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PART IV

STYLISTIC SYNTAX
1.

QUANTITATIVE
STRUCTURE

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

THE

SYNTACTIC

A. The absence of elements which are obligatory in a neutral


construction (ellipsis, aposiopesis, nominative sentences, absence
of auxiliary elements)
B. Redundance of syntactical elements
2.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELEMENTS


C. Various types of inversion

3.

CHANGES IN THE USE OF SYNTACTIC FORMS

Literature:
1. . Galperin I.R. Stylistics.
(p.p.190-253).
2.

Skrebnev J.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics.


(p.p. 82-105).

3. .. . ., 1981.
( . 160-208)

STYLISTIC SYNTAX

1. QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYNTACTIC


STRUCTURE
From the viewpoint of quantitative characteristics of the syntactic structure, it is selfevident that there are only two possible varieties of deviations a) the absence of elements
which are obligatory in a neutral construction and b) excess of non-essential elements.
A) the absence of elements which are obligatory in a neutral construction
Stylistically significant are : elliptical sentences, nominative sentences, unfinished
sentences, as well as sentences in which certain auxiliary elements are missing.
Ellipsis. The term elliptical sentence implies absence of one or both principal parts (the
subject, the predicate). The missing parts are either present in the syntactic environment of the
sentence (context), or they are implied by the situation.
Ellipsis is, first and foremost, typical of colloquial speech. In works of fiction, elliptical
sentences are made use of either to reproduce the direct speech of characters, or to impart
brevity, a quick tempo and (sometimes) emotional tension to the authors narrative.
He became one of the prominent men of the House. Spoke clearly, sensibly, and
modestly, and was never too long. Held the House where men of higher abilities
bored it.
(Collins)
Beside oral speech and fiction (which aim at economy and expressiveness, respectively),
ellipsis is common to some special types of texts.
For the sake of business-like brevity, elliptical sentences are very frequent in papers of
handbooks on technology or natural sciences:
The grind stone a cylinder pole, diameter 2.0 dm, thickness 5.0 dm, a frustum hole in
the center, sides of the bases 10 cm and 5.0 cm respectively.
Ellipsis (and abbreviation) is practically always employed in encyclopedic dictionaries and
reference books of the Whos Who type.
All kinds of elliptical constructions (including special ready-made formulas) are resorted to
in telegraphic messages. The reason is clear: every word is paid for.
Aposiopesis (Greek - silence) denotes intentional abstention from continuing the utterance to
the end. The speaker (writer) either begins the new utterance or stops altogether.
Eg. Well, I must say thats a wonderful way of wasting tax-payers money, Aitken
growled. Of all the damned nonsense Ive run into (Chase)
This story really doesnt get anywhere at all. The rest of it comes later sometimes
when Piggy asks Dulcie again to dine with him, and she is feeling lonelier than usual,
and General Kitchener happens to be looking the other way; and then (O.Henry)
Nominative sentences. The communicative function of a nominative sentence is a mere
statement of the existence of an object, a phenomenon:
London. Fog everywhere. Implacable November weather.

Nominative sentences comprise only one principal part expressed by a noun or a noun
equivalent. The stylistic effect produced by a nominative sentence or by a succession of
nominative sentences is predetermined by a sense of the words of which they consist.
Eg. The horror! The flight! The exposure! The police! The first to desert him these
all save Sondra perhaps. And even she, too. Yes, she, of course. The horror in her eyes.
(Th.Dreiser)
Absence of auxiliary elements. (auxiliary verbs, articles, prepositions, conjunctions). All
these elements, except conjunctions, are omitted in careless colloquial speech; conjunctions, both
in colloquial speech and fiction. The absence of conjunctions bears the name asyndeton (Gr.
disconnected) Asyndetic connection between words, clauses and sentences is based upon the
lexical meanings of the parts connected. Absence of connecting elements imparts dynamic force
to the text.
B. Redundance of syntactical elements
Structural and material redundance within the simple sentence (but the same is true with
regard to the complex or compound sentences) occurs, first of all, in the increased number of
elements used.
Repetition is purely syntactical whenever what is repeated is not a word, but an abstract
syntactical position only. This is observed in any sentence comprising two or more homogeneous
parts. Compare: The people were running and Men, women, children were running. The
second sentence is not only different from the first semantically: the idea of totality of flight is
expressed in the second more emphatically.
Repetition may concern not only the syntactical positions (parts of the sentence), but the
meanings of recurrent parts as well. If the homogeneous parts are synonyms, we observe
synonymic repetition:
Joe was a mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy-going, foolish dear fellow.
(Dickens)
Finally, repetition proper is recurrence of the same element (word or phrase) within one
sentence, the recurrence of words in neighboring sentences or even recurrence of whole
sentences. This kind of repetition is the most recognizable of the three; its obvious purpose is
visible intensification.
Syntactic tautology. The term implies recurrence of the noun subject in the form of the
corresponding personal pronoun. The stylistic function of this construction is communicative
emphasis of the theme.
Miss Tillie Webster, she slept forty days and nights without waking up (O.Henry)
Syntactic tautology is often met with in nursery rhymes and in folk ballads (or their
imitations):
Jack Sprats pig,
He was not very little,
He was not very big

A phenomenon, grammatically opposite to syntactic tautology, but often confused with it,
is the anticipatory use of personal pronouns:
Oh. Its a fine life, the life of the gutter (Shaw)
The stylistic function of anticipatory constructions under discussion is emphasis of the
theme (the part predicated).
Polysyndeton. The term is opposed to asyndeton means excessive use (repetition) of
conjunctions the conjunction and in most cases. Conjunctions may connect separate words,
parts of a sentence (phrases), clauses, simple and composite sentences, and even more prolonged
segments of text.
Polysyndeton is stylistically heterogeneous. Thus, in poetry and fiction, the repetition of
and either underlines the simultaneity of actions, or close connection of properties enumerated.
Advancing and prancing and glancing and dancing,
Recoiling, turmoiling, and toiling, and boiling,
And thumping, and plumping, and bumping, and jumping,
And dashing, and flashing, and splashing, and clashing;
And so never ending, and always descending
And in this way the water comes down at Lodore. (Robert Southey)
She was smartly dressed And her cheeks and lips were rouged a little. And her eyes
sparkled. And as usual she gave herself the airs of one very well content with herself.
(Dreiser)
Very often polysyndeton promotes a high-flown tonality of narrative
And only one thing really troubled him sitting there the melancholy craving in his
heart because the sun was like enchantment on his face and on the clouds and on the
golden birch leaves, and the winds rustle was so gentle, and the yew-tree green so
dark,and sickle of a moon pale in the sky. (Galsworthy)
Syntactic stylistic devices discussed above are connected with the structure of the
sentence, the number and position of its constituents. Now well search for stylistic functions in
the sentence forms. Regular interchange or repetition may not only concern communicative types
of sentences, but their syntactic structure as well. Adjacent sentences are often identical or
analogous by their syntactical (or morpho-syntactical) structures. Assimilation or even identity of
two or more neighbouring sentences (or verse lines) is called parallelism (parallel
constructions). As a matter of fact, parallelism is a variety of repetition, but not a repetition of
lexically identical sentences, only a repetition of syntactical constructions: John kept silent;
Mary was thinking. The two sentences are syntactically identical subject and predicate
consisting of two words. It should be stressed that lexically they are different.
Still, much more often it happens that parallel sentences contain the same lexical elements.
See, for instance:

Farewell to the forests and wild-hanging woods,


Farewell to the torrents and loud-pouring floods (Burns)
The cock is crowing,
The stream is flowing (Wordsworth)
Parallelism contributes to rhythmic and melodic unification of adjacent sentences. But not
only that. As everywhere in language, semantics is the predominant factor. It is only with regard
to lexical meanings that the constructive function of parallelism can be defined. It serves either
to emphasize the repeated element, or to create a contrast , or else underlines the semantic
connection between sentences.
Purely syntactical repetitions, with which we have classed parallelism, should be
distinguished from lexico-syntactical repetitions. In these, the lexical identity of certain parts of
neighbouring sentences is not an obtional occurrence (as is the case with parallelism), but quite
obligatory. Among them we can discern the following lexico-syntactical devices: anaphora,
epiphora, anadiplosis, chiasmus.
Anaphora. This term implies identity of beginnings, of one or several initial elements in
adjacent sentences (verse lines, stanzas, paragraphs). This device, often met with, serves the
purpose of strengthening the element that recurs:
My hearts in the Highlands, my heart isnt here,
My hearts in the Highlands, a-chasing the deer (Burns)
Anaphoric recurrence of words or word combinations helps the reader (hearer) to fix the
recurring segment in his memory. It also imparts a certain rhythmical regularity to the prosodic
system of the text.
Hence, the most general definition could read thus: anaphora is identity of the initial parts
of two or more autonomous syntactical segments, adjacent or at a distance in the text, yet
obviously connected semantically.
Epiphora. This stylistic figure is the opposite of anaphora. It is recurrence of one or several
elements concluding two (or more) syntactical units (utterances, verse lines, sentences,
paragraphs, chapters).
Epiphora, to a still greater extent than anaphora, regularizes the rhythm of the text and
makes prose resemble poetry.
I am exactly the man to be placed in a superior position in such a case as that. I am
above the rest of mankind, in such a case as that. I can act with philosophy in such a
case as that. (Dickens)
Very often one can see a combination of anaphora and epiphora in two or more adjacent
utterances, which is sometimes termed symploca.
If he wishes to float into fairyland, he reads a book; if he wishes to dash into the thick
of battle, he reads a book; if he wishes to soar into heaven, he reads a book
(Chesterton)

Note the nearly complete parallelism of the three sentences.


Framing. This term is used here to denote the recurrence of the initial segment at the very
end of a syntactic unit (sentence, paragraph, stanza).
Money is what he is after, money! (Galore)
Anadiplosis (from the Greek doubling): the final element (or elements) of a sentence
(paragraph, stanza) recur at the very beginning of the next sentence (paragraph, stanza, etc.). The
concluding part of the preceding syntactic unit serves the starting point of the next:
With Bewick on my knee, I was then happy: happy at least in my own way. (Bronte)
Chiasmus. (from the Greek letter x=Chi) means crossing. The term denotes what is
sometimes characterized as parallelism reversed: two syntactical constructions (sentences or
phrases) are parallel, but their members (words) change places, their syntactical positions. What
is the subject in the first, becomes an object or a predicative in the second; a head-word and its
attribute change places and functions likewise.
The segments that change places enter opposite logical relations, which fact produces
various stylistic effects (depending on the meanings of words and the forms of chiasmatic
members).
I love my Love and my Love loves me! (Coleridge)
2. DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELEMENTS

A. Various types of inversion


Change of word-order (inversion). English, as opposed to Russian (or Latin), is
characterized by fixed order of words. This doesnt mean that changes of word-order are
impossible in English. This means, however, that every relocation of sentence parts in English is
of greater importance, of a more significant stylistic value than in Russian.
Every noticeable change in word-order is called inversion. It is important to draw a line
of demarcation between grammatical inversion and stylistic inversion.
Grammatical inversion is that which brings about a cardinal change in the grammatical
meaning of the syntactical structure. So, whenever we change the word-order to transform a
declarative sentence into interrogative, the result is grammatical inversion: You are here Are
you here?
Stylistic inversion does not change the grammatical essence (the grammatical type) of the
sentence: it consists in an unusual arrangement of words for the purpose of making one of them
more conspicuous, more important, more emphatic. Compare the sentence They slid down with
its variant Down they slid. There is no grammatical change, but the word down sounds very
strong in the second sentence.
The unusual first place in the sentence may be occupied by a
predicative:
Inexplicable was the astonishment of the little party when they returned to find out that
Mr.Pickwick had disappeared. (Dickens)
simple verbal predicate
Came frightful days of snow and rain.

adverbial modifier
Over by St Paul he stands and there is no money in it (Galsworthy)
Direct object
But Johnsie he smote, and she lay, scarcely moving in her painted iron bedstead
(O.Henry)
3. CHANGES IN THE USE OF SYNTACTIC FORMS
Revaluation of syntactical meanings.
Grammatical meanings, similar to notional meanings, can be shifted, i.e. used
figuratively. In other words, grammatical forms (in our case syntactical) are sometimes used not
in their original sphere they perform a function which is not their originally.
Quasi-affirmative sentences. This provisional term denotes a certain variety of rhetorical
question, namely those with a negative predicate. The implication of such a negative question is
an affirmative statement:
Isnt that too bad? = That is too bad.
Quasi-negative sentences. Most of them are rhetorical questions with affirmative
predicates: Did I say a word about the money? (Shaw) = I didnt say
Quasi-imperative sentences are those which express inducement (order or request) without
the imperative form of the verb. Some of them do not name the required action, but only mention
the object or a qualification of a self-evident action:
Tea. For two. Out here. (Shaw)
Quasi-interrogative sentences are either imperative or declarative. Instead of asking How
old are you? Where were you born? One may either command Fill in your age and birthplace or
explain: Here you are to write down your age and birthplace.
Types of Syntactic Connection Viewed Stylistically
Words, phrases, clauses, and sentences are connected with one another in speech. Words
and phrases are mostly combined with their environment semantically, sometimes by means of
auxiliary elements (prepositions and conjunctions) . Clauses and independent sentences can be
joined to one another asyndetically (in this case the connection is purely semantic); more often,
conjunctions or other connectors are employed.
Stylistically relevant are changes in the type of connection between the aforementioned
units.
Detachment. Detachment is specific phonetic treatment of a word or word-group ^ instead
of the usual articulation when the word (phrase) is fused with its environment, the speaker makes
a short pause before (and often after) the detached segment and lays special stress on it. As a
result of this, the word (phrase) appears to be opposed to the rest of the sentence to what
precedes it and follows it. Hence, the detached part is underlined as something specially
important.
In writing and in print, detached parts are separated from the rest of the sentence by
punctuation marks (mostly by commas or dashes). Unusual placement in the sentence (inversion
see above) is also a sure sign of detachment.
The general stylistic effect of detachment is strengthening, emphasizing the word (or
phrase) in question. Besides, detachment imparts additional syntactical meanings to the word or
phrase.
Talent, Mr. Micawber has, capital, Mr. Micawber has not. (Dickens)

It was indeed, to Forsyte eyes, an odd house. (Galsworthy)


Parenthetic words, phrases and sentences. They either express modality of what is
predicated or imply additional information, mostly evaluating what is said or supplying some
kind of additional information. Parenthetic elements comprising additional information seem to
be a kind of protest against the linear character of the text^ the language user interrupts himself
trying in vain to say two things at once.
Parenthetic segments comprising additional information perform a number of stylistic
functions. One of the most important potentialities of such parentheses is the creation of the
second plane, or background. The parenthetic form of a statement makes it more conspicuous,
more important than it would be if it had the form of a subordinate clause.
The main entrance (he had never ventured to look beyond that) was a splendiferous
combination of a glass and iron awning, coupled with a marble corridor lined with
palms. (Dreiser)

Syntactic Stylistic devices ( variant 2)


We may define several groups of SSD
1. Positional syntactic stylistic devices
1/ Emphatic inversion or Anastrophe
2/ Detachment
3/ Parenthesis
2. Accumulative SSD
1/ Parallelism
2/ Chiasmus
3/ Climax (logical, emotional, quantitative)
4/ Anticlimax
5/ Antithesis
6/ Enumeration
7/ Repetition (lexical, Synonymical, Syntactical)
8/ Anaphora
9/ Epiphora
10/ Anadiplosis
11/ Framing
12/ Syntactic tautology (noun >pronoun; pronoun >noun)
3. SSD based on various types of connection between the parts of the utterance
1/ Asyndeton
2/ Polysyndeton
3/ Apokoinou
4/ The gap-sentence link
4.Qualitative SSD
1/ Ellipsis
2/ Aposiopesis
3/ Exclamation
4/ Anacoluthon
5/ Question- in- the- narrative
6/ Represented speech (unuttered/inner; uttered )
5. SSD based on the stylistic use of structural meaning
1/ Rhetorical question
2/ Litotes