of the wave.

is a wave whereby the vibration of its particles is perpendicular to the

direction to its wave motion.

is wave whereby the vibration of particles is parallel to the direction

of its wave motion.

STATEMENT

Every object will continue in its state of rest or uniform motion in a

straight line unless a resultant force acts to change its state.

When a resultant force acts on an object of constant mass, the object

will accelerate and move in the direction of the resultant force. The

product of the mass and acceleration of the object is equal to the

resultant force.

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, and these

forces act on mutually opposite bodies.

When an object is in equilibrium, the sum of clockwise moments

about any point (or pivot) is equal to the sum of anti-clockwise

moments about the same point (or same pivot).

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed in any process. It can

be converted from one form to another or transferred from one body

to another, but the total amount remains constant.

1. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of

10

Laws of refraction

14

15

Laws of electrostatics

Laws of magnetism

2. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

1. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal all lie in the

same plane.

2. For two particular media, the ratio of the sine of the angle of

incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant.

Like charges repel; unlike charges attract.

Like magnetic poles repel ; unlike poles attract.

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