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Analytical Geometry

Introduction ‘Geometry’ is the study of Points, Lines, Curves, Surfaces, etc and their properties. In the 17th century AD, the methods of Algebra were applied in the study of Geometry and thereby ‘Analytical Geometry’ emerged out. The renowned French philosopher and Mathematician Rane Descartes (1596-1650) showed how the methods of Algebra could be applied to the study of Geometry. Locus The path traced by a point when it moves according to specified geometrical conditions is called the Locus of the point. Straight Lines A straight line is the simplest geometrical curve. Every straight line is associated with an equation. • • Slope-Intercept Form : y = mx + c Point –Slope Form : y-y1 = m(x – x1)

**• Two Point Form :
**

• • • Intercept Form : Normal Form : General Form : ax + by + c = 0 , where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are x and y intercepts.

Length of the Perpendicular • The length of the perpendicular from the point (x1, y1) to the line ax+by+c=0 is

•

The length of the perpendicular from the Origin to the line ax+by+c=0 is

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Slope of an equation ax + by + c = 0 For ax + by + c = 0, Slope m =

Angle between two straight line If is the angle between the two straight lines, then

Condition for Parallel and Perpendicular • • If the two straight lines are Parallel, then their slopes are equal. i.e., m1=m2 If the two straight lines are Perpendicular, then the product of their slopes is -1. i.e., m1 x m2= -1

Condition for Concurrent The condition for three straight lines to be concurrent is if ,

Equation of the Straight line passing through the intersection of the two lines • represents a straight line passing through the intersection of the straight lines and .

**Pair of Straight Lines • • • Combined
**

2

equation

2

of

the

ax +2hxy+by +2gx+2fy+c=0,

**pair of straight lines is where a, b, c, f, g, h are constants.
**

2 2

Pair of straight lines passing through the origin is ax +2hxy+by =0 The Straight line is ( i ) Real and Distinct if h2 > ab ( ii ) Coincident if h2 = ab ( iii ) Imaginary if h2 < ab

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Slopes of pair of straight line

•

•

Sum of the slopes of pair of straight lines, m1+m2 =

Product of the slopes of pair of straight lines, m1m2 =

Angle between the pair of Straight line • Angle between the pair of straight lines passing through the origin is

• •

If the straight lines are parallel, then h2 = ab If the straight lines are perpendicular, then c

**Condition to represent a pair of straight line • The
**

2

**general second degree equation ax +2hxy+by +2gx+2fy+c= 0 represent a pair of straight lines is
**

2

condition

for

a

abc+2fgh-af2-bg2-ch2 = 0.

Circle Definition A circle is the locus of a point which moves in such a way that its distance from a fixed point is always constant. The fixed point is called the Centre of the Circle and the constant distance is called the Radius of the circle. • • • • The equation of circle when the centre is (h, k) and radius ‘r’ is (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 If the centre is origin, equation of circle is x2+y2 = r2 The equation of circle, if the end points of a diameter are given by (x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) ( y – y2) = 0 The General equation of the circle is x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 with centre is (-g, -f) and radius is

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Tangent to the Circle •

Equation of the tangent to a circle at a point (x1, y1) is xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0

•

Length of the tangent to the circle from a point (x1, y1) is

• • • •

If PT2 = 0, then the point is on the Circle. If PT2 > 0, then the point is outside the Circle. If PT2 < 0, then the point is inside the Circle. Condition for the line y = mx + c to be a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is c2 = a2 (1 + m2)

•

Point of contact of the tangent y = mx + c to be a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is

,

• •

Equation of any tangent to a circle if of the form

√

Two tangent can be drawn from a point to a circle is

m2(x2 – a2) – 2mxy +(y2 – a2) = 0.

This is a Quadratic equation in ‘m’. Thus ‘m’ has two values. But ‘m’ is the slope of the tangent. Thus, two tangents can be drawn from a point to a circle.

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Family of Circles Concentric Circles Two (or) more circles having the same centre are called Concentric Circle. Circles Touching Internally or Externally Two circles may touch each other either internally or externally. Let C1, C2 be the centres of the circles and r1, r2 be their radii and P, the point of contact. • • Two circle touch externally, if C1C2 = r1 + r2 Two circle touch internally, if C1C2 = r1 - r2

Orthogonal Circles Two circles are said to be Orthogonal if the tangent at their point of intersection are at right angles. Condition for Orthogonal

•

Condition for two circles to cut orthogonal is 2g1g2 + 2f1f2 = c1+c2

Conic Definition A conic is the locus of a point which moves in a plane, so that its distance from a fixed point bears a constant ratio to its distance from a fixed straight line. The fixed point is called focus, the fixed straight line is called directrix and the constant ratio is called eccentricity, which is denoted by ‘e’. Classification with respect to the General Equation of a Conic The equation Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 represents either a (nondegenerate) conic or a degenerate conic. If it is a conic, then it is • • • a Parabola if B2- 4AC = 0 an Ellipse if B2- 4AC < 0

a Parabola if B2- 4AC > 0

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Parabola ( y2 = 4ax ) Definition The locus of a point whose distance from a fixed point is equal to the distance from a fixed line is called a Parabola. i.e., Parabola is a conic whose eccentricity is 1. Definitions • • • The fixed point used to draw the parabola is called the Focus F. Here, the focus is F(a,o). The fixed line used to draw a parabola is called the Directrix of the parabola. Here, the equation of the directrix is x = - a The axis of the parabola is the axis of symmetry. The curve y2 = 4ax is symmetrical about x-axis and hence x-axis or y = 0 is the axis of the parabola y2 = 4ax. Note that the axis of the parabola passes through the focus and perpendicular to the directrix. The point of intersection of the parabola and its axis is called its Vertex. Here, the vertex is V(0,0). The Focal Distance is the distance between a point on the parabola and its focus. A chord which passes through the focus of the parabola is called the Focal Chord of the parabola Latus Rectum is a focal chord perpendicular to the axis of the parabola. Here, the equation of the latus rectum is x = a. End points of Latus Rectum is L (a, 2a) and L/(a, -2a) Length of Latus Rectum = 4a. Length of Semi-Latus Rectum is 2a.

• • • • • •

General form of the standard equation of a Parabola The General form of the standard equation of the parabola is • (open rightwards) • • • ( open leftwards) (open upwards ) (open downwads)

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Ellipse Definition The locus of a point in a plane whose distance from a fixed point bears a constant ratio, less than one to its distance from a fixed line is called Ellipse. Definitions Focus : The fixed point is called focus, denoted as F(ae,0) Directrix : The fixed line is called directrix l of the ellipse and its equation is Major axis : The line segment AA/ is called the major axis and the length of the major axis is 2a. The equation of the major axis is y = 0. Minor axis : The line segment BB/ is called the minor axis and the length of the minor axis is 2b. The equation of the minor axis is x = 0. Centre : The point of intersection of the major axis and minor axis of the ellipse is called the Centre of the Ellipse. Vertices : The points of intersection of the ellipse and its major axis are called its vertices. Focal Distance : The focal distance with respect to any point P on the ellise is the distance of P from the referred focus. Focal Chord : A chord which passes through the focus of the ellipse is called the focal chord of the ellipse. Latus Rectum : It is the focal distance perpendicular to the major axis of the Ellipse. The equation of the latus rectum are x = + ae, x = - ae. Eccentricity : End Points of Latus Rectum are , . , and other latus rectum are

Length of the Latus Rectum are Special Property : Thanks to the symmetry about the origin, it permits the second Focus F2(-ae,0) and the second directrix x = -

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General forms of Standard Ellipses The General forms of Standard Equation of Ellipses, if the centre C(h,k) is

a>b Focal Property of an Ellipse The sum of the focal distances of any point on an ellipse is constant and is equal to the length of the major axis.

Hyperbola Definition The locus of a point in a plane whose distance from a fixed point bears a constant ratio, greater than one to its distance from a fixed line is called Hyperbola.

Definitions Focus : The fixed point is called focus, denoted as F(ae,0) Directrix : The fixed line is called directrix l of the hyperbola and its equation is Transverse axis : The line segment AA/ joining the vertices is called the transverse axis and the length of the transverse axis is 2a. The equation of the transverse axis is y = 0. Conjugate axis : The line segment joining the points B(0, b) and B/ (0, -b) is called the conjugate axis and the length of the conjugate axis is 2b. The equation of the conjugate axis is x = 0.

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Centre : The point of intersection of the transverse and conjugate axes of the hyperbola is called the Centre of the Hyperbola.

Vertices : The points of intersection of the hyperbola and its transverse axis are called its vertices. Latus Rectum : It is the focal chord perpendicular to the transverse axis of the Hyperbola. The equation of the latus rectum are x = + ae, x = - ae. Eccentricity : End Points of Latus Rectum are , . , and other latus rectum are

Length of the Latus Rectum are

The other form of the Hyperbola If the transverse axis is along y-axis and the conjugate axis is along x-axis, then the equation of the hyperbola is of the form For this type of hyperbola, we have the following points. • • • • • • • • • Center is C(0,0) Vertices A(0, a) and A/(0, -a) Foci are F(0, ae) and F(0, -ae) Equation of transverse axis is x = 0 Equation of conjugate axis is y = 0 End points of conjugate axis is (b, 0) and (-b, 0) Equations of Latus rectum is Equations of directrices is End points of Latus rectum is

,

,

,

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**Parametric form of Conics Conic Parametric equations x = at2 y = 2at x = a cos , y = b sin t
**

.

Parameter

Range of parameter ∞ ∞ 2 ∞ ∞

**Any point on the conic ‘t’ or (at2, 2at)
**

(acos ,

Parabola

t

Ellipse

or

‘t’ or

, .

Hyperbola

x = a sec , y = b tan

2

(a sec ,

or

Equation of Chord Conic Equation of Chord joining (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)

Parabola

Ellipse

Hyperbola

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Equation of Tangent and Normal Conic Parabola Equation of Tangents at (x1, y1) Equation of Normal at (x1, y1)

Ellipse

Hyperbola

Equation of Chord and Tangent at Parametric Form Conic Equation of Chord at Parametric Form & & Equation of Tangents at Parametric Form yt = x + at2

Parabola

Chord joining the points is

at ‘t’ is

Ellipse

Chord joining the points is

at ‘ ’ is

Hyperbola

Chord joining the points is

&

at ‘ ’ is

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Results connected with Conics Conic Condition that y=mx+c may be a tangent to the conic Point of Contact Equation of any tangent is of the form

Parabola

, ,

where

Ellipse

Hyperbola

,

where

Asymptotes Definition An asymptote to a curve is the tangent to the curve such that the point of contact is at infinity. In particular, the asymptote touches the curve at ∞ ∞. Results regarding Asymptotes • The equations of the asymptotes to the hyperbola is

•

**The combined equation of asymptotes is
**

i.e.,

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• •

The asymptotes pass through the centre C(0,0) of the hyperbola. The slopes of asymptotes are

.

i.e.,

the transverse axis and

conjugate axis bisect angles between the asymptotes. • If is the angle between the asymptotes then the slope of is

.

• • Angle between the asymptotes is Angle between the asymptotes is

Rectangular Hyperbola ( xy = c2 where Definition

)

**A hyperbola is said to be a rectangular hyperbola if its asymptotes are at right angles. Results • • • •
**

•

Eccentricity of the Rectangular Hyperbola is also b2 = a2(e2-1) The Vertices of the rectangular hyperbola are

√

√

and and

√

• • • • • •

The foci are (a, a) and (-a, -a) The equation of the transverse axis is y = x and the conjugate axis is y = - x. If the centre of the rectangular hyperbola is (h, k) then (x – h) ( y – k) = c2 The parametric equation of the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 is x = ct, y= Equation of the tangent at (x1, y1) to the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 is xy1+yx1 = 2c2 Equation of the tangent at ‘t’ is x + yt2 = 2ct Equation of normal at (x1, y1) to the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 is xx1- yy1 = x12- y12 Equation of normal at ‘t’ is y - xt2 = ct3 Two tangents and four normals can be drawn from a point to a rectangular hyperbola.

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,

√

,

√

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