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Ñ˛yˆÏÎõ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ â˛y£zˆäÏ È ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚– òÜÓ˚ÈÙÈúyˆÏÜyÎ˚y ÜÓ˚#Ó
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Ú¢ÓÑ˛y ¢yÌ ¢ÓÑ˛y !ÓÑ˛yüÛ ˛òÎ˚ñ v˛zߨÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ~ õˆÏv˛ˆÏú
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ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ ãú ã!õ ãDúñ Ö!òã ¢¡ôîñ ◊õü!_´ñ
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â˛ˆÏúˆÏäÈ Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚y !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ Üúy â˛v˛¸yòñ Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚y !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛
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Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ xye´õí ïyõyâ˛y˛ôy ˆîÁÎ˚y ÎyˆÏÓ òy
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2014 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ 19 !v˛ˆÏ¢¡∫Ó˚ NSSO 2013 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ 68.8%- £z @˘Ãyõ#í ãòÜíV 57.8% Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yã Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Îy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
ãyò%Îy˚ !Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 2013 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ !v˛ˆÏ¢¡∫Ó˚ ˛ôÎ≈hs˛ â˛yúyˆÏòy ¢õ#«˛yÓ˚ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ Üv˛¸˛ôv˛¸ì˛y õy!¢Ñ˛ v˛z˛ôyã≈ˆÏòÓ˚ 60% xyÎ˚Á £Î˚ òy–
v˛z˛ôÓ˚ !¶˛!_ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ 2012ÈÙÈ2013 ü¢ƒÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ Situation As15.61 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ @˘Ãyõ#í ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ 57.8% ÈÙÈÓ˚ xÌ≈ 9.2
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ˆî!Öñ ì˛Ìƒ!ò¤˛ Óyhfl˛Ó Ñ˛# ÓúˆÏäÈ ÙÙÙÈ
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2012ÈÙÈ13 ¢yˆÏú NSSO ÈÙÈÓ˚ ¢õ#«˛y

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â˛yˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ÖÓ˚ⲠˆÓˆÏv˛¸ !܈ÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ õyÓ˚ydÑ˛ £yˆÏÓ˚ xòƒ!îˆÏÑ˛ úyˆÏ¶˛Ó˚
£yÓ˚ SÎ!îÁ ÓyãyˆÏÓ˚ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ Ü!Ó˚¤˛ ¢ÇÖƒÑ˛ õyò%°£Ï z v˛zͲôy!îì˛
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!òˆÏ Î ˚ ì˛yˆÏ î Ó˚ v˛z ˛ ôÓ˚ ¢õ#«˛y â˛yúyˆÏ ò y £Î˚ – ~Ó˚ ˛ ôÓ˚ ~£z
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=ˆÏúyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛£z 34ñ907 !›˛ ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚
˛ô%ò¢≈õ#«˛y â˛yúyˆÏòy £Î˚– ˆÎÖyˆÏò ~ˆÏîˆÏü @˘Ãyõ#í ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
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¢yˆÏúÓ˚ ãòÜíòy xò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ ˆõy›˛ ãò¢ÇÖƒyÓ˚
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tional Crime Records Bureau

!£ˆÏ¢Óyò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ 1995
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 2012 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ SˆÎ ÓäÈÓ˚=!úˆÏì˛ òì%˛ò xÌ≈ò#!ì˛ñ
WTO Á !ÓŸªyÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ܶ˛#Ó˚ ≤ö˛yÓ Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ ˛ôv˛¸úV ˆõy›˛
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˛ôv˛¸ˆÏúò ˆÎ!›˛Ó˚ !îˆÏÑ˛ xyõÓ˚y ~Ñ˛›%˛ Ñ˛õ ˆÖÎ˚yú Ñ˛Ó˚úyõ ÈÙÙÙÈ
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Ñ˛õV ~ÓÇ xyˆÏÓ˚y !Ñ˛ä%È xyÎ˚ ì˛yÓ˚y Ñ,˛!°Ï◊!õÑ˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓÁ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–

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NSSOÙÈÓ˚ 59 ì˛õ ˜Ó‡˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ˛ôˆÏÓ˚– Îy£zˆÏ£yÑ˛ñ ì˛Öò ÚÑ,˛!°Ïã#Ó#
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚Û ~Ó˚ ¢ÇK˛y !äÈú ~Ó˚Ñ˛õ ˆÎñ ÎyˆÏîÓ˚ !Ñ˛ä%È õye £ˆÏúÁ
ã!õ xyˆÏäÈ ~ÓÇ ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ¢î¢ƒÓ˚y ¢yÓ˚yÓäÈÓ£˚ z Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yˆÏÎÓ≈ ˚ ¢ˆÏD
Î%_´ ÌyˆÏÑ˛– Î!îÁ ~ÖyˆÏòÁ Ñ,˛!°Ï◊!õˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy v˛zˆÏÕ‘Ö !äÈú
òy Óy v˛zͲôy!îì˛ ö˛¢ˆÏúÓ˚ õ)úƒ !òˆÏÎ˚Á ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy v˛zFâ˛Óyâ˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚y
£Î˚ !ò– Statistics and Programme Implementation
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¢õ#«˛yÓ˚ ì%˛úòyÓ˚ !ӰψÏÎ˚ ¢ì˛Ñ≈˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !îˆÏÎ˚ ÓˆÏúˆÏäÈñ ÚڈΈϣì%˛
Óƒ!ÆÓ˚ ˆ«˛e ÓîˆÏú ˆÜˆÏäÈñ ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%È ïyÓ˚íy Á ¢ÇK˛yÁ ~Ó˚
õˆÏïƒ ˛ô!Ó˚Ó!ì≈˛ì˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ì˛y£z Óì≈˛õyò ¢õ#«˛yÓ˚ ¢yˆÏÌ 59 ì˛õ
˜Ó‡˛Ñ˛ ˛ôÓ˚Óì˛#≈ ˆÎ ¢õ#«˛yÈ ÙÙÙÈ ~£z î%!›˛Ó˚ ö˛úyö˛ˆÏúÓ˚ ì%˛úòy Ö%Ó
!ò!_´ ˆõˆÏ˛ô Ñ˛Ó˚y ¢Ω˛Ó £ˆÏÓ òy–ÛÛ

¢õ#«˛yò%ÎyÎ˚#ñ Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yã Á ˛ô÷˛ôyúò ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ܈Ïv˛¸ ~Ñ˛!›˛
¶˛yÓ˚ì˛#Î˚ Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ì˛yÓ˚ ˆõy›˛ xyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ 59.8% xÌ≈
¢Ç@˘Ã£ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ–˚ v˛z˛ôyã≈ˆòÏ Ó˚ ÓyÑ˛# ›˛yÑ˛y xyˆÏ¢ ¶˛yì˛y / õy£zˆòÏ ñ
«%˛o ÓƒÓ¢y Á xòƒyòƒ v˛zÍ¢ ˆÎõò ¢%îñ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ ˆ«˛e ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
≤ÃyÆ ›˛yÑ˛y £zì˛ƒy!î ˆÌˆÏÑ˛– xì˛~Óñ ~ÖòÁ Ñ,˛!°Ï!¶˛!_Ñ˛ Ñ˛yãÑ˛õ≈£z
SÎyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ â˛y°ÏÓy¢ Á ˛ô÷˛ôyúò î%£zÈÙÈ£z ˛ôˆÏv˛¸V x!ïÑ˛yÇü Óv˛¸
Ó˚yˆÏãƒÓ˚ Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=ˆÏúyÓ˚ xyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ≤Ãïyò v˛zÍ¢– ˆÑ˛Óúõye
ˆÑ˛Ó˚ˆÏú 61% Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ xòƒyòƒ
¢)ˆeÏ Ó˚ õyÏõ ˆÓ!ü xyÎ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ–˚ ᛲòyâ˛ˆÏe´ñ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ Ó˚yãfl˛iyˆÏò
üì˛Ñ˛Ó˚y !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ¢Ó ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆÓ!ü Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ S78.4%V
Ó¢Óy¢ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–

xyˆÏÓ˚Ñ˛!›˛ !Ó°ÏÎ˚Á õˆÏò Ó˚yÖˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ– ã#!ÓÑ˛y !ӰψÏÎ˚
66 ì˛õ NSSO ˜Ó‡˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏÓîò!›˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ ÎÖò Ñ˛y›˛yˆÏäȧv˛¸y
£ˆÏFäÈñ ì˛Öò ˆîÖy !܈ÏÎ˚!äÈú ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò !ÓÓ˚y›˛ ¢ÇÖƒyÎ˚ õ!£úy
Ñ˛õ#≈ˆîÏ Ó˚ Ñ˛yã ˆäȈvÏ ˛¸ â˛ˆÏú ÎyÁÎ˚yˆÏÑ˛ xì˛ƒhs˛ =Ó˚&c ˆîÁÎ˚y £ˆÏΈ˚ äÏ Èñ
xˆÏòÑ˛ !ÓˆÏü°ÏˆÏK˛Ó˚£z õˆÏì˛ â%˛!_´!¶˛!_Ñ˛ !òˆÏÎ˚yˆÏÜÓ˚ õyÏõ
Ñ˛õ#≈ˆÏîÓ˚ !îˆÏÎ˚ ~£z ¢õ#«˛y=!ú Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏFäÈ ~ÓÇ ì§˛yÓ˚y ≤ÃyÎ˚ü£z
!‡˛Ñ˛ ≤ß¿!›˛ !‡˛Ñ˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ v˛z‡˛ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyÓ˚ˆÏäÈò òy– ˆÎõò
v˛zîy£Ó˚ífl˛∫Ó˚*˛ô Óúy ÎyÎ˚ñ Óì≈˛õyò ¢õ#«˛yÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe õy£zˆÏ@˘ÃüˆÏòÓ˚
!Ó°ÏÎ˚!›˛ xÓüƒ£z =Ó˚&c ¢£Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚ !ÓˆÏÓâ˛òy Ñ˛Ó˚y îÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚– ~£z
ᛲòy!›˛ !òÎ˚!õì˛£z ᛲˆÏäÈ ÈÙÙÙÈÈ @˘Ãyõ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ õyò%°Ï ü£ˆÏÓ˚ xy¢ˆÏäÈò
Ñ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ ˆÖ§yˆÏã xyÓyÓ˚ ö˛¢ú ˆÓyòy Óy Ñ˛y›˛yÓ˚ ¢õˆÏÎ˚ @˘ÃyˆÏõ !ö˛ˆÏÓ˚
xy¢ˆÏäÈò– ~Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛£z ˛ô!Ó˚‹ÒyÓ˚ @˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ¢õ)£Á
!ÓÑ˛“ xyˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ Ó˚yhfl˛y Ö%ã
§ ˆÏäÈò– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ˛ô%Ó&˚ ˆÏ°ÓÏ y˚ xy¢ˆÏäÈò ü£ˆÏÓ˚
~ÓÇ õ!£úyÓ˚y @˘ÃyˆÏõ â˛y°ÏÓy¢ ˆîÖˆÏäÈòñ xyÓyÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãòõì˛

¢õ#«˛y!›˛ ãyòyˆÏFäÈñ 90% Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛Ó˚£z 2 ˆ£QÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚Á
â˛yˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ã!õ ˆò£z– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe !£ˆÏ¢Ó ˆõy›˛yõ%!›˛ ~Ó˚Ñ˛õ É 0.01
ˆ£QˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ñ˛õ = 2.65% ó 0.01 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 0.4 ˆ£QÓ˚ =
31.89%ó 0.41 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 1 ˆ£QÓ˚ = 34.9%ó 1.01 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 2
ˆ£QÓ˚ = 17.19%ó2 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 4 ˆ£QÓ˚ = 9.35%ó 4 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
10 ˆ£QÓ˚ = 3.66% ~ÓÇ 0.41%ÈÙÈÓ˚ ã!õ xyˆÏäÈ 10 ˆ£QˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚
ˆÓ!ü– Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ õy!¢Ñ˛ Üv˛¸ xyÎ˚ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ 6ñ
426 ›˛yÑ˛y SÑ,˛!°ÏÑ˛y㠈̈ÏÑ˛ 3ñ078 ›˛yÑ˛yñ õã%Ó˚# Óy ˆÓì˛ò
ÓyÓî 2ñ069 ›˛yÑ˛y Á xòƒyòƒ ¢)e ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ÓyÑ˛# ›˛yÑ˛yV–
≤Ãy!hs˛Ñ˛ â˛y!°ÏˆÏîÓ˚ xˆÏï≈ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚Á ˆÓ!üÓ˚ S56%V 0.01
ˆ£QÓ˚ ã!õÁ ˆò£z ~ÓÇ ì˛yÓ˚y Ñ,˛!°ÏˆÑÏ ˛ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ ≤Ãïyò v˛zÍ¢
ÓˆÏú õˆÏòÁ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ òy– ¢õ#«˛yÎ˚ ~›˛yÁ fl˛ô‹T òÎ˚ ˆÎ ÎyˆÏîÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚
¢õ#«˛y ˛â˛yúyˆÏòy £ú ì˛yÓ˚y Ñ,˛!°Ï◊!õÑ˛ òy xòƒ !Ñ˛ä%È–
3

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˛ô%Ó˚&ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚y @˘ÃyˆÏõ !ö˛ˆÏÓ˚ â˛yˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏã ì˛îyÓ˚Ñ˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏäÈò– ~Öò ~£z
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=ˆÏúyˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛# Óúy £ˆÏÓ⁄ Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó#⁄ òy!Ñ˛ ~ˆÏîÓ˚
v˛zͲôy!îì˛ ö˛¢ˆÏúÓ˚ õ)úƒ 3ñ000 ›˛yÑ˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛õ ÓˆÏú ~ˆÏîÓ˚
ÜíòyˆÏì˛£z xyòy £ˆÏÓ òy⁄ òy!Ñ˛ ~Ó˚y â˛y°ÏÓy¢ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÓˆÏú ïÓ˚y£z
£Î˚ !ò⁄ Ö%Ó ¢Ω˛Óì˛ ˆÎˆÏ£ì%˛ ˛ô%Ó˚&ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚y @˘Ãyõ ˆäȈÏv˛¸ Óy£zˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛yã
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ â˛ˆÏú ˆÜˆÏäÈòñ ì˛y£z ¢õ#«˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚y xyÓ˚ õ!£úyˆÏîÓ˚ â˛yˆÏ°ÏÓ˚
Ñ˛yˆÏã Î%_´ ÌyÑ˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy›˛y ˆ¶˛ˆÏÓ£z ˆîˆÏÖò !ò– xÌⲠ~›˛y ~Ñ˛›˛y
Ü,£#ì˛ ¢ì˛ƒ ˆÎ â˛yˆÏ°ÓÏ ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ ~Ñ˛›˛y Óv˛¸ xÇü ˆÎõò Ó#ã ˆÓyòyñ
â˛yÓ˚y ˆ˛ô§yì˛yñ xyÜyäÈy Ñ˛y›˛y Óy ö˛¢ˆÏúÓ˚ ˆîÖyˆÏüyòy Ñ˛Ó˚y £zì˛ƒy!î
ÓÓ˚yÓÓ˚£z õ!£úyÓ˚y£z Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÌyˆÏÑ˛ò– õ!£úyÓ˚y ~õòÑ˛# !òãfl˛∫
˛ôy!Ó˚Óy!Ó˚Ñ˛ Ñ,˛!°Ïã!õˆÏì˛ Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúÁ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛ÖˆÏòy£z
Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ õÎ≈yîy ˆîÁÎ˚y £Î˚ òy ÈÙÙÙÈÈ ~›˛y£z Óyhfl˛Ó Á ¢õyˆÏúyâ˛òyÓ˚
ˆÎy܃– xyÓyÓ˚ ˛ôyüy˛ôy!ü ~›˛yÁ ¢ì˛ƒ ˆÎ !ÓˆÏü°Ï ¶˛yˆÏÓ ≤ß¿
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆãˆÏò òy !òˆÏú ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏÓ õ!£úyÓ˚y ˆÖˆÏì˛Ó˚ Ñ˛yãˆÏÑ˛ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚
Ü,£Ñ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ õˆÏz !ÓˆÏÓâ˛òy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏäÈò– xyˆÏÓ˚Ñ˛!›˛ =Ó˚&c˛ô)í≈ ì˛Ìƒ
£ú ˛ô%Ó&˚ °ÏÑ˛õ#≈ˆîÏ Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ 58% !Ñ˛ls˛ õ!£úyÑ˛õ#≈ˆîÏ Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ 78%
~ÓÇ @˘Ãyõ#í õ£!úyˆÏîÓ˚ 88% £z ã!õÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ !ò¶≈˛Ó˚ü#ú–
!mì˛#Î˚ì˛É Ó˝ ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ !òˆÏãˆÏîÓ˚ v˛zͲôy!îì˛ ü¢ƒ !òˆÏãˆÏîÓ˚£z
Öyîƒ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ÓƒÓ£yÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆö˛ˆÏú– ì,˛ì˛#Î˚ì˛É ¢õ#«˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ îú
Ó%G˛ˆÏúò Ñ˛# Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ v˛zͲôy!îì˛ ö˛¢ˆÏúÓ˚ õ)úƒ 3ñ000‰ ›˛yÑ˛y £ú !Ñ˛
òy⁄ x!¶˛K˛ ¢õ#«˛Ñ˛ˆÏîÓ˚Á ~ì˛=!ú !Ó°ÏÎ˚ ã!v˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ¢õ#«˛y
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˆîÁÎ˚y £ˆÏú ö˛úyö˛ˆÏúÓ˚ e&!›˛£#òì˛yÓ˚ !ӰψÏÎ˚ !ò!ÿ˛ì˛
ÌyÑ˛y ÎyÎ˚ òy–

ì˛Ìƒ£z ΈÏ̤˛– ~Ñ˛yîüì˛õ ÓyˆÏã›˛ ˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òyÎ˚ Ñ,˛!°ÏˆìÏ ˛ ˛¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚#
¢y£yˆÏ΃Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí !äÈú 1 ú«˛ ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛yñ myîü ÓyˆÏã›˛
˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òyÎ˚ ì˛y î§yv˛¸yú 1.5 ú«˛ ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛y– ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò
2014ÈÙÈ15 ¢yˆÏú ~Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí õye£z 24 £yãyÓ˚ ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛yñ
xÌⲠ~£z ¢õÎ˚Ñ˛yˆÏú£z !ü“ ˆ«˛ˆÏe Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ äÈyv˛¸ ˆîÁÎ˚y £ú
5.73 ú«˛ ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛y–
¢%ì˛Ó˚yÇ Î§yÓ˚y ~£z ¢õ#«˛yÓ˚ ì˛ˆÏ̃Ó˚ v˛zˆÏÕ‘Ö Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÓúˆÏäÈò
ˆÎ Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó#Ó˚y Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ õ%Ö !ö˛!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏFäÈò ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚
Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚Ó!ì≈˛ì˛ ¢ÇK˛y Á v˛z˛ôˆÏÓ˚ v˛z!Õ‘!Öì˛
xòƒyòƒ !Ó°ÏÎ=
˚ !úÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy õyÌyÎ˚ Ó˚yÖˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ– 22 ˆü !v˛ˆÏ¢¡∫Óñ˚
2014ÈÙÈÓ˚ !ö˛òy!™Î˚yú ~:ˆÏ≤â ÈÙÈ ~ ~Ñ˛!›˛ ≤ÃÓı˛ ˆÓˆÏÓ˚yÎ˚ ÎyÓ˚
!üˆÏÓy˚ òyõ 'There is less Krishi in Bharat now' ˆÎÖyˆÏò
NSSOÈÙÈÓ˚ ¢õ#«˛yÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ ¶˛Ó˚¢y Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Óúy £ú @˘Ãyõ xyÓ˚ Ñ,˛!°Ï
~Öò xyÓ˚ ¢õyÌ≈Ñ˛ òÎ˚– ~!›˛ !Ñ˛ls˛ ¢˜ÏÓ≈Ó ¢ì˛ƒ òÎ˚– 2012ÈÙÈ13
¢yˆÏúÓ˚ !ã!v˛!˛ôÈÙÈÓ˚ 13.7% Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yˆÏã !îˆÏÎ˚ Î!îÁ ~£z ˆ«˛ˆÏe
ΈÏÌ‹T =Ó˚&c xyˆÏÓ˚y˛ô Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈñ ì˛Ó%Á ˆÎÖyˆÏò ~ ˆîˆÏüÓ˚
60% v˛z˛ôÓ˚ õyò%°Ï Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yã Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò Á Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ !ò¶≈˛Ó˚ü#ú
ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò ˙ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí!›˛ ΈÏÌ‹T òÎ˚–

Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚ xÓfl˛iy e´ˆÏõ£z ÖyÓ˚y˛ô £ˆÏFäÈ
≤ÃÑ,˛ì˛˛ôˆÏ«˛ ¢Ó≈ˆÏü°Ï ¢õ#«˛y!›˛ ~›˛y£z ≤Ãõy!íì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ
~Ó˚ xyˆÏÜÓ˚ ¢õ#«˛y!›˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ îü ÓäȈÓÏ ˚ Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚ e´ˆÏõyÓò!ì˛
£ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ–
}ˆÏíÓ˚ Óƒy˛ôyÓ˚›˛y£z ïÓ˚y ÎyÑ˛– Î!îÁ 'formal credit
flow' ˆÓˆÏv˛¸ ˆÜˆÏäÈ 4 =íñ !Ñ˛ls˛ ì˛yˆÏì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ «%˛o Á ≤Ãy!hs˛Ñ˛
Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy v˛z˛ôÑ˛yÓ˚£z £Î˚!ò (Rural India's Debt
Profile (ET, 24 ˆü ~!≤ÃúV– ≤ÃyÎ˚ 52% Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚£z
}í@˘Ãhfl˛ ~ÓÇ ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚!˛ôä%È Üv˛¸˛ôÓ˚ì˛y ˆîÎ˚ }ˆÏíÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí 47ñ
000 ›˛yÑ˛yñ }í@˘Ãhfl˛ ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !£ˆÏ¢Ó Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛!›˛ Ó˚yˆÏム~Ó˚Ñ˛õ
É xı…˛≤ÈÏîˆÏü 92.9%ñ ˆì˛ˆÏúDyòyÎ˚ 89.1% ñ Ó˚yãfl˛iyˆÏò
61.8%ñ v˛z!v˛¸°ÏƒyÎ˚ 57.5%ñ ˛ôyOyˆÏÓ 53.2%ñ ˛ô!ÿ˛õÓˆÏD
51.5% ~ÓÇ !Ó£yˆÏÓ˚ 42.5%–

≤ß¿ ãyˆÏÜñ ö˛¢ˆÏúÓ˚ !Óe´Î˚õú
) ƒˆÏÑ˛ ˆÑ˛ò ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚
Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# !Ñ˛ òy ˆ¢£z ì˛ˆÏÑ≈˛Ó˚ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ xyòy £ˆÏÓ⁄ ~Ñ˛!›˛
ì˛y!_¥Ñ˛ ¶)˛!õ ˜ì˛!Ó˚ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˆâ˛‹Ty £ˆÏFäÈ ˆÎ ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛Ó°Ï≈ ï#ˆÏÓ˚ ï#ˆÏÓ˚
ì˛yÓ˚ Ñ,˛!°Ï≤Ãïyò xÓfl˛iyò ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆÓÓ˚ £ˆÏÎ˚ xy¢ˆÏäÈ Îy xy¢ˆÏú
≤Ãõyí Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏäÈ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ò#!ì˛£z Ñ,˛!°ÏˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ~Ñ˛ ¶˛Î˚ÇÑ˛Ó˚ ¢ÇÑ˛›˛
ˆv˛ˆÏÑ˛ ~ˆÏòˆÏäÈ– ~£z Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆíÏ £z ˆÑ˛w Á Ó˚yãƒhfl˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ›˚ ˛ˆÏîÓ˚
£yˆÏì˛ @˘Ãyõ#í ã!õ Á ¢¡ôî ì%˛ˆÏú ˆîÓyÓ˚ ãòƒ ~ì˛ ˝ˆÏv˛¸y˝!v˛¸–
1996 ¢yˆÏú !ÓŸªÓƒyB˛ Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚ õ,ì%˛ƒár›˛y Óy!ãˆÏÎ˚ !îˆÏÎ˚!äÈú– Ó˝
xÌ≈ò#!ì˛!Óî‰ñ ¶)˛ì˛˛ô)Ó≈ ≤Ãïyòõs˛f# õòˆÏõy£ò !¢ÇÈÙÈÁ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ
~Ñ˛ãòñ ÓˆÏú!äȈÏúò v˛zߨÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ãòƒ ~!›˛ òy!Ñ˛ ãÓ˚&Ó˚#– Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚
¢yˆÏÌ ˆÎ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ˜Óõyì,˛Ñ˛ xyâ˛Ó˚í Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏäÈ ì˛yÓ˚ ¢õÌ≈ˆÏò ~Ñ˛!›˛

}í@˘ à £ˆÏ í Ó˚ v˛z Í ¢ !£ˆÏ ¢ ˆÏ Ó ˆÑ˛yˆÏ ò y ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yò Óy
¢Çfl˛iyÓ!£¶)≈˛ì˛ }ˆÏíÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ !ò¶≈˛Ó˚ü#úì˛y ˆÓü ˆÓ!ü– ˆõy›˛yõ%!›˛
4

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
!õ!v˛Î˚y SˆÓ˚!v˛ÈÁÙÈÁ ~Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸VÈÙÈÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ 19.6% ~ÓÇ
xòƒyòƒ ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ÓƒÓ¢y!Î˚Ñ˛ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yˆÏòÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ 7.4% !ò¶≈˛Ó˚
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–

ˆÑ˛yÌy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛# ˛ô!Ó˚õyˆÏí }í ˆòÁÎ˚y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ì˛yÓ˚ !â˛e!›˛ ì%˛ˆÏú
ïÓ˚y ˆÜú É ÓƒyˆÏB˛ 42.9%ñ Ñ,˛!°Ï/ˆ˛ôüyîyÓ˚ õ£yãˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ
25.8%ñ ¢õÓyÎ˚ ¢Çfl˛iy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 14.8%ñ xyd#Î˚ Óı%˛ˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛yäÈ
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 9.1%ñ ˆîyÑ˛yòîyÓ˚ Óy ÓƒÓ¢yÎ˚#ˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛yäÈ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 2.9%ñ
ã!õÓ˚ õy!úˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ 0.8% ~ÓÇ xòƒyòƒ ˆ«˛e ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 1.6%–
≤Ãy!hs˛Ñ˛ ¶)˛fl˛∫yõ#Ó˚y ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yò ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ SˆÎõò ÈÙÈ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ñ
ÓƒyB˛ Óy ¢õÓyÎ˚ ¢Çfl˛iyV ¢ˆÏÓ≈yFⲠõye 15% }í ˆ˛ôˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓò˚ –
ÎyˆÏîÓ˚ ã!õÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí ¢ˆÏÓ≈yFⲠS10 ˆ£QˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÓ!üV ì§˛yÓ˚y ˛ôyò
79% }í– ~£z ì˛Ìƒ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛£z Ó%ˆGÏ ˛ ˆòÁÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ Ñ˛# ¶˛yˆÏÓ ~ˆÏîˆÏü
ˆäÈy›˛ â˛y°Ï#Ó˚y õ£yãò Á xòƒòƒ }íîyì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ }ˆÏíÓ˚ Ö؈ÏÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸ò
Á Óv˛¸ â˛y°Ï#Ó˚y ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛ô,¤˛ˆÏ˛ôy°ÏÑ˛ì˛y ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ Îyò– ~›˛y ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
xyˆÏÓ˚Ñ˛›˛y Óƒy˛ôyÓ˚Á fl˛ô‹T ˆÎ xyãÁ ~Ñ˛›˛y xyïy¢yõhs˛ì˛y!s˛fÑ˛
Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛y‡˛yˆÏõyÓ˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆÏí ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ !ÓÓ˚y›˛ ¢ÇÖƒÑ˛ Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ îú
e´õyÜì˛ ˆüy!°Ïì˛ Á ÓƒÓ£*ì˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ â˛ˆÏúˆÏäÈ–

MSP

ˆÎÖyˆÏò ≤ÃyÎ˚ x≤Ãâ˛!úì˛£z Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜúñ ˆÎÖyˆÏò
Üì˛ !ì˛òÓäÈÓ˚ ïˆÏÓ˚ ~Ó˚ õ)úƒõyò Ñ%˛£zr›˛yú ≤Ã!ì˛ õye 50 ›˛yÑ˛y
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓˆÏv˛¸ˆäÏ Èñ ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò ~Öò !Ñ˛ls˛ Commission for Costs
and Prices ÓúˆÏäÈ MSP Óı˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !îˆÏì˛– õye 8% Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛
~Ó˚ ¢%!Óïy !òˆÏFäÈò ~ÓÇ ÓyÑ˛# 92% ÎyˆÏFäÈò ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ¢Çfl˛iyÓ˚
Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ Á ˆüy!°Ïì˛ £ˆÏFäÈò– ˛ôyOyˆÏÓ MSP â˛yú% xyˆÏäÈñ !Ó£yˆÏÓ˚
ˆò£z– ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ÓƒÓ¢yÎ˚#Ó˚y â˛y£zˆÏäÈ !Ó£yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ õì˛ ˛ôyOyˆÏÓÁ
!Óe´#Óy›˛yÓ˚ ÓƒÓfl˛iy ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# £yˆÏì˛£z xy¢%Ñ˛– Öyîƒ õs˛fÑ˛
£z!ì˛õˆÏz Ó˚yモÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚=ˆÏúyˆÏÑ˛ MSPÈÙÈÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy
ˆÓyòy¢ ˆîÁÎ˚yÓ˚ Óƒy˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏ°ÏïyK˛y ãyÓ˚# Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ–
MGNREGA ÈÙÈ ÖyˆÏì˛ ÓyˆÏã›˛ ÓƒÎ˚ ÓÓ˚yj Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛

!îÕ‘#ˆÏì˛ ÜˆÏãw !¢Ç ~Ó˚ xyd£ì˛ƒyÓ˚ ᛲòyÓ˚ ˛ôÓ˚ 23
ˆü ~!≤Ãúñ 2È015 ˆì˛ £zÑ˛ò!õщ˛ ›˛y£zõ¢‰ ãyòyÎ˚ ˆÎ ~ˆÏîˆÏü
80% Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ü¢ƒ Ó#õy ˆò£z ~ÓÇ ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ î%£z
ì,˛ì˛#Î˚yÇü ö˛yˆÏõ≈Ó˚£z xyÎ˚ì˛ò 1 ˆ£QˆÏÓ˚Ó˚Á S2.5 ~Ñ˛Ó˚V Ñ˛õ
xÌ≈yÍ ~§Ó˚y ¢Óy£z «%˛o S~ÓÇ ≤Ãy!hs˛Ñ˛V Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛– 70 ì˛õ NSSO
¢õ#«˛yÎ˚ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏäÈ x!ïÑ˛yÇü Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛£z MSPÈÙÈÓ˚ !ӰψÎÏ ˚ ãyˆÏòò
òy– ÎyÓ˚y xÓÜì˛ !äȈÏúò ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚Á xˆÏï≈ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚Á Ñ˛õ ¢ÇÖƒyÎ˚
ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ö˛¢ú ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ¢Çfl˛iyˆÏÑ˛ !Óe´# Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈòñ xÌ≈yÍ MSPÈÙÈÓ˚
!ӰψÏÎ˚ xÓÜì˛ !äȈÏúò õye 32% Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ñ ΧyÓ˚y ïyò !Óe´#
Ñ˛ˆÏÓˆ˚ äÏ Èò ~ÓÇ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ õˆÏïƒÁ õye£z 13.5% Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ ïyò ˆÓˆÏâ˛ˆÏäÈò
¢Çfl˛iy=!úÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ S2012 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ ã%úy£z ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !v˛ˆÏ¢¡∫Ó˚ ˛ôÎ≈hs˛
!£ˆÏ¢ÓV– òì%˛ò ˛ôk˛!ì˛ Óy Ó˚yム¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ܈ÏÓ°ÏíyÜyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
ˆÑ˛yˆÏòyÓ˚Ñ˛õ ¢£yÎ˚ì˛yÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó#Ó˚y ~ˆÏÑ˛ÓyˆÏÓ˚£z Ó!M˛Èì˛–
ˆÓ!üÓ˚¶˛yÜ Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ü¢ƒÓ#õyÓ˚ !ӰψÏÎ˚ ãyˆÏòò£z òy–
59% Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ òy ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ òy ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ¢Çfl˛iy ˆÑ˛yÌyÁ
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛£z ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ¢y£y΃ ˛ôyò òy– ΧyÓ˚y ~Ñ˛›%˛ Ó!ï≈ì˛ ¢y£y΃ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚
ÌyˆÏÑ˛ò ˆ¢£z 40.6% Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ãˆÏòƒ ¢y£yˆÏ΃Ó˚
õye 11% xyˆÏ¢ ≤ÃÑ,˛ì˛ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ì˛£!Óú SˆÎõò Ó!£Ó˚yÜì˛
ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ¢Çfl˛iyñ Ñ,˛!°Ï !ÓK˛yò ˆÑ˛wñ Ñ,˛!°Ï !ÓŸª!ÓîƒyúÎ˚ £zì˛ƒy!îV
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛– x!ïÑ˛yÇü Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛£z ~£z¢Ó ì˛Ìƒ ãyòyÓ˚ ãòƒ xòƒ Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ñ

ˆÓ!ü Sˆî!Ó®Ó˚ üõ≈yñ 24 ˆü !v˛ˆÏ¢¡∫Ó˚ 2014V– !Ñ˛ls˛ ¢õ#«˛y
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ~›˛yÁ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ˛ ˆÎ ¢õhfl˛ Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ
44% ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚£z MGNREGA Ñ˛yv≈˛ xyˆÏäÈ– ¢Ó≈yˆÏ˛ô«˛y Ñ˛õ
ã!õÓ˚ S0.11 ˆ£QˆÏÓ˚Ó˚Á Ñ˛õV õy!úˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ 38% ÈÙÈÓ˚ ~£z Ñ˛yv≈˛˛
Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ȈÏäÈ–

ãòÜíòy 2001 ~ÓÇ 2011
2001 ~Ó˚ ãòÜíòyò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ ˆîˆÏü 12 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 73 ú«˛
Ñ,˛È°ÏÑ˛ S8 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 50 ú«˛ ˛ô%Ó˚&°Ï Á 4 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 23 ú«˛ õ!£úyV
~ÓÇ 10 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 70 ú«˛ Ñ,˛!°Ï◊!õÑ˛ S5 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 70 ú«˛ ˛ô%Ó˚&°Ï
Á 5 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ õ!£úyV !äȈÏúò– 2011ÈÙÈÓ˚ ãòÜíòyÎ˚ ˆîÖy ˆÜú
Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ¢ÇÖƒy 12 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 73 ú«˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛ˆÏõ 11 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 86
ú«˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜˆÏäÈ !Ñ˛ls˛ Ñ,˛!°Ï◊!õˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ¢ÇÖƒy 10 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 70 ú«˛
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆÓˆÏv˛¸ 14 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 43 ú«˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– xì˛~Ó Ñ,˛!°ÏÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD
Î%_´ õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ¢ÇÖƒy 23 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 46 ú«˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ó,!k˛ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ 26
ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 29 ú«˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ S2011ÈÙÈÓ˚ ãòÜíòy !ò!î≈‹T Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÓˆÏú
ˆÎ 14% õ!£úy Á 3.2% ˛ô%Ó˚&°ÏÈñ ¢ÇÖƒy!›˛ 86 ú«˛ õì˛ñ
Ñ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yã ÚˆäȈvÏ ˛¸ !îˆÏΈ˚ äÏ ÈòÛ ÈÙÈ Î!îÁ ì˛§yÓ˚y ˆäȈvÏ ˛¸ !îˆÏúò òy ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚
ã!õ£#ò Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚íì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚y £ú ˆ¢›˛y xòƒ ≤âDV– 2011
¢yˆÏúÓ˚ xyîõ÷õyÓ˚# ~Á Óúú ˆÎ Üì˛ ˛ôM˛Èyü ÓäȈÏÓ˚ ãò¢ÇÖƒy
5

¢õ ¢õÎ˚
ÜÓy!î ˛ô÷Ó˚ ÜíòyÓ˚ ~£z !£ˆÏ¢Ó!›˛ ≤ÃÑ˛y!üì˛ £Î˚
2014ÈÙÈÓ˚ ˆ¢ˆÏ≤Wz¡Ó∫ –˚ î%!›˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ˆÎ Trend =!úÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy Óúy
£ˆÏFäÈ ì˛yÈÙÈÁ xyúyîy– NSSOÈÙÈÓ˚ ¢õ#«˛y ÓúˆÏäÈ 2003 ~Ó˚
¢õ#«˛yÓ˚ ì%˛úòyÎ˚ ~£z ¢õ#«˛yÎ˚ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ ˆ¶˛v˛¸yñ äÈyÜú Á
÷ˆÏÎ˚yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí Ó,!k˛ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ Sˆ¶˛v˛¸y Á äÈyÜú 9 ˆÑ˛y!›˛
50 ú«˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 9 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 90 ú«˛ ~ÓÇ ÷ˆÏÎ˚yÓ˚ 50 ú«˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
60 ú«˛V– xÌⲠÜíòyÓ˚ !£ˆÏ¢Ó ÓúˆÏäÈ ~£z ˛ô!Ó˚õyí £…y¢
ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ É 2007 ¢yˆÏú äÈyÜú Á ˆ¶˛v˛¸yÓ˚ ¢ÇÖƒy 21 ˆÑ˛y!›˛
10 ú«˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 20 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ˆÏì˛ ˆòˆÏõ ~ˆÏ¢ˆÏäÈ ~ÓÇ ÷ˆÏÎ˚yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
¢ÇÖƒy 11 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 20 ú«˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛ˆÏõ î§y!v˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ 10 ˆÑ˛y!›˛
20 ú«˛ˆÏì˛– xyˆÏÜÁ ~£z ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ÜÓ˚!õˆÏúÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy ÓyÓ˚ÇÓyÓ˚
ˆúÖy ¢ˆÏ_¥Á õs˛fˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ñ˛ì≈˛yÓ˚y !Ñ˛ä%ȈÏì˛£z !Ó°ÏÎ˚!›˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ òˆÏv˛¸â˛ˆÏv˛¸
ӈϢò òy– xˆÏòˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ó_´Óƒ ~£z ÜÓ˚!õú ᛲˆÏäÈ õ)úì˛É õÓ˚÷ˆÏõÓ˚
Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆÏí È ÙÙÙÈÈ v˛zÍ¢ˆÏÓÓ˚ õÓ˚÷ˆÏõ ˆÎõò äÈyÜú Á õ%Ó˚!ÜÓ˚ ¢ÇÖƒy
Ñ˛ˆÏõ ÎyÎ˚– Î!î xyÓ˚ !Ñ˛ä%È òyÈÙÈÁ Óúy £Î˚ñ ~›%˛Ñ%˛ ˆì˛y xhs˛ì˛É
ˆÓyG˛y ÎyˆÏFäÈ ˆÎ ~£z ÜíòyÓ˚ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛# ¶˛#°Ïí Ñ˛!‡˛ò ~ÓÇ ~£z
¶˛yˆÏÓ ≤Ã!ü«˛í ≤ÃyÆ !ÓˆÏü°ÏK˛ˆÏîÓ˚£z ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò ΧyÓ˚y ¢!‡˛Ñ˛
xÓfl˛iy›˛yÓ˚ ¢ı˛yò xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ !îˆÏì˛ ˛ôyÓ˚ˆÏÓò–

Ó,!k˛Ó˚ £yÓ˚ ˆÎ¶˛yˆÏÓ Ñ˛ˆÏõ ÎyˆÏFäÈ ˆ¢£z £yˆÏÓ˚ !Ñ˛ls˛ Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ Ñ˛ˆÏõ
ÎyˆÏFäÈ òy–
2010ÈÙÈ11 Ó˚ Ñ,˛!°Ï ãòÜíòy ˆîÖyÎ˚ ˆÎ ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈
'Operational holdings' ~Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí 2001 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 2011
˛ôÎ≈hs˛ 11 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 99 ú«˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆÓˆÏv˛¸ 13 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 77 ú«˛
£ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– ≤ÃÑ,˛ì˛˛ôˆÏ«˛ Óv˛¸ñ õyG˛y!Ó˚ Á xyïyõyG˛y!Ó˚ ~£z !ì˛ò!›˛
!Ó¶˛yˆÏÜ ~Ó˚ õyò Ñ˛ˆÏõ ˆÜˆÏäÈ ÈÙÈ !Ñ˛ls˛ «%˛o Á ≤Ãy!hs˛Ñ˛ !Ó¶˛yˆÏÜ ~Ó˚
õyò ÎÌye´ˆÏõ 8.8% Á 22.4% Ó,!k˛ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ–
'Operational holdings'

~Ó˚ ¢õ@˘Ã !â˛ˆÏe ˆÎ Ó,!k˛Ó˚
äÈ!Ó ì˛y õ)úì˛É ≤Ãy!hs˛Ñ˛ Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ !Ó¶˛yÜ!›˛Ó˚ îÓ˚&í S≤ÃÑ˛, ì˛˛ôˆÏ«˛
95% Ó,!k˛£z ~£z !Ó¶˛yˆÏÜV– ì˛Ó%Á 15 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 11 ú«˛ ˆ£QÓ˚
â˛y°ÏˆÎÏ y܃ ã!õÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ õye 3 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ 54 ú«˛ ˆ£QÓ˚ ã!õ ≤Ãy!hs˛Ñ˛
Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ â˛yˆÏ°ÓÏ ˚ ãòƒ Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˆ˚ äÏ È S2010ÈÙÈ11 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ !£ˆÏ¢ÓV–
xy¢ˆÏú ~£z ¢õÎ˚Ñ˛yˆÏúÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ â˛y°ÏˆÎÏ y܃ ã!õÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí 0.16%
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Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ òy–

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23% ÜÓy!î ˛ô÷Ó˚ õyÏõ xyÎ˚ˆÑÏ ˛£z ≤Ãïyò xyÎ˚ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ˆîÖyÎ˚–
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ì˛õ ÜÓy!î˛ô÷Ó˚ xyîõ÷õy!Ó˚Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ ö˛yÓ˚yÑ˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFäÈ
Sì˛Ìƒ¢)eÉ Down to Earthñ 2Ó˚y ã%ò 2015V–
Census
2012-13
(Millions)

NSSO
(2013)
(Millions)

1) Cattle

190

135

2) Buffalo

108

69

3) Thus Bovine (1+2)

299

204

4) Poultry

729

225

5) Sheep & Goat

200

99

6

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7

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8

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9

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!òÓ≈yâ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy ˆ¶˛ˆÏÓ xy˛ôyì˛ì˛ Ó˚«˛íydÑ˛–
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◊!õÑ˛ ¢Ç܇˛ò=!úÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ õã%!Ó˚ Ó,!k˛Ó˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ ïõ≈áˆÏ›˛ ÎyÁÎ˚yÓ˚
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11

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12

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ˆÜy›˛y ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ òyòyò xM˛Èˆú
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¢y¡±îy!Î˚Ñ˛ ˆÖúy ÷Ó˚& £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– ¢õhfl˛ hfl˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛ôy‡˛ƒe´õ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
≤ÃÜ!ì˛ü#ú ˜ÓK˛y!òÑ˛ !â˛hs˛yÈÙȶ˛yÓòy =!úˆÏÑ˛ ˆG§˛!›˛ˆÏÎ˚ !ÓîyÎ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚
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â˛úˆÏäÈ– NCERT, ICHR, Pune Films Institute, IACS
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13

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8.3 üì˛yÇü–
■ !ü«˛yˆÏ«˛ˆÏeÓ˚ ˆõy›˛ ÓÓ˚yj 4.6 üì˛yLjÏüÓ˚Á Ñ˛õ Ó˚yÖy £ú–
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Ó˚yãˆÏÑ˛yˆÏ°Ï â˛y˛ô Ñ˛õyòÓ˚ ãòƒñ
xyÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚ˆÏ›˛Ó˚ òyòy!Óï
Ñ˛Ó˚ äÈyv˛¸ xyÓ˚Á Óyv˛¸yò £ú–
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òyõy!B˛ì˛ 12 úy!Ö ¢%ƒ›˛ ˛ôˆÏÓ˚ ÁÓyõyˆÏÑ˛ òyõ ïˆÏÓ˚ ˆv˛ˆÏÑ˛ fl˛øy›˛≈
£ˆÏì˛ â˛yÁÎ˚yñ ~ÓÇ ¢îy !ÓˆÏîü ºõíÓ˚ì˛ òˆÏÓ˚w ˆõy!î!ãÓ˚
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ˆüy°ÏˆíÏ !Ó˚_´ñ õ,ì˛ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ¢ÇÖƒy=Ó˚& ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛Óy¢#Ó˚ ãòƒ£z ˆÑ˛Óú⁄

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Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ õì˛ x˛ôˆÏⲋTyÁ ÷Ó˚& £ˆÏÎ˚ !܈ÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– Îy Îy v˛z˛ôˆÏÓ˚ Óúy
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~Ó˚ v˛z_Ó˚ Ö%ã
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!Ó°ÏÎ˚=ˆÏúyÁ xyÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ÓyÓ˚ xyõÓ˚y ˆîˆÏÖ !ò£z ÓÓ˚Ç–
■ 2014ÈÙÈÓ˚ ˆúyÑ˛¢¶˛y !òÓ≈yâ˛ˆÏò Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ›˚ ˛ ˆÑ˛ÔüˆÏú ~õò ~Ñ˛
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Ñ˛yˆÏÎ˚õ £ˆÏÓ ÈÙÈ ¢ÓyÓ˚ v˛zߨ!ì˛ £ˆÏÓ– ¢ÓyÓ˚ õyˆÏò Ñ˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚⁄
›˛y›˛yÈÙÈ!Óv˛¸úyÈÙÈxy¡∫yò#ÈÙÈxyîy!ò ˆÌˆÏÑ˛Ï ˆì˛yõyÓ˚ xyõyÓ˚ £!Ó˚˛ôî
ˆÑ˛Ó˚yò#Ó˚ ÈÙÈ ¢ÓπyÓ˚– Ú¢Ó Ñ˛y ¢yÌñ ¢Ó Ñ˛y !ÓÑ˛yüÛ– ì˛yÓ˚˛ôÓ˚ÈÙÙÙ
Ȉõy!î ˆì˛y ~ÏúÊ ÓyˆÏãˆÏ›˛Ó˚ ÷Ó˚&ˆÏì˛£z ˆõy!î!ã ÓúˆÏúòñ ˆÓ˚yÜ@˘Ãhfl˛
¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ˆÏÑ˛ Ó§yâ˛yˆÏì˛ ≤Ã̈Ïõ ~Ñ˛›%˛ Úˆì˛ˆÏì˛y Á°Ï%ïÛ !ÜúˆÏì˛£z £ˆÏÓ–
!Üúú Ñ˛yÓ˚y⁄
■ ˆÓ˚ú ÓyˆÏãˆÏ›˛Ó˚ xyˆÏÜ£z Îye# ¶˛yv˛¸y 14.2 üì˛yÇü Óyv˛¸yò
£ú–
■ ˛ôíƒõy÷ú Óyv˛¸yò £ú 6.5 üì˛yÇü–
■ ~£z ≤ÃÌõ ˆÓ˚ú ÓyˆÏãˆÏ›˛ ÓƒÓfl˛iy Ó˚yÖy £ú ãμyúyò#Ó˚ îyõ Óyv˛¸yÓ˚
¢yˆÏÌ ¢yˆÏÌ ˆÓ˚ˆÏúÓ˚ ¶˛yv˛¸y Óyv˛¸yÓ˚–
■ !Ó!òÎ˚s˛fˆíÓ˚ ö˛ˆÏú !v˛ˆÏãˆÏúÓ˚ îyõ ˆÓˆÏv˛¸£z â˛úú– ˆ˛ô›˛ΔˆÏúÓ˚
¢ˆÏD !v˛ˆÏãˆÏúÓ˚ îyˆÏõÓ˚ ö˛yÓ˚yÑ˛ Ñ˛õˆÏì˛ úyÜú–
■ ≤ÃÌõ ¢yïyÓ˚í ÓyˆÏãˆÏ›˛£z fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ÖyˆÏì˛ ÓÓ˚yj Ñ˛õú 2679
ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛y– ~ˆÏîˆÏü GDP Ó˚ õye 1 üì˛yÇü ÓƒÎ˚ £Î˚ fl˛iyfl˛iƒ
ÖyˆÏì˛ñ ˆÎÖyˆÏò â˛#ˆÏò !£¢yÓ›˛y 3.1 üì˛yÇü xyÓ˚ õy!Ñ≈˛ò ˆîˆÏü

xyÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ Ñ˛# ˆ˛ôú⁄
■ 2014ÈÙÈ15ÙÈÓ˚ ¶˛yày ÓäȈÓ
Ï ˚ ú«˛ƒõyey 977258 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛yÓ˚

ÓîˆÏú Ñ˛Ó˚ xyÎ˚ £Î˚ 908563 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛y– xÌ≈yÍ Ñ˛Ó˚ ÓyÓî
69ñ000 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛y Ñ˛õ xyÎ˚ £ú ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚– xyÓ˚ñ ~Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ
Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛yäÈ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛£z Ñ˛õ Ñ˛Ó˚ xyÎ˚ £ú 25ñ000 ˆÑ˛y!›˛
›˛yÑ˛y–
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5000 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛y–
■ ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÏÓy Ñ˛Ó˚ Óy!v˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚y £ú 14 üì˛yÇü–
■ ≤Ãì˛ƒ«˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ Óƒ!_´Üì˛ Óy ˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#Ó˚ ˆîÎ˚ xyÎ˚Ñ˛Ó˚ äÈyv˛¸ !îˆÏÎ˚
¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ 8315 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ ›˛yÑ˛y Ñ˛õ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈñ ~!îˆÏÑ˛ ˛ôˆÏÓ˚y«˛ Ñ˛Ó˚
â˛y!˛ôˆÏÎ˚ Óy Óy!v˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚ Ó˚yãˆÏfl˛∫Ó˚ xyÎ˚ ˆîÖyò £ˆÏΈ˚ äÏ È 23383 ˆÑ˛y!›˛
›˛yÑ˛y– xyÓyÓ˚Á ïò#ˆÏîÓ˚ v˛z˛ôˆÏë˛ÔÑ˛òñ xyÓ˚ ÜÓ˚#ˆÏÓÓ˚ áyˆÏv˛¸ ˆÓyG˛y
â˛y˛ôyò– ~¢Ó£z ¢yõyòƒ v˛zîy£Ó˚ò– xyÓ˚ ˆÑ˛ òy ãyˆÏò ˆÎ
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ÜÓ˚#ˆÏÓÓ˚ áyˆÏv˛¸ xyˆÏÓ˚y ˆÓyG˛y
■ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ ÓyãyˆÏÓ˚ ˆì˛ˆÏúÓ˚ îyõ Ñ˛ˆÏõˆÏäÈ ˝ ˝ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ–˚ xˆÏüy!ïì˛
ˆì˛ˆÏúÓ˚ îyõ 2014ÈÙÈÓ˚ ã%ˆÏò !äÈú ÓƒyˆÏÓ˚ú !˛ôä%È 115 v˛úyÓ˚–
ãyò%Î˚yÓ˚# 2015 ˆì˛ ì˛y Ñ˛ˆÏõ £Î˚ 48 v˛úyÓ˚– xˆÏï≈ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚Á ˆÓ!ü
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Ñ˛õú òyÊ ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ v˛zߨ!ì˛Ó˚ ãòƒ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛y!Ó˚ ÷ÕÒ Óyv˛¸yò £ú ˆÎñ
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■ ÓyˆÏãˆÏ›˛ ˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òy ÖyˆÏì˛ xÌ≈ ÓÓ˚yj £Î˚ òyòyò ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ≤ÃÑ˛“
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14

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Ñ˛õ#≈ˆÏîÓ˚ ≤Ãy˛ôƒ ¢%ˆÏÎyÜ ¢%!Óïyñ â˛úˆÏäÈ Ñ˛õ≈¢ÇˆÏÑ˛yâ˛òÈÙÙÙÈ¢Æõ
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■ !ÓÑ˛yˆÏüÓ˚ ãòƒ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò#Î˚ xÌ≈ÓÓ˚yj äȧy›˛y£z Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ–
â˛úõyò ≤ÃÑ˛“=!úÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ¢Ó≈!ü«˛y x!¶˛ÏÎyˆÏòÓ˚ ãòƒ ÓÓ˚yj
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ˆäÈy›˛ ≤ÃÑ˛“=!ú !õ!úˆÏÎ˚ 25 üì˛yÇü–
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24% ÓÓ˚yj– xy£z !¢ !v˛ ~¢ ≤ÃÑ˛ˆÏ“Ó˚ ÓÓ˚yj Ñ˛ˆÏõˆÏäÈ 54.19
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£ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ÙÙÙÈ ÎyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ö˛úò ¢y¡±!ì˛Ñ˛ JRF-ˆîÓ˚ Scholarship
Ñ˛õyòÓ˚ !¢k˛yˆÏhs˛–
■ ÓœÑ˛hfl˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ 2000 õˆÏv˛ú fl˛%Òú ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yúyÓ˚ ≤ÃÑ˛“ !äÈúñ
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x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ xy£zò– 365 !îˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ~£z xy£zˆÏòÓ˚
ÓˆÏú ¢%!ò!ÿ˛ì˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜúñ !Ó°ÏÎ˚›˛y ~ˆÏÑ˛ÓyˆÏÓ˚£z ~õò òÎ˚– Üí
!ӈϫ˛y¶˛ñ Üí xyˆÏ®yúò ¢yõúyˆÏì˛ñ ÜÓ˚#Ó õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ˆ¶˛y›˛ ïˆÏÓ˚
Ó˚yÖˆÏì˛ â˛yú% £ú 100 !îˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛yã– òì%˛ò ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ~£z ≤ÃÑ˛ˆÏ“Ó˚
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ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ 5 ˆÑ˛y!›˛ õyò%°Ï Ñ˛yã ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈò– ¢ÇÖƒy›˛y ˆõy›˛ @˘Ãyõ#í
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ¢ÇÖƒyÓ˚ 29%– ÎyÓ˚y Ñ˛yã ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈòñ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ
54% õ!£úyñ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 40% î!úì˛ÈÙÈxy!îÓy¢# ¢¡±îyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ õyò%°Ï–
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Ï ü î)°íÏ ¢Çe´yhs˛ !Ó!ï !òˆÏ°ïÏ xyúÜy
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16

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18

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20

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ˆ«˛e=!úˆÏì˛V ˆÑ˛yò òy ˆÑ˛yò¶˛yˆÏÓ ¢Ç¢ˆÏî ˛ôyü Ñ˛!Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˚ !òˆÏΈ˚ äÏ È–
ˆÎ ¢õhfl˛ ¢Ç¢î#Î˚ îú=ˆÏúy Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ì˛yÓ˚y ≤ÈÏì˛ƒˆÏÑ˛£z !ÓŸªyÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚
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£Î˚ !ò– xÌⲠ~£z x!v≈˛òƒyÏ™!›˛ xyòy£z £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ ú!ÓÓ˚
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Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛!ÓˆÏÓ˚yï# ì˛Ñ‰˛õy ~§ˆÏ›˛ !îˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ˆõy!î ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÜyˆÏÎ˚–
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Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúò ¢y¡±!ì˛Ñ˛ xì˛#ˆÏì˛ ˆîÖy !܈ÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛
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!ÓÓ ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚y ÎyˆÏÓ xyÓyÓ˚ xòƒ!îˆÏÑ˛ ˆÜy›˛y ˆîüã%ˆÏv˛¸ ˆÎ Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛
¢õyã Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ì˛yÓ˚y îúõì˛ !ò!Ó≈ˆÏüˆÏ°Ï ˆ◊!ífl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈£z ~£z
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ΈÏÌ‹T ãD#Ó˚*˛ô ïyÓ˚í Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ– ö˛ˆÏú ~ˆÏîÓ˚ £yì˛äÈyv˛¸y Ñ˛Ó˚y ÎyˆÏÓ
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˛ôˆÏÌ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛yúòy Ñ˛Ó˚y›˛y£z v˛zˆÏjüƒ–
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xÓfl˛iy›˛y ~õò£z £Î˚ ˆÎ !ÓˆÏã!˛ôÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛yúÑ˛ xyÓ˚.~¢.~¢. ˛ôÎ≈hs˛
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ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ¶˛!Ó°Ïƒì˛›˛y£z ¢ÇÑ˛ˆÏ›˛Ó˚ õ%ˆÏÖ ˛ôv˛¸ˆÏÓ– xyÓ˚
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¢õyã ì˛yˆÏì˛ ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏÓ˚yï ܈Ïv˛¸ ì%˛úˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚–

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≤ß¿ v˛z‡˛ˆÏì˛£z ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ñ ì˛y£ˆÏú !Ñ˛ ~£z x!v≈˛òƒyÏ™ ãy!Ó˚
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!Ó˛ôî î)Ó˚ £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜú⁄ ≤ß¿›˛y xyÓ˚Á ≤Ãy¢!DÑ˛ ~£z Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆÏíñ ˆÎ
xy£zˆÏòÓ˚ ¢ÇˆÏüyïò# ˆâ˛ˆÏÎ˚ ~£z x!v˛≈òƒy™ ˆ¢£z ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏí
v˛z ˛ ôÎ% _ ´ «˛!ì˛˛ô) Ó ˚ í Á fl˛∫ F äÈ ì ˛yÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ñ ˛ô% ò Ó≈ y ¢ò Á
˛ô%òÉ≤Ã!ì˛fl˛iy˛ôò xy£zò 2014 ˆÑ˛ ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%È õ£ú ˆÌˆÏÑ˛£z ã!õ
x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏíÓ˚ õˆÏv˛ú !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ˆîÖyˆÏòy £!FäÈú– Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˛ôˆÏ«˛
~£z xyâ˛Ó˚í ≤Ãì˛ƒy!üì˛ Ñ˛yÓ˚í ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛y!úì˛ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚£z xy£zò!›˛
≤ÃòÎ˚í Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äÈú– xòƒyòƒ îú=!úÁ x!v≈˛òƒyÏ™ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yï#ì˛yÓ˚
Óƒy˛ôyˆÏÓ˚£z õ)úì˛É î,!‹T ~ÓÇ ˛ôîˆÏ«˛˛ô !òÓk˛˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äÈúñ ¢yõ!@˘ÃÑ˛
x!ï@˘Ã£í ¢¡ô!Ñ≈˛ì˛ î,!‹T¶˛D# ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò xˆÏòÑ˛›˛y£z ˆÜÔí £ˆÏÎ˚
!܈ÏÎ˚!äÈú–
x!ï@˘Ã£í ¢¡ô!Ñ≈˛ì˛ ˆ≤ë˛y˛ô›˛›˛y ~Ñ˛ÓyÓ˚ ˆîˆÏÖ ˆòÁÎ˚y
ÎyÑ˛– 1947 ¢yˆÏú Ó,!›˛ˆÏüÓ˚y ~ˆÏîü ˆäȈÏv˛¸ â˛ˆÏú ÎyÎ˚– â˛ˆÏú
ˆÜˆÏúÁ ~ˆÏîˆÏüÓ˚ üy¢ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚y Ó,!›˛ü ≤Ãí#ì˛ xˆÏòÑ˛ xy£zò Ñ˛yò%òˆÏÑ˛
ˆÓ˚ˆÏÖ ˆîÎ˚ ÎyÓ˚ xòƒì˛õ £ú ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zòñ 1894
(Land Acquisition Act, 1894)– xy£zˆò
Ï Ó˚ ≤ÃyÓ˚ˆΩÏ ˛ Óúy !äÈú
ˆÎ xy£zò!›˛ ≤Ãí#ì˛ ãòfl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈ ~ÓÇ ˆÑ˛y¡ôy!òÓ˚ ãòƒ x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏíÓ˚
≤ÈÏÎ˚yãˆÏò–
Ó,!›˛ˆÏüÓ˚y xy£zò!›˛ ≤ÃòÎ˚í Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äÈú– ö˛ˆÏú ¢£ˆÏã£z
xò%ˆÏõÎ˚ xy£zò!›˛ ~Ñ˛ì˛Ó˚ö˛yñ xÌ≈yÍ ˛ô%ˆÏÓ˚y˛ô%!Ó˚ Ó,!›˛ü üy¢ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚
≤ÈÏÎ˚yãˆÏò ~ÓÇ xò%Ñ%˛ˆÏú– ö˛ˆÏú ïyÓ˚y=!úÁ ΈÏÌ‹T fl˛ô‹T ~ÓÇ
ãv˛¸ì˛y£#ò– xy£zò!›˛ ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏú ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏÓ ~!›˛ ~ˆÏÑ˛ÓyˆÏÓ˚£z
¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ £zFäÈyï#ò– ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ Óy Ó˚y‹T… Ö%ü# £ˆÏú£z ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yò ã!õ
ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yò ¢õˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚– Î!î Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…Ó˚ õˆÏò £Î˚ ã!õ!›˛
x!ï@˘Ã£í Ñ˛Ó˚y ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò ì˛ˆÏÓ î%!›˛ ¢ÇÓyî˛ôˆÏe S~Ñ˛!›˛ fl˛iyò#Î˚
~ÓDz x˛ôÓ˚!›˛ ¢Ó≈¶˛yÓ˚ì˛#Î˚V !ÓK˛!Æ ≤ÃÑ˛yü Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ ~ÓÇ
ì˛yÓ˚˛ôˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏúQÓ˚ ~£z õˆÏõ≈ ˆòy!›˛ü ãy!Ó˚ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏÓò– ~£z
x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏíÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ Ñ˛yˆÏÓy˚ ˆÑ˛yò xy˛ô!_ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏú ì˛y ~Ñ˛õyˆÏ¢Ó˚
21

¢õ ¢õÎ˚
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!Ñ˛òy ~ÓÇ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆ¢£z !¢k˛yˆÏhs˛Ó˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ˆÑ˛yò ˛ôîˆÏ«˛˛ô
ˆòÁÎ˚y ÎyˆÏÓ òy ~ÓÇ ˆ¢£z !¢k˛yhs˛£z â)˛v˛¸yhs˛– x!ïÜ,£#ì˛ ã!õÓ˚
!Ó!òõˆÏÎ˚ õy!úÑ˛ «˛!ì˛˛ô)Ó˚í ˛ôyˆÏÓò !Ñ˛ls˛ ì˛y ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ !òï≈y!Ó˚ì˛
ÓyãyÓ˚ õ)ˆÏúƒ ~ÓDz ã!õÓ˚ õy!úÑ˛ ì˛y !òˆÏì˛ Óyïƒ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏÓò–
~Ñ˛ÓyÓ˚ ã!õ x!ïÜ,£#ì˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜˆÏú ì˛y xyÓ˚ ˆö˛Ó˚ì˛ £ˆÏÓ òy–
ö˛ˆÏú ˆÓyG˛y£z ÎyˆÏFäÈ xy£zò!›˛ !äÈú xÜíì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ ~ÓÇ
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§ ˆÏì˛ ÎyÁÎ˚y
ˆ¢yòyÓ˚ ˛ôyÌÓ˚Óy!›˛ ˆÖ§yãyÓ˚ â˛y£zˆÏì˛Á Ñ˛!‡˛ò–
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¢y¡ÀyãƒÓyî# üy¢òÓƒÓfl˛iy ≤ÃÓì≈˛ò Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúÁ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ Îyey˛ôÌ›˛y
!Ñ˛ls˛ Ö%Ó õ¢,í !äÈú òy– Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛Ó˚y ÓyˆÏÓ˚ ÓyˆÏÓ˚ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆ«˛yˆÏ¶˛Ó˚
Ó!£É≤ÃÑ˛yü˛ !Ó!¶˛ß¨¶˛yˆÏÓ á!›˛ˆÏΈ˚ äÏ È– ì˛yÓ˚ v˛z˛ôˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏîˆÏüÓ˚ ≤Ãyâ˛#ò
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Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
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£ˆÏúÁ ì˛yÓ˚ ¢y¡ÀyãƒÓyî# xy@˘Ãy¢ò ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ Ó%ˆÏÑ˛ xyÓ˚Á
î,벸¶˛yˆÏÓ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ãòƒ ~õò ã!õ ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ ãò !äÈú Îy Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛
!ÓˆÏoy£ ¢,!‹T Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏÓ òy ~ÓÇ ÎyˆÏì˛ ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yò ã!õ£z ì˛yÓ˚ xyÎ˚ˆÏ_¥
xÌ≈yÍ ¢Ó˚y¢!Ó˚ Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…Ó˚ xyÁì˛yÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ xy¢y ÎyˆÏÓ– !ÓˆÏü°Ïì˛É
ˆÓ˚ú˛ôˆÏÌÓ˚ !Óhfl˛yÓ˚ñ ¢v˛¸Ñ˛ ˛ôˆÏÌÓ˚ !Óhfl˛yÓ˚ñ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ Î%k˛ v˛z˛ôÑ˛Ó˚í
˜ì˛Ó˚#Ó˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚Öyòyñ Ó,!›˛ü xÌ≈ò#!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛ ˆ¢Óy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~õò Ñ˛yÓ˚Öyòyñ
!ÓõyòÓ®Ó˚ £zì˛ƒy!îÓ˚ ãòƒ Ú!òÓ˚&˛ôoÓÛ ã!õÓ˚ îÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ !äÈú–
1894 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zò ˆ¢£z ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ ãˆÏòÓ˚£z ö˛¢ú–
~£z xy£zò Ó,!›˛ü ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆÏÑ˛ ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yò ã!õ !òˆÏãÓ˚ xyÎ˚ˆÏ_¥
Ó˚yÖyÓ˚ õyòƒì˛y !îÈú– ÓîˆÏú ã!õÓ˚ õy!úÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ã%›˛ˆÏúy xy!Ì≈Ñ˛
õ)ˆÏúƒ !Ñ˛!M˛ÈÍ «˛!ì˛˛ô)Ó˚í–
1894 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ ˙ xy£zò Óy!ì˛ú £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– !Ñ˛ls˛ Ó,!›˛ü
¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ≤Ãí#ì˛ Á£z xy£zò Óy!ì˛ú Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ~ˆÏîˆÏüÓ˚ üy¢Ñ˛ˆÏîÓ˚
67 ÓäÈÓ˚ úyÜú– ì˛yÁ xyÓyÓ˚ ˆfl˛∫FäÈyÎ˚ òÎ˚– !ÓÜì˛ îüˆÏÑ˛ ~ÓÇ
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24

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ãòƒ ì˛yÓ˚ ˆÑ˛yò ≤ö˛yÓ ˛ôv˛¸ˆÏÓ òy–
!Ó˚ˆÏ˛ôy›≈˛ ˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ Ñ˛!õ!›˛ˆÏì˛ (Expert Group)
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¢ÇˆÏ«˛ˆÏ˛ô ~£z £ˆÏFäÈ Óì≈˛õyò xy£zò– xy£zˆÏò 114 !›˛
ïyÓ˚y ~ÓÇ xãfl˛À v˛z˛ôïyÓ˚y Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ !Ñ˛ls˛ ~ÖòÁ ˛ôÎ≈hs˛ ~Ó˚
ˆÑ˛yòÓ˚Ñ˛õ !Ó!ï (Rule) ˆò£zñ xÌ≈yÍ xy£zò!›˛Ó˚ ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ Ü !Ñ˛¶˛yˆÏÓ
£ˆÏÓ ì˛yÓ˚ ¢%fl˛ô‹T˛ !òˆÏî≈!üÑ˛y ~ÖòÁ ˛ôÎ≈hs˛ xò%˛ô!fl˛iì˛– xy£zò!›˛
26

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Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛yÎ≈Ñ˛y!Ó˚ì˛yÓ˚ Ó!£É≤ÃÑ˛yü–
1894 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ xy£zò Óy!ì˛ú Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ xy£zò!›˛ !ÓˆÏã!˛ôÓ˚
¢õÌ≈ˆÏò ì˛ÍÑ˛yú#ò Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘Ã¢ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛y!úì˛ £zv˛z!˛ô~ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃòÎ˚í
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äÈú ì˛y !fl˛iì˛yÓfl˛iy ÓãyÎ˚ Ó˚yÖyÓ˚ ÓyïƒÓyïÑ˛ì˛yÓ˚ Ó!£É≤ÃÑ˛yü–
Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ñ Üíì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ â˛yˆÏ˛ô Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛!›˛
£z!ì˛Óyâ˛Ñ˛ ïyÓ˚y ¢ÇˆÏÎy!ãì˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ÓˆÏ›˛ !Ñ˛ls˛ ¢yõ!@˘ÃÑ˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ
xy£zò!›˛ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ôy≈ˆÏÓ˚›˛ î%!òÎ˚yÓ˚ fl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈Ó˚ Ñ˛Ìy õyÌyÎ˚ ˆÓ˚ˆÏÖ£z ˜ì˛Ó˚#
Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏú£z ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏÓ ˆÎ Ñ,˛!°Ï ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏí
xy˛ôyì˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ !Ñ˛ä%È !Ó!ï!òˆÏ°ÏˆÏïÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy Óúy ÌyÑ˛ˆÏúÁ ˛ô!Ó˚íyˆÏõ
ì˛y ˆÎ ˆòÁÎ˚y ÎyˆÏÓ ~ÓÇ Ó˝ö˛¢!ú v˛zÓ≈Ó˚ ã!õÁ ˆÎ xÑ,˛!°ÏÑ˛yˆÏã
ˆòÁÎ˚y ÎyˆÏÓ ˆ¢£z ì˛_¥ˆÏÑ˛£z ~£z xy£zò ≤Ã!ì˛!¤˛ì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ–
«˛!ì˛˛ô)Ó˚ˆÏíÓ˚ õyey â˛yÓ˚=í Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ !Ñ˛ls˛ ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yò ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛ò
õyò%°Ï£z ãyˆÏòò ˆÎ ~£z ›˛yÑ˛y›˛y ˛ô%§!ã˛ô!ì˛Ó˚y â˛yÓ˚=ˆÏíÓ˚ xˆÏòÑ˛
ˆÓ!ü=í úy¶˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ãòƒ£z ˆîˆÏÓ xÌ≈yÍ ˛ô%§!ãÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÓü ú!@¿
˛ô%!§ ãÓ˚ ≤ÈÑÏ ˛y˛ôñ ö˛y›˛Ñ˛y ˛ô%!§ ãÓ˚ ≤ÈÑÏ ˛y˛ô xyÓ˚Á Ó,!k˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ– 1894
¢yˆÏúÓ˚ xy£zˆÏò ¢Ó˚y¢!Ó˚ Óƒ!_´ õy!úÑ˛yòyï#ò ˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#Ó˚ òyˆÏõ
ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í Ñ˛Ó˚y ˆÎì˛ òy– ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏÜ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛y!Ó˚ ˆÑ˛yò !òÜõ
(undertaking) ~Ó˚ òyˆÏõ ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í Ñ˛Ó˚ì˛ñ ˛ôˆÏÓ˚ ì˛y
≤Ãy£zˆ¶Ï ˛›˛ ˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#ˆÏÑ˛ ú#ˆÏã !îˆÏÎ˚ !îì˛– ˆÎõò Ó˚yãyÓ˚£yˆÏ›˛ ã!õ
x!ï@˘Ã£í £ˆÏÎ!˚ äÈú !£v‰˛ˆÏÑ˛y (HIDCO) Ó˚ òyˆÏõñ !¢D%ˆÓÏ ˚ £ˆÏÎ!˚ äÈú
WBIDC ÈÙÈ Ó˚ òyˆÏõ– ˛≤Ã!e´Î˚y!›˛ ã!›˛ú– ö˛ˆÏú ~!›˛ˆÏÑ˛ ¢£ã
Ñ˛Ó˚y Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ ú!ÓÓ˚ ~Ñ˛yhs˛¶˛yˆÏÓ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò !äÈú– ã!õò#!ì˛
xyúÜy Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ Óy Úv˛zîyÓ˚#Ñ˛Ó˚íÛ ~Ó˚ ãòƒ !ÓŸªÓƒyB˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ â˛y˛ô
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ãòƒ ãòfl˛∫yˆÏÌÓ≈ ˚ òyˆÏõ ¢Ó˚y¢!Ó˚ x!ï@˘Ã£í Ñ˛Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ÓƒÓfl˛iy Ñ˛Ó˚y
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Ñ˛yˆÏã£z 1894 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ xy£zò Óy!ì˛ú £Ûú ӈϛ˛ñ !Ñ˛ls˛
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x!ï@˘Ã£í fl˛∫#Ñ,˛!ì˛ ˆ˛ôú– Ñ,˛!°Ïã!õñ v˛zÓ≈Ó˚ Ó˝ ö˛¢!ú Ñ,˛!°Ïã!õ
ˆÑ˛y¡ôyò# Óy ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# v˛zˆîÏ ƒyˆÏÜÓ˚ ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ ãˆÏò x!ï@˘Ã£í õyòƒì˛y
ˆ˛ôú– 1894 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ xy£zˆÏò Úãòfl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈Û x!ï@˘Ã£í ~ÓÇ
ˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#Ó˚ ãòƒ x!ï@˘Ã£í xyúyîy¶˛yˆÏÓ ˆîÖy £Ûì˛– xy£zˆÏòÓ˚
≤ÃyÓ˚!Ω˛Ñ˛yˆÏì˛ Óúy !äÈú ÈÙÈ An Act to amend the law for

≤ÈÏÎ˚yÜ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏÓ xyõúyì˛s˛fñ ö˛ˆÏú ˆÎ xyõúyì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ ã!›˛úì˛y
¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ Ó˚y‹T…#Î˚ ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ x!ÓˆÏFäÈjƒ xÇü ì˛y ~£z xy£zò
≤ÈÎÏ y˚ ˆÏÜÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏeÁ ˛ô%ˆÓÏ y˚ ˛ô%!Ó˚ ÓãyÎ˚ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏÓ ~ Ñ˛Ìy Óúy£z Óy˝úƒ–
ì˛Ó%Á ~Ñ˛Ìy õyòˆÏì˛£z £ˆÏÓ xy£zˆÏò ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%È !Ó°ÏÎ˚
Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˆ˚ äÏ È Îy xyˆÏÜÓ˚ xy£zˆòÏ Ó˚ ì%˛úòyÎ˚ xˆÏòÑ˛›˛y£z £z!ì˛Óyâ˛Ñ˛– ˆÓü
Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛!›˛ ˆ«˛ˆÏe S!˛ô!˛ô!˛ô Á ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# v˛zˆÏîƒyˆÏÜÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏeV
«˛!ì˛@˘Ãfl˛i ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=!úÓ˚ ¢¡ø!ì˛ @˘Ã£ˆÏíÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy Óúy £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈñ
xy!îÓy¢# xM˛ÈˆÏúÓ˚ ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏíÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ˆÓü !Ñ˛äÈ
!Ó!ï!òˆÏ°Ïï ãy!Ó˚ Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈñ «˛!ì˛˛ô)Ó˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí Ó,!k˛ Ñ˛Ó˚y
£ˆÏΈ˚ äÏ Èñ xÓƒÓ£*ì˛ x!ïÜ,£#ì˛ ã!õÓ˚ ≤Ãì˛ƒy˛ô≈ˆíÏ Ó˚ !Ó°ÏÎ!˚ ›˛Á v˛zˆÕÏ Ö‘
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fl˛∫#Ñ,˛!ì˛ !äÈú òy ö˛ˆÏú v˛zˆÏFäÈî £ÁÎ˚y ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=!úÓ˚ ˛ô%òÓ≈y¢ˆÏòÓ˚
ˆÑ˛yòÓ˚Ñ˛õ îyÎ˚Ók˛ì˛y xy£zˆÏò !äÈú òy– òì%˛ò xy£zˆÏò v˛zˆÏFäÈî
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xy£zò!›˛ ˛ôÎ≈yˆÏúyâ˛òy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúñ ~õò!Ñ˛ Ú£z!ì˛Óyâ˛Ñ˛Û
!îÑ˛=!úÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy õyÌyÎ˚ ˆÓ˚ˆÏÖÁ Óúy â˛ˆÏú ˆÎ 1894 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚
xy£zò!›˛ Óy!ì˛ú £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ÓˆÏ›˛ !Ñ˛ls˛ òì%˛ò xy£zˆÏòÁ Ñ˛y‡˛yˆÏõyÜì˛
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~ÓÇ xD%!úˆÏ£úˆÏò üy¢ò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ fl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈ ˆãyÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚
x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏíÓ˚ !Ó°ÏÎ˚!›˛ ~ÖyˆÏòÁ Ó£yú– xyˆÏÜ£z xyˆÏúyâ˛òy Ñ˛Ó˚y
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Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ î%!òÎ˚y ì˛yˆÏì˛ Ö%ü# £ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ !ò– ~ì˛yÓÍÑ˛yú Ö%ü#Ó˚
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ÓãyÎ˚ Ó˚yÖyÓ˚ ˆÎ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ îyÎ˚Ók˛ì˛y Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˆ˚ äÏ Èñ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ›˚ ˛ ˛ô%!§ ãÓ˚
ì˛y ˆò£zñ ì˛y Ó—y£#ò £ˆÏì˛ â˛yÎ˚– ˆõy!î ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ˆÎ x!v≈˛òƒy™
~ˆÏò!äÈú ì˛y ~£z Ó—y£#òì˛yÓ˚£z Ó!£É≤ÃÑ˛yüñ ˆõy!î ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ˆÎ
x!v≈˛òƒy™ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yÜ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !˛ôä%È £ˆÏ›˛ˆÏäÈ ì˛y !fl˛iì˛yÓfl˛iy ÓãyÎ˚ Ó˚yÖyÓ˚

the acquisition of land for public purposes and
for the companies ÈÙÈ xÌ≈yÍ ãòfl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈ ~ÓÇ ˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#Ó˚

≤ÈÏÎ˚yãˆÏò ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zˆÏòÓ˚ ¢ÇˆÏüyïò– !Ñ˛ls˛ 2013
27

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¢yˆÏúÓ˚ xy£zˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃyÓ˚!Ω˛Ñ˛yˆÏì˛ Óúy £Ûú ÈÙÈ An Act ..............

£ˆÏFäÈ xyˆÏõ!Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ xy£zò– õy!Ñ≈˛ò Î%_´Ó˚yˆÏ‹TÓ… ˚ ¢Ç!ÓïyˆÏò ˛ôM˛Èõ
¢ÇˆÏüyïò#ˆÏì˛ ~!›˛ xhs˛¶)˛≈ _´ Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏΈ˚ äÏ È– ~Ó˚ õyÏõ ¢yÓ≈ˆ¶Ï ˛Ôõ
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Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ â˛ˆÏúˆÏäÈÊ
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≤ÃˆÏ Î ˚ y ãò#Î˚ ¢ÇˆÏ ü yïò# xyòyÓ˚ ˆâ˛‹T y Ñ˛Ó˚ ˆ Ï Ó £z ~Ñ˛Ìy
!mïy£#ò¶˛yˆÏÓ Óúy ÎyÎ˚– xyÓ˚ Î!î ¢ÇˆÏüyïò òyÁ Óy xyˆÏòñ
ˆÎ xy£zò!›˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆÜú ì˛yÁ !Ñ˛ls˛ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ ˛ô§%!ãÓ˚ fl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈ñ
ú!@¿˛ô§%!ãÓ˚ fl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈ ΈÏÌ‹T xò%Ñ%˛ú–

to ensure acquisition for industrialisation, development of essential infrastructural facilities and
urbanisation ............. xÌ≈yÍ !ü“yÎ˚òñ xyÓüƒÑ˛#Î˚

˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛y‡˛yˆÏõy ¢%!ÓïyÓ˚ !ÓÑ˛yü ~ÓÇ òÜÓ˚yÎ˚íˆÏÑ˛ ¢%!ò!ÿ˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ÓyÓ˚
~Ñ˛!›˛ xy£zòñ fl˛ô‹Tì˛£z ˆÑ˛yòÓ˚Ñ˛õ Ó˚yÖ ë˛yÑ˛ òy Ñ˛ˆÏÓñ˚ ˆÑ˛yòÓ˚Ñ˛õ
xyõúyì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ ã!›˛úì˛y òy ˆÓ˚ˆÏÖñ ˆÑ˛yòÓ˚Ñ˛õ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛
v˛zˆÏjüƒˆÏÑ˛ xyv˛¸yú òy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ ¢Çfl˛iyñ ˛ô%§!ã˛ô%!ãˆÏîÓ˚
ãòƒ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò#Î˚ ~Ñ˛!›˛ xy£zòÊ
x!ï@˘Ã£í ÈÙÈ Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…Ó˚ xÓfl˛iyò
ö˛ˆÏú ˆõy!î ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ x!v≈˛òƒy™ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yÜ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !ÓÓ˚ì˛
ÌyÑ˛y›˛y£z ΈÏÌ‹T òÎ˚– ˆÎ xy£zò!›˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜú ì˛yÁ Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛
fl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈Ó˚£z xò%¢y!Ó˚– ¢y¡±!ì˛Ñ˛ ¢õ#«˛yˆÏì˛ ˆîÖy !܈ÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ Üì˛ î%£z
îüˆÏÑ˛ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 28 ú«˛ ˆ£QÓ˚ Ñ,˛!°Ïã!õ £…y¢ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– Ñ,˛!°ÏˆÏ«˛eñ
Ñ,˛!°Ï xÌ≈ò#!ì˛ˆÏì˛ xyÜyõ# !îò=!úˆÏì˛ xyˆÏÓ˚y Óv˛¸ ïyE˛y xy¢ß¨–
!Ó˛ôߨ £ˆÏÓ Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ó˚&!›˛ Ó˚&!ãñ !Ó˛ôߨ £ˆÏÓ ˆîüñ xyÓ˚ ~£z
!Ó˛ôߨì˛yˆÏÑ˛ ¢y£y΃ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏÓ ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zò!›˛–
xy¢ˆÏú x!ï@˘Ã£í !Ó°ÏÎ!˚ ›˛£z Ó˚yˆÏ‹TÓ… ˚ ~Ñ˛ˆÏâ˛!›˛Î˚y x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ñ
xy£zò ˆ¢£z x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏí Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…Ó˚ Á£z x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yˆÏÜÓ˚ ¢£yÎ˚Ñ˛–
¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ ¢Ç!ÓïyˆÏò x!ï@˘Ã£íˆÏÑ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚fl˛ÒyÓ˚ ¶˛yˆÏÓ Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…Ó˚
Eminent domain Sxhs˛!ò≈!£ì˛ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚V !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ Óí≈òy Ñ˛Ó˚y
xyˆÏäÈ–
"Eminent domain means the power of the
soverign to take property for public use without
the owner's consent" ÈÙÈ xÌ≈yÍ Ó˚y‹T… õy!úˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ¢¡ø!ì˛ äÈyv˛¸y£z

ˆõˆÏò ˆòÓ⁄

ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yò ¢¡ø!ì˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚– Eminent domain Óy
xhs˛!ò≈!£ì˛ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ õyˆÏò ~›˛y£zÊ ö˛ˆÏú xy£zˆòÏ ˆÎ ¢¡ø!ì˛@˘Ã£ˆÏíÓ˚
Ñ˛Ìy Óúy xyˆÏäÈ ì˛y Ó˚y‹T… Óy ¢Ç!Óïyò Ñ˛ì˛Öy!ò ≤ÈÏÎ˚yÜ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏÓ Óy
!Ñ˛¶˛yˆÏÓ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yÜ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏÓ ì˛y ˛ô!Ó˚fl˛ÒyÓ˚ £ÁÎ˚y ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò– ˆîˆÏüÓ˚
¢ˆÏÓ≈yFⲠxyîyúì˛ ¢%!≤Ãõ ˆÑ˛y›≈˛Á !Ó!¶˛ß¨ Ó˚yˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…Ó˚ ~£z
x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ˆÏÑ˛ ≤Ã!ì˛!¤˛ì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ–
xˆÏòˆÏÑ˛£z õˆÏò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò 1894 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zò
Óy!ì˛ú £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎ xy£zò!›˛ ~ú ì˛yˆÏì˛ ~£z Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…Ó˚ Eminent
domain Sxhs˛!ò≈!£ì˛ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚V ÈÙÈ ~Ó˚ !Ó°ÏÎ˚!›˛ !Ñ˛ä%È›˛y £ˆÏúÁ
£…y¢ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– xyîˆÏ˛ô£z ì˛y òÎ˚– ~!›˛ Ó£yú ì˛!ÓÎ˚ˆÏì˛£z Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ–
~£z Eminent domain Sxhs˛!ò≈!£ì˛ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚V ü∑!›˛Ó˚ v˛zÍ¢

ˆÎ¶˛yˆÏÓ£z ˆ£yÑ˛ òy ˆÑ˛ò ÓyãyÓ˚ xÌ≈ò#!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛ â˛yDy Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚
~Ñ˛›˛y Óyì˛yÓÓ˚í ˜ì˛Ó˚#Ó˚ ˆâ˛‹Ty â˛úˆÏäÈ– ~Ñ˛›˛y õì˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ˆÎ
ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# !üˆÏ“Ó˚ ãòƒ ã!õÓ˚ ӈϮyÓhfl˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe
¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ˆÑ˛yòÓ˚Ñ˛õ ¶)˛!õÑ˛y ÌyÑ˛ˆÏÓ òy– ~£z õˆÏv˛ˆÏúÓ˚ ~Ñ˛›˛y
≤ÈÏÎ˚yÜ Ó#Ó˚¶)˛ˆÏõÓ˚ ˆúyÓy @˘ÃyˆÏõ £ˆÏÎ˚!äÈú– !ü“˛ô!ì˛Ó˚y ÁÖyˆÏò
Ñ˛Î˚úyÖ!òÓ˚ ãòƒ ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%È ã!õ !Ñ˛ˆÏò!äÈú– Óyhfl˛ˆÏÓ ˆîÖy
ˆÜú ˆäÈy›˛ ã!õÓ˚ õy!úˆÏÑ˛Ó˚y xˆÏòÑ˛ Ñ˛õ îyõ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈò ~ÓÇ
õyˆÏG˛ ö˛ˆÏv˛¸ îyúyˆÏúÓ˚y ã%Ȉϛ˛ !܈ÏÎ˚ ≤Ãâ%˛Ó˚ ã!õ £hfl˛Üì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ
~ÓÇ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ ¢Ó›˛y£z v˛zߨÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛◊&!ì˛ ~ÓÇ â˛yÑ˛!Ó˚Ó˚ ¶)˛ˆÏÎ˚y
≤Ã!ì˛◊&!ì˛ ˆî!ÖˆÏÎ˚– xÓfl˛iy ~õò ˛ôÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚ ˆ˛ôÔ§äÈÎ˚ ˆÎ v˛z˛ôÎ%_´
28

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
«˛!ì˛˛ô)Óˆ˚ íÏ Ó˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ ~ÓÇ Ñ,˛!°Ïã!õ Ó˚«˛yÓ˚ ì˛y!܈Ïî @˘ÃyõÓy¢#ˆÏÑ˛
xyˆÏ®yúò ܈Ïv˛¸ ì%˛úˆÏì˛ £Î˚ ~ÓÇ ˆ¢£z xyˆÏ®yúˆÏò ˛ô%!úü =!ú
â˛yúyÎ˚ñ ~!›˛ ~Ñ˛!›˛ v˛zîy£Ó˚í õyeñ ~Ó˚Ñ˛õ xãfl˛À v˛zîy£Ó˚í Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˆ˚ äÏ È
ˆÎÖyˆÏò ã!õ xyÓ˚ Ñ,˛°ÏˆÑÏ ˛Ó˚ £yˆÏì˛ ˆò£zñ ã!õ îyúyúñ ˛ö˛y›˛Ñ˛yÓyãñ
!ü“˛ô!ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ £yˆÏì˛ â˛ˆÏú !܈ÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– ˆäÈy›˛ ã!õ õy!úˆÏÑ˛Ó˚y Ñ˛õ
îyˆÏõ ã!õ !îˆÏì˛ Óyïƒ £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈò Ñ˛yÓ˚í îyúyúÈÙÈ!ü“˛ô!ì˛ ˆãyˆÏ›˛Ó˚
¢yˆÏÌ îÓ˚Ñ˛°ÏyÑ˛!°ÏÓ˚ «˛õì˛y ì˛§yˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛õñ ÓÜ≈yîyÓ˚ˆîÏ Ó˚ ¢yõyòƒ !Ñ˛ä%È
›˛yÑ˛y !îˆÏÎ˚ xÌÓy ˝õ!Ñ˛ !îˆÏÎ˚ v˛zˆFÏ äÈî Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏΈ˚ äÏ Èñ ˆ«˛ì˛õã%Óˆ˚ îÏ Ó˚
ˆ¢›˛yÁ ˆãyˆÏ›˛ !ò– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ Î!î x!ï@˘Ã£í Ñ˛Ó˚ì˛ ì˛y£ˆÏú
v˛z˛ôÎ%_´ «˛!ì˛˛ô)Óí˚ Á ˛ô%òÓ≈y¢ˆÏòÓ˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ myÓ˚fl˛i £ÁÎ˚y
ˆÎì˛Ê Ñ˛yˆÏã£z ~£z õˆÏv˛ú xyˆÏîÔ Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ fl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈Ó˚ Óy ◊õã#Ó#
õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ xò%¢y!Ó˚ òy–
¢ÇÑ˛›˛›˛y xì˛ƒhs˛ ì˛#Ó – ~›˛y ÷ï%õye ˆÑ˛yò xy£zò Óy!ì˛ú
~ÓÇ ì˛yÓ˚ ÓîˆÏú òì%˛ò ~Ñ˛!›˛ xy£zò ≤ÃòÎ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ≤ß¿ òÎ˚– ~Ó˚
¢ˆÏD ã!v˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚ Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˆ˚ äÏ È Ó˚yˆÏ‹TÓ… ˚ ¶)˛!õÑ˛yñ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ î,!‹T¶˛D#Ó˚ ≤ß¿Áñ
Óì≈˛õyˆÏò ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ Ó˚y‹T…Îs˛f!›˛ ΧyÓ˚y ˛ô!Ó˚â˛yúòy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏäÈò ì§˛yÓ˚y
Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ ˛ô%§!ãÓ˚ Ó—y£#ò ≤âyˆÏÓ˚ !ÓŸªy¢#– ö˛ˆÏú x!ï@˘Ã£íˆÏÑ˛
ì§˛yÓ˚y ˙ î,!‹T¶˛D#ˆÏì˛£z ˛ô!Ó˚â˛yúòy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÓÏ òó ˛ôyüy˛ôy!üñ ¢y¡±!ì˛Ñ˛
xì˛#ˆÏì˛Ó˚ ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%È á›˛òyÓú# ≤Ãõyí Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ ˙Ñ˛ƒÓk˛ Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛
xyˆÏ®yúò ~£z Ó—y£#òì˛yˆÏÑ˛ ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏÓ˚yï Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚– ˙Ñ˛ƒˆÏÑ˛
!Ó!á¯ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ≤Ã!e´Î˚y ˆãyÓ˚ Ñ˛îˆÏõ â˛úˆÏäÈ– ˆÎ¶˛yˆÏÓ ¢y¡±îy!Î˚Ñ˛
Ó˚à úy!܈ÏÎ˚ ◊õã#Ó# õyò%ˆ°Ï ÓÏ ˚ ˙Ñ˛ƒˆÏÑ˛ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# õîˆÏì˛ ò‹T Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚
ˆîÓyÓ˚ â˛e´yhs˛ â˛úˆÏäÈ ì˛y ¶˛Î˚yÓ£– x˜ÏòÑ˛ƒ üy¢Ñ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ £yì˛ˆÏÑ˛
ü_´ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ñ ˆ◊!íˆÏâ˛ì˛òy £…y¢ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚– ˆ◊!íˆÏâ˛ì˛òy Îì˛ £…y¢ ˛ôyˆÏÓñ
Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚›˛ ˛ô%§!ã ì˛ì˛ Ó—y£#ò¶˛yˆÏÓ ì˛yÓ˚ xò%≤ÈÏÓü ᛲyˆÏÓ–
ˆ¢Ó˚Ñ˛õ ˛ô!Ó˚!fl˛i!ì˛ˆÏì˛ üy¢Ñ˛ˆÏ◊í# ì˛yÓ˚ £zˆÏFäÈ õì˛ ã!õÓ˚
x!ï@˘Ã£íˆÏÑ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛yúòy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏÓñ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zòˆÏÑ˛ ¢yãyˆÏÓ–
ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yò ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛ò õyò%°Ï£z â˛y£zˆÏÓ ~Ó˚ v˛zˆÏŒ›˛y›˛y á›%˛Ñ˛–
ˆ◊!íˆÏâ˛ì˛òy £…y¢ òÎ˚ ÓÓ˚Ç ◊õã#Ó# õyò%ˆ°Ï ÓÏ ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ˆÓÏ yï ܈Ïã≈
v˛z‡%˛Ñ˛–

ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zòˆÏÑ˛ xyúyîy ~Ñ˛›˛y ˆ«˛e !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ
ˆîÖy Ñ˛Ó˚y›˛y !‡˛Ñ˛ òÎ˚– ~Ó˚ ¢ˆÏD ã!v˛¸ì˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…Ó˚ î,!‹T¶˛D#
ˆÎ î,!‹T¶˛D# â)˛v˛¸yhs˛¶˛yˆÏÓ ãò !ÓˆÏÓ˚yï#– x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zò
Ñ,˛!°Ïã!õÓ˚ v˛z˛ôˆÏÓ˚ ÌyÓy Ó!¢ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– Ñ,˛°ÏˆÏÑ˛Ó˚y ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ã#Óò
ã#!ÓÑ˛yÓ˚ fl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈ ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏÓ˚yï ܈Ïv˛¸ ì%˛úˆÏÓ ~›˛y fl˛∫y¶˛y!ÓÑ˛– !Ñ˛ls˛
ˆ¢›˛y£z ~Ñ˛õye Ñ˛Ìy òÎ˚– Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏÓ˚yï
܈Ïv˛¸ ì%˛úˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ ÈÙÈ ÷ï% ~£z Ñ˛Ìy ÓˆÏú îyÎ˚ ~!v˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÁÎ˚y
ÎyˆÏÓ òy– !Ó≤’Ó# xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ÎyÓ˚y ïyÓ˚Ñ˛ ~ÓÇ Óy£Ñ˛ £ˆÏì˛
â˛yòñ ΧyÓ˚y ¢õyã ÓîˆÏúÓ˚ fl˛∫≤¿ ˆîˆÏÖòñ ì˛§yˆÏîÓ˚ ≤ÈìÏ ˛ƒˆÏÑ˛Ó˚£z îy!Î˚c
Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˆ˚ äÏ È ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏÓy˚ ï ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yúyÓ˚– ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zò ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚
ã!õ ò#!ì˛Ó˚£z ≤Ã!ì˛ö˛úò– Ñ,˛°ÏˆÑÏ ˛Ó˚ñ Ñ,˛!°Ïã#Ó# õyò%ˆ°Ï ÓÏ ˚ ã!õ ò#!ì˛
£Ûú ¶)˛!õÈÙÈ¢Çfl˛ÒyÓ˚ñ ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í òÎ˚– xÌⲠ÷ï% ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚
xy¢#ò Ó˚ y ã˜Ï ò !ì˛Ñ˛ îú=!ú£z òÎ˚ ñ ¢Ç¢î ¢Ó≈ fl ˛∫ ¢õhfl˛
Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ îú=!ú£z ¶)˛!õÈÙÈ¢Çfl˛ÒyÓ˚ Ñ˛õ≈¢)â˛#ˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛yÎ≈ì˛ ˛ô!Ó˚£yÓ˚
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ– ~£z xÓfl˛iyÎ˚ ≤ÃÑ,˛ì˛ ¶)˛!õÈÙÈ¢Çfl˛ÒyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ Ó_´Óƒ
ˆ¢yFâ˛yˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yÖy îÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ñ xyˆÏ®yúò ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yúy îÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚– ~õò
~Ñ˛›˛y ˛ô!Ó˚!fl˛i!ì˛ ˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛Ó˚y îÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ˆÎÖyˆÏò Ó˚y‹T…ü!_´Ó˚ Ó_´Óƒ
xyâ˛Ó˚ˆÏíÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ x!ï@˘Ã£í ¢£ ¢yõ!@˘ÃÑ˛ ã!õ ò#!ì˛Ó˚ fl˛∫˛ôˆÏ«˛£z
◊õã#Ó# õyò%ˆ°Ï ÓÏ ˚ ˆãy›˛ ì˛yÓ˚ Ó_´Óƒ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ ˆ≤ë˛y˛ôˆÏ›˛ äÈ!v˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚
!îˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚–
¢y£y΃ ˆòÁÎ˚y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ É ÈÙÈ
1V
2V
3V
4V

29

ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£í xy£zò ÈÙÈ 1894–
ã!õ x!ï@˘Ã£ˆÏí v˛z˛ôÎ%_´ «˛!ì˛˛ô)Óí˚ Á fl˛∫FäÈì˛yÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ñ
˛ô%òÓ≈y¢ò ~ÓÇ ˛ô%òÉ≤Ã!ì˛fl˛iy˛ôò xy£zòñ 2013–
¢õyã !ÓK˛yò Á ≤ÃÑ,˛!ì˛ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛Î˚ ˛ô!eÑ˛yñ ˆ¢ˆÏ≤Wz¡∫Ó˚
2014 ¢ÇÖƒy–
Case Book on Indian Constitutional Law D. D. Basu.

¢õ ¢õÎ˚

!¢!úÑ˛ò v˛z˛ôì˛ƒÑ˛yÓ˚ !ü«˛y!ÓîˆÏîÓ˚ xy£¥yò
[ ≤Ãïyòõs˛f# òˆÏÓw
˚ ˆõy!î ¢¡±!ì˛ xyˆÏõ!Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ !¢!úÑ˛ò

≤ÃÑ˛“!›˛ˆÏì˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ì˛y Óƒ!_´Üì˛ ì˛ˆÏ̃Ó˚ !òÓ˚y˛ô_yÓ˚ x¶˛yˆÏÓ
¢ÇÑ˛ˆÏ›˛Ó˚ õ%ˆÏÖ ˛ôv˛¸ˆÏÓ ~ÓÇ ~Ó˚ x˛ôÓƒÓ£yÓ˚ £ˆÏÓ– ~›˛y õˆÏò
Ñ˛Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ΈÏÌ‹T Ñ˛yÓ˚í Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ˆÎ Óƒ!_´Üì˛ ì˛Ìƒ ¢Ç@˘ÃˆÏ£Ó˚
!Ó°ÏÎ˚!›˛ˆÏì˛ ¢õyˆÏúyâ˛Ñ˛Ó˚y ˆÎ ˆõÔ!úÑ˛ ≤ß¿=!ú ì%˛ˆÏúˆÏäÈò
Ú!v˛!ã›˛yú £z!u˛Î˚yÛ ì˛yˆÏÑ˛ v˛zˆÏ˛ô«˛y Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ ~ÓÇ ~›˛y ≤ÃyÎ˚
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Ï ò– xM˛Èú!›˛ v˛z_Ó˚
v˛z˛ôì˛ƒÑ˛y (Silicon Vally) ¢ö˛ˆÏÓ˚ !܈ÏÎ!˚ äȈú
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27 ˆ¢ˆÏ≤Wz¡∫Ó˚ 2015 ˆì˛ ≤Ãïyòõs˛f# òˆÏÓ˚w ˆõy!îÓ˚
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33

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Ï ˛ôy›˛!ü“ Á Ñ˛y˛ôˆÏv˛¸Ó˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚Öyòy ܈Ïv˛¸ v˛z‡˛ú–
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34

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ã!õˆÏì˛ 2ñ812 ãò– 1991 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ ¢õ#«˛y xò%¢yˆÏÓ˚
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ãò¢ÇÖƒyÓ˚ 1/3 xÇü–
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~ÓÇ xyÓ˚Á 19 üì˛yÇü Ñœ˛yü ~£zˆÏ›˛Ó˚ xyˆÏÜ fl˛%ÒˆÏú ÎyÁÎ˚y ˆäȈÏv˛¸
ˆîÎ˚– Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛yÓ˚ Ó!hfl˛=!úˆÏì˛ äÈ!Ó›˛y !ÓˆÏü°Ï xòƒÓ˚Ñ˛õ òÎ˚–
Ó!hfl˛=!úˆÏì˛ õ)úì˛É !ì˛ò ïÓ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ fl˛%Òú ˆîÖy ÎyÎ˚ ÈÙÈ 1V KPSC
SÑ˛úÑ˛yì˛y ≤Ãy£zõy!Ó˚ fl˛%Òú Ñ˛yv˛z!™úV ˛ô!Ó˚â˛y!úì˛ fl˛%Òúó 2V KMC
SÑ˛úÑ˛yì˛y !õv˛z!ò!¢˛ôƒyú Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚üòV ˛ô!Ó˚â˛y!úì˛ fl˛%Òúó ~ÓÇ
3V ˆfl˛∫FäÈyˆÏ¢Ó# ¢Çfl˛iy ˛ô!Ó˚â˛y!úì˛ Ú!ü«˛yúÎ˚Û fl˛%Òú– ~Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ
KPSC ˛ô!Ó˚â˛y!úì˛ fl˛%Òú=!úˆÏì˛ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 70 üì˛yÇü !ü÷Ó˚y ˛ôˆÏv˛¸–
KPSC Á KMC fl˛%Òú=!úˆÏì˛ ˆõˆÏÎ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ˛ôv˛¸yÓ˚ £yÓ˚ S47%
˛ôv˛YÎy˚ ˆõˆÏÎV˚ ó Ú!ü«˛yúÎ˚Û ÈÙÈ fl˛%Òú=!úÓ˚ ì%˛úòyÎ˚ Ñ˛õ S50 üì˛yÇü
˛ôv˛YÎ˚y ˆõˆÏÎ˚V– ~Ó˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚í ¢Ω˛Óì˛ !ü«˛yúÎ˚ fl˛%Òú=!ú áÓ˚=!úÓ˚
xˆÏ ò Ñ˛ Ñ˛yˆÏ ä È xÓ!fl˛i ì ˛– KPSC Óy KMC fl˛% Ò ú=!úÓ˚
ˆÓ!üÓ˚¶˛yˆÏÜÓ˚£z ˆõˆÏΈ˚ îÏ Ó˚ ãòƒ xyúyîy ÓyÌÓ˚&õ ˆò£z– !ü«˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚
¢ÇÖƒyÁ KPSC fl˛%Òú=!úˆÏì˛ xˆÏ˛ô«˛yÑ,˛ì˛ Ñ˛õ– ì˛ˆÏÓ ¢õhfl˛
fl˛%Òú=!úˆÏì˛£z 6 ÓäȈÓÏ Ó˚ ˚ v˛zˆkÏ ≈˛ fl˛%Òˆú
Ï ¶˛!ì≈˛ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ £yÓ˚ ˆÓü Ñ˛õ–
fl˛%Òú=!úˆÏì˛ v˛z˛ô!fl˛i!ì˛Ó˚ £yÓ˚Á ¢ˆÏhs˛y°ÏãòÑ˛ òÎ˚–
¢õ#«˛yÎ˚ ˆîÖy ˆÜˆÏäÈñ 80 üì˛yÇü ~Ó˚ ˆÓ!ü Ñœ˛yˆÏ¢ v˛z˛ô!fl˛iì˛
ÌyˆÏÑ˛ ~õò ˛ôv˛YÎ˚yÓ˚ ¢ÇÖƒy õye 39 üì˛yÇü– xòƒ!îˆÏÑ˛ 50
üì˛yÇü ~Ó˚ Ñ˛õ Ñœ˛yˆÏ¢ v˛z˛ô!fl˛iì˛ ÌyˆÏÑ˛ ~õò !ü÷Ó˚y ≤ÃyÎ˚ 25

Ñ˛õ≈¢Çfl˛iyòñ !ü«˛y Á xòƒyòƒ
Ó!hfl˛Óy¢# õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ã#!ÓÑ˛y !òÓ≈y£ £Î˚ õ)úì˛ ˆäÈy›˛
ÓƒÓ¢yˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ ãyõyÈÙÈÑ˛y˛ôv˛¸ ˜ì˛!Ó˚Ó˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚ÖyòyÎ˚– ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚#ÈÙÈâ˛yÑ%˛Ó˚#ˆÏì˛
xÌÓy ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ ◊!õÑ˛ !£¢yˆÏÓ– Ñ˛ˆÏÎÑ˚ ˛ ˛ô%Ó&˚ °Ï ïˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛yÓy¢#
˛˛ô%Ó˚&°ÏÓ˚y ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆÎyÜyˆÏÎyˆÏÜÓ˚ õyÏõ Ñ˛yã Ö%§ˆÏã ˆòÎ˚– Ó!hfl˛Ó˚
õˆÏz !Ñ˛ä%È õyò%°Ï !òˆÏãˆÏîÓ˚ ˆãyÜyv˛¸ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆòò ˆäÈy›˛ Ñ˛yÓ˚Öyòy
˜ì˛!Ó˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚– Ó!hfl˛Óy¢#ˆÏîÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ~ˆÏîÓ˚ xy!Ì≈Ñ˛ xÓfl˛iy ì%˛úòyÎ˚
fl˛∫FäÈú– ~äÈyv˛¸yÁ xyˆÏäÈò Ó˝ Ñ˛y!Î˚Ñ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚◊õÑ˛yÓ˚# õyò%°Ï ˆÎõò
ÈÙÈ !Ó˚Ñ˛üyâ˛yúÑ˛ Á !‡˛Ñ˛y ◊!õÑ˛ ΧyÓ˚y xÌ≈˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ ¢ÓˆÏâ˛ˆÏÎ˚
î%Óú
≈ – ¢Ó!õˆÏú ≤ÃyÎ˚ 36.5% áˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ã#!ÓÑ˛y â˛ˆÏú ¢y!¶≈˛¢ ˆ¢r›˛yÓ˚
õyÓ˚ö˛ì˛– xòƒ!îˆÏÑ˛ 22 üì˛yÇü áˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ã#!ÓÑ˛y â˛ˆÏú ˆ¢ú¢
35

¢õ ¢õÎ˚
üì˛yÇü– xÌ≈yÍ fl˛%Òú˛ôv˛YÎ˚yˆÏîÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ â˛ì%˛Ì≈yÇü fl˛%Òúä%Ȉϛ˛Ó˚ òyõ
ˆúÖyˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ ˆÑ˛yò ¢õÎ˚– fl˛%Òˆú
Ï xò%˛ô!fl˛i!ì˛Ó˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚í Ö%ã
§ ˆÏì˛
!܈ÏÎ˚ v˛zˆÏ‡˛ ~ˆÏ¢ˆÏäÈ !Ñ˛ä%È˛ xãyòy Á xq$ì˛ ì˛Ìƒ– î!Ó˚oì˛õ
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=!úˆÏì˛ fl˛%Òúä%Ȉ›Ï ˛Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí ì%˛úòyÎ˚ Ñ˛õÊ– ì%˛úòyÎ˚ fl˛∫FäÈú
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=!úˆÏì˛ fl˛%Òúä%Ȉϛ˛Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí ˆÓ!ü– Ñ˛yÓ˚í î!Ó˚oì˛õ
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=!úˆÏì˛ !ü÷ˆÏÑ˛ fl˛%ÒˆÏú ˛ôy‡˛yˆÏòyÓ˚ õ)ú Ñ˛yÓ˚í £ú fl˛%Òú
ˆÌˆÏ Ñ ˛ ˛ôyÁÎ˚ y ÖyÓyÓ˚ ñ xòƒ!îˆÏ Ñ ˛ xˆÏ ˛ ô«˛yÑ, ˛ ì˛ fl˛∫ F äÈú
˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=!úˆÏì˛ xˆÏòÑ˛¢õÎ˚ !ü÷!›˛ˆÏÑ˛ ˆÑ˛yò ~Ñ˛›˛y Ñ˛yˆÏã
úy!܈ÏÎ˚ ˆîÁÎ˚y›˛y fl˛%Òú ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˛ôyÁÎ˚y ÖyÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ì%˛úòyÎ˚ ˆÓ!ü
úy¶˛ãòÑ˛ ÓˆÏú õˆÏò £Î˚– ~äÈyv˛¸yÁ ˆîÖy ˆÜˆÏäÈñ !ü÷Ó˚ fl˛%ÒˆÏú
ÎyÁÎ˚yÓ˚ £yÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛ô%Ó˚&°ÏˆÏîÓ˚ !ü«˛yÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ !ò¶≈˛Ó˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ òy
ÓÓ˚Ç ì˛y !ò¶≈˛Ó˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !ü÷Ó˚ õy ~Ó˚ !ü«˛yÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚–
Ó!hfl˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛!›˛ áˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Üv˛¸ xyÎ˚ì˛ò 450 ÓÜ≈ö%˛›˛ S45
ÓÜ≈!õ›˛yÓ˚V– ≤Ã!ì˛!›˛ áˆÏÓ˚ ܈Ïv˛¸ 13 ãò õyò%°Ï Óy¢ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò– xÌ≈yÍ
õyÌy!˛ôä%È õye 3 ÓÜ≈!õ›˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ¢yõyòƒ ˆÓ!üÊ ~úyÑ˛yÓ˚ ãòáòcÁ
ü£ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xòƒyòƒ xLjÏüÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ xˆÏòÑ˛ ˆÓ!ü– ≤Ã!ì˛ Ñ˛y‡˛yˆÏì˛
ÌyˆÏÑ˛ò 19 ãò S≤Ã!ì˛ ˆ£QˆÏÓ˚ 2812 ãòVÈÙÈ ~ˆÏÑ˛£z Ó!hfl˛=!úˆÏì˛
fl˛iyò ¢ÇÑ%˛úyò £Î˚òy ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚=!úÓ˚ñ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ls˛ ì˛yÓ˚ õˆÏïƒÁ
xˆÏòÑ˛ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ~Ñ˛!›˛ áÓ˚ Óy ÓyÓ˚y®y ¶˛yv˛¸y ˆîÁÎ˚y £Î˚ ¢Ç¢yˆÏÓ˚
¢yõyòƒ !Ñ˛ä%È xÌ≈y܈ÏõÓ˚ xyüyÎ˚–
¢Ó !õˆÏú Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛y !õv˛z!ò!¢˛ôƒyú Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ô≈yˆÏÓ˚üˆÏòÓ˚
x!ïÑ,˛ì˛ Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛yÓ˚ ~£z xÇü=!úˆÏì˛ 2009 ~Ó˚ ãòÜíòy
xò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ Ó¢Óy¢ Ñ˛ˆÏÓò˚ 24ñ760 ãò ≤Ã!ì˛ !Ñ˛!õˆÏì˛ ÈÙÈ ˆÎÖyˆÏò
!ÓŸª fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢Çfl˛iyÓ˚ (WHO) ¢%˛ôy!Ó˚ü õˆÏì˛y ≤Ã!ì˛ !Ñ˛!õˆÏì˛
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛Ó˚ ¶˛yˆÏÓ ˆÓ§ˆâÏ ˛ ÌyÑ˛yÓ˚ ãòƒ ¢ˆÏÓy≈ FⲠ2500 ãò ÌyÑ˛ˆÏì˛
˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ò–
Ó!hfl˛Óy¢#ˆÏîÓ˚ ˜îò!®ò ÖÓ˚ˆâÏ ˛Ó˚ !£¢yÓ !òˆÏú xyˆÏÓy˚ !Ñ˛ä%È
ì˛Ìƒ ˛ôyÁÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚– Óy!Ñ˛ ˛ô!ÿ˛õÓˆÏDÓ˚ ü£ˆÏÓ˚ ãòÜí ˆÎÖyˆÏò
ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ 8.71 üì˛yÇü ÖÓ˚â˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓò˚ Öyîƒñ ˛ôyò#Î˚ Á ˆòüyÓ˚
oˆÏÓƒÓ˚ !˛ôäȈÏòñ ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛yÓ˚ Ó!hfl˛Óy¢#Ó˚y ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚
54.81 üì˛yÇü ÖÓ˚â˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò Öyîƒñ ˛ôyò#Î˚ ˆòüy oˆÏÓƒÓ˚ !˛ôäȈÏò–
xòƒ!îˆÏÑ˛ñ ì˛yÓ˚y£z xyÓyÓ˚ áÓ˚Óy!v˛¸Ó˚ !˛ôäȈÏò ÖÓ˚â˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò xyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚
õye 2.40 üì˛yÇü ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò Óy!Ñ˛ ˛ô!ÿ˛õÓˆÏDÓ˚ ü£Ó˚Óy¢# ÖÓ˚â˛
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò 20.34 üì˛yÇü– xyÿ˛Î≈ãòÑ˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓñ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ Á !ü«˛yÓ˚

ˆ«˛ˆÏe !Ó°ÏÎ˚!›˛ ¢¡ô)í≈ xòƒÓ˚Ñ˛õ– Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛yÓ˚ Ó!hfl˛Óy¢#Ó˚y fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ
Á !ü«˛yÓ˚ ãòƒ ÖÓ˚â˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò xyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ 11.81 üì˛yÇü Á 6.26
üì˛yÇü Îy Óy!Ñ˛ ü£Ó˚Óy¢#Ó˚ ì%˛úòyÎ˚ ˆÓü ˆÓ!ü ÎÌye´ˆÏõ S5.32
üì˛yÇü Á 5.49 üì˛yÇüV– ~Ó˚ !˛ôäȈÏò xÓüƒ Îì˛›˛y òy îyÎ˚#
Ó!hfl˛Óy¢# ãò܈ÏíÓ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛y ì˛yÓ˚ ˆâ˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆë˛Ó˚ ˆÓ!ü
xÓfl˛iyò Ó!hfl˛ ~úyÑ˛y=!úˆÏì˛ !Óòyõ)ˆÏúƒ ÎÌyÎÌ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ Á
ãò!ü«˛y Ñ˛õ≈¢â) ˛#Ó˚ x¶˛yÓ ~ÓÇ fl˛∫yˆÏfl˛iƒÓ˚ Óƒy˛ôÑ˛ ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚#Ñ˛Ó˚í
Á ÓƒÓ¢yÎ˚#Ñ˛Ó˚í–

Ó!hfl˛ v˛zߨÎ˚ò ≤âˆÏD
fl˛∫ y ï#òì˛yÓ˚ ˛ôÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏ Ñ ˛£z ñ ¢Ó˚ Ñ ˛yÓ˚ Á «˛õì˛y¢#ò
üy¢Ñ˛îú=!ú !Ó!¶˛ß¨ ¢õÎ˚ Ó!hfl˛=!úÓ˚ v˛zߨÎ˚ÏòÑ˛ˆÏ“ òyòy ≤ÃÑ˛“
@˘Ã£í Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈñ 1949 ¢yˆÏú Óy!v˛¸ÁÎ˚yúyˆÏîÓ˚ x˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛¶˛yˆÏÓ
¶˛yv˛¸y!›˛Î˚y v˛zˆÏFäȈÏî Óyïy !îˆÏì˛ ˛ôyü £Î˚ ≤ÃÌõ Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛y !‡˛Ñ˛y
¶˛yv˛¸y!›˛Î˚y xy£zò (Thika Tenancy Act)– ~Ó˚˛ôÓ˚ 1954
¢yˆÏú Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛y v˛zߨÎ˚ò ¢Çfl˛iyÓ˚ xy£zò ¢ÇˆÏüy!ïì˛ £Î˚– ~Ó˚˛ôÓ˚
ÎÌye´ˆÏõ 1957 Á 1960 ¢yˆÏú â˛yú% £Î˚ ÎÌye´ˆÏõ Ó!hfl˛
!Ñœ˛Î˚yˆÏÓ˚™ !Óú (Kolkata slum Clearance Bill) Á Ó!hfl˛
v˛zߨÎ˚ò ≤ÃÑ˛“ (Bastee Improvement Programme BIP)– WHO ~Ó˚ v˛zˆÏîƒyˆÏÜ 1961 ¢yˆÏú Ü!‡˛ì˛ £Î˚ Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛y
ˆõˆÏ›˛Δy˛ô!ú›˛yò ≤’ƒy!òÇ xÓ˚܃yòy£zˆÏãüò (CMPO)– ÎyÓ˚
v˛zˆÏîƒyˆÏÜ 1968 ¢yˆÏú BIP ≤ÃÑ˛“!›˛ Ü,£#ì˛ £Î˚ Îy !äÈú Ó!hfl˛
v˛zߨÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ xyã ˛ôÎ≈hs˛ Ó,£_õ Á ¢Ó≈y!ïÑ˛ ÓƒÎ˚ ¢yˆÏ˛ô«˛ ≤ÃÑ˛“–
~£z ≤ÃÑ˛“!›˛£z xyˆÏÓy˚ Óƒy!Æ úy¶˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ 1972 ¢yˆÏú CMDA
SÑ˛úÑ˛yì˛y ˆõˆÏ›˛Δy˛ô!ú›˛yò ˆv˛¶˛ú˛ôˆÏõr›˛ xÌ!Ó˚!›˛V Ü!‡˛ì˛ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚
˛ôÓ˚– ~£z ≤ÃÑ˛ˆÏ“ v˛zˆÕÏ Ö‘ ˆÏÎy܃ ˛ôîˆÏ«˛˛ô !äÈú ˛ôÓ˚Óì˛#≈ ˛ô§yⲠÓäȈÓÏ Ó˚ ˚
õˆÏïƒ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 4 ú«˛ Ó!hfl˛Óy¢#Ó˚ ãòƒ ~Ñ˛!›˛ v˛zßΨ ò˚ ≤ÃÑ˛“ â˛yú% Ñ˛Ó˚y
Îy xì˛ƒhs˛ ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ ãò#Î˚ !äÈú ˆ¢£z¢õÎ˚– Ñ˛!úÑ˛yì˛y Ñ˛ˆÏ˛ôy≈ˆÓÏ ü˚ ˆÏòÓ˚
Ó!hfl˛ v˛zßΨ ˆ˚ òÏ Ó˚ ˛ôîˆÏ«˛˛ô !äÈú Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛y ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÓÏ ü v˛zßΨ ò˚ ≤ÃÑ˛“
KEIP (Kolkata Environmental Improvement
Project)–

1 ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ 100 òÇ ÁÎ˚yˆÏv˛≈ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 85!›˛ Ó!hfl˛ˆÏì˛
˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏÓüÜì˛ v˛zߨÎ˚ò £ˆÏÎ˚!äÈú ~£z ≤ÃÑ˛ˆÏ“– KEIP ~£z ¢õhfl˛
fl˛∫“ xyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ xM˛Èú=!úˆÏì˛ !òÑ˛yü# ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ v˛zߨÎ˚òñ Ó˚yhfl˛yáy›˛
¢Çfl˛ÒyÓ˚ Á xı˛Ñ˛yÓ˚ Ü!ú=!úˆÏì˛ ˜Óî%ƒ!ì˛Ñ˛ Óy!ì˛ñ ˆüÔâ˛yÜyÓ˚ ˜ì˛!Ó˚
36

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
Á ˛ô%Ó˚ˆÏòy ˆüÔâ˛yÜyÓ˚=!úÓ˚ ¢Çfl˛ÒyÓ˚ £zì˛ƒy!î òyòy v˛zߨÎ˚òõ)úÑ˛
Ñ˛yãÑ˛õ≈ ¢õß∫Î˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
~äÈyv˛¸y Ó!hfl˛ v˛zߨÎ˚ˆÏò ˆfl˛∫FäÈyˆÏ¢Ó# ¢Çfl˛iy Á ¢õyãˆÏ¢Ó#
¢Çfl˛iy=!úÓ˚ xÓîyòÁ ΈÏÌ‹T– KEIP Á BIP ≤ÃÑ˛“=!úˆÏì˛
~Ó˚Ñ˛õ xˆÏòÑ˛=!ú NGO Î%_´ xyˆÏäÈ ÎyˆÏîÓ˚ õ)ú Ñ˛yã £ú v˛zßΨ ò˚
≤ÃÑ˛ˆÏ“Ó˚ Ñ˛yã=!ú ¢¡ôˆÏÑ≈˛ ãòÜíˆÏÑ˛ ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛ò Ñ˛Ó˚yñ ¢yïyÓ˚í
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ!Ó!ï ¢¡ô!Ñ≈˛ì˛ ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛y ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yúyñ ÓƒyB˛˛ xƒyÑ˛yv˛zr›˛
Ö%ˆÏú !îˆÏì˛ ¢y£y΃ Ñ˛Ó˚y– ˆ¢Õ≥˛ ˆ£“ (Self Help) @˘Ã&˛ô ܈Ïv˛¸
ì%˛ˆÏú fl˛∫!ò¶≈˛Ó˚ì˛yÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏÌ Ó!hfl˛Óy¢#ˆÏîÓ˚ ~!܈ÏÎ˚ ˆîÁÎ˚y–
~Ó˚ ö˛ˆÏú Ó!hfl˛Ó˚ ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%È v˛zߨÎ˚ò Óyhfl˛!ÓÑ˛£z £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ–
KEIP ≤ÃÑ˛ˆÏ“ 2011 ¢yˆÏú ˛ôÎ≈hs˛ ö%˛›˛˛ôyì˛ Á òî≈õy ˜ì˛Ó˚#
£ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%È ˆüÔâ˛yúÎ˚Á ˜ì˛Ó˚# £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈñ ˆÎ=!úÓ˚ xÓfl˛iy
xyˆÏÜÓ˚ ˆâ˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓü v˛zß¨ì˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– xM˛ÈˆÏúÓ˚ ˆòyÇÓ˚y ˆö˛úyÓ˚ ãòƒ
ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%È ¶˛ƒy›˛ SˆòyÇÓ˚y ˆö˛úyÓ˚ ãyÎ˚ÜyV ˜ì˛Ó˚# £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– fl˛¨yò
Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ãyÎ˚ÜyÁ ≤Ãâ%˛Ó˚ ˆÓˆÏv˛¸ˆÏäÈ S≤ÃyÎ˚ 78 üì˛yÇü õyò%°Ï fl˛¨yò
Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ õˆÏì˛y ΈÏÌ‹T ãú Á ãyÎ˚Üy ˛ôyòV– xˆÏòÑ˛ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ˆõˆÏΈ˚ îÏ Ó˚

ãòƒ xyúyîy ÓyÌÓ˚&õ £ˆÏúÁ Ó˝ fl˛%Òˆú
Ï ~ÖˆÏòy ˆõˆÏΈ˚ îÏ Ó˚ xyúyîy
ÓyÌÓ˚&õ ˆò£z– ~ÖˆÏòy ˆüÔâ˛yÜyÓ˚=!úˆÏì˛ !òÎ˚!õì˛ ˛ô!Ó˚fl˛ÒyÓ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚
ÓƒÓfl˛iy ˆò£z– ˛ôyò#Î˚ ãúÁ ˆÓü x≤Ãì%˛ú–
Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛y ü£ˆÏÓ˚ Ó!hfl˛Ó˚ v˛zqÓ ~ÓÇ ì˛yÓ˚ xfl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛Ó˚
˛ô!Ó˚ˆÓÏ ˆÏüÓ˚ !˛ôäȈòÏ Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˆ˚ äÏ È ˆ◊!í !Ó¶˛_´ ¢õyãÓƒÓfl˛iy ~ÓÇ ˆ¢£z
¢õyˆÏãÓ˚£z ¢%!ÓïyˆÏ¶˛yÜ# ˆ◊!í=!úÓ˚ fl˛∫yˆÏÌ≈ ~!܈ÏÎ˚ â˛úy Úv˛zßΨ ò˚ Û
Á òÜÓ˚yÎ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ Ó˚Ì– ì˛y£z Îì˛«˛í ˛ôÎ≈hs˛ ÙÈ ~£z ¶˛yˆÏÓ ˆ¶˛y›˛
Ó˚yãò#!ì˛Ó˚ îú=!úÓ˚ fl˛∫yÌ≈˛ô)Ó˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ãòƒ Ó!hfl˛ v˛zߨÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃÑ˛“
@˘Ã£í Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏì˛ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏÓ ì˛ì˛«˛ò ˛ôÎ≈hs˛ ÷ï%õye Ó!hfl˛Ó˚ ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏÓü
~Ñ˛›%˛ Ñ˛õ xfl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛Ó˚ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ ˆÓ!ü !Ñ˛ä%È £ˆÏÓ òy– xy¢ˆÏú
≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò Ó!hfl˛ !ÓˆÏúyˆÏ˛ôÓ˚ ~ÓÇ Ó!hfl˛Óy¢#ˆÏî Ó˚ ÎÌyÎÌ
˛ô%òÓ≈y¢ˆÏòÓ˚ñ ÎyÓ˚ ãòƒ ≤ÈÏÎy˚ ãò Ó,£_Ó˚ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúò–
Öyîƒñ Ófl˛fñ Óy¢fl˛iyò ~Ó˚ õˆÏì˛y ˆõÔ!úÑ˛ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆì˛y ӈϛ˛£zñ
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ Á !ü«˛yÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚Áñ ì˛y òy £ˆÏú ≤ÃÑ˛, ì˛ v˛zßΨ ò˚ Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛yÓ˚
Ó!hfl˛Óy¢#ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ó˝ î)ˆÏÓ˚£z ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ÎyˆÏÓ–

xyãÁ Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛yÓ˚ Ó!hfl˛....

37

xyõ!s˛fì˛ Ó˚â˛òy

fl˛∫yˆÏfl˛iƒÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ãòƒ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ
v˛y ˛ô%íƒÓ ì˛ =í

xy㠈̈ÏÑ˛ 32 ÓäÈÓ˚ xyˆÏÜ 1983 ÙÈˆì˛ ˛ô!ÿ˛õ ÓyÇúyÓ˚
ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚Ó˚y ˆfl˛‘yÜyò ì%˛ˆÏú!äÈú ÈÙÙÙÈ Úfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆÑ˛yò !¶˛«˛y òÎ˚ñ
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚–Û
xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ ˆîˆÏü fl˛∫yˆÏfl˛iƒÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆõÔ!úÑ˛ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ
fl˛∫#Ñ,˛ì˛ òÎ˚–
!ÓŸª fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢Çfl˛iyÈÙÈÓ˚ ¢ÇK˛y xò%ÎyÎ˚# Úfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆÑ˛Óú x¢%fl˛iì˛yÓ˚
xò%˛ô!fl˛i!ì˛ òÎ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ õyˆÏò üyÓ˚#!Ó˚Ñ˛ñ õyò!¢Ñ˛ Á ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ
¶˛yˆÏúy ÌyÑ˛yÛ–

ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y ˛ô!Ó˚ˆ°Ï ÓÏ y ˆ«˛ˆÏeÓ˚ Á˛ôÓ˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# !òÎ˚s˛fí
ˆò£z ÓúˆÏú£z â˛ˆÏú–
● ü£Ó˚ Á @˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÏÓyÎ˚ !Ó˛ô%ú ö˛yÓ˚yÑ˛– ˆîˆÏüÓ˚
ãò¢ÇÖƒyÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 70% ÌyˆÏÑ˛ò @˘ÃyõyM˛ÈˆÏúñ xÌⲠˆ¢ÖyˆÏò ˛ôyü
Ñ˛Ó˚y v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆõy›˛yõ%!›˛ 30% ÌyˆÏÑ˛ò– ÓyÑ˛# 70% v˛y_´yÓ˚
ü£Ó˚ÈÙÈˆÑ˛!wÑ˛–
● !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y ˛ô!Ó˚ ˆ Ï ° Ï Ó y ≤Ãïyòì˛ £y¢˛ôyì˛yúÈÙÈˆÑ˛!wÑ˛ñ
v˛y_´yÓ˚ÈÙÈˆÑ˛!wÑ˛–
● ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÏÓyÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚õyí Á =íõyòÈÙÈî%£zÈÙÈ£z
x˛ôÎ≈yÆ– 1991ÈÙÈ~ ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ xyhs ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ õ%oy¶˛yu˛yÓ˚
Á !ÓŸª ÓƒyÇÑ˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ }í ˆòÁÎ˚y ÷Ó˚& Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˛ôÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ }ˆÏíÓ˚
üì≈˛ xò%ÎyÎ˚# fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÈÙÈ!ü«˛yÓ˚ õˆÏì˛y ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÏÓyÈÙȈ«˛e=ˆÏúy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
¢ˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ¢ o&ì˛ Ü!ì˛ˆÏì˛ ãyÎ˚Üy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !îˆÏFäÈ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÈÙÈÓƒÓ¢yÎ˚#ˆÏîÓ˚–
ˆîüÓy¢#Ó˚ î%î≈üy Ñ˛õyˆÏì˛ õ£yò%¶˛Ó Óƒ!_´ Óy Óƒ!_´ÓÜ≈
!òÉ÷ÕÒ v˛y_´yÓ˚Öyòy Óy £y¢˛ôyì˛yú Ö%ˆú
Ï ˆÏäÈòñ ˆÑ˛yò Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛
îú Óy xÈÙÈÓ˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ¢Ç܇˛ò ÓòƒyÈÙÈÖÓ˚yÈÙÈõ£yõyÓ˚#Ó˚ ¢õÎ˚
!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y eyí â˛y!úˆÏΈ˚ äÏ ÈòÈ ÙÙÙÈ~õò›˛y ˆîÖy ˆÜˆÏúÁ fl˛∫yˆÏfl˛iƒÓ˚ îy!Ó
!òˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ £z!ì˛£y¢ ˆÓ!ü !îˆÏòÓ˚ òÎ˚ñ ÓäÈÓ˚ 30ÈÙÈ35 ~
ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ÓÎ˚¢–
Óyõ˛ôs˛i # îú=ˆÏ ú yÁ fl˛∫ y ˆÏ fl ˛i ƒ Ó˚ !Ó°Ï Î ˚ = ˆÏ ú yˆÏ Ñ ˛
xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ !Ó°ÏÎ˚ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈò ~õò›˛y òÎ˚È ÙÙÙÈÈxÌⲠӽ
v˛y_´yÓ˚ Óyõ˛ôs˛i# îú=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ¢î¢ƒ Óy ¢õÌ≈Ñ˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ !äȈÏúò
Óy xyˆÏäÈò– ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛yäÈ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ v˛zFⲠ£yˆÏÓ˚ ˆú!¶˛ ˆòÁÎ˚yñ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚
!îˆÏÎ˚ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ¢î¢ƒÈÙÈ¢õ≈ÌÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ !Óòyõ)ˆú
Ï ƒ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y Ñ˛Ó˚yˆÏòyñ
Ñ˛ÖòÁ ¢ÖòÁ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ !îˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ¢õÎ˚ Óy ≤ÃyÑ,˛!ì˛Ñ˛
î%ˆÎÏ y≈ ˆÏÜÓ˚ ¢õÎ˚ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y !ü!ÓÓ˚ â˛yúyˆÏòyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ¢#õyÓk˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ˆÏäÈ
îú=ˆÏúy– ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ¢Ç܇˛Ñ˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ÓƒÓ£yÓ˚
Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚ !ò ÓúˆÏú£z â˛ˆÏú–
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ !¶˛«˛y òÎ˚ñ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈÈ ˆ¢£z x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ xã≈ˆòÏ Ó˚
ãòƒ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ £ˆÏÓ ÈÙÙÙÈÈ ~£z ïyÓ˚íy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúò ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛
£ˆÏì˛ ÌyˆÏÑ˛ 70 îüˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ õyG˛yõy!G˛ñ 80ÈÙÈÓ˚ îüˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ÷Ó˚& ˆÌˆÏÑ˛–
¶˛yÓ˚ˆìÏ ˛Ó˚ òyòy ˆÑ˛yˆÏí â˛úy ~£z ¢Ó xyˆÏ®yúò=ˆÏúy !òˆÏÎ˚ ~£z
xyˆÏúyâ˛òy ÈÙÙÙÈÈ v˛zˆj
Ï üƒ xyˆÏ®yúò=ˆÏúyÓ˚ £z!ì˛Óyâ˛Ñ˛ÈÙȈò!ì˛Óyâ˛Ñ˛

¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚ õyò%°Ï ¶˛yˆÏúy ˆò£z

ˆîˆÏü }í ˆòÁÎ˚yÓ˚ !mì˛#Î˚ xòƒì˛õ Ñ˛yÓ˚í !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓ˚ ÖÓ˚Ⲗ
● £y¢˛ôyì˛yˆÏú ¶˛!ì≈˛Ó˚ ÖÓ˚Ⲡˆõ›˛yˆÏì˛ ≤Ã!ì˛ ÓäÈÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~Ñ˛ ˆÑ˛y!›˛
¶˛yÓ˚ì˛Óy¢# îy!Ó˚oƒ¢#õyÓ˚ ò#ˆÏⲠˆòˆÏõ Îyò–
● £y¢˛ôyì˛yˆÏú ΧyÓ˚y ¶˛!ì≈˛ £òñ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ÈÙÈì,˛ì˛#Î˚yÇüˆÏÑ˛ ¶˛!ì≈˛Ó˚
ÖÓ˚Ⲡˆõ›˛yˆÏì˛ £Î˚ ïyÓ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £Î˚ òÎ˚ˆÏì˛y ¢¡ô!_ !Ó!e´ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛
£Î˚–
ÖyîƒÈÙÈÓfl˛fÈÙÈÓy¢fl˛iyˆÏòÓ˚ õì˛£z ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ ãò#Î˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˛ô!Ó˚ˆ°Ï ÓÏ y–
ã!õÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ñ ãˆÏúÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚ñ Ñ˛õ≈ÈÙÈ¢Çfl˛iyˆÏòÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
õì˛ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ Á !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÏÓyÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚Á ã#ÓˆÏòÓ˚ !Ó°ÏÎ˚ñ
Ñ˛ÖòÁ Ñ˛ÖòÁ Óy§â˛yÈÙÈõÓ˚yÓ˚ ≤ß¿– !Ñ˛ls˛ ÓyÑ˛# !Ó°ÏÎ˚=ˆÏúyÓ˚ õì˛
!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y˛ô!Ó˚ˆ°Ï ÓÏ yÓ˚ x≤Ãì˛% úì˛y ¢Ó ¢õÎ˚ õyò%°ˆÏ ÑÏ ˛ ≤ö˛y!Óì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚
òy– Ñ˛yÓ˚í ˆÓ§ˆâÏ ˛ ÌyÑ˛yÓ˚ ãòƒ ≤Ã!ì˛!îò ÖyîƒÈÙÈãúÈÙÈÓy¢fl˛iyò îÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ñ
!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓ˚ îÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ £Î˚ òy ¢Ó ¢õÎ˚– !Ñ˛ls˛ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓ˚ x≤Ãì˛% úì˛yÎ˚
õyò% ° Ï ÎÖò ≤ö˛y!Óì˛ £ò ì˛Öò ì§ ˛ yÓ˚ ˆ«˛y¶˛
!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢Ñ˛ÈÙÈ!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÑ˛õ#≈ÈÙÈ!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yˆÏòÓ˚ Á˛ôÓ˚ ˆö˛ˆÏ›˛ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸ñ
xˆÏòÑ˛ ¢õÎ˚ xòƒy΃ ¶˛yˆÏÓÁ–
xyÓ˚Á !Ñ˛ä%È ì˛Ìƒ õˆÏò Ó˚yÖyÓ˚ õì˛

!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÏÓyÎ˚ ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚#Ñ˛Ó˚í ˆÎ ¢Ó ˆîˆÏü ˆÓü#ñ
ˆ¢=ˆÏúyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ xòƒì˛õ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ ˆîü–
● !ã!v˛!˛ôÈÙÈÓ˚ õye 1.04% ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÖyˆÏì˛ ÖÓ˚â˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓ˚ ãòƒ ˆÓ!üÓ˚ ¶˛yÜ ÖÓ˚ⲛ˛y ˆÓ˚yÜ#ˆÏÑ˛ !òˆÏãÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏÑ˛›˛
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £Î˚–
38

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
~£z ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúy !õˆÏú ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yˆÏú Üí!ÓK˛yò ¢õß∫Î˚ ˆÑ˛wñ
˛ô!ÿ˛õÓD– ˛ôÓ˚Ó≈ì˛# Ñ˛yˆÏú !¢!˛ôxy£z~õÈÙÈ≤ö˛y!Óì˛ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚#
õîì˛˛ô%‹T ˛ô!ÿ˛õÓD !ÓK˛yò õM˛ÈÈÙÈ~Ó˚ ¢yõˆÏò ~=ˆÏúy «˛#íÓú
£ˆÏÎ˚ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸– ~ÖòÁ ˆÎ !ÓK˛yòÈÙÈ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúy Üífl˛∫yfl˛iƒ !òˆÏÎ˚
xˆÏ˛ô«˛yÑ,˛ì˛ ¢!e´Î˚ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ v˛z_Ó˚ 24 ˛ôÓ˚Üíyñ òî#Î˚yÓ˚
Ñ˛ì˛=ˆÏúy ¢Ç܇˛ò xòƒì˛õ–

!îÑ˛=ˆÏúy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !ü«˛y !òˆÏÎ˚ Ú¢ÓyÓ˚ ãòƒ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÛÈÙÈ~Ó˚ úˆÏ«˛ƒ ~!܈ÏÎ˚
â˛úy–
ãòfl˛∫ y fl˛i ƒ xyˆÏ ® yúò õyò% ˆ Ï ° Ï Ó ˚ fl˛∫ y ˆÏ fl ˛i ƒ Ó˚ xÓfl˛i y Ó˚
v˛zßΨ ò˚ Ñ˛ˆÏ“ xyï%!òÑ˛ !ÓK˛yò Á ≤ÃÎ!% _´ˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛yˆÏã úyÜyˆÏòyÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏ«˛ñ
!Ñ˛ls˛ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúò ¢yïyÓ˚í ¶˛yˆÏÓ õˆÏò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ
● ˆÑ˛Óú ≤ÃÎ%!_´ !îˆÏÎ˚ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ ¢õ¢ƒy=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ¢õyïyò Ñ˛Ó˚y
ÎyÎ˚ !ò–
● !ÓˆÏü°ÏK˛ S~£z ˆ«˛ˆÏe !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢Ñ˛ñ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÑ˛õ#≈ Óy fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛õ#≈V
ãò܈ÏíÓ˚ £ˆÏÎ˚ !¢k˛yhs˛ !òˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ò òy–
● ãòÜí !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÈ Ù È ≤ Ã!ì˛¤˛yˆÏ ò Ó˚ ÓƒÓ£yÎ≈ ƒ Ól fl ˛ òòñ ÓÓ˚ Ç
ãò܈ÏíÓ˚£z !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÈÙÈ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÏÓyÓ˚ !òí≈yÎ˚Ñ˛ ü!_´ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy–
¶˛yÓ˚ˆìÏ ˛ ~ ÎyÓÍ áˆÏ›˛ xy¢y fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúò=ˆÏúyˆÏÑ˛ Î!î xyõÓ˚y
ˆî!Öñ ì˛y£ˆÏú Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛›˛y v˛zˆÏÕ‘ÖˆÏÎy܃ ïyÓ˚y / ᛲòy ˆîÖy ÎyÎ˚ È ÙÙÙÈ
■ Üí!ÓK˛yò xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃÎ˚y¢
■ Á°Ï%ïò#!ì˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚
■ òyÓ˚#Óyî# xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚
■ ¶)˛˛ôyˆÏúÓ˚ ܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏ®yúò
■ v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÏÓ˚ ¢Ç܇˛ò
■ ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛ú äÈye Á ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏ®yúò
■ ˆ˛ôüyÜì˛ ˆÓ˚yÜ !òˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚ Á xye´yhs˛ˆÏîÓ˚ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y Á
«˛!ì˛˛ô)Ó˚ˆÏíÓ˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ xyˆÏ®yúò
■ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ x!¶˛Îyò
■ ˛ôeÈÙÈ˛ô!eÑ˛y
■ Üí¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆòì,˛ˆÏc fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúò–
~ˆÏÑ˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~=ˆÏúy !òˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏúyâ˛òy Ñ˛Ó˚y ÎyÑ˛–

Á°Ï%ïò#!ì˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚
1975ÈÙÈ~ ãÎ˚÷Ñ˛úyú £yÌ#Ó˚ ˆòì,˛cyï#ò ¢Ç¢î#Î˚
Ñ˛!õ!›˛ ≤ÃÑ˛y!üì˛ !Ó˚ˆÏ˛ôy›≈˛ ÓˆÏú 117 ›˛y õye Á°Ï%ï ¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚
ãòƒ xì˛ƒyÓüƒÑ˛– Ñ˛!õ!›˛ ~£z Á°Ï%ï=ˆÏúyÓ˚ v˛zͲôyîò !ò!ÿ˛ì˛
Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ¢%˛ôy!Ó˚ü Ñ˛ˆÏÓñ˚ Á°Ïˆ% ïÏ Ó˚ Ó yu˛ òyõ Óy ÓyãyÓ˚# òyˆÏõÓ˚ ÓîˆÏú
ˆãˆÏò!Ó˚Ñ˛ òyõ Óy ˜ÓK˛y!òÑ˛ òyõ ÓƒÓ£yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ¢%˛ôy!Ó˚ü Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
ÎyˆÏì˛ ã#ÓòîyÎ˚# Á xì˛ƒyÓüƒÑ˛ Á°Ï%ï=ˆÏúy õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ xyÎ˚ˆÏ_¥Ó˚
õˆÏïƒ ÌyˆÏÑ˛ ì˛y£z õ)úƒÈÙÈ!òÎ˚s˛fˆíÏ Ó˚ ¢%˛ôy!Ó˚ü Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚– £yÌ# Ñ˛!õ!›˛
ˆâ˛ˆÏÎ!˚ äÈú ˛ôy!ÓœÑ˛ ˆ¢QÓ˚ ˆÎò Á°Ïï% v˛zͲôyîˆÏò õ%Öƒ ¶)˛!õÑ˛y ˆòÎ˚–
ˆîü#Î˚ Á°Ï % ï ÈÙÈˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#=ˆÏ ú yÓ˚ !ÓÑ˛yˆÏ ü Ó˚ ãòƒ !Ñ˛ä% È
Á°Ïï% ÈÙÈv˛zͲôyîò ˆÑ˛Óú ˆîü#Î˚ ˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ãòƒ ¢ÇÓ˚!«˛ì˛
Ó˚yÖyÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy Óúy £Î˚– Á°Ï%ïÈÙÈ!üˆÏ“ Ó˝ãy!ì˛Ñ˛ ˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#=ˆÏúyÓ˚
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!Ó!òˆÏÎ˚yˆÏÜÓ˚ õyey ì˛Í«˛íyÍ Ñ˛!õˆÏÎ˚ 40% Ñ˛Ó˚y ~ÓÇ ì˛yÓ˚˛ôÓ˚
Ñ˛!õˆÏ Î ˚ 26 % Ñ˛Ó˚ y Ó˚ Ñ˛Ìy Óúy £Î˚ ñ ~õò!Ñ˛ !ÓˆÏ î ü#
Á°Ïï% ÈÙÈˆÑ˛y¡ôyò#=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ãyì˛#Î˚Ñ˛Ó˚ˆíÏ Ó˚ ˛ôˆÏ«˛ !äÈú £yÌ#˛ Ñ˛!õ!›˛–
xy!üÓ˚ îüˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ÷Ó˚&ˆÏì˛ ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏÓü# ÓyÇúyˆÏîˆÏüÓ˚
¢yõ!Ó˚Ñ˛ ˜fl˛∫Ó˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ ãòõ%Ö# ˛ôîˆÏ«˛˛ô ˆòÎ˚ñ ÓyÇúyˆÏîˆÏüÓ˚
ÓyãyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ x≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò#Î˚ñ «˛!ì˛Ñ˛Ó˚ ¢Ó Á°Ï%ï !ò!°Ïk˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
¢_ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ îüˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ˆüˆÏ°Ï !ÓŸª fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢Çfl˛iy xì˛ƒyÓüƒÑ˛ Á°Ï%ˆÏïÓ˚
≤ÃÌõ ì˛y!úÑ˛y ≤ÃÑ˛yü Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ñ ˆ¢ ì˛y!úÑ˛yÎ˚ Á°Ï%ï !äÈú üÈÙÈî%ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛–
~£z Á°Ï%ï=ˆÏúy !îˆÏÎ˚ ˛ô,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ¢õhfl˛ õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ¢õhfl˛ ˆÓ˚yÜ
!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y ¢Ω˛Ó– xì˛ƒyÓüƒÑ˛ Á°Ï%ˆÏïÓ˚ ì˛y!úÑ˛y !äÈú 1977ÈÙÈ~
!ÓŸª fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢Çfl˛iyÈÙȈáy!°Ïì˛ Ú2000 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ¢ÓyÓ˚ ãòƒ
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÛÈÙÈ~Ó˚ úˆÏ«˛ƒ ~Ñ˛ =Ó˚&c˛ô)í≈ ˛ôîˆÏ«˛˛ô– xÌⲠ¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚
ÓyãyˆÏÓ˚ ì˛Öò £yãyÓ˚ °ÏyˆÏ›˛Ñ˛ Á°Ï%ˆÏïÓ˚ ö˛Ó˚õ%ˆÏúüò–
ãòõ%Ö# ãyì˛#Î˚ Á°Ï%ïò#!ì˛Ó˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ ÜˆÏv˛¸ ÁˆÏ‡˛ xú
£z!u˛Î˚y v»˛yÜ ~Ñ˛üò ˆò›˛ÁÎ˚≈yÑ˛ (AIDAN)– òyòy Ó˚yˆÏãƒ
AIDAN ~Ó˚ üyÖy ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ xòƒì˛õ !äÈú v»˛yÜ

Üí!ÓK˛yò xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃÎ˚y¢
Üí!ÓK˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ˛ôyüy˛ôy!ü ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛yÓ˚ v˛zˆÕÏ Ö‘ ˆÏÎy܃ Ñ˛yã
ˆÎ ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ xyˆÏäÈ È ÙÙÙÈ
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!¢!˛ôxy£z~õÈÙÈ≤ö˛y!Óì˛–
● õ£yÓ˚yˆÏ‹TÓ
… ˚ ˆúyÑ˛ !Óîƒyò ¢Çᇲòyñ ◊!õÑ˛ õ%!_´ îúÈÙÈ≤ö˛y!Óì˛–
● ˛ô!ÿ˛õÓyÇúyÎ˚ ì,˛ì˛#Î˚ ïyÓ˚yÓ˚ ü!_´ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛y!úì˛ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ !ÓK˛yò
¢Ç܇˛òñ xˆÏòÑ˛ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ≤ÃÑ˛y!üì˛ ˛ô!eÑ˛yÓ˚ òyˆÏõ ÎyˆÏîÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚â˛Î˚
ÈÙÈ v˛zÍ¢ õyò%°Ïñ !ÓK˛yò Á !ÓK˛yòÑ˛õ#≈ñ £zì˛ƒy!î– xy!üÓ˚ îüÑ˛
!äÈú ~£z ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúyÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ ˆÜÔÓ˚ˆÓÏ yIμú ¢õÎ˚– ˆ¢ ¢õˆÏÎ˚
39

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ˆfl˛‘yÜyò ˆì˛yˆÏú Úõyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ ãòƒ Á°Ï%ï òy Á°Ï%ˆÏïÓ˚ ãòƒ õyò%°Ï–Û
~Ñ˛£z òyˆÏõ ˆö˛yÓ˚yˆÏõÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ ˛ô%!hfl˛Ñ˛y ≤Ãâ˛% Ó˚ ãò!≤ÃÎ˚ £Î˚– ˛ô%!hfl˛Ñ˛y›˛yÓ˚
!£®# xò%ÓyîÁ Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚ñ ˛ôyŸª≈Óì˛#≈ Ó˚yム!Ó£yˆÏÓ˚ ≤Ãâ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ãòƒ–
v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ Á°Ï%ˆÏïÓ˚ Î%!_´¢Dì˛ ÓƒÓ£yˆÏÓ˚ !ü!«˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ~Ñ˛
!mõy!¢Ñ˛ ãyò≈yú ÓyÓ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏì˛ ÌyˆÏÑ˛ ÈÙÙÙÈÙÈ v»˛yÜ !v˛!ãã v˛QÓ˚
(DDD)– 90ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ îüˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ õyG˛yõy!G˛ xÓüƒ DAF î%Ó≈ú £ˆÏÎ˚
˛ôˆÏv˛¸ ˆòì,˛fl˛iyò#Î˚ Óƒ!_´ˆÏîÓ˚ Óƒ!_´ˆÏcÓ˚ ¢ÇáyˆÏì˛–
£zˆÏfl˛T…yˆÏãòÈÙȈ≤ÃyˆÏãˆÏfi›˛Ó˚òÈÙÈ~Ó˚ v˛zFâ˛õyeyÎ˚ !õ◊ˆÏíÓ˚
!ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ãòfl˛∫yÌ≈ õyõúy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ AIDAN– ÈAIDAN ÙÈ Ó˚ ãòfl˛∫yÌ≈
õyõúyÓ˚ â˛yˆÏ˛ô ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ 70›˛yÓ˚Á ˆÓü# «˛!ì˛Ñ˛Ó˚ Á°Ï%ï !ò!°Ïk˛
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ Óyïƒ £Î˚–
Î%!_´¢Dì˛ ˆãˆÏò!Ó˚Ñ˛ Á°Ï%ï õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ ˆ˛ôÔ§ˆÏäÈ
ˆîÁÎ˚yÓ˚ !Ñ˛ä%È v˛zˆÏîƒyÜÁ ÷Ó˚& £ˆÏÎ˚!äÈú ~£z xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚
˛ôyüy˛ôy!ü– ˆ¢=ˆÏúyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ v˛zˆÕÏ Ö‘ ˆÏÎy܃ ÓˆÏÓy˚ îyÓ˚ LOCOST
~ÓÇ Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!ò!›˛ ˆv˛ˆÏ¶˛ú˛ôˆÏõr›˛ ˆõ!v˛!¢òyú £zv˛z!ò›˛
(CDMU)– LOCOST !òãfl˛∫ Ñ˛yÓ˚ÖyòyÎ˚ ˆãˆÏò!Ó˚Ñ˛ òyˆÏõÓ˚
!Ñ˛ä% È xì˛ƒyÓüƒÑ˛ Á°Ï % ï ˜ì˛Ó˚ # Ñ˛ˆÏ Ó ˚ – CDMU Á°Ï % ï
ˆÑ˛y¡ôy!ò=ˆÏúyÓ˚ Ñ˛yäÈ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ îÓ˚ Ñ˛°ÏyÑ˛!°Ï Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Á°Ï%ï !Ñ˛ˆÏò Ñ˛õ
îyˆÏõ ˆfl˛∫FäÈyˆÏ¢Ó# ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúyˆÏÑ˛ ¢Ó˚ÓÓ˚y£ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
AIDAN ~Ó˚ ≤Ãïyò î%Óú
≈ ì˛y £ú Üí xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD
Á°Ï%ïò#!ì˛Ó˚ xyˆÏ®yúòˆÏÑ˛ Î%_´ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˆâ˛‹Ty òy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyîyúˆÏì˛
õyõúy xyÓ˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# îƈÏÓ˚ xyˆÏÓîòÈÙÈ!òˆÏÓîˆÏò !òˆÏãˆÏÑ˛ ¢#!õì˛
Ó˚yÖy–
ì˛Ó% ~ˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏãÓ˚ £z!ì˛Óyâ˛Ñ˛ ≤ö˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy ÓúˆÏì˛£z
£Î˚– 2013ÈÙÈ~ ˆÑ˛w ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ ¢%!≤Ãõ ˆÑ˛yˆÏ›≈˛Ó˚ !òˆÏî≈ˆÏü 348 ›˛y
xì˛ƒyÓüƒÑ˛ Á°Ïˆ% ïÏ Ó˚ Á˛ôÓ˚ õ)úƒ!òÎ˚s˛fí úy= Ñ˛ˆÏÓ–˚ ~õò›˛y ¢Ω˛Ó
£ˆÏÎ˚!äÈú ì˛yÓ˚Á ÓäÈÓ˚ îˆÏüÑ˛ xyˆÏÜ AIDAN, LOCOSTñ
ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢£ˆÏÎyÜÈÙÈ~Ó˚ õˆÏì˛y Ñ˛ì˛=ˆÏúy ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚y ãòfl˛∫yÌ≈
õyõúyÓ˚ ö˛ˆÏú–

Ñ˛õ≈¢)â˛#ˆÏì˛ ~=ˆÏúyˆÏÑ˛ xhs˛¶≈)˛_´ Ñ˛Ó˚yÎ˚ ¢ö˛ú ¶˛yˆÏÓ Óyïy ˆîÎ˚–
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≤ÃÎ˚y¢ñ fl˛f#º*íÈÙÈ£ì˛ƒyÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚ ~ˆÏîÓ˚ v˛zˆÏÕ‘ÖˆÏÎy܃ xòƒ
Ñ˛yã–
~£z ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúyÓ˚ õ)ú î%Ó≈úì˛y £ú È ÙÙÙÈÈ ~Ó˚y ö˛y!u˛Ç ~ˆÏã!™Ó˚
ö˛yu˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ÓÇ ~ˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛yã ˆäÈy›˛ÈÙȈäÈy›˛ ~úyÑ˛yÎ˚
¢#!õì˛–

¶)˛˛ôyˆÏúÓ˚ ܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏ®yúò È
¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ £z!ì˛£yˆÏ¢ xyúyîy¶˛yˆÏÓ
v˛zˆÕÏ ˆ‘ ÖÏ Ó˚ îy!Ó Ó˚yˆÏÖ ¶)˛˛ôyˆÏúÓ˚ ܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏ®yúò– 2ÈÙÈ3
!v˛ˆÏ¢¡∫Ó˚ñ 1984ÈÙÈˆì˛ £zv˛z!òÎ˚ò Ñ˛yÓy≈£zˆÏv˛Ó˚ ܃y¢Ñ˛yˆÏ[˛Ó˚ ˛ôÓ˚
܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛Ó˚y ˆÎ xyˆÏ®yúò ÷Ó˚& Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò ì˛yˆÏì˛ !äÈú ì˛ˆÏ̃Ó˚
x!ïÑ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ îy!ÓÈÈÙÙÙÈ!Ó°Ï܃yˆÏ¢ !Ñ˛ !Ñ˛ v˛z˛ôyîyò !äÈúñ õyòÓ Á
õyòˆÏÓì˛Ó˚ ≤Ãyí#Ó˚ üÓ˚#ˆÏÓ˚ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ !Ñ˛£zÓy ≤ö˛yÓñ !ӈϰÏÓ˚
≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏ°ÏïÑ˛£z Óy !Ñ˛ ˆ¢ ¢¡∫ˆÏı˛ ܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛Ó˚y ãyòˆÏì˛ â˛yò– xyÓ˚
!äÈú ÎÌyÎÌ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yñ !ӈϰÏÓ˚ v˛z!â˛ì˛ ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏ°ÏïˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ îy!Ó–
܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆÎ ¢Ç܇˛ò ~£z xyˆÏ®yúˆÏò v˛zˆÕÏ Ö‘ ˆÏÎy܃ ¶)˛!õÑ˛y
ˆÓ˚ˆÖÏ !äÈú ì˛y £ú ãy£!Ó˚ú# ܃y¢ Ñ˛y[˛ ¢Çá°Ï≈ ˆõyâ≈˛y (ZGKSM)–
~£z ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏò ¢£yÎ˚Ñ˛ ¶)˛!õÑ˛y ˛ôyúò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äȈÏúò !ÓK˛yò !ü«˛y
!òˆÏÎ˚ õïƒ≤ÈÏîˆÏü Ñ˛õ≈Ó˚ì˛ ˆfl˛∫FäÈyˆÏ¢Ó# ¢Çfl˛iyÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛ãò Ñ˛õ#≈ Á
~¢£z v ˛z ! ¢xy£z È ÙÈ~Ó˚ !Ñ˛ä% È ¢Ç܇˛Ñ˛– ~äÈyv˛¸ y !äÈú
!¢!˛ôxy£zÈÙÈ≤ö˛y!Óì˛ òyÜ!Ó˚Ñ˛ Ó˚y£ì˛ xyv˛zÓ˚ ˛ô%òÓ≈y¢ Ñ˛!õ!›˛
(NRPC) – fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ !òˆÏÎ˚ ¢õ#«˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢Ñ˛ˆÏîÓ˚
¢Ç܇˛ò ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛y ˆö ˛u˛¢ ¢yˆÏÑ≈˛ú (MFC)–
1985ÈÙÈÓ˚ 3Ó˚y ã%ò ܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛Ó˚y £zv˛z!òÎ˚ò Ñ˛yÓ≈y£zv˛
≤ÃyDíˆÏÑ˛ õ%_´yM˛Èú ˆáy°Ïíy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò ~Ñ˛ !Ñœ˛!òˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ñ˛yã
÷Ó˚& Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò– ZGKSM Á NRPC äÈyv˛¸y ӈϡ∫Ó˚ ˆ›˛Δv˛ £zv˛z!òÎ˚ò
!Ó˚!úö˛ ˛ö˛yu˛ (TURF) Á £zv˛z!òÎ˚ò Ñ˛yÓ≈y£zv˛ Ñ˛õ≈â˛yÓ˚# ¢Çá
(UCKS) ˆÎÔ̶˛yˆÏÓ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆÑ˛w òyˆÏõ ~£z !Ñœ˛!òÑ˛ â˛yúyì˛–
~£z !Ñœ˛!òˆÏÑ˛ v˛y_´yÓ˚ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ò õ)úì˛
˛ô!ÿ˛õÓD ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ xy¢y DAF-WB Á ˆõ!v˛Ñ˛ƒyú Ñ˛ˆÏúã
ˆv˛ˆÏõye´y!›˛Ñ˛ fi›%˛ˆÏv˛r›˛¢ ~ƒyˆÏ¢y!¢ˆÏÎü˚ ò (MCDSA) ÈÙÈ ~Ó˚ ¢ˆÏD
Î%_´ ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚Óy˚ – ì§˛yÓ˚y ܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ !ӈϰÓÏ ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ˆÏ°ïÏ Ñ˛
ˆ¢y!v˛Î˚yõ ÌyˆÏÎ˚y¢yúˆÏö˛›˛ £zˆÏOÑ˛üò úyÜyˆÏì˛ò ~ÓÇ ˆÓ˚yÜ#ˆÏîÓ˚
v˛z˛ô¢≈ˆÏÜÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚Óì≈˛ò ò!̶%˛_´ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ò– £zv˛z!òÎ˚ò Ñ˛yÓ≈y£zˆÏv˛Ó˚

òyÓ˚#Óyî# xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚
£yÎ˚îÓ˚yÓyˆÏîÓ˚ fl˛f#ü!_´ ¢Ç܇˛òñ !îÕ‘#Ó˚ ¢ˆÏ£ú#Ó˚ õì˛
òyÓ˚#Óyî# ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúy Depo-provera, NET-EN, NorPlantÈÙÙÙÈ~Ó˚ õì˛ «˛!ì˛Ñ˛Ó˚ ãß√!òÎ˚s˛fí ˛ôk˛!ì˛=ˆÏúyÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛
ˆãyÓ˚îyÓ˚ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚ â˛y!úˆÏÎ˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆÏÑ˛ ãyì˛#Î˚ ˛ô!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òy
40

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
!ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ¢y«˛ƒ≤Ãõyí ˆÎyÜyv˛¸ £!FäÈúñ ì˛yˆÏì˛ ¢s˛fhfl˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ £zv˛z!òÎ˚ò
Ñ˛yÓ≈y£zˆÏv˛Ó˚ ˆîy¢Ó˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ xye´õí òy!õˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏò ¢Æy£
!ì˛ˆÏòˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ õyÌyÎ˚– v˛y_´yÓ˚ÈÙÈfl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛õ#≈Ó˚y ˆ@˘ÃÆyÓ˚ £òñ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆÑ˛w
Óı˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– xyÓyÓ˚ õy¢ ˆîˆÏv˛¸Ñ˛ ÓyˆÏî DAF, MFC,
ˆõ!v˛Ñ˛ƒyú ¢y!¶≈˛¢ ˆ¢r›˛yÓ˚ñ ü£#î £y¢˛ôyì˛yˆÏúÓ˚ !¢!òÎ˚Ó˚
v˛y_´yÓ˚Ó˚y ˛ôÎ≈yÎ˚e´ˆÏõ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆÑ˛w â˛yúyò Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛ õy¢– ~Ó˚
õyˆÏG˛ ZGKSM-NRPCÈÙÈÓ˚ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yˆÏï ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆÑ˛w ˆ¶˛ˆÏD
˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £Î˚ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆÑ˛wñ ¶)˛˛ôyú–
~Ó˚˛ôÓ˚ ZGKSM ~¢ £zv˛z !¢ xy£zÈÙÈ~Ó˚ Ñ%˛!«˛Üì˛ £Î˚ñ
ˆfl˛∫FäÈyˆÏ¢Ó#ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆõyâ≈˛yÎ˚ ~Ñ˛áˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆîÁÎ˚y £Î˚– ˆüˆÏ°Ï
ZGKSM £zv˛z!òÎ˚ò Ñ˛yÓ≈y£zˆÏv˛Ó˚ ¢ˆÏD ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xòƒyÎ˚
â% ˛ !_´ ¢õÌ≈ ò Ñ˛ˆÏ Ó ˚ ܃y¢ÈÙÈ˛ô#!v˛¸ ì ˛ˆÏ î Ó˚ xyfl˛i y £yÓ˚ y Î˚ –
܃y¢ÈÙÈ˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆòì,˛c !îˆÏì˛ ~ÓyÓ˚ ~!܈ÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ¢ ܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛
õ!£úy v˛zˆîÏ ƒyÜ ¢Ç܇˛ò– ZGKSM ~Ó˚ ¢£ˆÏÎyÜ# Ó%!k˛ã#Ó#ˆÏîÓ˚
~Ñ˛yÇü ܇˛ò Ñ˛ˆÏÓò˚ ¶)˛˛ôyú @˘Ã&˛ô ö˛Ó˚ £zòö˛Ó˚ˆõÏ üò ~[˛ ~Ñ˛üò–
˛ôˆÏÓ˚ Ü!‡˛ì˛ £Î˚ ¢Ω˛yÓòy ›˛Δyfi›˛–
¢Ω˛yÓòy ›˛Δyfi›˛ ~ˆÏúy˛ôƒy!Ìñ xyÎ˚%ˆÏÓ≈îñ ˆÎyˆÏÜÓ˚ ¢õß∫ˆÏÎ˚
܃y¢ÈÙÈ˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y Á !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÈÙÈ¢Çe´yhs˛ ܈ÏÓ°ÏíyÓ˚ Ñ˛yã
â˛yúyˆÏFäÈ ÈÙÙÙÈÈ ì˛yÓ˚ ˜ÓK˛y!òÑ˛ !¶˛!_ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ xãyòy– ~äÈyv˛¸y
¢Ω˛yÓòy ›˛Δyfi›˛ ˆÑ˛yò ö˛y!u˛Ç ~ˆÏã!™Ó˚ xÌ≈@˘Ã£í òy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúÁñ
≤ÃyÎ˚ ˛ô)í≈ì˛ îyò Sx!ïÑ˛yÇü ˆ«˛ˆÏe !ÓˆÏîü# Óı%˛ˆÏîÓ˚ îyòVÈÙÈ~Ó˚
Á˛ôÓ˚ !ò¶≈˛Ó˚ü#úñ ~›˛yÁ ~Ó˚ î%Ó≈úì˛yÓ˚ !îÑ˛–

Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚–
MFCÈÙÈÓ˚ î%Ó≈úì˛yÓ˚ !îÑ˛ £ú ≤ÃÌõ xÓfl˛iyÎ˚ ~Ó˚ ¢î¢ƒÓ˚y ≤ÃyÎ˚
¢Óy£z ÜíÈÙÈ¢Ç܇˛ò ÜíÈÙÈxyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛õ#≈ £ˆÏúÁ ~Öò ì§˛yÓ˚y
≤ÃyÎ˚ ¢Óy£z ö˛yˆÏu˛v˛ ~ò !ã Á ÈÙÈ Ó˚ Ñ˛õ#≈ Óy Ñ˛õ≈Ñ˛ì≈˛y–

ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛ú äÈye Á ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏ®yúò
~£z ˛ôÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚ ˛ô!ÿ˛õÓˆÏDÓ˚ ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛ú äÈye Á ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚
Ñ˛Ìy ÓúÓ–
● 1973È Ù È £ y¢˛ôyì˛yˆÏ ú !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓ˚ ¢% ˆ Ï Î yÜÈ Ù È ¢ % ! Óïy Ó, ! k˛ Á
¶˛yì˛yÈÙÈÓ,!k˛Ó˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛ú äÈye Á ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚Ó˚y
xyˆÏ®yúò Ñ˛ˆÏÓò˚ –
● 1974 È ÙÙÙÈÈ MFCÈÙÈÓ˚ Óy!°Ï≈Ñ˛ ¢¶˛yÎ˚ ÓyÇúyÓ˚ ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛ú äÈyeÓ˚y
xÇü ˆòò–
● 1974 ÈÙÙÙÈ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# v˛y_´yÓ˚ Á £z!O!òÎ˚yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ 41 !îò Óƒy˛ô#
ïõ≈ᛲ £Î˚ ò#!ì˛ÈÙÈ!òï≈yÓ˚ˆÏí xyõúyˆÏîÓ˚ ÓîˆÏú ≤ÃÎ%!_´!ÓîˆÏîÓ˚
=Ó˚&c ˆîÁÎ˚yÓ˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛–
● 1975 È ÙÙÙÈÈ Ó§yÑ%˛v˛¸yÓ˚ ÖÓ˚yÈÙÈeyˆÏí ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛ú äÈyeÓ˚y–
● £zõyˆÏã≈!™Ó˚ Ñ˛yˆÏúy !îò=ˆÏúyˆÏì˛ !òˆÏãˆÏîÓ˚ ¢ÇáÓk˛ Ó˚yÖy Á
ˆõ£òì˛# õyò%ˆ°Ï ÓÏ ˚ ˛ôyˆÏü ÌyÑ˛yÓ˚ ãòƒ ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛ú Ñ˛ˆÏúã ˆ¢yüƒyú
¢y!¶≈˛¢ ~ƒyˆÏ¢y!¢ˆÏÎü˚ ò ܇˛ò Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚ñ !üÓ˛ô%ˆÓÏ Ó˚ ˚ â˛Áv˛¸y Ó!hfl˛ˆÏì˛
¢yÆy!£Ñ˛ !ü!ÓÓ˚ â˛ˆÏú ˆÓü Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛ ÓäÈÓ˚–
● 1978 È ÙÙÙÈ xˆÏı…˛Ó˚ ¢y£zˆÏÑœ˛yòÈÙÈ˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ñ õ!Ó˚â˛G§˛y!˛ôÓ˚ v˛zmylfl˛ˆÏîÓ˚
˛ôyˆÏü ˆõ!v˛ÏˆÏÑ˛ú äÈyeÓ˚y–
● 1980 È ÙÙÙÈÈ ˆõ!v˛ÏˆÏÑ˛ú Ñ˛ˆÏúã Á xyÓ˚ !ã Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ £y¢˛ôyì˛yú
xyˆÏ®yúò !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓ˚ ¢%ˆÏÎyÜÈÙÈ¢%!Óïy Ó,!k˛Ó˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛–
● 1983 Á 1986 ˆì˛ ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏ®yúò xú
ˆÓDú ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚ ˆö˛v˛yˆÏÓ˚üò (ABJDF) ~Ó˚ ˆòì,˛ˆÏcñ
~£z xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ãïyò îy!Ó=ˆÏúy !äÈú È ÙÙÙÈ
1V 24 ár›˛y ~:ÈÙȈÓ˚ñ £z!¢!ãñ ÓyˆÏÎ˚yˆÏÑ˛!õ!fl˛T…ñ ˛ôƒyˆÏÌyú!ãñ
Óœyv˛ ÓƒyÇÑ˛
2V ˆÓv˛ ¢ÇÖƒyÓ,!k˛
3V Ñ˛õ#≈¢ÇÖƒy Ó,!k˛
4V ˆ›˛!úÈÙȈÎyÜyˆÏÎyÜ ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ v˛zߨÎ˚ò
5V ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ≤Ã!ü«˛íyˆÏhs˛ Ñ˛õ≈¢Çfl˛iyò
6V ¶˛yì˛y Ó,!k˛
~£z xyˆÏ®yúòˆÏÑ˛ ¶˛yàˆÏì˛ ABJDF ˆ¶˛ˆÏD üy¢Ñ˛ îˆÏúÓ˚
ˆ˛ôˆÏ›˛yÎ˚y ã%!òÎ˚Ó˚ v˛QÓ˚¢Û Ñ˛yv˛z!™ú ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yúy £Î˚ñ JDCÈÙÈÓ˚
¢î¢ƒˆÏîÓ˚ ˆõ!v˛ÏˆÏÑ˛ú Ñ˛ˆÏúã=ˆÏúyˆÏì˛ Ó!¢ˆÏÎ˚ ˆîÁÎ˚y £Î˚

v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ¢Ç܇˛ò ÈÙÈ ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛y ˆö ˛u˛¢ ¢yˆÏÑ≈˛ú
¢_Ó˚ îüˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ≤ÃÌõyˆÏï≈ ãÎ˚≤ÃÑ˛yˆÏüÓ˚ xyîˆÏü≈ xò%≤Ãy!íì˛
!Ñ˛ä%È v˛y_´yÓ˚ ~£z ¢õß∫Î˚ ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yˆÏúò– ÓäȈÏÓ˚ î%ÓyÓ˚ xï≈Óy!°Ï≈Ñ˛
Á Óy!°Ï≈Ñ˛ ¢¶˛yÎ˚ ~Ó˚y fl˛∫yfl˛iƒò#!ì˛ÈÙÈ¢Çe´yhs˛ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ !Ó°ÏÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚
xyˆÏúyâ˛òy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò– MFC Bulletin òyˆÏõ ~Ñ˛ Ó%ˆÏú!›˛ˆÏòÓ˚
õyÏõ õì˛yõì˛ xyîyòÈÙÈ≤Ãîyò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò–
~§ˆÏîÓ˚ v˛zˆÏÕ‘ÖˆÏÎy܃ !Ñ˛ä%È ≤ÃÑ˛yüòy È ÙÙÙÈ
1)
Health Care : Which Way to Go?
2)
In Search of Diagnosis
3)
Under the Lense
4)
Medical Education Re-examined
MFC Ó˚ v˛zˆÏîƒyÜ ¶)˛˛ôyˆÏúÓ˚ ܃y¢˛ô#!v˛¸ì˛ˆÏîÓ˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÈÙÈ¢õ#«˛y £Î˚

1986 ~ÓÇ 1989 ÈÙÈ ~– =ãÓ˚ y ˆÏ › ˛Ó˚ îyDyÈÙÈ˛ôÓ˚ Ó ì˛#≈
eyíÈÙÈ!ü!ÓÓ˚=ˆÏúyˆÏì˛ ~§ˆÏîÓ˚ v˛zˆÏîƒyˆÏÜ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÈÙÈeyˆÏíÓ˚ ÓƒÓfl˛iy
41

xyõ!s˛fì˛ Ó˚â˛òy
xyˆÏ®yúò ¶˛yDyÓ˚ îy!Î˚c !îˆÏÎ˚– ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ~Ñ˛õye
¢Ç܇˛ò ˆ£úÌ ¢y!¶≈˛¢ ~ƒyˆÏ¢y!¢ˆÏÎ˚üò (HSA) ABJDF
xyˆÏ®yúòˆÏÑ˛ ¢õÌ≈ò Ñ˛Ó˚yÎ˚ ›˛Δy™ö˛yÓ˚ÈÙȈ≤ÃyˆÏõüˆÏòÓ˚ úy!‡˛ Á ÜyãÓ˚
ˆî!ÖˆÏÎ˚ ˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛Ó˚y £Î˚ ~ƒyˆÏ¢y!¢ˆÏÎü˚ ò xö˛ ˆ£úÌ ¢y!¶≈˛¢ v˛QÓ˚¢
(AHSD)–
ì˛y£ˆÏúÁ ~ xyˆÏ®yúò ÓƒÌ≈ £Î˚ !òñ ¢yõ!Î˚Ñ˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ £ˆÏúÁ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚
¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# £y¢˛ôyì˛yˆÏú Á°Ïï% ¢Ó˚ÓÓ˚y£ Óyv˛¸yˆÏì˛ñ ˛ôÓ˚#«˛yÈÙÈ!òÓ˚#«˛yÓ˚
¢%!Óïy Óyv˛¸yˆÏì˛ Óyïƒ £Î˚–
~äÈyv˛¸y xyˆÏÓÑ˚ ˛›˛y !îÑ˛Á v˛zˆÕÏ Ö‘ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ õì˛ ÈÙÙÙÈÈ ü£#î £y¢˛ôyì˛yúñ
ˆÓú%v˛¸ ◊õã#Ó# £y¢˛ôyì˛yúñ ◊õã#Ó# fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ v˛zˆÏîƒyˆÏÜÓ˚ õì˛
ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ Ñ˛õ≈¢â) ˛#=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ¶)˛!õÑ˛y ΧyÓ˚y ˛ôyúò Ñ˛Ó˚ˆäÏ Èòñ
ì§˛yÓ˚y ≤ÃyÎ˚ ¢Óy£zÈÙÈ£z ABJDF xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ö˛¢ú–
~£z xyˆÏ®yúò£z ˆfl˛‘yÜyò ì%˛ˆÏú!äÈú È ÙÙÙÈÈ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆÑ˛yòÁ
!¶˛«˛y òÎ˚ñ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÓ˚–

ˆ˛ôüyÜì˛ ˆÓ˚yÜ !òˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚ Á xye´yhs˛ˆÏîÓ˚ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y
Á «˛!ì˛˛ô)Ó˚ˆÏíÓ˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ xyˆÏ®yúò Á ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚
xyˆÏ®yúò
● Occupational

Health and Saftey Centre

● PRIA,

òÎ˚y!îÕ‘#
ˆÖv˛Yì˛ õãî%Ó˚ ¢Çáñ õïƒ≤ÈÏîü

● People's

Training & Research Centre, =ãÓ˚y›˛

OSHAJñ G˛yv˛¸Ö[˛

● PRASAR,

!îÕ‘#
›˛˛ô ˆÑ˛yÎ˚≈yÑ˛ñ G˛yv˛¸@˘Ãyõñ ˛ô!ÿ˛õÓD
● òyÜ!Ó˚Ñ˛ õM˛Èñ Ñ˛úÑ˛yì˛y
~£z ¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúy ˛ôeÈÙÈ˛ô!eÑ˛y ÓyÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ãò¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛y ˜ì˛Ó˚#
Ñ˛Ó˚yñ xyîyúˆÏì˛ õyõúy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ «˛!ì˛˛ô)Ó˚í xyîyÎ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ õì˛ Ñ˛yã
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–

ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ x!¶˛Îyò

2000 ¢yˆÏú Ü!‡˛ì˛ £ú ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ x!¶˛Îyò– ~ˆÏì˛ MFCÈÙÈÓ˚
¢î¢ƒ ˆÓü !Ñ˛ä%Èãò ¢Ç܇˛Ñ˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏúÁ õ)ú Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛
ü!_´ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ !äÈú !¢!˛ôxy£z~õ ì˛yÓ˚ òyòy ÜíÈÙÈ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚
xyv˛¸yˆÏú– SˆÎãòƒ ˛ô!ÿ˛õÓˆÏD !ÓK˛yò Á fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏò
Ñ˛õ≈Ó˚ì˛ xˆÏòÑ˛ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆÑ˛yò›˛y£z ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ x!¶˛Î˚yˆÏò fl˛iyò
òy ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ ˆÑ˛Óú fl˛iyò ˛ôyÎ˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ÜíÈÙÈ!ÓK˛yò ¢Ç܇˛ò
˛ô!ÿ˛õÓD !ÓK˛yò õM˛ÈV–
2000ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ !v˛ˆÏ¢¡∫ˆÏÓ˚ Î%Ó¶˛yÓ˚ì˛#ˆÏì˛ 2 !îˆÏòÓ˚ !˛ô˛ôú¢ ˆ£úÌ
~ˆÏ¢¡∫ú#ˆÏì˛ ¢yÓ˚y ¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛!ò!ïÓ˚y xyúy˛ôÈÙÈxyˆÏúyâ˛òy
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò– ì˛yÓ˚˛ôÓ˚ ë˛yÑ˛yÎ˚–
˛ôÓ˚Óì˛#≈ Ñ˛yˆÏú ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ Á˛ôÓ˚ â˛y˛ô ¢,!‹TÓ˚ v˛zˆj
Ï ˆÏüƒ
~Ó˚y ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ ãyÎ˚ÜyÎ˚ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ e&!›˛ÈÙÈ!Óâ%˛ƒ!ì˛ !òˆÏÎ˚
ãò÷òyò#Ó˚ xyˆÏÎy˚ ãò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ–˚
ãyì˛#Î˚ @˘Ãyõ#í fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ !õüò (NRHM)ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ Á˛ôÓ˚ òãÓ˚îyÓ˚#ˆÏÑ˛Á
~Ó˚y Ñ˛yã !£¢yˆÏÓ !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ–
NRHMÈÙÈ~Ó˚ xhs˛Ü≈ì˛ @˘Ãyõ#í fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛õ#≈ ≤Ã!ü«˛ˆÏíÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ ˛ôy£zú›˛
ˆ≤ÃyˆÏãQ äÈ!_ü܈Ïv˛¸ â˛yúyò ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ x!¶˛ÎyˆÏòÓ˚ xòƒì˛õ
¢Ç܇˛Ñ˛ v˛y !ÓòyÎ˚Ñ˛ ˆ¢ò– ˆ¢£z fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛õ≈#Ó˚y !õì˛y!òò òyˆÏõ
˛ô!Ó˚!â˛ì˛–
ãòfl˛∫ y fl˛i ƒ x!¶˛ÎyˆÏ ò Ó˚ xòƒyòƒ ¢î¢ƒÈ Ù È ¢ Ç܇˛ò xˆÏ ò ˆÏ Ñ ˛
NRHMÙÈ~Ó˚ @˘Ãyõ#í õ!£úy fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛õ#≈ ASHA (Accreditated
Social Health Activist) ˆ›˛Δ!òÇÈÙÈ~Ó˚ Ñ˛yˆÏã !úÆ xyˆÏäÈò–
ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ x!¶˛Îyò ÓƒÓfl˛iy ˛ô!Ó˚Óì≈˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆáy!°Ïì˛ úˆÏ«˛ƒ ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚
¢ˆÏD !úÆ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ ˆÎ ˛ôs˛iy !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ì˛yˆÏì˛ ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ ãòõ%Ö#
˛ô!Ó˚Óì≈˛ò £ˆÏÓñ òy ÓƒÓfl˛iy ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ x!¶˛ÎyòˆÏÑ˛ !܈Ïú ÖyˆÏÓ ì˛y
!òˆÏÎ˚ ¢ˆÏ®£ !äÈú xyˆÏÜ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛£z– ~Öò ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ
x!¶˛ÎyˆÏòÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yÇü ᛲˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe !mì˛#Î˚ ¢Ω˛yÓòy›˛y£z Óyhfl˛Ó
£ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈñ ì˛yÓ˚y ~Öò ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ xD ÓúˆÏú£z â˛ˆÏú–

˛ôeÈÙÈ˛ô!eÑ˛y

fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏò =Ó˚&c˛ô)í≈ ¶)˛!õÑ˛y ˛ôyúò Ñ˛ˆÏÓˆ˚ äÏ È ˆÓü Ñ˛ˆÏÎÑ˚ ˛›˛y
1977ÈÙÈ~ !ÓŸª fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢Çfl˛iy Ú2000 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ¢Ñ˛ˆÏúÓ˚ ãòƒ
˛ôeÈÙÈ˛ô!eÑ˛y–
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÛÈÙÈ~Ó˚ ú«˛ƒõyey !fl˛iÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äÈú– 2000ÈÙÈÓ˚ ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ ■ MFC Bulletin, Issues in Medical Ethics, RadiˆîyÓ˚ˆÏÜyv˛¸yÎ˚ ˆ˛ôÔ§ˆÏäÈ ÎÖò ˆîÖy ˆÜú ¢Ñ˛ˆÏúÓ˚ ãòƒ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˆì˛y cal Journal of Health, Doctors' Dialogue, £zì˛ƒy!î
î)ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ñ˛Ìy ÓÓ˚Ç ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÏÓy î%Ó≈ú ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ î%Ó≈úì˛Ó˚ ˛≤Ãïyòì˛ ì˛y!_¥Ñ˛ xyˆÏúyâ˛òyÓ˚ õyïƒõ–
£ˆÏFäÈñ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y ÓƒÓ¢yÎ˚ ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ˛ô%§!ãÓ˚ Ó˚õÓ˚õy Óyv˛¸ˆÏäÈ ì˛Öò ■ Drug, Disease, Doctor, BODHI, Rational Drug
42

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Bulletin

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Ó˚#!ì˛ÈÙÈò#!ì˛ˆÏì˛ x¶˛ƒhfl˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yˆÏòyÓ˚ úˆÏ«˛ƒ ≤ÃÑ˛y!üì˛–
■ Health for the Millions, Health Action, x¢%Ö !Ó¢%Öñ
ˆ¢y¢yú ö˛yõ≈yˆÏÑ˛yú!ã Ó%ˆú
Ï !›˛òñ fl˛∫yˆÏfl˛iƒÓ˚ Ó,ˆ_
Ï ¢yïyÓ˚í õyò%°ˆÏ ÑÏ ˛
¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛ò Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ v˛zˆÏjˆÏüƒ ≤ÃÑ˛y!üì˛–

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Ó!hfl˛ ˛ô!Ó˚fl˛ÒyÓ˚ Ó˚yÖyÓ˚ ӈϮyÓhfl˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛–
1982ÈÙÈÓ˚ 26 ˆü ãyò%Î˚yÓ˚# ü£#î !v˛ˆÏfl˛ô™yÓ˚#Ó˚ Ñ˛yã xyÓ˚Ω˛
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Üí ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆòì,˛ˆÏc fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúò

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Óv˛¸ õyˆÏ˛ôÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yÜ áˆÏ›˛ ~ £y¢˛ôyì˛yˆÏú È ÙÙÙÈÈ
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■ ˆÎÖyˆÏò Á°Ïï
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ÎyÓ˚ v˛zˆÏjüƒ È ÙÙÙÈ
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Ï ÓÏ ˚ «˛õì˛yÎ˚í
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Ñ˛ˆÏúã ˆÖyúyÓ˚ ˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ñ ˆäÈy›˛ ˆÓúy ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !ü÷ˆÏîÓ˚
ÓyäÈy£z Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛õ#≈ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ÜˆÏv˛¸ ˆì˛yúyÓ˚ xÓyhfl˛Ó ˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òy
ÚˆÑ˛!ã ›%˛ !˛ô!ãÛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚– xÌⲠˆäÈy›˛ ~Ñ˛›˛y £y¢˛ôyì˛yú !ÓÑ˛“
õ)úƒˆÏÓyï !òˆÏÎ˚ â˛yúyˆÏú ˆÎ ˛ôÎ≈yÆ ¢ÇÖƒyÎ˚ òì%˛ò v˛y_´yÓ˚ˆÏÑ˛
xyÑ,˛‹T Ñ˛Ó˚y ÎyÎ˚ ì˛yÓ˚ v˛zîy£Ó˚í xyˆÏäÈ ~Ñ˛£z ˆãúy xÌ≈yÍ
£yÁv˛¸yˆÏì˛£z–
ì,˛ì˛#Î˚ ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ Ñ˛yã ΧyÓ˚y Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚òñ ¢ì≈˛Ñ˛ òy ÌyÑ˛ˆÏú ÓƒÓfl˛iy ˆÎ
ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ !܈Ïú ÖyÎ˚ ˆ¢ Ñ˛Ìy ÓˆÏú!äÈ MFC ~ÓÇ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ x!¶˛Îyò
!òˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏúyâ˛òy ≤âˆÏD–

80ÈÙÈÓ˚ îüˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ÷Ó˚&ˆÏì˛ îÕ‘#ÈÙÈÓy˚ ã£Ó˚yÎ˚ ÎÖò Úfl˛∫yˆÏfl˛iƒÓ˚ ãòƒ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ
Ñ˛Ó˚ Û xyˆÏ ® yúò â˛úˆÏ ä Èñ v˛y_´yÓ˚ Ó ˚ y ˆÎyÜ !îˆÏ Î ˚ ˆ Ï ä Èò
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÈÙÈÑ˛õ≈¢)â˛#ˆÏì˛ñ ì˛Öò !Óì≈˛Ñ˛ £Î˚È ÈÙÙÙÈÈ £y¢˛ôyì˛yú ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yúy
£ˆÏÓ òy fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÈÙÈ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛y Ó,!k˛Ó˚ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏÓ– !¢k˛yhs˛ £Î˚
£y¢˛ôyì˛yúˆÏÑ˛ !ÓÑ˛ˆÏ“Ó˚ õˆÏv˛ú !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ÜˆÏv˛¸ ˆì˛yúyÓ˚ ˛ôyüy˛ôy!ü
ãòÈÙÈ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛y Ó,!k˛Ó˚ Ñ˛yã â˛yúyˆÏòy £ˆÏÓ–
xyˆÏÜ Óúy fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúò=ˆÏúyˆÏì˛ xyõÓ˚y !ì˛ò ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ≤ÃÎ˚y¢
ˆîÖˆÏì˛ ˛ôy£z É ÈÙÈ
1V fl˛∫yˆÏfl˛iƒÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ îy!ÓˆÏì˛ xyˆÏ®yúòñ ˆÎ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛
!òí≈yÎ˚Ñ˛=ˆÏúy (Social Determinants) fl˛∫yfl˛iƒˆÏÑ˛
≤ö˛y!Óì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Sxy!Ì≈Ñ˛ xÓfl˛iyñ ãúñ !òÑ˛yü#ñ Ñ,˛!°Ïñ
ÖyîƒÈÙÈ≤Ã!e´Î˚yÑ˛Ó˚íñ !ü«˛yñ @˘Ãyõ#í v˛zߨÎ˚òñ ü£ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òyñ ˛ô!Ó˚Ó£òñ ˆÎyÜyˆÏÎyÜñ Óy!íãƒñ ˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏÓü
£zì˛ƒy!îV ˆ¢=ˆÏúyÓ˚ v˛zߨÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ãòƒ xyˆÏ®yúò Óy
xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ã!õ ˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ãòƒ ãòÈÙÈ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛yÓ,!k˛–
2V !ÓÑ˛ˆÏ“Ó˚ õˆÏv˛ú ˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛Ó˚yÙÈ Óì≈˛õyò ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ !ÓÑ˛“ !Ñ˛
£ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ ì˛yÓ˚ õˆÏv˛ú– ~£z õˆÏv˛ú õyò%°ÏˆÏÑ˛ Óì≈˛õyò
ÓƒÓfl˛iy ÓîˆÏúÓ˚ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ xò%≤Ãy!íì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
3V Óì≈˛õyò fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÈÙÈÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆ¢›˛yˆÏÑ˛ ãòõ%Ö#
Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˆâ˛‹Ty Ñ˛Ó˚yñ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ˆáy!°Ïì˛ ¢%ˆÎÏ yÜÈÙÈ¢!% Óïy=ˆÏúy
ÎyˆÏì˛ õyò%°Ï ˛ôyò ì˛yÓ˚ ãòƒ ˆâ˛‹Ty Ñ˛Ó˚yñ ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚#
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÓƒÓ¢yÎ˚#ˆÏîÓ˚ Á˛ôÓ˚ xy£zò# ˆüÑ˛ú ˛ôÓ˚yˆÏòyÓ˚ ≤ÃÎy˚ ¢ñ
£zì˛ƒy!î–
ˆÑ˛yò xyˆÏ®yúò Î!î !ì˛ò ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ Ñ˛yã£z Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚
ì˛y£ˆÏú Óƒy˛ôyÓ˚›˛y ˛ô)íy≈ D £Î˚– !Ñ˛ls˛ Óyhfl˛Óì˛ ˆÑ˛yò ~Ñ˛›˛yÓ˚ Á˛ôÓ˚£z
ˆãyÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸–
≤ÃÌõ ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ Ñ˛yã ¶˛yˆÏúy¶˛yˆÏÓ Ñ˛Ó˚y ˆÑ˛Óú fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ
¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏ«˛ ¢Ω˛Ó òÎ˚– Ó,£_Ó˚ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ ¢Ç܇˛ò ˆÎõò
ˆ›˛Δv˛ £zv˛z!òÎ˚òñ Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ ¢Ç܇˛òñ £zì˛ƒy!îÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD ˆÎÔ̶˛yˆÏÓ Ñ˛yã
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ£˚ z ˆÑ˛Óú ö˛ú≤â) fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúò ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yúy ÎyÎ˚– ˆÎõò›˛y
¢Ω˛Ó £ˆÏÎ˚!äÈú äÈ!_ü܈Ïv˛¸Ó˚ ◊!õÑ˛ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏò– Ó,£_Ó˚
¢yõy!ãÑ˛ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD !òÓ˚!Ó!FäÈߨ ¢¡ôÑ≈˛ äÈyv˛¸y fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ ¢Ç܇˛ò
ˆÑ˛Óú ¢#!õì˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛y Ó,!k˛Ó˚ Ñ˛yã£z Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚–

ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ö˛y!u˛ÇÈÙÈ!ò¶≈˛Ó˚ì˛y
ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ Ñ˛õ≈¢â) ˛#ˆÏì˛ xyˆÏÓÑ˚ ˛›˛y !Ó˛ôIòÑ˛ ˆG§˛yÑ˛ ö˛y!u˛Ç
~ˆÏã!™ÈÙÈ!ò¶≈˛Ó˚ì˛y– ö˛y!u˛Ç ~ˆÏã!™ ˛ôÎ˚¢y ˆîÎ˚ ãò¢yïyÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚
õˆÏïƒ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ãòƒñ !Ñ˛ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚y £ˆÏÓ ì˛y !‡˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆîÎ˚
ö˛y!u˛Ç ~ˆÏã!™ñ ãò¢õ)îyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆÑ˛yò›˛y ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò ì˛y ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò
!Óâ˛yÎ≈ ÌyˆÏÑ˛ òy– Ñ˛õ#≈Ó˚y fl˛∫FäÈú õy¢ÈÙÈõy£zˆÏòˆÏì˛ x¶˛ƒhfl˛ £ˆÏÎ˚
ÁˆÏ‡˛òñ ÜíÈÙÈxyˆÏ®yúò ÜíÈÙÈ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ xy˛ôyì˛ Ñ˛‹TÑ˛Ó˚ ã#ÓˆÏò
ì§˛yÓ˚y Ñ˛ÖòÁ xyÓ˚ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ò òy– ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ Óv˛¸ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ
Ñ˛õ≈¢)â˛#=ˆÏúyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ~Öò ö˛y!u˛ÇÈÙÈ!ò¶≈˛Ó˚ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ îÓîÓy–
Üíì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ ¶˛yÓ˚ˆìÏ ˛Ó˚ ãòƒ Üíì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y!ÓK˛yò !ü«˛y ˆÑ˛õò
£ˆÏÓ ì˛y xyˆÏúy!â˛ì˛ £Î˚ ˆÑ˛yòÁ ˆÓ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ˆõ!v˛ˆÏÑ˛ú Ñ˛ˆÏúˆÏãÓ˚
xy!ì˛ˆÏÌÎ˚ì˛yÎ˚– ¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚ ˆÎ¢Ó v˛y_´yÓ˚ !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚
46

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
˛ôíƒyÎ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ñ ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˙Ñ˛ƒÓk˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ Ñ˛yã £Î˚ !ÓˆÏîü#
ˆÑ˛yò ö˛y!u˛Ç ~ˆÏã!™Ó˚ ˛ôÎ˚¢yÎ˚–
fl˛∫yˆÏfl˛iƒÓ˚ x!ïÑ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ úv˛¸y£zˆÑÏ ˛ ~!܈ÏÎ˚ !òˆÏì˛ ãòõ%Ö# fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ
Ñ˛õ≈¢)â˛#=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ˛ôyÓ˚fl˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛ xyîyòÈÙÈ≤Ãîyò â˛y£z– ~Ñ˛ xyˆÏ®yúò
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ xòƒ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ !ü«˛y ˆòÁÎ˚y â˛y£z– fl˛∫yfl˛iƒ xyˆÏ®yúòˆÏÑ˛
Ó,£_Ó˚ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ xD Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆì˛yúy â˛y£z– õˆÏò Ó˚yÖy
â˛y£z £yãyÓ˚ ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒ Ñ˛õ≈¢â) ˛# ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ ¢õhfl˛ òyÜ!Ó˚ˆÑÏ ˛Ó˚ fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÓ˚«˛y
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ òy– îy!Î˚c !òˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ Ó˚y‹T…ˆÏÑ˛– ãò¢yïyÓ˚íˆÏÑ˛
Ú¢ÓyÓ˚ ãòƒ fl˛∫ y fl˛i ƒ ÛÈ Ù È ~ Ó˚ îy!ÓˆÏ ì ˛ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ y £z fl˛∫ y fl˛i ƒ
¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ≤Ãïyò Ñ˛yã £ÁÎ˚y v˛z!â˛ì˛–

3V ¢Ñ˛ˆÏúÓ˚ ãòƒ ¢õyò !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓ˚ ¢%ˆÏÎyÜ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !îˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ–
ˆÑ˛ Ñ˛ì˛ ˆÓ˚yãÜyÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ì˛y òy ˆîˆÏÖ ≤ÈÏì˛ƒˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ãòƒ
¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛ô«˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãòõˆÏì˛y !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓ˚ ÓƒÓfl˛iy
Ñ˛Ó˚ ˆ Ï ì ˛ £ˆÏ Ó – îyò Á îy!«˛ˆÏ í ƒÓ˚ ˛ôy›˛ ì% ˛ ˆÏ ú !îˆÏ Î ˚
òƒyÎ˚ÈÙÈ!Óâ˛yÓ˚ˆÑÏ ˛ ≤Ã!ì˛!¤˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ £ˆÏÓ– îÎ˚yÈÙÈîy!«˛íƒ îyì˛yˆÏÑ˛
ˆäÈy›˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyÓ˚ @˘Ã£#ì˛yÓ˚ â˛!Ó˚eˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛ú!B˛ì˛–
4V fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÓ˚«˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏã ÎyÓ˚y !òÎ%_´ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ãòƒ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# ì˛£!Óú
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆÓì˛ò Á ˆ˛ôòüò ˆîÁÎ˚yÓ˚ ÓƒÓfl˛iy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ–
5V fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÑ˛õ#≈ˆÏîÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ~Ñ˛›˛y fl˛∫yÎ˚cüy!¢ì˛ Üíì˛y!s˛fÑ˛
!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÈÙÈ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yò ܈Ïv˛¸ ì%˛úˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ–

!â˛!Ñ˛Í¢y ÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛#Ñ˛Ó˚í â˛y£zñ ˆÎõò
fl˛∫yfl˛iƒÓƒÓfl˛iy Á !â˛!Ñ˛Í¢yÓƒÓfl˛iyÓ˚ ¢yõy!ãÑ˛#Ñ˛Ó˚ˆíÏ Ó˚ ãòƒ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ
ÓˆÏú!äȈÏúò v˛y òõ≈yò ˆÓÌ%ò È ÙÙÙÈ
äÈyv˛¸y ˛ôÌ ˆò£z–

1V ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ v˛yÑ˛ Á ì˛yÓ˚ñ ˜¢òƒ Á ˆòÔÓy!£ò#Ó˚ñ !Óâ˛yÓ˚ Á !ü«˛y
!Ó¶˛yˆÏÜÓ˚ õˆÏì˛y ãòfl˛∫yfl˛iƒÓ˚«˛yÓ˚ îy!Î˚cÁ ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚–
2V ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆÏÑ˛£z ~Ó˚ ãòƒ ¢õhfl˛ ÓƒÎ˚ Ó£ò Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ–

S13£z ˆ¢ˆÏ≤Wz¡∫Ó˚ñ 2012 ˆö ˛u˛¢ xö˛ ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy!¢ xyˆÏÎ˚y!ãì˛
xyˆÏúyâ˛òy ¢¶˛yÎ˚ Ó_´ˆÏÓƒÓ˚ {°ÏÍ !Óhfl+˛ì˛ Ó˚*˛ôV

47

xyõ!s˛fì˛ Ó˚â˛òy

xyõÓ˚y õïƒ!Ó_Ó˚y
ˆúÖÑ˛ ˛ô!Ó˚!â˛!ì˛ É v˛É !ÓÑ˛yü ÓyãˆÏ˛ôÎ˚#
xƒy!¢fi›˛ƒyr›˛ ≤ÈÏö˛¢Ó˚ñ ˆ¢r›˛yÓ˚ ö˛Ó˚ ˆ¢yüƒyú ˆõ!v˛!¢ò ~u˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!ò!›˛ ˆ£ú‰Ì‰ ãÁ£Ó˚úyú ˆò£Ó˚& £zv˛z!ò¶˛y!¢≈!›˛
xyõyÓ˚ ˆõˆÏÎÓ˚ y˚ ˆÎ fl˛%Òˆú
Ï ˛ôˆÏv˛¸ñ ◊# xÓ˚!Ó® ~ÓÇ ◊#õyÓ˚ £Î˚ ì˛ˆÏÓ ÎÖò£z ì˛y ˆ£yÑ˛ òy ˆÑ˛òñ ≤ÈìÏ ˛ƒˆÏÑ˛ ˆÎò !òˆÏãÓ˚ !òˆÏãÓ˚
xyîˆÏüñ≈ îü≈ˆòÏ v˛zmk% ˛ ˆ¢£z fl˛%Òú!›˛ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ xyïƒy!dÑ˛ ˆâ˛ì˛òy !òˆÏÎ˚ ˛˛ôk˛!ì˛ˆÏì˛ ì˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚– ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ ˆÎò ˆÑ˛yò !ò!î≈‹T
÷ï% Ü!Ó≈ì˛£z òÎ˚ñ ì˛yÓ˚y ~£z xyïƒy!dÑ˛ !Ó°ÏÎ˚!›˛ˆÏÑ˛ !Ó˛ôíˆÏòÓ˚ ˛ôk˛!ì˛ â˛y!˛ôˆÏÎ˚ ˆîÁÎ˚y òy £Î˚– Ñ˛yÓ˚í ˙ !ò!î≈‹T ˛ôk˛!ì˛ ~Ñ˛!›˛
˛ôÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚ v˛zߨ#ì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆö˛úˆÏäÈ–
!ÓˆÏü°Ï ïˆÏõ≈Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ ¢¡ô,_´– ~!›˛ ˆÑ˛yò ~Ñ˛Ñ˛ Óƒ!_´Ó˚ !ÓŸªy¢ Óy
Ñ˛Û!îò xyˆÏÜñ xy!õ xyÓ˚ xyõyÓ˚ fl˛f#ñ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ ˆäÈy›˛ xò%¶)˛!ì˛Ó˚ ¢ˆÏD òy£z !õúˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚–
ˆõˆÏÎ˚ñ ˆÎ ˙ fl˛%ÒˆÏúÓ˚£z ≤Ãyщ˛ÈÙÈòyü≈yÓ˚# !Ó¶˛yˆÏÜÓ˚ äÈye#ñ ì˛yÓ˚ ãòƒ
xy!õ Ó%G˛úyõ òy !ü!«˛Ñ˛y xyõyÓ˚ Ó_´Óƒ xyˆÏîÔ Ó%G˛ˆÏì˛
~Ñ˛›˛y x!¶˛¶˛yÓÑ˛ÈÙÈ!ü«˛Ñ˛ xyˆÏúyâ˛òy ¢¶˛yˆÏì˛ !܈ÏÎ˚!äÈúyõ–
˛ôyÓ˚ˆÏúò !Ñ˛ òy– !ì˛!ò ≤Ã!ì˛Óyî Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÓúˆÏúò ÚÚxyõÓ˚y !ü÷ˆÏîÓ˚
ˆ◊!íÑ˛ˆÏ«˛ ¢Ó ÓyÓy õyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y õy!›˛ˆÏì˛
ˆÑ˛yò !ÓˆÏü°Ï ïˆÏõ≈Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ ˆãyÓ˚ òy !îˆÎ˚ ¢Ó
õyî%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ xï≈Ó,_yÑ˛yˆÏÓ˚ ӈϢ xyˆÏäÈò– ˆ◊!í
ïõ≈ˆÑÏ ˛£z ◊k˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ ˆüÖy£zÛÛ . . . !ì˛!ò ÓˆÏú
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ì˛y ¶˛yÓyÓ˚ ˛ôyüy˛ôy!ü ~›˛y ¶˛yÓˆÏäÈò òy ˆÎ ~£z !ü÷ ÓÎ˚ˆÏ¢ ~£z
EWS ÓyFâ˛yÓ˚y xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ òyòy!Óï ïyÓ˚íyÓ˚ !Ñ˛ !Ó˛ô%ú ˆÓyG˛y
Ó£zˆÏì˛ Óyïƒ £ˆÏFäÈñ ~ÓÇ ~Ñ˛£z ¢ˆÏD Ó£zˆÏì˛ £ˆÏFäÈ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚
ÓyFâ˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ Ó£zˆÎÏ ˚ ˆîÁÎ˚y îÎ˚y Á ¶˛yˆÏúyÓy¢yÓ˚ ˆÓyG˛y–
ÓÓ˚Ç ~£z ~ì˛¢Ó ˆÓyG˛yÎ˚ ~£z EWS !ü÷Ó˚y ~Ñ˛ £ì˛¶˛¡∫ xÓfl˛iyÎ˚
˛ôˆÏv˛¸–
ˆÑ˛ò xyõÓ˚y ~Ñ˛ãò õyò%°Ï !‡˛Ñ˛ ˆÎõò ˆì˛õò ¶˛yˆÏÓ£z
ì˛yˆÏÑ˛ ◊k˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ !ü!Ö òy⁄ ~Ñ˛ãò õyò%ˆÏ°ÏÓ˚ x˛ôÓ˚ ~Ñ˛
õyò%°ÏˆÏÑ˛ ˆÎõò ¶˛yˆÏÓ ¶˛yˆÏúyÓy¢y Óy îÎ˚y Ñ˛Ó˚y v˛z!â˛ì˛ ì˛y òy
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ ~£z =í=!ú Ñ˛ì˛ ˆÓ!ü ˆÓ!ü xyˆÏäÈ ì˛y
ˆîÖyˆÏòyÓ˚ ~Ñ˛›˛y ¢%ˆÏÎyÜ !£¢yˆÏÓ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆî!Ö⁄ ˆÑ˛ò ãy!ì˛ñ
ïõ≈ñ Óí≈ñ !úD !ò!Ó≈ˆÏüˆÏ°Ï ¢Ñ˛ˆÏúÓ˚ ãòƒ ¢õyò ¢Ó˚Ñ˛yÓ˚# !ü«˛y
ÓƒÓfl˛iy ܈Ïv˛¸ ì%˛úˆÏì˛ ˛ôy!Ó˚ òy⁄
!Ñ˛ls˛ xy!õ xyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛Óyî Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ¢y£¢ ˆ˛ôúyõ òy– Ñ˛yÓ˚í
xy!õ ãy!ò xyõyˆÏÑ˛ Óúy £ˆÏÓñ ÚÚ£Î˚ ì%˛!õ ~›˛y @˘Ã£í Ñ˛Ó˚ xÌÓy
ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÁÛÛ–
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xy!ü¢ îyü=Æ
üÓ˚Íâ˛w â˛ˆÏRy˛ôyïƒyÎ˚ Ó˚!â˛ì˛ ÚõˆÏ£üÛ Ü“!›˛ xò%¢Ó˚ˆÏí !ú!Öì˛ ~ òy!›˛Ñ˛y
@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ òyõ Ñ˛yü#˛ô%Ó˚– @˘Ãyõ ˆäÈy›˛ñ ã!õîyÓ˚ xyÓ˚Á ˆäÈy›˛ñ
ì˛Ó%ñ îy˛ôˆÏ›˛ ì§˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃãyÓ˚y ›%§˛ ü∑!›˛ Ñ˛!Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ òy ÈÙÈ ~õò£z
≤Ãì˛y˛ô–
ã!õîyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆäÈy›˛ ˆäȈÏúÓ˚ ãß√!ì˛!Ì ˛ô)ãy– ˛ô)ãy ¢y!Ó˚Î˚y
ì˛Ñ≈˛Ó˚b !m≤ãÓ˚ ˆÓúyÎ˚ Óy›˛# !ö˛!Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ !äȈú
Ï ò– ˜ÓüyÖ ˆü°Ï ££zÎy˚
xyˆÏ¢ñ !Ñ˛ls˛ ˆõˆÏáÓ˚ äÈyÎ˚y›%˛Ñ%˛ ˆÑ˛yÌyÁ òy£zñ xòyÓ,!‹TÓ˚ xyÑ˛yü
££zˆÏì˛ ˆÎò xy=ò G˛!Ó˚Î˚y ˛ô!v˛¸ˆÏì˛ˆÏäÈ–
¢ß√%ˆÖÏ Ó˚ !îÜhs˛ˆÏãyv˛¸y õy‡˛Öyòy ãμ!úÎ˚y ˛ô%!v˛¸Îy˚ ö%˛!›˛ö˛y›˛y
££zÎ˚y xyˆÏäÈ– . . .
£z£yÓ˚£z ¢#õyòyÎ˚ ˛ôˆÏÌÓ˚ ïyˆÏÓ˚ Üö%˛Ó˚ ˆãyúyÓ˚ Óy!v˛¸– . .
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ÓyÇúy ì˛Ìy @˘Ãyõ#í ¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚ ¢Ñ˛Ó˚&í õõ≈ÜyÌy–
SÜö%˛Ó˚ ˆãyúyÓ˚ ¶˛yày Ñ%˛!›˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ¢ß√%ˆÏÖ ì˛Ñ≈˛Ó˚b– Üö%˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÜÓ˚&!›˛ñ
Îy£y õˆÏM˛È î,üƒõyò òˆÏ£ñ Ó§yïy Ó˚!£Î˚yˆÏäÈV
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SÜö%˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆõˆÏÎ˚ xy!õòy áˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ î%Î˚yˆÏÓ˚ î§yv˛¸y£zÎ˚yV
xy!õòy–– ÓyÓyˆÏÑ˛ ˆÑ˛ò v˛yˆÏÑ˛ò⁄ ÓyÓyÓ˚ ˆÎ ãμÓ˚–
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SãμˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛¡ôõyò Üö%˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ≤ÈÏÓüV
Á›˛y £ˆÏFâ˛È !Ñ˛ ÷!ò⁄ ~ !£§î%Ó˚ ܧyñ Ó y·˛í ã!õîyÓ˚ñ
ˆ¢ ˆÖÎ˚yú xyˆÏäÈ⁄ ¢Ñ˛yˆÏú ÎyÓyÓ˚ ¢õÎ˚ ˆîˆÏÖ ˆÜ!äÈ
Ó§yïyñ î%˛ô%ˆÓÏ ˚ ˆö˛Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏÌ ˆîÖ!äÈ ˆì˛õ!ò ‡˛yÎ˚ Ó§yïy–
ˆÜy £ì˛ƒy £ˆÏú Ñ˛ì≈˛y ˆÎ ˆì˛yˆÏÑ˛ ãƒyhs˛ Ñ˛ÓÓ˚ ˆîˆÏÓ–
ˆ¢ ˆÎ ˆ¢ Óyõ%ò òÎ˚Ê
Üö%˛Ó˚–– !Ñ˛ Ñ˛Ó˚Ó ÓyÓy‡˛yÑ%˛Ó˚ñ Óv˛¸ úyâ˛yˆÏÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸ ˆÜ!äÈ– Ñ˛!îò
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ÜyˆÏÎ˚ ãμÓñ˚ î!v˛¸ ïˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ î%ÈÙÈÖˆ%§ ›Ï ˛y Öy£zˆÎÏ ˚ xyòÓÈÙÈ
ì˛y õyÌy á%ˆÏÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸ Îy£z–
ì˛Ñ≈˛Ó˚b–– ì˛ˆÏÓ ˆäȈÏv˛¸ ˆî òyñ xy˛ô!ò â˛Ó˚y£z Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy¢%Ñ˛–
Üö%˛Ó˚–– ˆÑ˛yÌyÎ˚ äÈyv˛¸Ó ÓyÓy‡˛yÑ%˛Ó˚ñ ˆúyˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ïyò ~ÖˆÏòy ¢Ó
G˛yv˛¸y £Î˚!ò ÈÙÈ ÖyõyˆÏÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏv˛¸ó Öv˛¸ ~ÖˆÏòy Üy!î ˆîÁÎ˚y
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Üö%˛Ó˚–– SˆÓîòyì≈˛ Ñ˛ˆÏt˛V Ñ˛y£òÈÙÈÖyˆÏòÑ˛ Öv˛¸ ~ÓyÓ˚ ¶˛yˆÏÜ
ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚!äÈúyõñ !Ñ˛ls˛ ˆÜú ¢ˆÏòÓ˚ ÓˆÏÑ˛Î˚y ÓˆÏúñ
Ñ˛ì≈˛yõüy£z ¢Ó ïˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yÖˆÏúò– ˆÑ§˛ˆÏîˆÏÑ˛ˆÏ›˛ £yˆÏì˛˛ôyˆÏÎ˚
˛ôˆÏv˛¸ Óúúyõñ ÓyÓ%õüy£zñ £y!Ñ˛õ ì%˛!õñ ˆì˛yõyÓ˚ Ó˚yãc
ˆäȈÏv˛¸ xyÓ˚ ˛ôyúyˆÏÓy ˆÑ˛yÌyÎ˚ñ xyõyˆÏÑ˛ ˛ôòÈÙÈîˆÏüÑ˛
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Óy˛ô ˆÓ!›˛ˆÏì˛ Ìy!Ñ˛ñ ì˛yÁ òy £Î˚ ì˛yú˛ôyì˛yÓ˚
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ˆÖˆÏì˛ ˆ˛ôˆÏÎ˚ xyõyÓ˚ õˆÏ£ü õˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ–
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ˆ£ˆÏ¢ Ó§y!â˛ˆÏòÊ
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SõˆÏ£ˆÏüÓ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ xD%!ú !òˆÏî≈ü Ñ˛!Ó˚Î˚yV
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ÎyˆÏFäÈñ ÈÙÈ îyÁ òy ‡˛yÑ%˛Ó˚õüy£zñ Ñ˛y£ò î%£z ïyÓ˚ñ
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xyõyÓ˚ xÓúy ã#Ó ÈÙÈ Ñ˛Ìy ÓúˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ òyñ ÷ï%
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¢Ó˚‰ñ ˛ôÌ äÈyv˛¸ ÈÙÈ
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So&ì˛ ≤Ãfl˛iyòV
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Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ òyˆÏõÓ˚ ˆÎy܃ xyâ˛Ó˚í Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ v˛z˛ôˆÏîü !ì˛!ò
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ˆÏîÓ˚ !îˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈò–

¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚ ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúò Óòyõ ˆúÖˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ≤ÃÓı˛
¢õ@˘Ã ≤ÃÓı˛ ã%ˆÏv˛¸ ˆúÖÑ˛ Ú◊!õÑ˛Û Ú◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÛ Á
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ïyÓ˚íy ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ≤ë˛y˛ôˆÏ›˛ £y!ãÓ˚
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xyv˛¸yˆÏú ~Ñ˛ xÌ≈ò#!ì˛Óyî# úy£zò £y!ãÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ–
v˛zò!ÓÇü üì˛y∑#Ó˚ ¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚ ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚
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ÚÓ˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ ì˛yÓ˚y ãyì˛#Î˚ì˛yÓyî# fl˛∫yï#òì˛y xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚
ü!Ó˚Ñ˛ !äÈúÛ ~ÓÇ ◊!õÑ˛Ó˚y Úˆ◊!í !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ fl˛∫yï#ò £ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ !òÛ–
˙ ~Ñ˛£z xyˆÏ®yúò ¢¡ôˆÏÑ˛≈ Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò Ñ˛# ÓúˆÏäÈò⁄ ì§˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛ÌyÎ˚
Ú!Ó!¶˛ß¨ £zv˛zˆÓÏ y˚ ˛ô#Î˚ Á ~ü#Î˚ ˆîü=ˆÏúyˆÏì˛ !Ó≤’Ó# xyˆÏ®yúò=ˆÏúy
ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ v˛z˛ô!fl˛i!ì˛ ~ì˛ ˆãyÓ˚yˆÏúy ¶˛yˆÏÓ xò%¶˛Ó Ñ˛Ó˚yˆÏäÈ ˆÎ ì˛y
xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ òì%˛ò ~ÓÇ
xì%˛úò#Î˚ v˛zFⲲôÎ≈yˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ ~Ñ˛ ˆõy›˛yõ%!›˛ fl˛ô‹T òÑ˛‰üy ˆîÖyˆÏFäÈ–Û
(Inflammable Material in World Politics LCW 15,
1973)

~Ó˚Ñ˛õ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ Óí≈òy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ !܈ÏÎ˚ ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ ≤âˆÏD ~ˆÏ¢
Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò ÓúˆÏäÈò ÈÙÈ ÚÚ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Á
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Ñ˛yÎ˚îyÎ˚ Ó,!›˛ü üy¢ˆÏòÓ˚ !îò ˆü°Ï–ÛÛ
˛ôy‡˛Ñ˛ ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚&ò Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò ˆÎ xyˆÏ®yúò=ˆÏúy
≤âˆÏD ÓúˆÏì˛ !܈ÏÎ˚ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ òì%˛ò
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ÓúˆÏäÈò ì˛yˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛õÉ !ÓÑ˛yü Úˆ◊!í !£¢yˆÏÓ fl˛∫yï#ò £ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚
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60

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Ñ˛ˆÏÓò˚ – !Ñ˛ls˛ ˆòì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆ@˘ÃÆyÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓÁ
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1949 ¢yˆÏú ≤ÃÑ˛y!üì˛ V. M. Maslennikov ~Ó˚
ˆúÖy 'On leading role of working class in the Na-

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tional Liberation Movement of the Colonial People'

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Maslennikov ÓúˆÏäÈò ÚÚ1920ÈÙÈ32 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ !Ó≤’Ó# x@˘ÃÜ!ì˛Ó˚
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ˆÓ˚ú◊!õˆÏÑ˛Ó˚y ïõ≈áˆÏ›˛ ¢y!õú £ˆÏúò– 1947 ~Ó˚ «˛õì˛y
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xòƒ ¢y«˛ƒ !îˆÏFäÈ–
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ãyì˛#Î˚ xyˆÏ®yúò ~Ñ˛õye Ó%ˆã
Ï y≈ Î˚y Üíì˛y!s˛Ñf ˛ xyˆÏ®yúò £ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓÛ˚ Û–
!¢k˛yhs˛ Ñ˛Ó˚y £ú ÈÙÈ ÚÚ. . . Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚
v˛z˛ô!òˆÏÓˆÏü Ó%ˆã
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ì˛Öò£z ÎÖò ì˛y ≤ÃÑ,˛ì˛ !Ó≤’Ó# ~ÓÇ ì˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃÓ_´yÓ˚y Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚
~ÓÇ ˆüy!°Ïì˛ ãò܈ÏíÓ˚ !Ó≤’Ó# xyˆÏÓ܈ÏÑ˛ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ ~ÓÇ !ü!«˛ì˛
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ Óyïy ¢,!‹T Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ òy– ~Ó˚Ñ˛õ xÓfl˛iy òy ÌyÑ˛ˆÏú ~ ¢õhfl˛
ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛Ó˚y ¢Çfl˛ÒyÓ˚˛ôs˛i# Ó%ˆã
Ï y≈ Î˚yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆõyÑ˛y!Óúy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÓÏ
ÎyˆÏîÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ !mì˛#Î˚ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ó#ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚yÁ xyˆÏäÈ–ÛÛ
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ˆÓyG˛y ˆÜú òy–
ˆ◊!íñ ˆ◊!í fl˛∫yÌ≈ ~ ¢Ó !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆúÖÑ˛ xˆÏòÑ˛ Ñ˛Ìy
ÓˆÏúˆÏäÈò– ¶˛yÓ˚ˆÏì˛Ó˚ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íˆÏÑ˛ !ì˛!ò ˆ◊!í !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ˛ôyò
!ò– ~Öò Poverty of Philosophy ≤ÃÓˆÏı˛ Ñ˛õÉ õyÑ≈˛¢ ~Ó˚
~£z Ó_´Óƒ›˛y ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚y ÎyÑ ˛ÈÙÙÙÈ
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!ò– ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ õˆÏïƒñ ÎyÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛›˛y ˛ôÓ≈ xyõÓ˚y ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚!äÈñ
~£z ãòì˛y ˙Ñ˛ƒÓk˛ £Î˚ ~ÓÇ !òˆÏãÓ˚ ãòƒ Úˆ◊!íÛ Ü‡˛ò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
ˆÎ fl˛∫yÌ≈ ì˛yÓ˚y Ó˚«˛y Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ì˛yˆÏÑ˛ ÓˆÏú ˆ◊!í fl˛∫yÌ≈–ÛÛ
~Ó˚ ˛ôˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ úy£zˆòÏ Ñ˛õÉ õyÑ≈˛¢ ÓúˆÏúòÈÙÙÙÈÈ ÚÚ!Ñ˛ls˛ ˆ◊!íÓ˚
!ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ˆ◊!íÓ˚ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ ~Ñ˛!›˛ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ–ÛÛ
German Ideology-ˆì˛ õyÑ≈˛¢ ÓˆÏúòÈÙÙÙÈÈ ÚÚxyúyîy
Óƒ!_´Ó˚y ~Ñ˛›˛y ˆ◊!í ì˛ì˛î)Ó˚ ܇˛ò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Îì˛ î)Ó˚ ˛ôÎ≈hs˛ ì˛yÓ˚y
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¢%ì˛Ó˚yÇ ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ó≈Ï ˚ ◊!õÑ˛ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ ˆÎ £z!ì˛£y¢ xyõÓ˚y
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!ÓÇü üì˛y∑#Ó˚ ≤ÃÌõ îüÑ˛ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛£z ˛ô%§!ãÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ
◊!õÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆ◊!í !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ~Ó˚Ñ˛õ xyd≤ÃÑ˛yü xyõÓ˚y ܈ÏÓÓ≈ ˚ ¢ˆÏD
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Ñ˛yˆÏÑ˛ ÓúÓ ~£z xïƒyˆÏÎ˚ ˆú!òˆÏòÓ˚ v˛zk˛, !ì˛ˆÏÑ˛ !ÓÑ˛yü ÓyÓ% !òˆÏãÓ˚
õˆÏì˛y ÓƒyÖƒy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ â˛ˆÏúˆÏäÈò–
ˆú!òò ~Ñ˛ ãyÎ˚ÜyÎ˚ ÓúˆÏäÈòÈÙÙÙÈÈ ÚÚÎÖò ~Ñ˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛yÓ˚ÖyòyÎ˚

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ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘Ãyõ⁄ òyñ ~!›˛ £ú ì˛yÓ˚ î%Óú
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~ÓÇ Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò xyˆÏÓ˚y ÓúˆÏäÈòÈÙÙÙÈ
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¢Ç@˘Ãyõ ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ ˛ô!Ó˚íì˛ £Î˚–ÛÛ S˛ô,É 15V
!ÓÑ˛yüÓyÓ% ~£z v˛z!_´ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !¢k˛yˆÏhs˛ ˆ˛ôÔ§äȈÏúò ÈÙÈ
Ñ˛V xÌ≈˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ=!ú ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘Ãyõ òÎ˚ñ ~=!ú
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Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òˆÏòÓ˚ Ó_´Óƒ Ñ˛# ì˛y£z⁄ Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò ˆõyˆÏ›˛£z
~õò Ñ˛Ìy ÓˆÏúò !ò– !Ó°ÏÎ˚›˛y xÌ≈˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ îy!Ó !Ñ˛òy ˆ¢£z â˛!Ó˚e
!òˆÏÎ˚ òÎ˚– õ)ú !Ó°ÏÎ˚›˛y ˆ◊!íÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ˆ◊!í î§yv˛¸yˆÏFäÈ !Ñ˛ òy
ì˛y !òˆÏÎ˚– ïÓ˚y ÎyÑ˛ ~Ñ˛!›˛ Ñ˛yÓ˚ÖyòyÓ˚ õy!úÑ˛ =u˛y !îˆÏÎ˚
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ì˛y ˆì˛y òÎ˚– ì˛y£ˆÏú ˆú!òˆÏòÓ˚ ÓƒyÖƒy xò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ ~›˛y ˆÑ˛yò ïÓ˚ˆíÏ Ó˚
¢Ç@˘Ãyõ !ÓÑ˛yüÓyÓ%⁄ ~›˛yÁ ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ ÚÚî%Ó≈ú º*íÛÛ òÎ˚
Ñ˛#⁄ xyÓyÓ˚ PF, @˘Ãƒyâ%˛£z!›˛Ó˚ õˆÏì˛y xÌ≈˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ îy!ÓÓ˚ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ
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ˆúÖÑ˛ ˆ◊!í Á ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ Ó˝ ÓƒyÖƒy !îˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈòñ
ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò õyÑ≈˛ˆÏ¢Ó˚ ¢ˆÏD ì˛yÓ˚ fl˛∫!ÓˆÏÓ˚yï xyõÓ˚y ˆî!ÖˆÏÎ˚!äÈ– ~Öò
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ˆúÖÑ˛ ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ Óƒy˛ôÑ˛ ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúò=ˆÏúy
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££zˆÏÓÛ Ó˚â˛òyÎ˚ Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò ˆì˛y fl˛ô‹T¶˛y°ÏyˆÏì˛ ÓˆÏúˆÏäÈò ÈÙÈ
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63

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1853 ¢yˆÏú Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ú#Ü ˆ¶˛ˆÏD ÎyÁÎ˚yÓ˚ õye â˛yÓ˚
õy¢ ˛ôˆÏÓ˚£z õyÑ≈˛¢ ~ˆÏDú¢ˆÏÑ˛ !úÖˆÏúò ÈÙÈ ÚÚxyõyˆÏîÓ˚ !ò!ÿ˛ì˛
¶˛yˆÏÓ òì%˛ò Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ˆÏì˛ ¢y!õú Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓÛÛ (We must
definitely recruit our Party afresh) xyˆÏÓ˚y ÓúˆÏúò
ÚxyõyˆÏîÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ü,CúyÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ ˆãyÓ˚ !îˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ xòƒÌy ¢Ó!Ñ˛ä%È
˛ôˆÏB˛ !òõ!Iì˛ £ˆÏÓ–Û 1860 ¢yˆÏú õyÑ≈˛ˆÏ¢Ó˚ Ó˚â˛òyÎ˚ ÚxyõyˆÏîÓ˚
˛ôy!›≈˛Û ~£z ü∑Óı˛ ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚y ÎyÎ˚ Î!îÁ ì˛yÓ˚ xy›˛˛ ÓäÈÓ˚ xyˆÏÜ
ú#Ü ˆ¶˛ˆÏD ˆÜˆÏäÈ– Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ú#܈ÏÑ˛ õyÑ≈˛¢ ÚÚõ£yò ˙!ì˛£y!¢Ñ˛
xˆÏÌ≈ ˛ôy!›≈˛ÛÛ 'the Party in great historical sense' ~
xˆÏÌ≈ Ó%ˆÏG˛ˆÏäÈò– 1859 ¢yˆÏú ãyõ≈yò ≤ÃÓy¢# ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ~Ñ˛!›˛
ˆÜy¤˛#ˆÏÑ˛ õyÑ≈˛¢ ÓúˆÏúò ÈÙÈ Ú¢Ó≈£yÓ˚yÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛!ò!ï !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ
xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ !òÎ%!_´ xyõÓ˚y xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ äÈyv˛¸y Ñ˛yˆÏÓ˚y Ñ˛yäÈ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˛ôy£z
!ò– Î!îÁ ì˛y ˛ô%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏòy ˛ô,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ¢õhfl˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ~ÓÇ ˆÜy¤˛#Ó˚
xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ v˛z˛ôÓ˚ ¢Ó≈ãò#ò á,íy Ӱψ≈ íÏ Ó˚ myÓ˚y xò%ˆõÏ y!îì˛ £ˆÏΈ˚ äÏ È–Û
ãyõ≈yò ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ !ÓÑ˛yˆÏüÓ˚ xy!î ˛ôˆÏÓ≈ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ú#Ü v˛zˆ‡Ï ˛
ÎyÁÎ˚y ~ÓÇ ãyõ≈y!òÓ˚ òì%˛ò ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ܈Ïv˛¸ Á‡˛yÓ˚
õïƒÓì˛#≈ ˛ôˆÏÓ≈ õyÑ≈˛ˆÏ¢Ó˚ ~£z ˛ôy!›≈˛ ¢Çe´yhs˛ ïyÓ˚íy ~Ñ˛!›˛ ì˛y!_¥Ñ˛
x!hfl˛c !òˆÏÎ˚£z £y!ãÓ˚ !äÈú– 1860 ¢yˆÏúÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏÓ˚ ÎÖò
¢!ì˛ƒÑ˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ◊!õÑ˛ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ !ÓÑ˛!üì˛ £ú ì˛Öò ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ì˛§yÓ˚y
!òˆÏãˆÏîÓ˚ xyÓ˚ ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚yÓ˚ fl˛∫ˆÏáy!°Ïì˛ ≤Ã!ì˛!ò!ï ÓˆÏú ˆáy°Ïíy Óı˛
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ !îˆÏúò– ÓÓ˚Ç ˙ ¢Ó ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yï# õì˛yÓú¡∫# ÌyÑ˛y
¢ˆÏ_¥Á ì˛yÓ˚y !òˆÏãˆÏîÓ˚ ˙ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD ~Ñ˛yd Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúò–
õyÑ≈˛¢ Ñ%˛ˆÏÜúõƒyòˆÏÑ˛ ÓúˆÏúò ˛ôƒyÓ˚# Ñ˛õ%ƒò £ˆÏúy ÚÚxyõyˆÏîÓ˚
˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ¢Óâ˛y£zˆÏì˛ ˆÜÔÓ˚ˆÏÓyIμú Ñ˛yã . . .ÛÛ–
˛ôM˛ÈyˆÏüÓ˚ îüˆÏÑ˛ ÎÖò õyÑ≈˛¢ ãyõ≈y!òˆÏì˛ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy
¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ܈Ïv˛¸ Á‡˛yÓ˚ !¶˛!_ ˆîÖˆÏäÈò òy ˆ¢
¢õˆÏÎ˚£z !ì˛!ò â˛y!›≈˛fi›˛ ˆòì˛y xyò≈fi›˛ ˆãyò‰¢‰ ˆÑ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ Üv˛¸ˆÏì˛
Ñ˛yÓ˚ÖyòyÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏì˛ ÓúˆÏäÈò–
1864 ¢yˆÏú ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛y £Î˚ ≤ÃÌõ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛– 1864
¢yˆÏú ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúò ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ì%˛úòyõ)úÑ˛ !Ó!FäÈߨì˛y ¶˛yDˆÏì˛
˛ô!ÿ˛õ £zv˛zˆÓÏ y˚ ˆÏ˛ôÓ˚ ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúòˆÏÑ˛ ˛ô%òã#≈!Óì˛ Ñ˛ÏÓˆ˚ ìÏ ˛ õyÑ≈˛¢
◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ~£z xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ ¢Ç܇˛ò!›˛ˆÏÑ˛ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ñ ˙Ñ˛ƒÓk˛

Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ õˆÏòy!òˆÏÓü Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúò– ì˛ˆÏÓñ Ñ˛ÖˆÏòy£z ì§˛yÓ˚y ≤ÃÌõ
xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ !â˛!£´ì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò !òñ
ì§˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ¢õÌ≈Ñ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ ¶˛yˆÏÓ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܈Ïv˛¸ ≤ÃÌõ
xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ñ˛y‡˛yˆÏõyÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ Ñ˛yã Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò !ò–
1871 ¢yˆÏú ˛ôƒyÓ˚# Ñ˛õ%ƒˆÏòÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏÓ˚ Úö ˛yˆÏ™ Ü,£Î%k˛Û Ó˚â˛òyÎ˚
õyÑ≈˛¢ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íˆÏÑ˛ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ «˛õì˛yÎ˚ x!ï!¤˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛
Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛õ≈Ñ˛yˆÏu˛Ó˚ ¢Óâ˛y£zˆÏì˛ Ñ˛yÎ≈Ñ˛Ó˚# Ó˚*ˆÏ˛ôÓ˚ ≤ß¿!›˛
ì%˛úˆÏúò– xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ úu˛ò Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘Ãˆ¢Ï Ó˚ !ÓÖƒyì˛ òÓõ !¢k˛yˆÏhs˛
◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íˆÏÑ˛ ~Ñ˛!›˛ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ˛ôy!›˛≈ˆÏì˛ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy
Óúy £ú– ~£z !¢k˛yhs˛ˆÏÑ˛ ˆÑ˛v˛z ˆÑ˛v˛z õyÑ≈˛¢ ~Ñ˛ ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ˆÑ˛w#Î˚
xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ Ñ˛Ìy ˆ¶˛ˆÏÓˆÏäÈò ÓˆÏú !â˛!£´ì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò Î!îÁ
ì˛yÓ˚ ¢˛ôˆÏ«˛ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy v˛zk,˛!ì˛ £y!ãÓ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ì˛yÓ˚y ÓƒÌ≈ £ò–
1893 ¢yˆÏú ~ˆÏDú¢ Independent Labour
Party- Ó˚ ܇˛òˆÏÑ˛ x!¶˛ò®ò ãy!òˆÏÎ˚ ÓúˆÏúò Ú~£z òì%˛ò ˛ôy!›≈˛›˛y
ˆ¢£z ˛ôy!›≈˛ Îy xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ˛ô%ˆÓÏ y˚ ˆÏòy ¢î¢ƒÓ˚y ˜ì˛Ó˚# £ˆÏì˛ ˆîÖˆÏì˛
ˆâ˛ˆÏÎ˚!äȈÏúò–Û 1872 ~ Ö¢v˛¸y Ó˚â˛òyÎ˚ ~ˆÏDú¢ ÓˆÏúò ÈÙÈ
ÚÚ!¢k˛yhs˛!›˛ ≤Ã!ì˛ ˆîˆÏü ¢õhfl˛ õÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ~Ñ˛!›˛
!ò!î≈‹T ˛◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ îy!Ó Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–ÛÛ xÓüƒ 1871
¢yˆÏú ãyõ≈yò ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy!›˛Ñ˛ ◊!õÑ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ~Ñ˛!›˛ õˆÏv˛ú
£y!ãÓ˚ £ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜˆÏäÈ– ãyõ≈yò ˛ôyúy≈ˆõÏ ˆÏr›˛ ˙ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ î%£z ˆòì˛y ˆÓˆÏÓú
Á !úÓˆÏòÖ‰ˆÏ›˛Ó˚ Î%k˛!ÓˆÏÓ˚yï# ¶)˛!õÑ˛y õyÑ≈˛¢ˆÏÑ˛ v˛zÍ¢y!£ì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚
~ÓÇ úu˛ò ¢ˆÏ¡øúˆÏò ◊!õÑ˛ ≤Ã!ì˛!ò!ïˆÏîÓ˚ ˛ôyúy≈ˆÏõˆÏr›˛ ÎyÁÎ˚yÓ˚
=Ó˚&ˆÏcÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy !ì˛!ò ÓˆÏúò– ˛˛ôƒyÓ˚# Ñ˛õ%ƒˆÏòÓ˚ xyˆÏÜ ˆfl˛ôˆÏòÓ˚
xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛yv˛z!™ˆÏúÓ˚ ~Ñ˛ ¢¶˛yÎ˚ ~ˆÏDú¢ ÓˆÏúò ÚÚ¢Ó
ãyÎ˚ÜyÓ˚ x!¶˛K˛ì˛y ˆîÖyˆÏFäÈ ˆÎ ˛ô%ˆÓÏ y˚ ˆÏòy ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ xy!ï˛ôì˛ƒ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
◊!õÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ õ%_´ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏú ≤Ã!ì˛ ˆîˆÏü ì˛yÓ˚ !òãfl˛∫ ò#!ì˛ ¢£ñ
xòƒ ˛ôy!›≈˛=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ¢%!ò!î≈‹T ¶˛yˆÏÓ xyúyîy ~Ñ˛!›˛ ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y
˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò–ÛÛ
1889 ¢yˆÏú ~ˆÏDú¢ ~Ñ˛!›˛ !â˛!‡˛ˆÏì˛ !úÖˆÏúò ÈÙÈ
ÚÚ~Ñ˛!›˛ xyúyîy ˛ôy!›≈˛ ˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ Îy ¢õhfl˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛
xyúyîy ~ÓÇ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yï#ñ ~Ñ˛!›˛ ˆ◊!í ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛ò ˛ôy!›≈˛ÛÛ–
Ú≤Ã&!üÎ˚yò ¢yõ!Ó˚Ñ˛ ≤ß¿ ~ÓÇ ãyõ≈yò ◊!õÑ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Û Ó˚â˛òyÎ˚
~ˆÏDú¢ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ÓúˆÏì˛ ÓúˆÏäÈò ÚÚ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˆ¢£z
xÇü ÎyÓ˚y ˆ◊!íÓ˚ xyúyîy fl˛∫yÌ≈¢¡ôˆÏÑ≈˛ ¢ˆÏâ˛ì˛òì˛y xã≈ò
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈò–ÛÛ
1873 ¢yˆÏú The Housing Question ~ ~ˆÏDú¢
68

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
ÓúˆÏäÈò ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ xòƒ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ õì˛£z Ó˚yˆÏ‹T…
ì˛yÓ˚ üy¢ò ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ â˛yÎ˚ ~ÓÇ ì˛y£z ì˛yˆÏÑ˛ ˆ◊!í xy!ï˛ôì˛ƒ
≤Ã!ì˛¤˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ £Î˚– ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ !òˆÏãÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛
Ñ˛Ó˚y Ú≤ÃyÌ!õÑ˛ üì˛≈Û ~ÓÇ Ú◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ~Ñ˛òyÎ˚Ñ˛cÛ ì˛yÓ˚ xy÷
ú«˛ƒ– õyÑ≈˛¢ ~ÓÇ ~ˆÏDú¢ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ~ÓÇ ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y
~Ñ˛òyÎ˚Ñ˛ˆÏcÓ˚ õˆÏïƒÑ˛yÓ˚ ¢¡ôÑ≈˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ ~Ó˚ Óy£zˆÏÓ˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy
xyˆÏúyâ˛òy Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈò ÓˆÏú xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ ãyòy ˆò£z–
õyÑ≈˛¢ Á ~ˆÏDúˆÏ¢Ó˚ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ
◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ x@˘Ãí# xÇüˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ˆÏì˛ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚
ˆ«˛ˆÏe ˆÎ ïyÓ˚íyÓ˚ !ÓÓì≈˛ò áˆÏ›˛ˆÏäÈ ~ÖyˆÏò ì˛y ¢ÇˆÏ«˛ˆÏ˛ô Óí≈òy
Ñ˛Ó˚y £ú–

Îy Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò ¢yïò Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúò ì˛yÓ˚ ¢Ç!«˛Æ¢yÓ˚ Á£z ≤ÃÓˆÏı˛
Ñ˛õÉ hfl˛y!úò â˛õÍÑ˛yÓ˚ ¶˛yˆÏÓ Óí≈òy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúò ÈÙÈ
ÚÑ˛yã›˛y £ú äÈyÜúˆÏîÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆ¶˛v˛¸yˆÏîÓ˚ xyúyîy Ñ˛Ó˚yñ
!Óïõ#≈ ü!_´=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !òˆÏãˆÏÑ˛ !Ó!FäÈߨ Ñ˛Ó˚yñ ~úyÑ˛yÓ˚
x!¶˛K˛ !Ó≤’Ó# Ñ˛ƒyv˛yÓ˚ˆîÏ Ó˚ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yñ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ¢%fl˛ô‹T Ñ˛õ≈¢â) ˛#
~ÓÇ î,벸 ˆÑ˛Ôüú ¢Ó˚ÓÓ˚y£ Ñ˛Ó˚y ~ÓÇ ¢Ó≈ˆÏüˆÏ°Ï ~ ¢õhfl˛
Ñ˛ƒyv˛yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆ˛ôüyîyÓ˚ !Ó≤’Ó#ˆÏîÓ˚ ~Ñ˛!›˛ ~Ñ˛Ñ˛ ãD# ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏò
¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yñ Îy =u˛yÓy!£ò#Ó˚ xye´õí Ó˚&ÖˆÏì˛ ÎˆÏÌ‹T ˛ô!Ó˚õyˆÏí
ˆÜy˛ôò ~ÓÇ ~Ñ˛£z ¢õˆÏÎ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãˆÏòÓ˚ õ%£)ˆÏì≈˛ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ ˆòì,˛c
ˆîÓyÓ˚ ãòƒ ãò܈ÏíÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD ΈÏÌ‹T ˛ô!Ó˚õyˆÏí ¢ÇÎ%_´–Û
~£z ˆ≤ë˛y˛ô›˛ˆÏÑ˛ Óyî !îˆÏÎ˚ ˆú!òò Á ì§˛yÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ¢Çe´yhs˛
ïyÓ˚íyˆÏÑ˛ ˆÓyG˛y ÎyˆÏÓ òy– ˆú!òò#Î˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ¢Çe´yhs˛ ïyÓ˚íyÓ˚ e&!›˛
ˆÓyG˛yˆÏì˛ xyãÑ˛yú RSDLP Ó˚ 1903 ~ !mì˛#Î˚ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢
˛ôy!›≈˛ ¢Çe´yhs˛ !Óì≈˛Ñ˛ ~ÓÇ ˆú!òˆÏòÓ˚ ˆúÖy Ú~Ñ˛ Ñ˛îõ xyˆÏÜ î%
Ñ˛îõ !˛ôˆÏäÈÛÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ 1904 ~ ˆÓ˚yãy ú%ˆÏ:õÓyˆÏÜ≈Ó˚ ˆúÖy
ÚÓ˚&ü ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´y!¢Ó˚ ¢yÇ܇˛!òÑ˛ ≤ß¿ ¢õ)£Û ˆÑ˛
xyˆÏúyâ˛òyÎ˚ xyòy £ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏÑ˛– ~£z ¢õÎ˚ ˛ôˆÏÓ≈ RSDLP- Ó˚
Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢Ó˚ !¢k˛yhs˛ xõyòƒ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ õyì≈˛¶˛ñ xƒyˆÏ:úÓ˚v˛ñ ›˛Δ›˛!fl˛ÒÓ˚y
£zfl˛;˛yÓ˚ ¢¡ôyîÑ˛õ[˛ú# ~ÓÇ òì%˛ò ˆÑ˛w#Î˚ Ñ˛!õ!›˛ˆÏì˛ ÌyÑ˛ˆÏì˛
xfl˛∫#Ñ˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓò˚ xyÓ˚ xòƒ!îˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘Ãˆ¢Ï Ó˚ ¢ÇÖƒyÜ!Ó˚ˆ¤Ï ˛Ó˚ !¢k˛yhs˛
õyòƒÑ˛yÓ˚ # Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òòˆÏ Ñ ˛ ~Ñ˛òyÎ˚ Ñ ˛ñ ~Ñ˛ ˆÓyòy˛ôy›≈ ˛ ñ
ˆÓ˚yÓ‰¢!˛ôÎ˚Ó˚ ~¢Ó ÓˆÏú Üy!úÜyúyã Ñ˛Ó˚!äȈÏúò– Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢Ó˚
!¢k˛yhs˛ xõyòƒ Ñ˛Ó˚ y Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛ÓyˆÏ î Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò £z fl ˛;˛y
¢¡ôyîÑ˛õ[˛ú# ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ~ˆÏ¢ ÓúˆÏü!¶˛Ñ˛ Óy ¢ÇÖƒyÜ!Ó˚¤˛
˛ôs˛i#ˆÏîÓ˚ !Ó≤’Ó# ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏò ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓò˚ – 1904 ~Ó˚ ã%úy£zˆÎÏ ˚
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ïyÓ˚íy!›˛ˆÏÑ˛ ¢)eÓk˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–

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Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ÓîˆÏú ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ !òÎ˚s˛fíˆÏÑ˛ !áˆÏÓ˚–Û
Ú~Ñ˛ Ñ˛îõ xyˆÏÜ î%ÛÑ˛îõ !˛ôˆÏäÈÛ Ó˚â˛òyÎ˚ ˆú!òò
◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ü,ÇÖúy ÓúˆÏì˛ !܈ÏÎ˚ Ñ˛yÓ˚ÖyòyÎ˚ ◊!õÑ˛Ó˚y ˆÎ
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Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÓˆÏúò Ñ˛yÓ˚ÖyòyÎ˚ ˆüÖy ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ü,ÇÖúy ◊!õˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ú!â˛hs˛y
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Ü,£#ì˛ Ú¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y !Ó≤’ˆÏÓ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ¶)˛!õÑ˛yÛ ¢Çe´yhs˛
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=Ó˚&c˛ô)í≈ ˛ôˆÏÎ˚r›˛ ¢ÇˆÏ«˛ˆÏ˛ô ÓúˆÏú £úÈÙÙÙÈ
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¢Ç܇˛òñ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ fl˛∫yÌ≈£z ì˛yÓ˚ fl˛∫yÌ≈–
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ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ì§˛yÓ˚y ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ¢Ó ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ x@˘Ãí# Á î,벸!â˛_ xÇü
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xì˛~Ó Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ˆÑ˛yò Úxyîü≈Û

Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ïyÓ˚íy ¶%˛ú–
● Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ äÈyv˛¸y ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚yÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏ«˛ !Ó≤’Ó ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛
Ñ˛Ó˚y x¢Ω˛Ó– Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ «˛õì˛y îÖú ~ÓÇ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚y
~Ñ˛õye Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ myÓ˚y£z ¢Ω˛Ó– xòƒ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ¶˛yˆÏÓ òÎ˚–
● ~Ñ˛ ¢ˆÏ¡øúò ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ xòƒ ¢ˆÏ¡øúò ˛ôˆÏÓ≈ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛
˛ôy!›≈˛ Á ì˛yÓ˚ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ Ñ˛!õ!›˛=ˆÏúy Üíì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ ˆÑ˛!wÑ˛ì˛yÓ˚ ò#!ì˛ˆÏì˛
â˛úˆÏÓ–
● ˆÓü#Ó˚¶˛yÜ ˆîˆÏü£z Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ü˝ˆÏÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛
!£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ˜ì˛Ó˚# £ˆÏúÁ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ Úo&ì˛ì˛õ ~ÓÇ ¢£ãì˛õÛ
!ÓãˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ ãòƒ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ˆÑ˛Óú Úü£ˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛Û £ˆÏú â˛úˆÏÓ
òy ì˛yˆÏÑ˛ Ú@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛Û £ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ– ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ xÓüƒ£z @˘Ãyõ#í ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y
äÈyv˛¸yÁ «%˛ˆÏî Á õïƒÑ,˛°ÏˆÑÏ ˛Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚ Á ¢yÇ܇˛!òÑ˛ Ñ˛yÎ≈Ñ˛úy˛ô
â˛yúyˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ–
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ î!úˆÏú ~Á Óúy £ˆÏFäÈ ˆÎ
ÚÓì≈˛õyò ˛ôˆÏÓ≈ @˘ÃyõyM˛ÈˆÏú Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ Ñ˛yÎ≈Ñ˛úy˛ô ≤ÃyÌ!õÑ˛
=Ó˚&ˆÏcÓ˚Û !Ó°ÏÎ˚–
ì,˛ì˛#Î˚ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ì,˛ì˛#Î˚ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢ Ü,£#ì˛ =Ó˚&c˛ô)í≈
≤Ãhfl˛yˆÏÓ Óúy £ú ÈÙÈ
Moreover successful leadership absolutely
presupposes the closest ties with the proletarian
masses. Without these ties the leadership will not
lead the masses but will at best tail after them.
In its organization, the communist parties
scales to achieve there organic ties through
democratic centralism.

¢ˆÏÓy≈ ˛ô!Ó˚ ¢ö˛ú ˆòì,˛c ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y ãòì˛yÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD !ò!Óv˛¸ì˛õ
Óı˛òˆÏÑ˛ xyˆÏÜ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ ˛ôÓ˚õ ïˆÏÓ˚ ˆòÎ˚– ~£z Óı˛ò äÈyv˛¸y ˆòì,˛c
ãòÜíˆÏÑ˛ ~!܈ÏÎ˚ !òˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ òy– Óv˛¸ ˆãyÓ˚ ì˛yÓ˚ ˆúã%Ó˚Ó,!_
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚– ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ Ñ˛!õv˛z!ò¢›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ Üíì˛y!s˛fÑ˛
ˆÑ˛!wÑ˛ì˛yÓ˚ õyÏõ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ã#Óhs˛ Óı˛ò xã≈ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆâ˛‹Ty Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
˙ î!úˆÏúÓ˚ ≤Ãâ˛yÓ˚ Á !ӈϫ˛y¶˛ ¢Çe´yhs˛˛ xïƒyˆÏÎ˚ 23 òÇ
˛ôˆÏÎ˚ˆÏr›˛ Óúy £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ È ÙÙÙÈÈ
Only through such absolutely necessary
day to day work, through continual self sacrificing
participation in all struggles of the proletariat, can

72

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
the ‘Communist Party’ develop into a communist

◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ~£z ãyÜÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ã#Óhs˛ !ò!Óv˛¸ ¢¡ô≈Ñ˛ xyˆÏäÈ–
◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ~£z ÚãyÜÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ≤ÃÓíì˛yÛ !Ñ˛ÇÓy ÚãyÜÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚Û ¢ˆÏD
Ñ˛õÉ !ÓˆÏã®Ó˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ üì≈˛ Î%_´ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆú
Ï ò– õyÑ≈˛¢
~ˆÏDú¢ ˆú!òò ~ÓÇ ì,˛ì˛#Î˚ xyhs≈˛ãy!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ xyˆÏúyâ˛òyÎ˚
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܈Ïv˛¸ Á‡˛yÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚
fl˛∫ì˛Éfl˛≥)˛ì≈˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD Î%_´ £ÁÎ˚y ~ÓÇ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚
xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD ã#Óhs˛ Á á!ò¤˛ Óy !ò!Óv˛¸ ¢¡ôˆÏÑ≈˛Ó˚ Ñ˛Ìy
Óúy £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– ˛ôy!›≈˛ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛y ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃyÌ!õÑ˛ ïy˛ôñ ~£z
≤ÃyÌ!õÑ˛ ïy˛ô ¢£ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ãyÜÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚
≤ÃÓíì˛y ¢%‹ô‹T¶˛yˆÏÓ ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚y ~õò ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy üì≈˛ õ£yò
!ü«˛Ñ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏúyâ˛òyÎ˚ xyõÓ˚y Ö%§ˆÏã ˛ôy£z òy– Ñ˛õÉ !ÓˆÏ㮈ÏÓ˚Ó˚
~£z üì≈˛ ≤Ã!ì˛!e´Î˚y Á ¢s˛fyˆÏ¢Ó˚ õˆÏïƒ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!í ÎÖò ˆÑ˛y퇲y¢y
ˆ¢ ¢õÎ˚Ñ˛yˆÏú ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ x@˘Ãí# xLjÏüÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ˛ôì˛yÑ˛yì˛ˆÏú
¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ ¢Ω˛yÓòyˆÏÑ˛ xfl˛∫#Ñ˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ–˚ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛
≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yˆÏÑ˛ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ fl˛∫ì˛Éfl˛≥)˛ì≈˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ !ÓÑ˛yˆÏüÓ˚ xï#ò
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏÖ– ~¶˛yˆÏÓ !ÓˆÏ㮈ÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃÌõ üì≈˛!›˛
fl˛∫ì˛Éfl˛≥)˛ì≈˛ì˛yÓ˚ îy¢c Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–
!mì˛#Î˚ üˆÏ ì ≈ ˛ Ó˚ Ñ˛ÌyÎ˚ xy¢y ÎyÑ˛– Óúy £ˆÏ F äÈ
ÚÑ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ˆÏîÓ˚ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ Á ¢Ó≈¶˛yÓ˚ì˛#Î˚ Ñ˛ì≈˛ˆÏÓƒÓ˚ ≤Èϟ¿
Ñ˛ì˛=!ú ¢%fl˛ô‹T v˛zß¨ì˛ / x@˘Ãí# xÓfl˛iyò Óy ¢)eyÎ˚í ~£z ˆÜy¤˛#Ó˚
Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ v˛z˛ô!fl˛iì˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– ~Öò ≤ß¿ £ú ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ï≈Ó˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛
!Ó≤’Ó#ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆÓü#Ó˚¶˛yÜ ˆÜy¤˛#Ó˚ ~ ¢Ó ≤Èϟ¿ ¢%fl˛ô‹T xÓfl˛iyò
Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ– !Ñ˛ls˛ ì˛y v˛zß¨ì˛ / x@˘Ãí# !Ñ˛òy ì˛y !òˆÏÎ˚ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ ˆÜy¤˛#Ó˚
õˆÏïƒ !Óì≈˛Ñ˛ â˛ˆÏúˆÏäÈ– xyˆÏÓ˚y ˆÎ›˛y ˆÓyG˛y ˆÜú òy ì˛y £ú Ó˝
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚Á ˆì˛y Ó˝ ¢õˆÏÎ˚ Ó˝ =Ó˚&c˛ô)í≈ ãyì˛#Î˚ Á
xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ !ӰψÎÏ ˚ xfl˛ô‹Tñ xò%ßì¨ ˛ñ !˛ô!äȈÎÏ ˚ ˛ôv˛¸y xÓfl˛iyò ÌyˆÏÑ˛
ì˛Öò ~£z üì≈˛ xò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛!›˛Ó˚ xÓfl˛iy Ñ˛# £ˆÏÓ⁄ ˆ¢ Ñ˛# ˛ôy!›≈˛
ÌyÑ˛ˆÏÓ⁄ ~£z ¢%fl˛ô‹T xÓfl˛iyò!›˛ v˛zߨì˛/x@˘Ãí# !Ñ˛òy ~Ó˚ !Óâ˛yÓ˚
ˆì˛y ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ õÎ˚îyˆÏò !‡˛Ñ˛ £ˆÏÓ ì˛y£ˆÏú v˛zߨì˛/x@˘Ãí#
Ñ˛Ìy ÓúyÓ˚ õyˆÏò Ñ˛#⁄ ~Ñ˛!›˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ !Ó≤’Ó# ˆÜy¤˛#Ó˚ Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ
ˆÎ!›˛ v˛zߨì˛/x@˘Ãí# xòƒ ˆÜy¤˛#!›˛Ó˚ ˛Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ ì˛y !˛ô!äȈÏÎ˚˛ ˛ôv˛¸y–
!Ó°ÏÎ˚!›˛ xyˆÏ˛ô!«˛Ñ˛– ~Ñ˛õye ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ õÎ˚îyˆÏò£z ~Ó˚
˛ôÓ˚#«˛y Ñ˛Ó˚y ¢Ω˛Ó– ¢%ì˛Ó˚yÇ ~£z v˛zß¨ì˛ / x@˘Ãí# !ÓˆÏü°Ïí!›˛
x≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò#Î˚– v˛zîy£Ó˚í !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ Ó˚&ü ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´y!›˛Ñ˛
ˆúÓyÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy£z ïÓ˚y ÎyÑ˛– ≤ÃÌõ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢ ¢%fl˛ô‹Tñ

party.

ÚÚ~Ñ˛õye ˆ¢Ó˚Ñ˛õ ˛ôÓ˚õ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yãò#Î˚ ˜îò!®ò Ñ˛yãñ
¢Ó≈£yÓ˚yÓ˚ ¢õhfl˛ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ xyˆÏdyÍ¢Ü≈Ñ˛yÓ˚# xÇü@˘Ã£ˆÏíÓ˚ õyÓ˚ö˛ì˛
~Ñ˛!›˛ ÚÑ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Û ~Ñ˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ v˛zߨ#ì˛
£ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚–ÛÛ
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyhs˛ãy!ì≈˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ¢)e=ˆÏúy xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ xyˆÏÓy˚ ˆüÖyÎ˚È ÙÙÙÈ
1V ÚÑ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ˛ôÓ˚õ ¢!‡˛Ñ˛ x˛ô!Ó˚Óì≈˛ò#Î˚
¢yÇ܇˛!òÑ˛ Ó˚*˛ô £ˆÏì˛ ˛ôyˆÏÓ˚ òy– ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ xÓfl˛iy
!ÓÓ˚yõ£#ò ˛ô!Ó˚Óì≈˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ã!e´Î˚yÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ ˛ôyˆÏŒ›˛ ÎyÎ˚ñ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚
x@˘Ãí# ¢Ç܇˛òˆÏÑ˛Á xÓüƒ£z ~£z ˛ô!Ó˚Óì≈˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD ¢D!ì˛˛ô)í≈
Ó˚*˛ôˆÏÑ˛ Ö%ã
§ ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ– ~Ñ˛£z¶˛yˆÏÓ ~Ñ˛!›˛ !ò!î≈‹T ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ ˙!ì˛£y!¢Ñ˛
¶˛yˆÏÓ !ò!î≈‹T xÓfl˛iyÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD ~Ñ˛!›˛ !ÓˆÏü°Ï ïÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ x!¶˛ˆÏÎyãò
!ò!î≈‹T ˛ôy!›≈˛=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ¢Ç܇˛òˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ–Û
2V Ú!Ñ˛ls˛ ~£z ˛ôyÌ≈Ñ˛ƒ#Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏíÓ˚Á !ò!î≈‹T ¢#õy xyˆÏäÈ– ¢õhfl˛
˜Ó!â˛eƒ ¢ˆÏ_¥Á !Ó!¶˛ß¨ ˆîˆÏü ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆ◊!í¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõÓ˚ xÓfl˛iyÓ˚
¢yî,üƒ ~ÓÇ ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y !Ó≤’ˆÏÓÓ˚ !Ó!¶˛ß¨ hfl˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ¢yî,üƒ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛yˆÏäÈ ˆõÔ!úÑ˛¶˛yˆÏÓ =Ó˚&c˛ô)í≈– ~£z
!õú£z ¢õhfl˛ ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ
¢yïyÓ˚í !¶˛!_ ˜ì˛Ó˚# Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚–Û
3V Ú~Ó˚ !¶˛!_ˆÏì˛ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ xÓüƒ£z Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚
¢Ç܇˛ò=ˆÏúyˆÏÑ˛ xyˆÏÓ˚y v˛zß¨ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓñ ˛ô%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏòy ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚
ãyÎ˚ÜyÎ˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy òì%˛ò ÚÚõˆÏv˛ú ˛ôy!›≈˛ÛÛ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ãòƒ ¢Ç@˘Ãyõ Ñ˛Ó˚Ó
òyñ xÌÓy ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ~Ñ˛ ˛ôÓ˚õñ ¢!‡˛Ñ˛ ¢yÇ܇˛!òÑ˛ Óy xyî≈ü ¢)ˆeÏ Ó˚
ˆÖ§yã Ñ˛Ó˚Ó òy–Û

Ú!â˛hs˛òÛ ~ Ñ˛õÉ !ÓˆÏ㮈ÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ó_´Óƒ
õyÑ≈ ˛ ¢ñ ~ˆÏ D ú¢ñ ˆú!òò ~ÓÇ Ñ˛!õv˛z ! òfi›˛
xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ¢Çe´yhs˛ ˆÎ !ü«˛y xyõÓ˚y ˛ôy!FäÈ
ì˛yÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD Ú!â˛hs˛òÛ ˛ô!eÑ˛yÎ˚ xyˆÏúy!â˛ì˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ
ˆáy°Ïíy Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ò)ƒòì˛õ üì≈˛=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ˆÎÔ!_´Ñ˛ì˛y xyõÓ˚y
ˆîÖˆÏì˛ ˛ôy!FäÈ òy–
˛ôy!›≈˛ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ ≤ÃÌõ üˆÏì≈˛Ó˚ Ñ˛ÌyˆÏì˛£z xy¢y ÎyÑ˛– Ñ˛õÉ
!ÓˆÏã®Ó˚ ÓúˆÏäÈò ÚˆîˆÏü ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ Sü˝ˆÏÓ˚ Á @˘Ãyõ#íó !ü“
˛ô!Ó˚ˆÏ°ÓyÏ Á Ñ,˛!°ÏˆÏì˛V ~Ñ˛ ãyÜÓ˚ˆÏíÓ˚ ≤ÃÓíì˛y ¢%fl˛ô‹T¶˛yˆÏÓ ú«˛ƒ
Ñ˛Ó˚y ÎyˆÏFäÈ ~ÓÇ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ !Ó≤’Ó#ˆÏîÓ˚ ~£z ˆÜy¤˛#Ó˚ ¢yˆÏÌ
73

!Óì˛Ñ≈˛
x@˘Ãí#ñ v˛zß¨ì˛ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy Ñ˛õ≈¢)â˛# @˘Ã£í Ñ˛Ó˚y ÎyÎ˚ !ò– RSDLP ÙÈÓ˚
!mì˛#Î˚ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢ ì˛y !òˆÏÎ˚ !Óì≈˛Ñ˛ £Î˚– ì˛y£ˆÏú Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚Ñ˛!›˛ ˆ¢y¢ƒyú
ˆv˛ˆÏõye´y!›˛Ñ˛ @˘Ã&˛ô !õˆÏú 1898 ~ ˆÎ RSDLP ÙÈÓ˚ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛y
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏúò ì˛yˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò ¢£ ÓúˆÏü!¶˛Ñ˛ ˆòì˛yÓ˚y Ñ˛# ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚
õÎ≈yîy !îˆÏÎ˚ ¶%˛ú Ñ˛ˆÏÓ!˚ äȈú
Ï ò⁄ xy˛ôòyÓ˚y ˆì˛y ˆÖyúy õˆÏò xˆÏòÑ˛
!Ñ˛ä%È£z ˛ô%ò!Ó≈â˛yÓ˚ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy ÓúˆÏäÈòñ ì˛ˆÏÓ ~ ≤Èϟ¿ ¢õ¢ƒy
ˆÑ˛yÌyÎ˚⁄
~ÓyˆÏÓ˚ ì,˛ì˛#Î˚ üˆÏì≈˛Ó˚ Ñ˛ÌyÎ˚ xy¢y ÎyÑ˛– Óúy £ˆÏFäÈ
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ˆáy°Ïíy Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ £ˆÏú ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛
˛Ñ˛õ#≈ ¢Ç܇˛Ñ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ Óƒy˛ôÑ˛ ¢ÇÖƒyÜ!Ó˚¤˛ xÇü ˙ !ò!î≈‹T ¢Ç܇˛ò!›˛Ó˚
õˆÏïƒ ¢õyˆÏÓ!üì˛ £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈò Óy £ˆÏFäÈò– ~õò›˛y £ÁÎ˚y îÓ˚Ñ˛yÓ˚–
~£z üì≈˛!›˛ Ó˚y!üÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ x!¶˛K˛ì˛yñ õyÑ≈˛¢ ~ˆÏDúˆÏ¢Ó˚
ˆúÖy !Ñ˛ÇÓy Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyhs˛≈ ãy!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ üì≈˛yÓú# ˆÑ˛yÌyÁ ˆîÖˆÏì˛
˛ôyÁÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ òy– Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ î!úˆÏú Óúy £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ
ÈÙÈ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ xÓüƒ£z @˘Ã&˛ô Óy ïyÓ˚y òÎ˚ ~Ñ˛!›˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛
ÌyÑ˛ˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ– xyˆÏÓ˚y Óúy £ˆÏFäÈ ÈÙÈ ≤Ã!ì˛!›˛ ˆîˆÏü ~Ñ˛!›˛ õye
˙Ñ˛ƒÓk˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ÌyÑ˛y v˛z!â˛ì˛–
ú«˛ƒ Ñ˛Ó˚&ò Óúy £ˆÏFäÈ ÈÙÈ v˛z!â˛ì˛– ~Ñ˛›˛y ¢õˆÏÎ˚ õy!Ñ˛≈ò
Î%_´Ó˚yˆÏ‹TÓ… ˚ î%!›˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ ¢ˆÏD
Î%_´ !äÈú ~ÓÇ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ ˙Ñ˛ƒÓk˛ £ˆÏì˛ !òˆÏî≈ü ˆîò–
!¶˛ˆÏÎ˚ì˛òyˆÏõÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ £z!ì˛£y¢ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛Á ~õò
!ü«˛y ˆõˆÏú– RSDLP ܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛ÌyÎ˚ xy¢y ÎyÑ˛– 1895 ¢yú
ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy Óú!äȈú
Ï ò–
1898 ~ !õòfl˛Ò ~ ≤ÃÌõ ˛ôy!›≈˛ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢Ó˚ xyˆÏÜ ~Ñ˛!›˛ ≤Ãyщ˛
Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘Ã¢ ¢ˆÏ¡øúòÁ £Î˚ ˆÎÖyˆÏò !Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚¶˛ Á ˆ¢r›˛ !˛ô›˛y¢≈Ó%ˆÏÜ≈Ó˚
ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy›˛Ó˚y xÇü ˆòò ~ÓÇ ~Ñ˛!›˛ ~Ñ˛Ñ˛ ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y
˛ôy!›≈˛ ܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ !¢k˛yhs˛˛ ˆòò– ~£z ¢õÎ˚ ˛ôˆÏÓ≈ ˆú!òˆÏòÓ˚ ˆúÖy
ÚÓ˚&ü ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy›˛ˆÏîÓ˚ Ñ˛ì≈˛ÓƒÛ Ó˚â˛òy!›˛ !ÓˆÏü°Ï ¶)˛!õÑ˛y
Ó˚yˆÏÖ– ~£z Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢ ˆú!òò ˆòì,˛cyï#ò Ó˚yˆÏÓyâ˛yÎ˚y ÜyˆÏãì˛yÛ
˛ô!eÑ˛yÓ˚ ¢Ç܇˛Ñ˛Ó˚y xÌ≈ò#!ì˛Óyî# ˆG§˛yÑ˛ ¢¡ôߨ ÚÓ˚yˆÏÓyâ˛yÎ˚y
!õ¢ú‰Û ˛ô!eÑ˛yÓ˚ ¢õÌ≈Ñ˛ Ñ˛õ#≈ˆÏîÓ˚ ÎyÓ˚y ˆ¢r›˛ !˛ô›˛y¢≈Ó%ˆÏÜ≈ Ñ˛yã
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ò ~ÓÇ ÁˆÏv˛¢y ~ÓÇ !òˆÏÑ˛yúyˆÏâ˛ˆÏ¶˛Ó˚ Ñ˛õ≈Ó˚ì˛ ˆ¢y¢ƒyú
ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy›˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆÑ˛ xÇü !òˆÏì˛ ˆîò !ò ~£z ÓˆÏú ˆÎ ì˛yÓ˚y
!ò¶≈˛Ó˚ˆÏÎy܃ òÎ˚– ≤ÃÓy¢# ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy›˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ¢!õ!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Á
~£z ÓˆÏú xyõs˛fí ãyòyˆÏòy £Î˚ !ò ˆÎ ì˛yÓ˚y Ó˚y!üÎ˚yÓ˚ xÓfl˛iy
¢¡ôˆÏÑ˛≈ ÁÎ˚y!Ñ˛Ó£yú òÎ˚ ~ÓÇ ˆÜy˛ôò#Î˚ì˛y Ó˚«˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ ˛ôyÓ˚ˆÓÏ ò
òy–
ÖyÓ˚Ñ˛¶˛ ~Ó ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy!›˛Ñ˛ @˘Ã&˛ô ~Öò

˛ôy!›≈˛Ü‡˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ¢õÎ˚ £Î˚ !ò ÓˆÏú ˙ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘Ãˆ¢Ï xÇü !òˆÏì˛ xfl˛∫#Ñ˛yÓ˚
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò– !úÌ%Î˚y!òÎ˚yÓ˚ ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy›˛Ó˚y Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚
≤Ã!ì˛!ò!ï !‡˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚Á xÇü@˘Ã£í Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ò !ò– ¢%ì˛Ó˚yÇ ˆÎ òÛãò
≤Ã!ì˛!ò!ï ≤ÃÌõ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢ xÇü !òˆÏÎ˚!äȈÏúò ì˛yÓ˚y Ñ˛õ#≈
¢Ç܇˛Ñ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ Óƒy˛ôÑ˛ ¢ÇÖƒy Ü!Ó˚¤˛ xÇüˆÏÑ˛ ¢y!õú Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛
ˆ˛ôˆÏÓ˚!äȈÏúò ~õò ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ì˛Ìƒ xyõÓ˚y ˛ôy!FäÈ òy– ≤ÃÌõ Á
!mì˛#Î˚ Ñ˛ÇˆÏ@˘ÃˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˛ôˆÏÓ≈Á ì˛y £ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏäÈ ÓˆÏú ãyòy ˆò£z– ì˛y£ˆÏú
Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò Á xòƒyòƒ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˆòì˛yÓ˚y RSDLP ˆÑ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚
õÎ≈yîy ˆÑ˛ò !îˆÏúò⁄
£zˆÏ®yâ˛#ˆÏò Ñ˛õ≈Ó˚ì˛ !ì˛ò!›˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ Ñ˛õÉ ˆ£y !â˛
!õˆÏòÓ˚ v˛zˆîÏ ƒyˆÏÜ ~Ñ˛Ñ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ˆÏì˛ ˙Ñ˛ƒÓk˛ £ò– ÎÖò xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛
¶˛yˆÏÓ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛=ˆÏúyÓ˚ ~Ñ˛!›˛ fl˛∫#Ñ,˛ì˛ ˆÑ˛w#Î˚ ¢Ç܇˛ò
ÌyˆÏÑ˛ ì˛Öò ì˛yÓ˚ fl˛∫#Ñ,˛!ì˛ Óy Î%_´ £ÁÎ˚yÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ !îˆÏÎ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚
xyò%¤˛y!òÑ˛ fl˛∫#Ñ,˛!ì˛ áˆÏ›˛ ˆÎõò›˛y Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚
¢õˆÏÎ˚ áˆÏ›˛ˆÏäÈ– !Ñ˛ls˛ ÎÖò ì˛y ÌyˆÏÑ˛ òy ì˛Öò£z ¢õ¢ƒy ˆîÖy
ˆîÎ˚– ì˛ˆÏÓ ˆ¢ˆÏ«˛ˆÏeÁ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ¢Ç܇˛ò!›˛ ì˛yÓ˚ !ò!î≈‹T Ñ˛õ≈¢â) ˛#
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ fl˛∫#Ñ,˛ì˛ Á Üíì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ ˆÑ˛!wÑ˛ì˛yÓ˚
!¶˛!_ˆÏì˛ Ñ˛yã â˛yúyˆÏì˛ â˛yúyˆÏì˛ ¢Ç܇˛ò!›˛ ˜îò!®ò ¢Ç@˘Ãyõñ
¢Ó≈£yÓ˚yÓ˚ ¢õhfl˛ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ xydì˛ƒyˆÏÜÓ˚ õˆÏòy¶˛yÓ !òˆÏÎ˚ xÇü@˘Ã£í
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ ÎÖò ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y ˆ◊!íÓ˚ x@˘Ãí# xLjÏüÓ˚ xyfl˛iy xã≈ò
Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ ì˛Öò£z Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛ˆÏÑ˛Ó˚ !ü«˛y xò%¢yˆÏÓ˚
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ òyˆÏõ ˆáy!°Ïì˛ ¢Ç܇˛ò!›˛ ~Ñ˛!›˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛
˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ õÎ≈yîy úy¶˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚– [ The Communist Party develop into a Communist Party ] ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ õÎ≈yîy úyˆÏ¶˛Ó˚
¢ˆÏD Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yÓ˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ¢Çáyì˛ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ
òy– ¢õ¢ƒy›˛y ˛ôy!›≈˛ Üv˛¸y !òˆÏÎ˚ñ ò#!ì˛!ò¤˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yÓ˚ ¢ˆÏD
òÎ˚– ~Ó˚˛ôˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛õÉ !ÓˆÏã®Ó˚ ÓúˆÏäÈò ÈÙÈ ÚÚ~õò !Ñ˛ ~Ñ˛!›˛
Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ãß√ ˆáy°ÏíyÁ ~Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏÑ˛ !ò¡¨ì˛Ó˚ ˛ôÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚
ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy !ÓÑ˛yˆÏüÓ˚ hfl˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ !ÓÑ˛yˆÏüÓ˚ ˛ôˆÏ«˛
«˛!ì˛Ñ˛yÓ˚Ñ˛–ÛÛ
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îüˆÏÑ˛ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ ˆÎ ˆ¢ˆÏîˆÏüÓ˚ ◊!õÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ î%Ó≈úì˛yÓ˚
Ñ˛yÓ˚ˆÏí ˆ¢ ˆîˆÏü Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܈Ïv˛¸ ˆì˛yúyÓ˚ !¶˛!_ ì§˛yÓ˚y
ˆîÖˆÏäÈò òy– xÌⲠ~Ñ˛£z ˛ôˆÏÓ≈ ì˛yÓ˚yñ Ú¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛!ò!ï
!£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ xyõyˆÏîÓ˚ !òÎ%!_´Û ~Ñ˛ÌyÁ ÓúˆÏäÈò– ~£z ˆáy°Ïíy
!ò¡¨ì˛Ó˚ ˛ôÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ !ÓÑ˛yˆÏüÓ˚ hfl˛ˆÏÓ˚ £ˆÏúÁ ì˛y Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛
xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ !ÓÑ˛yˆÏü «˛!ì˛ Ñ˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏäÈ ~õò›˛y xyõÓ˚y ãy!ò òy–
74

!Ó≤’Ó# Üíúy£zò
xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ãÓ˚&Ó˚# Ñ˛ì≈˛ÓƒÛ !úÖˆÏäÈò ˆ¢ÖyˆÏò ≤Ãïyò ~ÓÇ
ˆõÔ!úÑ˛ Ñ˛yã !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ v˛zߨÎ˚ò ~ÓÇ
Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy ÓúˆÏäÈò– Ñ˛# xÓyÑ˛ Ñ˛yu˛ ì˛y£z òyÊ
Ñ˛õÉ !ÓˆÏã®Ó˚ ÓúˆÏäÈò ÈÙÈ Ú¢õˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ¢yˆÏÌ ¢yˆÏÌ ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚
v˛zˆÏîƒyÜ Á ˛ô!Ó˚Ñ˛“òy xÓüƒ£z xÓyhfl˛Ó !£ˆÏ¢ˆÏÓ ≤Ã!ì˛˛ôߨ £ˆÏÓñ
¢yõ!@˘ÃÑ˛ !Óâ˛yˆÏÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ «˛!ì˛ £ˆÏÓ–Û
!â˛hs˛ò ˛ô!eÑ˛yÎ˚ Ñ˛õÉ !ÓˆÏã®Ó˚ ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°Ó≈Ï ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛
Üv˛¸yÓ˚ ≤ÈŸÏ ¿ ˆÎ xÓfl˛iyò !òˆÏFäÈò ì˛yˆÏì˛ ˆîÖy ÎyˆÏFäÈ õyÑ≈˛¢Óyî
ˆú!òòÓyî Á xyhs˛ã≈y!ì˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ !ü«˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏúyˆÏì˛
ì˛yˆÏîÓ˚ xÓfl˛yi ò!›˛Ó˚ ãˆÏòƒ£z v˛˛z ôˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ¶˛!Ӱσmyí#!›˛ ¶˛#°Ïí ¶˛yˆÏÓ ≤ÈÎÏ yブ

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ˆ¢ ˆîˆÏüÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ £z!ì˛£y¢ ¢Çe´yhs˛ Ó£zˆÏÎ˚ Óúy £ˆÏFäÈ ˆÎ ÈÙÙÙÈ ~
ˆîˆÏ ü Ó˚ î% Ó ≈ ú ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ ◊ !í ~ÓÇ Ñ, ˛ °Ï Ñ ˛ ãòÜˆÏ í Ó˚ õˆÏ ï ƒ
¢õyãì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ˆÑ˛yˆÏòy ˙!ì˛£ƒ òy ÌyÑ˛yÎ˚ ¢y¡ÀyãƒÓyî
!ÓˆÏÓ˚yï# ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ ¢Ó≈£yÓ˚y ˆòì,˛c ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛y Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏì˛ !܈ÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏì˛
¢y¡ÀyãƒÓyî!ÓˆÏÓ˚yï# !ü!ÓˆÏÓ˚ ¶˛yDò òy xyˆÏ¢ ì˛y£z Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛Ó˚y
˛ôy!›≈˛ ≤Ã!ì˛¤˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏÜ Ñ˛õÉ ˆ£y !Ⲡ!õˆÏòÓ˚ ˆòì,˛ˆÏc ~Ñ˛!›˛ õïƒÓì˛#≈
v˛z_Ó˚íü#ú ¢Ç܇˛ò ܈Ïv˛¸!äȈÏúò ÎyÓ˚ òyõ Ú!Ó≤’Ó# Î%Ó ¢Ç܇˛òÛ–
!Ó≤’Ó# Î%Ó ¢Ç܇˛ˆÏòÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ !¶˛ˆÏÎ˚ì˛òyˆÏõÓ˚ Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛Ó˚y Ñ˛yã
Ñ˛Ó˚ˆìÏ ˛ò ~ÓÇ ˛ôÓ˚Óì˛#≈Ñ˛yˆÏú Ñ˛!õv˛z!òfi›˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ܇˛ò Ñ˛ˆÏÓò˚ – ú«˛ƒ
Ñ˛Ó˚&ò ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ¢õ¢ƒy!›˛ £ú ◊!õÑ˛ Á Ñ,˛°ÏÑ˛ˆÏîÓ˚ õˆÏïƒ
¢õyãì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ˙!ì˛ˆÏ£ƒÓ˚ xò%˛ô!fl˛i!ì˛– ¶˛yÓ˚ì˛ÓˆÏ°≈ÓÏ ˚
ˆ«˛ˆÏe ¢õyãì˛y!s˛fÑ˛ xyˆÏ®yúˆÏòÓ˚ ˙!ì˛£ƒ xò%˛ô!fl˛iì˛ ~õò îy!Ó
Ñ˛õÉ !ÓˆÏã®Ó˚ Ñ˛Ó˚ˆÏäÈò Ñ˛#⁄ Ñ˛õÉ !ÓˆÏ㮈ÏÓ˚Ó˚ õˆÏì˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ãß√
£ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜˆÏäÈ ~£z ˆáy°ÏíyÓ˚ xÌ≈ £ˆÏúy !Ó≤’Ó ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚yÓ˚
≤ß¿!›˛ˆÏÑ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ã#ÓˆÏò xy÷ ãÓ˚&Ó˚# ≤ß¿ !£¢yˆÏÓ ˆîÖˆÏì˛ ÷Ó˚&
Ñ˛Ó˚y–
~ˆÏDúˆÏ¢Ó˚ !ü«˛y xò%¢yˆÏÓ˚ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ¢Ç@˘ÃyˆÏõ
!òˆÏãÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛ ¢ÇÜ!‡˛ì˛ Ñ˛Ó˚y Ú≤ÃyÌ!õÑ˛ üì˛≈Û xyÓ˚ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚
~Ñ˛òyÎ˚Ñ˛c xy÷ ú«˛ƒ– õˆÏò Ó˚yÖˆÏì˛ £ˆÏÓ ~ Ñ˛Ìy !ì˛!ò ãyõ≈yò
◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ Ñ˛Ìy ˆ¶˛ˆÏÓ ÓúˆÏäÈò–
1900 ¢yˆÏú òˆÏ¶˛¡∫ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ≤ÃÌõ !îˆÏÑ˛ Ñ˛õÉ ˆú!òò
ÓúˆÏäÈò ÈÙÈ ÚÓ˚y!üÎ˚yò ˆ¢y¢ƒyú ˆv˛ˆÏõye´ƒy!¢ ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ ÓˆÏúˆÏäÈ
Ó˚y!üÎ˚yÓ˚ ◊!õÑ˛ˆÏ◊!íÓ˚ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ xy÷ Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ Ñ˛yã £ú
˜fl˛∫Ó˚ì˛s˛fˆÏÑ˛ v˛zˆÏFäÈî Ñ˛Ó˚y– Ó˚yã˜Ïò!ì˛Ñ˛ fl˛∫yï#òì˛y xã≈ò Ñ˛Ó˚y–
...~ îy!Ó=ˆÏúy 1898 ~Ó˚ Ó¢ˆÏhs˛ ≤Ã!ì˛!¤˛ì˛ Ó˚y!üÎ˚yò ˆ¢y¢ƒyú
ˆv˛ˆÏõye´y!›˛Ñ˛ ˛ôy!›≈˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ì˛!ò!ïˆÏîÓ˚ myÓ˚y xyv˛¸y£z ÓäÈÓ˚ xyˆÏÜ
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